Military Review

Mystery of the fourth planet

33

exactly 50 years ago, 1 November 1962 g., Soviet space station ...


Mars is located on the border of the so-called "zone of life" - the climatic conditions on the planet are much tougher than those on Earth, but still acceptable for organic life forms. In the summer at the equator at noon, the temperature reaches plus 20 ° С; in the long winter it can fall below minus 140 ° С - twice as cold as the most fierce winter in Antarctica.

Mars is 9 times lighter than Earth. The atmosphere of the Red Planet on 95% consists of carbon dioxide, and its density corresponds to the earth's atmosphere at an altitude of 40 km - a walk without a spacesuit will end for a person with instant death.

On the surface of the Red Planet there is the highest volcano in the Solar System * - the height of the Martian Olympus 27 kilometers, the base diameter 600 kilometers. The slopes of a long extinct volcano are framed by steep seven-meter abysses - there must be a spectacular landscape! The mountain is so high that at its top atmospheric conditions correspond to open space.

The longest and deepest canyon in the solar system is also located on Mars. The Mariner Valley extends along the equator for 4500 kilometers, and its depth reaches 11 kilometers ...
Mystery of the fourth planet

Supervolcano


As you may have guessed, Mars is full of sights and mysterious places. Mars has long attracted the attention of earthly explorers - a planet close to us, with its own atmosphere and all the signs of favorable conditions for the emergence of extraterrestrial life. The real sensation caused the discovery of "channels" on the surface of Mars - even the most stubborn skeptics then believed in the existence of a Martian civilization.

Dozens of years have passed and the “Martian channels” turned out to be an optical illusion. Sensitive spectrographs found the absence of oxygen and water vapor in the atmosphere of Mars - the key elements for the origin of life (at least in our, earthly sense) melted away the last hopes for finding brothers in mind. But the dream of a faraway beautiful world has remained, where apple orchards may someday bloom ...


Exactly 50 years ago, 1 November, 1962, the Mankind took a step towards its dream: the Soviet spacecraft was first put on a flight path to the Red Planet. The automatic interplanetary station Mars-1 was supposed to deliver half a ton of scientific instruments and equipment to the target. Soviet scientists planned a truly daring expedition: the device had to check the possibility of long-range space communications, study the properties of the interplanetary medium, collect data on cosmic radiation and micrometeorite fluxes, take a picture of Mars at close range, study the magnetic field and characteristics of the atmosphere of the Red Planet, and as far as possible, try to answer the question: "Is there life on Mars?".

The Molniya launch vehicle successfully brought the station to near-earth orbit, the upper stage turned on, and Mars-1 set off on its long 7-month journey to the Red Planet.
The interplanetary probe silently flies into the icy emptiness, only occasionally “tossing and turning” from side to side. Most of the time, the panels of its solar cells are directed strictly at the Sun, but at a certain moment, light-sensitive sensors peer into the velvet blackness of space, trying to examine the flickering of the Canopus star - the orientation of the probe is “tied” to this point. Having obtained the necessary data, the on-board computer calculates the new position of the station in space - the antenna turns towards the Earth. It's time to transmit telemetry. During the flight, Mars-1 conducted a 61 radio communication session, during which it transmitted to the Earth valuable information about the strength of the magnetic fields of the Earth and the interplanetary medium, about the properties of the "solar wind" - the flow of charged particles from the Sun and meteorite streams.

Crater Gusev. The rover Spirit worked here.

But the scientists' dreams did not come true - at a distance of 106 millions of kilometers from Earth, a depressurization of the orientation system cylinders occurred. Together with compressed nitrogen, Mars-1 lost its orientation capability in space. In vain the probe called its creators for help - the signals from the probe could no longer be heard on Earth.
19 June 1963, according to ballistic calculations, the Soviet interplanetary station passed in the vicinity of Mars, becoming the first man-made object to visit the Red Planet.

Why in space battleships

The sixties of the twentieth century became a time of genuine triumph of the Soviet cosmonautics: the first man in space, the first multi-seat spacecraft, the first step into emptiness - going beyond the spacecraft in a spacesuit, the first maneuvering in orbit, the first photograph of the far side of the moon, the Soviet stations on the surface of Venus and Mars ... The USSR launched spacecraft annually into 100 orbit - in our time, so many countries of the world do not launch together.

