- You will talk Kaganovich MM.
The conversation was unexpected and short, but I was very excited. Kaganovich, in an energetic form, peculiar to him, began to clarify questions about the Summa project (Sigma), did I suggest this car? Having received a positive response, he ordered me to come to Moscow tomorrow. "Voronezh Arrow" came to Moscow at about 8 hours of the morning, and at about 9 hours, I settled in a hotel, just in case, I was in Glavaviaprom. It turned out that “Sigma” was remembered because of the request of the Commissariat of Foreign Affairs Comrade V.Molotov. - to understand and report on the essence of the information received about some foreign work related to the unusual shape of the wing (Glukharev's work in the United States).
The request of Glavka TsAGI - to explain what was going on - did not give anything useful. TsAGI scientists were not interested in unusual aircraft layouts. Almost half a year has passed, and Stalin became interested in this question, who rightly believed that it was probably about something important and new in the field of aircraft engineering, which he was very serious about. After the request of the secretariat of Stalin with the answer it was impossible to. Here Mashkevich II, the head of the Experimental Department, recalled the Sigma project, the shape of which wing reminded him of the outline sketches of the wings that were given in the request. The Sigma aircraft project was reported to the head of GUAP, and they called me to Moscow.
In the chapter, I talked in detail about the aircraft design. He expressed my beliefs in the real possibility of creating airplanes of such a layout, equipping them with a rocket engine in the process of increasing their flight speed.
First Mashkevich Osip Osipovich, head of the experimental department, and then Kaganovich MM. listened to my explanations very carefully. Then I set out all my thoughts in the report. Having discussed during a narrow meeting at which the presence of representatives of TsAGI was present, the issue of "Sigma" was M. M. Kaganovich. reported to Stalin. After the report, Stalin ordered to prepare a special order, in which I was asked to develop a draft analogue of the Sigma aircraft as soon as possible, build it in the OKB-31, and conduct flight tests. TsAGI was instructed to conduct experimental studies of the model of the aircraft I developed in a wind tunnel. In addition, TsAGI was entrusted with independent work on the development of a glider with a small elongation wing. The development of the draft airframe and its construction was entrusted to Kamnemostsky, the TsAGI designer.
The commander-in-chief for some purposes were obtained the two Renault 4 pi engines that had just arrived in Leningrad, with a capacity of 140 l. with. It was decided to use these engines for a light experimental aircraft. In Glavaviaprom, they also decided to give the aircraft the name "Strela", since the shape of the aircraft resembled the shape of an arrowhead, and the telegraphic address of OKB-31 had the same cipher. The development of the project and the construction of the aircraft was allotted up to two and a half months, which was dictated by the long delay in the response from TsAGI and the interest of Stalin.
Here in Moscow, I developed a draft design of the Strela aircraft. For this purpose, I was presented to TsAGI by Professor Cheryomushkin’s vacant office, and they also singled out draftsmen and copyists. The work was completed in a few days. The layout of the general view was immediately coordinated with Viktor Pavlovich Gorsky, a senior researcher at TsAGI, who was assigned to conduct experimental studies of the Strela in a wind tunnel. When assembling the aircraft, they retained the shape of the Summa wing, but at the ends of the wings, instead of pucks, the usual WMO was installed.
My thoughts on the Strela aerodynamic layout, confirmed by experimental studies in the Aerodynamic Laboratory of the University of Voronezh, of the Sigma model aircraft were coordinated with VP Gorsky, who familiarized himself with the idea behind the project Strela. In the future, Gorsky provided considerable assistance in the work, especially during the tests of the aircraft in the air.
Naturally, the conditions that were necessary for the construction of the Arrow dramatically changed the situation in the aviation technical school. The work of the Design Bureau, connected with the acute mode of the new task, had to be isolated from the rest of the work.
Having reported on the meeting of the main employees of the OKB about receiving a new task, which we met with great interest, we began to work. For the sake of completeness, it should be noted that in TsAGI, working with the Arrow model, according to their experience and pace, took no less time than it was completely allowed to work. Therefore, agreeing with Gorsky, it was decided to work on the construction of the aircraft and purge the model in parallel: this decision was assisted by the consultation of Professor Cochin. In the Experimental Department of Glavka, they agreed to this, taking into account the considerations of Kochin and Gorsky about the sufficiently scientific validity of the decisions taken on the layout, the size of the tail, the alignment of the aircraft and the like.