Expeditions to distant planets required the creation of an appropriate ground infrastructure, first of all, long-distance space communications systems. It was necessary to hear a weak “squeak” of the interplanetary probe through hundreds of millions of kilometers of outer space, through noise and magnetic storms, through the solar wind and signals from terrestrial radio stations. 100 million kilometers ... how to imagine such an incredible distance? A car racing along the highway at a speed of 100 km / h will require 114 years to cover this distance!

The challenge required an extraordinary solution. As a result, in the vicinity of Evpatoria, three strange objects appeared - the antennas ADU-1000 of the Pluto system of remote space communications. There are three of them - two receivers and one transmitter. Each antenna ADU-1000 is a block of eight parabolic plates with a diameter of 16 meters mounted on a turntable. Total weight of the construction - 1500 tons!
At any time, at the request of the operator, the antenna unit must direct its “gaze” to the desired point in the sky. But how to achieve perfect pointing accuracy - up to 1 angular minutes, if the moving parts weigh more than a thousand tons?

Here shipbuilders came to the aid of radio astronomers. 8 antenna "plates" are fixed on a huge span of a railway bridge, and the whole system is mounted on a turntable of a main caliber tower from an unfinished battleship "Stalingrad". Know ours!

Mars is waiting for new heroes

Over the previous 20 years, Russia sent only two scientific expeditions to Mars: the failed Mars-96 and the notorious Phobos — Grunt. Despite the vigorous statements of representatives of Roskosmos: “Yes, all nishtyak! We'll fix it right now and it will work, ”it became clear even to the common people that the Russian space program is in a deep cesspool. Technologies for space exploration are a great legacy of the USSR, for Russia as an old grandfather's suitcase with tools: it is hard to drag and throw away. How to fix the situation? The base on the moon is unlikely to help, maybe it is better to pay all attention to the quality of the preparation of space launches.

Are there any positive moments in this stories? Of course! Despite the lack of their own launches, Russian specialists regularly participate in NASA programs. For example - the joint Russian-American expedition Mars Polar Lander. Unfortunately, the mission was unsuccessful - the device crashed during landing. Do not whistle and shake your head so deafeningly - over the past 15 years, the Americans themselves have killed three Martian expeditions. The truth is there is a nuance: in addition to the three failures, they had 8 successful missions.

Yes, space exploration is not an easy walk, but I believe that there are no limits to the human thirst for knowledge. The Phobos-Grunt expedition must be repeated - the next time the vehicle successfully delivers the ground from the Martian satellite to Earth. But it is necessary to hurry up - calculations show that Phobos has too low orbit, in a few years it will burn in the Martian atmosphere.



In the red dust, at a temperature of minus 100 degrees Celsius, the Spirit and Opportunity rovers found ancient human heads. Believe it or not. Want - no ...


* The Mars Olympus Volcano is the highest among all the peaks known to us on the planets and satellites of the Solar System. The highest volcano on Earth is almost three times lower than the Martian giant - the height of the volcano Mauna Kea is only 10 kilometers. No, the author has not gone mad and well knows that the greatest summit of the world is Mount Everest (8848 m). The trick is that the Mauna Kea volcano is located not on land, but on the bottom of the Pacific Ocean - only the summit of 4205 meters rises above the water. But in fact, the highest is the underwater volcano.
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  1. snek
    snek 3 November 2012 09: 15
    +4
    In the red dust, at a temperature of minus 100 degrees Celsius, the Spirit and Opportunity rovers found ancient human heads. Believe it or not. Want - no ...

    I don’t believe ... and indeed, honestly, read the corresponding section on Wikipedia.
    1. crazyrom
      crazyrom 3 November 2012 18: 45
      +4
      Of course not, they sent cameras with a resolution of kilopixels there, and there any dirt or coincidence of shadows seems to be their heads.
  2. shurup
    shurup 3 November 2012 11: 28
    +5
    At the equator of Mars, it is quite possible to put a greenhouse and nuclear power plants for heating.
    And in the Mariner Valley, the pressure should be greater than on the surface.
    1. voxpopuli
      voxpopuli 3 November 2012 21: 11
      +1
      It will be far from Mars to carry early cucumbers smile
      1. Cosmonaut
        Cosmonaut 3 November 2012 22: 48
        0
        And a little expensive smile
  3. Karish
    Karish 3 November 2012 12: 22
    +12
    Wow, I served there. CDCS (center for long-distance space communications) !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
    Not forgotten for two years. By the way, there are two such antennas (eight-cups)
    It’s a pity, they say the whole center was simply pulled apart. And there was also 3P2S station, Chamomile, 2nd Phobos station, Department of quantum electronics (lasers), The largest rotary antenna in the world (RT-80), MCC (as shown on the RV only without the viewing platform at the back ) and of course the landing system for Buran with a strip (in Simferopol). DMB -90.
    By the way, when Phobos 1 and 2 were launched, they were on the shift duty and they were also successfully lost.