Building an aircraft without pre-purging the model at TsAGI in 1937 was not common, but the tight deadlines required this decision.
Two and a half months later, the aircraft was built, and the necessary statistical tests and calculations were carried out. At the same time Gorsky V.P. Aerodynamic purges of the model were completed at TsAGI.
The materials of the purging model allowed us to specify the calculation of stability, aerodynamic calculation, the position of the center of gravity and the dimension of the tail. The program of experimental research was far under modern requirements. There could not be blown to the side stability, there was no influence of the earth on the polar, there was no distribution of loads on the tail and wing, and so on.
The pleasant result of the purge was the fact that the aerodynamic calculation and the purge corresponded; It was no coincidence, because in the work on Summa and Strela, serious research studies were conducted with the involvement of scientists from Voronezh State University.
It should be noted that already at that time I concurrently headed the department of aeromechanics at the Physics and Mathematics Department of VSU, where there was a strong composition of young scientists. They helped me solve the most difficult aerodynamic problems of an unusual airplane.
Testing the strength of the aircraft was carried out according to the standards developed in the Design Bureau. After weighing and determining the center of gravity, even before the state commission arrived, the aircraft was sent to the airfield, which is a spare airfield of heavy bombers, located in 10 kilometers from Voronezh, near the highway towards Zadonsk.
After my return from Moscow, where I was due to the speed races of light aircraft, on July 27 we began ground tests of the Arrow. The tests were conducted by test pilot A.N. Gusarov, who went to work at the OKB at the end of 1936.
The car perfectly listened to the pilot, at low engine speeds, she briskly taxied, easily unfolded, with a raised tail well maintained “straight” and quickly picked up speed. According to the pilot, after gaining speed in 70-80 km / h, the plane began to "ask in the air."
The plant commission, except for Gusarov and me, consisted of the following employees of the design bureau: Polukarova L.B., Zavyalova S.A., Maretsky N.A. and Dolgov. In early August, the state commission for flight tests arrived from Moscow. She studied the documentation and decided to start the first tests, which included: weighing, determining the centering, taxiing and flying. Since there were no strength standards for Strela-type aircraft, the state commission authorized Professor V.N. Belyaev. consider the design strength calculations, materials of statistical tests and give an opinion on the admission of the aircraft to flight tests of strength.
Belyaev V.N. gave a positive conclusion. Calculations and results of research in the field of aerodynamics are also not in doubt. It was assumed that the flight tests would be carried out by the famous test pilot Boris N. Kudrin, “on account” of which some unusual aircraft were tested: tailless tails, parabolas, swept wings, variable geometry wings, and the like.
Kudrin has been walking around Arrows for a long time. I looked closely, spoke with A.N. Gusarov, looked at the calculations, blown out, thought about it and ultimately decisively told the commission that he would not only fly, but even fly up in such a strange machine, which, in his opinion, has neither tail nor wings not going. He also added that by agreeing to go to Voronezh, he expected everything from the designer of the aircraft, but not that.
Attempts to persuade Kudrin to carry out at least a taxiing of the plane were unsuccessful (perhaps Kudrin’s intractability was explained by the fact that he was close to Yakovlev and quite often tested his cars). Subsequently, Kudrin told the factory pilot that after his first glance at the Arrow he had an overwhelming aversion to the car. According to some signs, the commission represented by its chairman, the head of TsAGI, Protsenko, would like to give up the matter if it were not for the regular calls from Moscow.
In order not to waste time, after the debate, the commission decided to entrust ground tests to the factory pilot Gusarov, who was already driving on the Strela and willingly agreed to taxiing and landing.
Again began the tests on the taxiing, as well as a run with a raised tail. The trials were successful, except for one unexpected incident. During one of the riles, the pilot abruptly “gave a leg” and the car, which was driving at a relatively low speed, unexpectedly rolled over the wing, being on its back. The plane lay, leaning on the engine hood, wing console and keel. Due to the low speed and soft grassy ground, the plane received no damage and it all ended in fright. The plane turned over, put on wheels, started the engine and the pilot overtook it to the parking lot, where the car and its parts were once again inspected. This incident on the commission made a strong impression.
The question was immediately discussed and decided to make a steel rim out of the chromansil pipe, including it in the rim of the pilot's lantern (however strong the keel is, but just in case it is better to insure the pilot's head as well). That was done. Finally, we decided to start flying up. The first approach of 7 August 1937 was made by pilot Gusarov. In Voronezh, there was a good sunny weather. The wind was practically absent. In the morning, around 10: 30, the pilot drove the car to the edge of the airfield, and the commission was located near its center. The first approach of the Hussars was to be made near the commission. After the usual formalities and obtaining permission from the chairman of the Protsenko commission, the pilot Gusarov A.N. "gave" gas and the car quickly began to gather speed. Raising the tail of the aircraft, the pilot delayed the gap, since the commission was far away, and, picking up the speed of 150 km / h (possibly more), pulled the handle. In the eyes of a flustered commission, which was from a running aircraft in 15-20 meters, the car flew abruptly into the air and at a height of 15 meters quickly began to roll to the left until the planes were upright to the ground. Everyone was waiting for a catastrophe. An instant passed, which seemed like an eternity, and the next moment the pilot eliminated the list and the plane, flying almost to the end of the airfield (about 1200-1500 meters), easily and smoothly descended on the strip in the normal position, that is, on the 3 point. The pilot, completing the run, turned the plane and steered to the commission, wiping cold sweat. Coming out of the plane and turning off part of the helmet, Gusarov reported to the chairman of the commission about a safe test. After that, he became interested in the opinion of the commission on the approach.
On the impression of Gusarov himself, the approach went well and did not cause him any concern. This is how, according to the pilot, the approach took place: “The commission was very far from the start of the takeoff run, and the plane picked up speed faster than I expected, it was necessary to delay the approach, which also made the speed of the takeoff too great. The plane, having increased the angle of attack, sharply I pulled away and almost instantly gained more height than I should have. After the breakaway, the screw’s reaction turned out and the car got a significant roll. After that, I threw off the gas, fixed the roll, pulled the handle and the machine landed normally. " According to the pilot everything was fine. The plane comes off easily, perfectly listens to the rudders, what else do you need?
However, for most of the commission members who observed an approach from the side and expected various surprises from the aircraft, such an approach did not seem normal. At the first moment of separation, it seemed that the car would roll over onto its back. In fact, if the ailerons were not sufficiently effective, and the pilot was experienced enough, if he were late with the redemption of the reaction to the list, the approach would have ended in disaster. Pilot Kudrin B.N. tried to explain all this to Gusarov. As a result, he told him: "to fly on this machine is the same as licking honey from a razor, if you want, fly, but I do not advise." At first, Gusarov could not “understand”, why is everyone so worried? The commission, having considered the approach in a more relaxed atmosphere, decided to continue the tests of the Strela in Moscow. For this we found a lot of reasons, especially since the hussars, frightened by the hindsight, refused to fly. In order not to waste time, the plane was decided to be sent to Moscow on a five-ton, the benefit of the aircraft was easily accommodated in it. So did. We looked at all the roads and bridges on the map, packed the plane in a tarpaulin, prepared guards and, under the guidance of flight engineer, A. Buzunov. Strela went to Moscow at the TsAGI Research Institute, which was located at the Central Aerodrome. The "transfer" of the aircraft to Moscow from Voronezh was not easy, Buzunov and their attendants later reported about this. However, the Arrow was delivered quickly and safely.
In Moscow, after the report of Glavku Commission, it was decided that the flight tests of the Strela will be conducted as research. They were assigned TsAGI. Clarified and expanded the composition of the commission. The tests began from the very beginning and before the first two flights were carried out at the Central Aerodrome near the Dynamo station, where the helicopter station is located today.
After re-studying the documentation again proceeded to taxiing. Despite the fact that a test pilot had not yet been appointed - there were no applicants - there were a lot of those who wanted to steer. All LIS test pilots tried to steer - Rybushkin, Rybko, Chernavsky, Korzshchikov, and even N. Kozlov, head of LIS. Well-known test pilots of the air force and pilot plants, including Gromov, Alekseev, Stefanovsky, Chkalov and others, were often present during the tests. Some of them also tried to steer and expressed their own opinion about the car. For example, after taxiing, Gromov said that "the plane is asking to be in the air, but somehow there is not enough spirit to tear it off the ground, will it suddenly turn onto its back?" Chkalov inserted his own lines into these arguments. All the pilots converged on the fact that the plane taxis excellent, confidently maintains the straight line, and also clearly asks into the air, but there were no people willing to tear the car off the ground. And since no one agreed to make an approach, everyone began to persuade Gusarov to once again try to tear off the car very carefully, at least a little, so that the gap between the ground and the wheels could be seen. After quite a long resistance, the Hussars finally agreed, because the tests had reached an impasse.