    This is Phobos Station,
    1. Priboi
      Priboi 3 November 2012 23: 56
      +3
      And nehru was scattered territories, in the Russian Crimea, everything could have been preserved! angry
  4. thorstein
    thorstein 3 November 2012 13: 28
    -6
    Honestly, I think it's too early for us to look at Mars. We still haven't put things in order at home.
    1. voxpopuli
      voxpopuli 3 November 2012 21: 12
      +6
      It is human nature to move forward. Let's not move extinct
      1. Van
        Van 4 November 2012 20: 44
        +2
        Quote: voxpopuli

        It is human nature to move forward. Let's not move extinct

        That's for sure, but only when we can build something like that. lol
        1. WW3
          WW3 4 November 2012 22: 09
          +5
          The arms race in the period cold war reached its peak and governments gave ever higher levels of defense objectives. Two mega-powers had to explore space and work out the possibilities of attack and defense. The United States was the first to create the shuttle, the Shuttle, for delivering military equipment and intercontinental missiles into orbit.

          As part of the Shuttle program, it was envisaged the possibility of flying into space with a priority of once a week. During the history of the project, these ships made a significant contribution to the development of science. A lot of equipment was delivered into orbit, in particular components for the Hubble telescope. In total, 6 (5 for space flights) ships were released, 2 of them exploded without completing their mission, which brought the project to the closing stage. And the cost of the project is very resource intensive and financially disadvantageous.

          Colombia - burned out during landing in 2003.
          Challenger - exploded at launch in 1986.

          The Soviet Union decided to create an analogue of such an apparatus. After which the Buran spacecraft was designed.
          In November 1988, the Buran went on its space flight. It was launched using the Energy booster. After reaching the Earth’s orbit, Buran made 2 orbits around the Earth (in 205 minutes).

          The flight was in automatic mode, there was no crew on board. The flight took place without a crew in automatic mode using the on-board computer and on-board software. This fact - the flight of a spacecraft into space and its descent to Earth in automatic mode under the control of an on-board computer - was included in the Guinness Book of Records.
          Buran did not make more flights. Restructuring ....

          Confrontation + science --- engine of progress, brake - financial crisis ...

          The first and only flight of "Buran"
          1. Cavas
            Cavas 4 November 2012 23: 23
            +2
            Quote: WW3
            Confrontation + science --- engine of progress, brake - financial crisis ...

            In translation from Chinese "crisis" is translated in two words: "danger" and "opportunity" or "chance". As practice shows, some enterprises go bankrupt during a crisis, while others get incredible opportunities for a breakthrough.
            1. WW3
              WW3 5 November 2012 00: 04
              +3
              Projects like "Buran" are not for a "private shop"; there are many government projects involved. enterprises were ...
              here is the text of those years ...
              "In conclusion, it should be said that large scientific, technical, production and construction forces of the whole country were involved in the creation of MRKK Energia-Buran. Effective cooperation of enterprises and industries with highly qualified personnel, powerful intellectual and production potential has been accumulated, advanced experience has been accumulated. , a large scientific and technical reserve has been formed, a powerful experimental and production base has been created, complex systems and means of launch preparation and flight control have been built, equipped and put into operation. All this with good reason can be considered our national treasure.