At this time, the approach of Gusarov was really very careful. Those present, especially the pilots, lay down on the ground and, lowering their heads, watched the approach, trying not to miss the moment of separation. Then they argued for a long time whether the car got off or not, or it just seemed. By this, Gusarov was forced to make another approach. Gusarov could not stand it and tore off the car almost a meter, flying some distance. He even checked the effect of the aileron. The question has cleared up - the plane breaks off the ground, flies, listens to the rudders and nothing happens to the bad.
After Gusarov, other pilots began to test the plane for approaching - Rybko, Rybushkin, Chernavsky. After that, the question again became - who will test the plane? The test was undertaken by the still young, but very capable TsAGI test pilot N.S. Rybko, who suddenly became very interested in the plane. Rybko received aviation technical education (he graduated from the Moscow Aviation College), so it was easier for him to understand the purge of the model, the calculations of the aircraft, as well as associate them with the flight features of the Strela aircraft.
After approval by the Strelka Rybko’s test pilot, systematic tests were started. Rybko, starting with small flights, brought them to long flights. Keeping the plane above the ground after separation, he flew up to one kilometer or more, assessing the behavior of the aircraft and checking the actions of the rudders. According to his conclusion, the car easily lifts off the ground, perfectly obeys steering wheels and lands well. Having conducted, in his opinion, a sufficient number of such flights, Rybko 27 August 1937 announced that he could make the flight. 28 August was a great summer day, a small breeze was blowing from Tushino. On this day, the commission decided to carry out the first flight of the aircraft "Strela". The machine was driven by N. Rybko.
They decided to take off in the direction of All-Svyatskoe-Tushino, that is, away from Moscow. There, if necessary, you can find a place for landing. In the same direction was the airfield of the Central Aeroclub, and there were no large buildings.
After a short run-up, the plane picked up speed, easily pulled off and almost immediately, jerked, gained altitude about 15-20 meters. But then for some reason the rise practically stopped. Some time passed, and the plane reached the edge of the airfield. Having flown 5-storied houses and tall pines, almost hitting them, the plane disappeared from sight. It became clear that the car was not gaining altitude and the pilot was not going to return to the airfield. For a while there was silence, everyone was waiting for something. Then suddenly they began to act. Someone ran to the plane Р-5 and tried to start the engine, someone got into the ambulance, someone ran to the phone and started to call somewhere, and so on. Imagination painted horrors. But a few minutes later the phone rang from the aerodrome of the Aeroclub. Rybko reported on the safe landing of the aircraft "Strela". Soon the commission gathered at the Tushino airfield and listened to the story of N.S. Rybko. about the first flight of the "Arrows". Here is what he said:
"After giving gas, the car quickly gained the necessary speed. Tightening the run a little, gently pulled the handle. The plane pulled off easily, quickly picked up the 20-meter height. At first, I was worried about the roll, but straightening it from the screw’s reaction, began to set the angle of climb. However I found that the height was not getting further, I think, what to do next? It was scary and unusual to increase the angle of attack at such a small height, it’s also dangerous to turn back - it’s not known how the plane will behave. Obstacles on the way and reaching the airfield in Tushino. Carefully turning the car around with a pancake, I took the plane to the Tushino airfield, where I landed. The landing was also unusual, after the gas was cleared, the aircraft began to descend vigorously and repaying the rate of decline. After landing, I saw an open, empty hangar and, taking advantage of the turning and small size of the plane, I flew straight there. "
Rybko, closing the hangar, sat down at the barrel with sand, lit it. He did all this very quickly and on time, because people who were at the airport and who had nothing to do with Strela rushed headlong to the hangar to see what it was that had landed at the airport. Many have seen the whole landing of Rybko, in particular, the well-known designer of unusual parabolic planes who were at the aerodrome, B. Cheranovsky. and test pilot Shelest I.I. Here is what he writes in his book From Wing to Wing:
"Rumors of a new aviation rush surprisingly quickly. Someone who was previously unknown was suddenly talked with pride and warmth. This was the first time I learned about Nikolay Rybko's Rybko when he landed once at the Central Club airfield, literally falling on his head. ..
His apparatus at the time was very outlandish. Perhaps only now after the Tu-144 and "Analog" he would not have been surprised. Imagine a long tailless tail having a very sharp triangle shape. Something like a "monk" or an arrow made of paper that we started in childhood.
Fish took off from Moscow from the Central Airport. The car was naughty, did not want to gain altitude. The plane flew in the direction of Tushino and, crossing the Serebryanny Bor, forced Rybko to land, since there was an airfield ahead. We have surrounded the wonder with great interest. We saw a lot of different gliders and airplanes, but something like that never happened!
The unusual design of the aircraft and the pilot's courage caused respect for Rybko among the witnesses of this case. "
After the arrival of the service personnel and the commission, the Strela was wrapped in a tarp, loaded onto a car and sent to the Central Airfield.
The pilot's message about the machine’s lack of the ability to climb, very much puzzled the commission. Immediately, attempts were made "on the fly" to give this phenomenon a scientific explanation. The opinion was expressed that an airplane having a form like that of the Strela cannot be considered an airplane, as it is greatly affected by the proximity of the ground, which improves the aerodynamic characteristics of the car. Taking off from the ground and gaining a small height to the aircraft helps the airbag, and then, when the influence of the earth disappears, the plane, which has this form, is not able to gain altitude. Of course, the aerodynamics familiar with the blowing model were not involved in these speculation. From the aerodynamic calculations followed that the machine should have a sufficiently large ceiling. But what is the matter? I, Konchin and Gorsky began to ask the pilot about the flight with "predilection". How the flight was carried out, how the car behaved and what Rybko did.
It turned out the following: the pilot had no time to evaluate the angle of attack after the aircraft had been taken off, but having gained altitude about 20 meters and eliminating the roll of the plane, which caused the main concern, the pilot set his usual climb angle. The angle at that time was determined by such a guideline as the projection of some noticeable detail on the horizon. The climb angle typically ranged from 7 to 9 degrees. Rybko about such angles and oriented. It was here that the climb stopped. We all started to look at the aerodynamic calculations together and saw that it should be that way. At these angles of attack for the "Arrows" there is no excess power, and the most optimal angle is almost two times more. Everything fell into place. They scolded themselves for not paying attention to this particular feature of the pilot.
They reported to the members of the commission who, from the pressure of various advisers, mainly pilots being excited by someone, were at a loss. All pilots demanded to stop testing "Arrows", not to waste time in vain, not to risk the lives of pilots, and report back to the government that the car of such a layout does not have the ability to fly away from Earth, that it comes off only with an air cushion that Rybko's first flight is clean accident and luck that it did not end in disaster, and so on and so forth. Finally, that the highest flight altitude that will be reached on the plane during the test is 30 meters.
They began to look askance at me, some even hinted at sabotage. To blame for sabotage at the time was quite simple. Aerodynamics TsAGI, while there were debates about the future of the aircraft "Strela", began to study the nature of the flow. They pasted the ribbons and started to blow the propeller of a large aircraft, photographing the behavior of the ribbons (photographs of the blowing and report on the flight tests of the aircraft are in the archive of the MAP and TsAGI). For me, this test period was very difficult. An atmosphere of ill-will was created, both for the aircraft and for its designer.
A leading engineer at TsAGI, Ezhov many years later said that someone was constantly trying to interfere with the testing of the Arrow. Test pilot A. Chernavsky, recalling Strela in his letter to the Voronezh Aviation Technical School named after Chkalov in 1976, wrote: “We simply did not have time or, more precisely, could not perceive the Strela plane psychologically. We are psychologically Were not ready to work on a machine of this type! We cannot be blamed for this, we just needed to understand! Biplanes with braces, racks and suddenly an elegant swift triangle! "
Fortunately, the test pilot Rybko N. With. Was not only a pilot. Knowledge, which he received in the aviation technical school, allowed him to independently understand the features of the aerodynamics of the machine. Not only I, Cochin and Gorsky, but Rybko made great efforts to continue the tests of Strela, which largely resolved the issue of further tests. When the test pilot figured out what was happening, he caught fire with the interest in testing and insisted on the expediency of their continuation. The arguments and persuasions of ill-wishers did not affect him. The decisive question was the request “from above” on the status of work with Strela. The commission decided to repeat the flight.
Rybko even before the new flight demanded to install a device in the cockpit that will help him determine the angle of climb. In the workshops of LII, a suitable, albeit primitive, instrument was immediately produced. It was installed in the cabin. Before the flight, Rybko sat a long time in the cockpit, mastered the new position of the landmarks, raised and lowered the tail, and finally said he was ready to try the car again in the air.