              Such possibilities and prospects of using MRKK Energia - Buran were seen in the late 1980s - very early 1990s. Later the situation changed. "
              Gorbachev's "perestroika", the collapse of the USSR, financial turmoil and privatization ...
              1. WW3
                WW3 5 November 2012 00: 34
                +5
                Antonov 225 "Mriya"
          2. studentmati
            studentmati 5 November 2012 02: 06
            +3
            Thanks! The video is well known to everyone, but the accompaniment is touching to tears! "The swan song of the Soviet cosmonautics", unfortunately. And a deep bow to the creators of this miracle and personally to Lozino-Lozinsky! Great constructor and even greater organizer of production!
  5. viktor_ui
    viktor_ui 3 November 2012 14: 49
    +1
    There will be a mood - I’ll post it, FAQ, and I dug on Mars.
  6. Mr. Truth
    Mr. Truth 3 November 2012 15: 06
    +6
    Gentlemen, we will never see the real or the most interesting photos from Mars, just as the full report on the "Vikings" experiment will never be published. We saw the real colors of Mars a few years ago, it turns out they do not differ much from the earthly ones, no red sky and blood-red soil, but they folded the main stereotype of Mars, and it plays into their hands.
    The truth about Mars was discovered six years ago, with the MRO, using the THEMIS camera (goddess of truth in Greece, an interesting coincidence).
    However, Noel Gorelik from Arizona State University (just like Dr. Malin from JPL), as always, played his gambit, and as a result, the taxpayer and ordinary earthlings saw only noise. BUT, what lies under the careless layers of noise, as they say, scared everyone enough. After these discoveries, it would be worth curtailing other petty missions a la "land and ride around a pebble" and seriously prepare a manned expedition there, but NASA works in the interests of US national defense and security and is controlled by fanatical cultists, what can we demand of them?
    1. Santa Fe
      3 November 2012 23: 00
      -1
      Quote: Mr. Truth
      NASA Works for US National Defense and Security

      NASA Civil Organization
      1. Val_y
        Val_y 7 November 2012 17: 53
        0
        Yes, and it is financed from donations laughing
        1. Santa Fe
          7 November 2012 18: 43
          0
          Quote: Val_Y
          Yes, and it is financed from donations

          In fact, yes.

          A grant is allocated from the state - institutes and laboratories send their research projects to the competition. Whose project wins, an interplanetary probe will fly there in a few years. That's how NASA works.
    2. Volkhov
      Volkhov 5 November 2012 22: 36
      0
      Why a photo, there will be an evacuation.
  7. WW3
    WW3 3 November 2012 16: 28
    +6
    The Curiosity rover for the first time analyzed the composition of the atmosphere of Mars and found an increased content of heavy isotopes of carbon and argon, according to NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
    The modern Martian atmosphere is about 100 times rarer than the Earth, however, scientists believe that in antiquity it was much denser, which provided a milder climate on the planet.
    RIA News.
    Initial data indicate that there is practically no methane in the area of ​​Gale Crater. The concentration of this gas measured by a laser spectrometer was less than a few parts per billion.
    Methane on Mars is of great interest to scientists, since its presence may indicate the existence of life. Previous data obtained from orbiting apparatuses showed that methane is in the atmosphere of Mars and its concentration experiences seasonal fluctuations.