The yard was in the early autumn - September 1937. The weather for the tests was excellent, as they say, "Indian Summer". A cobweb flew over the runway, and out of the runway there was a drill of VIVA students named after Zhukovsky. They all saw the flight of the "Arrow", perfect test pilot Rybko N.S. The retired colonel-engineer N.K. Semenov, a former student of the academy, remembers the flight very well and the moment when the line of students broke down, stopping to watch the flight of this unusual aircraft. The direction was the same as during the first flight.
The plane was once again examined, the pilot tested the engine, signed the flight sheet. Finally, the test pilot asked to remove the pads from under the wheels and began the run-up after the snapping of the flag. After a few seconds, the car broke away and Rybko, after a little holding, gradually began to increase the angle of attack. The plane unusually raised his nose obediently climbed up. After gaining altitude 1200-1300 m, the pilot began to turn. At first, carefully, and then all the more energetic. Rybko began to experience "Arrow". He made slides, turns, and everything else that is necessary during the first flights, and was in no hurry to sit down. Then the pilot "threw" control, and the plane confidently continued to fly in a straight line, rocking around its longitudinal axis at 5-7 degrees. Wiggle on the sun glare was clearly visible. The car was landing at a rather high speed. Having a good margin of speed, the pilot landed easily on the 3 point. Thus ended the second flight of the Arrow and the first normal flight of the aircraft, which turned out to be quite successful. Further flight tests of the Strela, after several flights, were conducted on Pereyaslavsky Lake in the winter, and then again in Moscow.
According to the test results, the TsAGI Commission established the possibility of successful flights of an aircraft of such an unusual pattern at that time at subsonic speeds and also revealed the features of its piloting.
These were the tests of the world's first aircraft with a delta wing of small elongation (L = 0.975). Now it was up to the achievement of supersonic flight speeds.
The only remark of the commission was the small transverse oscillations of the machine under abandoned control, which for some reason were considered a feature of this scheme.
My absence from the commission did not allow her to pay attention to the fact that the aircraft's vibrations are well known and are called the "Dutch step". Their elimination does not represent special difficulties.
The Strela aircraft in August 1938 was returned to the Design Bureau. With the plane arrived a detailed report, conclusions and conclusion according to the scheme.
Under the terms of mode, the machine, packed at our request in a box, was sent to plant number XXUMX by rail. The plane defect detected by the commission - transverse oscillations - we decided to eliminate. Now we know that airplanes with swept wings have such a large lateral stability that it is necessary to make large WMO and negative transverse "V" wings. For our case, there was a partial shadowing of the WMO. Without losing time, the following events were held:
- WMO increased by 30%;
- assembled washers of the "Sum" type.
Pilot N. Rybko soon arrived at the plant, for additional testing "Arrows" at the airport of the plant number XXUMX in the city of Voronezh. Rain showers were not allowed to do this. Later, the control flights on the Arrow were well spent and Gusarov A.N.
As a result of these flights, it was found that with an increase in the WMO, the oscillations were completely eliminated and when installing the washers, they did not appear much. Also determined the effect on fluctuations in flight mode. In both cases, fluctuations at high speeds were absent. According to the latest factory tests in Voronezh, the pilot A.Gusarov, after installing the screw, Ratier reached a speed of 343 km / h. This speed was obtained at the measured kilometer of the plant number XXUMX.
The plane "Strela" completely fulfilled its task, after all the tests, drawing up an act, and also writing an annex to the TsAGI report according to the instructions from Moscow at the end of 1938, was destroyed. On this история "Arrows" is not over. Its continuation you will learn further. You will learn that with the start of the war in 1941, under the direction of the designer Bartini R.L. developed a project of supersonic fighter "P" of the type "Flying wing" of small elongation, which has a large variable sweep of the leading edge, with vertical two-fin plumage at the ends of the wing.
The Bigini fighter was influenced by the Sigma aircraft project and the successful tests of its counterpart, the Strela aircraft.
In the development of the project Bartini R.L. Belyaev V.N., a former member of the state testing committee of Strela in 1937, took part. Project "P" developed by Bartini remained on paper. Not implemented and P-114 (aircraft that had swept wing) developed by Bartini in 1943 year. The P-114 is a good jet interceptor with a Glushko-designed liquid-jet engine. But the BI-1 OKB Bolkhovitinova V.F. obviously not suitable for high speeds according to its layout (in this connection, test pilot Bakhchivandzhi was killed).
In 1944, at the end of the Great Patriotic War, the Germans, creating their jet aircraft, will also attempt to use the Strela scheme for their supersonic fighter Jager P-13. "Airpoint Spotter" 8 / 11-1947, Mr .. "EI" №376 reported:
"In Darmstadt in November 1944, a group of German students, led by Dr. Lippisch, began work on designing a jet plane designed for supersonic speeds. By the time of the occupation of Germany, the glider DM-1 was built. In our camp, however strange it may seem , someone will try to destroy all data about the Strela and its successful testing in 1937, without stopping even before praying our country's priority in the discovery of the most promising wing layout for orbital and supersonic airplanes back in 1934 year
In 1957, only foreign magazines were the first to learn about Summa and Strela. We have the first memories of "Strela" appeared in the book "Tested in the sky" by Galla M.L., however, they distort the ideas about the plane so much, turning its layout into a "pancake on slender little legs", that the knowledge of the country's success in development aircraft does not serve. Compare the description of "Arrows" Gallem M.L. with the impression about the car test pilot Chernavsky A.A. - "graceful swift triangle", as well as a similar one - in the book of test pilot Shelest II - "... like an arrow, a sharp triangle."
As a result of the successful testing of the Strela, I was offered to develop and create a combat aircraft with a propeller-engine group based on the Strela layout, bearing in mind the high speed data of the machine. However, even during the design of the Sigma aircraft, it was clear to me that similar schemes with the VMG for subsonic speeds over conventional aircraft did not have advantages in flight performance. Having given my ideas, I refused to create a combat aircraft with a propeller-engine group before the appearance of the jet engines necessary for flying at supersonic speeds.
What happened to the assignment issued by TsAGI in 1937? To the above, it is necessary to add that the assignment issued by the Glavaviaprom of TsAGI to study the wing of small elongation and the creation of a glider Kamenomostsky, the designer of TsAGI, was not completed. TsAGI limited to testing the Strela aircraft by Gorsky VP In essence, these tests only refined the tests of the Arrow model conducted by Stolyarov A.V. in the aerodynamic laboratory of the Voronezh University.
About how "Strela" flew in the sky of Moscow and Voronezh, N. Rybko told in the newspaper "Young Communard" (Voronezh, November 3 1976 g.).
“For more than 25 years, scientists calculated, modeled and created a wing shape, which was called“ Gothic, ”although this form was“ born ”in Soviet Russia, Voronezh was the place of its registration, and 1933 was born in the year of birth. Twenty-nine year old Voronezh became the godfather aircraft designer Moskalev Alexander.
For the sake of historical justice, this form must be named after its creator ... I am sure that justice will eventually triumph and the priority of Alexander Sergeyevich Moskalev, the priority of Voronezh, and finally, the priority of our country will be recognized. I would be glad if this case is supported by my testimony, the tester certificate of the Strel aircraft.
At the Moscow Central Aerodrome in the hangar OELID TsAGI in early September 1937, a rather strange Strela airplane designed by Moskalev AS appeared. A single, small-sized car, which resembles a triangle in terms of, with a 140-strong Renault-Bengal 4 cylinder engine. The pilot was placed in the fuselage, which was closed in front with a plastic fairing and the root base of the keel behind. Kiel went into the rudder. The elevators at the same time served as aileron, what today is called "elevons."
The unusual forms of the aircraft caused a large number of criticisms regarding its flight qualities.
Young designer Moskalev AS and leading aerodynamic TsAGI Gorsky VP These comments were not taken to heart and insisted on speedy flights. They were also joined by the engineer Chesalov AV, head of the laboratory OELID. The matter remained only for the flights. To begin with, they decided to see how the plane picks up speed on the run-ups and how easy it will be for the Strela to fly.
A few pilots trying to at least come off ... and no success. The main feature of the Arrow was that at the end of the run it was necessary to go over to high angles of attack, which is completely unusual for aircraft of that time. The pilots began to doubt the possibility of separation and approach. Then the factory pilot Gusarov A.N., at the insistence of AS Moskalev, made several small approaches. It was my turn to try the Strela plane. My first two runs were the same as other pilots. During the third run, having already passed half of the airfield, I move the car to high angles of attack and - oh, a miracle! "Arrow" switched to the climb mode. Once again I will try, and I have a firm belief that the flight is possible.
Observations from the side and my explanations of the nature of the run led to the fact that they allowed the flight. Fortunately for me, the start was at the airport from plant number XXUMX. The run-up took place as usual. When civilian planes began to approach, I began to increase the angle of attack and the car quickly got off the ground, almost immediately gaining height about an 39-20 meter. Thus, the takeoff technique I guessed correctly. But, further "Strela" has ceased to gain height.
I assumed that the excess engine power is small, so I was afraid to make a U-turn and go back to the airfield.
I fly to the Tushino airfield. I was confused by one phenomenon in the behavior of the aircraft: it was constantly rocking from wing to wing. Frequency and amplitude fluctuations were small. In the end, I stopped their parry. I even tried to change the speed range within 40 km / h, but this did not give much results. At my disposal there was not much time and, without tempting fate, I landed at the airfield in Tushino. At the time of landing, the engine operated at medium speeds.
All the steering wheels on the landing worked fine, and the transverse oscillations did not appear. The range of the first flight was about 20 kilometers.
Thus, it was proved that the "Arrow" can fly.
My message that the aircraft lacks the ability to gain altitude caused various opinions. A large number of people believed that the plane having a shape like that of the Strela was strongly influenced by the earth, that far from the ground the machine was not able to gain altitude. I looked at the aircraft purging and calculations and saw that the plane would gain altitude, but at high angles of attack. After much debate, they allowed me to make another flight.
The second flight, made in the autumn of 1937, was quite successful. Having typed 1,5 thousand meters, I checked the Strela for stability and control. Everything was fine. The exception was the transverse oscillations.
Having discussed the results of the flight in OELID, it was decided to continue the tests. I suggested Lake Plescheevo. On the shore of the lake in 150-170 kilometers from Moscow is the town of Pereyaslavl-Zalessky. Plescheevo is an ellipse, with axes of approximately 5 kilometers. "Arrow" was transported there in a day. The next day, the head of the flight of the Kozlov I.F. and I flew in on software-2. Lake Plescheevo for "Arrows" was a great airfield. Here I carried out 5 flights, confidently gained 1,5 altitude thousands of meters. The exception was, of course, transverse oscillations; the plane did not have any features in flight. In a word, the car behaved the way a plane should behave, having a similar power capacity and load per square meter. m. Landing was carried out only with the engine running. The survey from the plane on the ground seemed insufficient, but in the air quite satisfactory.
Flights on Lake Pleshcheyevo allowed to get the flight characteristics of the Arrow.
After the plane returned to OELID, it was decided to fly on wheels to find the cause of lateral vibrations. Chesalov A.V. I proposed to suspend the Arrow on the hinges placed in the center of gravity of the aircraft and blow the car in such a state with a screw thread that is installed on the M-34 engine. During the experiment, I was sitting in the cabin, trying to catch possible vibrations. Either the flow rate was low or the friction in the suspension was too high, but it was impossible to catch anything.
At the Central Aerodrome at the beginning of May 1938, I made the last flight. He did not bring anything new, except that 1,5 thousand meters were reached very quickly and, probably, it was possible to get a larger ceiling of the aircraft. According to the "Arrows" without skis, only with wheels, the flight data were much better than with the skis, but the flight performance was not recorded. To eliminate transverse oscillations Moskalev A.S. proposed to install two additional keels along the edges of the plane. Arrow was taken to Voronezh for this purpose.
At the end of July 1938, A. Chesalov, V. Gorsky. and I arrived there. However, in Voronezh, the airfield was in such a bad condition that it was impossible to fly the Arrows. On this, my flights on this original machine, which, when finalized, could turn into a promising combat aircraft, ended.
For the construction of many modern fighter borrowing layout "Arrows", which was made forty years ago.
Aircraft performance characteristics:
Modification - CAM-9;
Wingspan - 3,55 m;
Length - 6,15 m;
Wing area - 13,00 m2
Empty weight - 470 kg;
Maximum take-off weight - 630 kg;
Engine type - piston engine MV-4;
Power - HP 140;
Maximum speed - 310 km / h;
Practical ceiling - 1500 m
Crew - 1 man.
List of sources:
Moskalev A.S. Blue spiral
Wings of the motherland. Ivnamin Sultanov. Competition has sunk into oblivion
Shavrov V.B. The history of aircraft structures in the USSR 1938-1950.
Encyclopedia-directory. Soviet aircraft