    The Curiosity rover, slowly approaching its destination - Mount Mount Sharp, made a sensational discovery: there was water on the Red Planet, NASA reported.
    The evidence for this statement is undeniable - the rover transmitted several images of stones with a rounded surface to Earth. According to scientists, "such a pattern and shape suggests that once these rocks were in the stream bed." At the same time, according to the shape and size of the gravel, scientists also determined that the bottom of an ancient stream was captured in the photographs, and even indicated its approximate depth and speed.
    "The water flowed in it at a speed of about 3 feet per second (0,9 meters per second), and the depth was somewhere between the ankle and the thigh," RIA Novosti quotes one of the leaders of the Curiosity mission, Bill Dietrich.
    To the author, my "plus" I like to read on space topics ...
  8. askold
    askold 3 November 2012 18: 45
    +4
    Eh, eh, a dream ...
    Forward to Mars, forward, forward, casting aside all doubts !!!
    Photon engine to start, and away from gravity
    we fly there in order to comprehend and reveal many secrets ...
    Here, only I forgot to ask ...
    When will we build WE move so that Mars becomes much closer to us ???
    Vladimir Alexandrovich, tell me, is work being carried out or is Ganymede still? wink
    Thank you very much to the author for the article, I was impressed with the installation of long-distance space communications, and recently there was an article about the ships created for the same purposes. Well, what can I say, -SSSR !!!
    I was born in the Soviet Union, I was made in the USSR !!!
  9. koosss
    koosss 3 November 2012 20: 55
    +1
    Yes, in a great country and great buildings ..
    1. MG42
      MG42 5 November 2012 01: 50
      +2
      the great Wall of China fellow
      1. Volkhov
        Volkhov 5 November 2012 22: 23
        +2
        The wall is built from the enemy from the south - i.e. "Chinese", although perhaps with their hands. See the landscape for the steepness of the adjacent slopes. With the modern restoration, the prongs have been rearranged to the north side.
        That is how the ancient Russians defended the Far East from Asians.
  10. Kars
    Kars 3 November 2012 21: 09
    +2
    Ehhhh? Where?
    1. Volkhov
      Volkhov 7 November 2012 16: 25
      +1
      Crimea, 30 battery, dated June 42, according to the situation not earlier than 30, the Martians are not visible, but obvious traces of radiation damage (points and loops) are visible on the film - for skeptics who do not believe that 5 "special grenades" of the Dora cannon were tactical YAZ (they smashed the Champagne mountain, seismographs in America detected explosions, and also CP and baht. 35). It is no coincidence that most of the winners went to the hospital to treat diarrhea, and in Germany they developed zimmerite and OZK.
  11. NEMO
    NEMO 4 November 2012 00: 24
    +6
    Well, valiant American guys will fly, risking their lives,
    populate the planet with the sprouts of their "democracy", and here they are already awaited ... laughing
  12. Konrad
    Konrad 4 November 2012 14: 35
    +4
    Spirit and Opportunity rovers find ancient human heads

    There are also plenty of such "heads" on earth. Climb among the rocks.
  13. FunkschNNX
    FunkschNNX 4 November 2012 20: 49
    +1
    If humanity survives the advent of appropriate technologies, then the colonization of space will be a logical step in development.
  14. Strezhevchanin
    Strezhevchanin 5 November 2012 11: 44
    +2
    Well, not so much Mars and red, when you turn off all the spectral nonsense, the landscape begins to resemble the sky of Arizona.
    1. Volkhov
      Volkhov 5 November 2012 22: 29
      0
      Not so red, but pretty black, and this is carbon dust - 14 mainly from cometary explosions, and radiation there is higher than Chernobyl. It is warm and has a lot of air, but due to radiation, local people live underground (canals).
  15. Strezhevchanin
    Strezhevchanin 5 November 2012 12: 06
    +2
    And here’s the ill-fated picture taken with a panoramic camera from the Spirit rover, showing its landing place in Gusev’s crater. To the right are the Eastern Hills, about 3 km from the landing module. The picture was taken on the 16th Martian day on January 18, 2004. In the foreground is a portion of Spirit's solar panels. The data of the green, blue and infrared filters of the panoramic camera were combined, resulting in this approximately true color image. As a result, the NASA plate is for some reason red rather than blue.
    http://photo-day.ru/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/mars03.sJPG_950_2000_0_75_0_50_50

    .sJPG_.jpg
  16. viruskvartirus
    viruskvartirus 5 November 2012 12: 23
    +2
    "In the solar system, the most suitable conditions for maintaining life after terraforming are possessed primarily by Mars. The rest of the planets are either not suitable for terraforming, or encounter significant difficulties in transforming climatic conditions." So sooner or later
  17. Alone
    Alone 5 November 2012 12: 52
    0
    Mars for terraforming is also poorly suited. Mass is too small.
    1. Val_y
      Val_y 7 November 2012 17: 56
      0
      So both water and nitrogen with oxygen must be imported from the asteroid belt (or to catch flying comets) laughing
  18. Voin sveta82
    Voin sveta82 5 November 2012 20: 03
    +1
    It would be cool to even hear the news that a mayo of the Russian Air Force Ivan Ivanov ... landed on Mars ...)))))
    1. Strezhevchanin
      Strezhevchanin 5 November 2012 21: 16
      0
      Not just landed ....... and pinned there a whole research institute of astrophysics, several nuclear reactors, and about 1000 life support modules designed for 100 years of battery life !!!!
      1. Van
        Van 5 November 2012 23: 08
        -1
        Quote: Strezhevchanin
        It would be cool to even hear the news that a mayo of the Russian Air Force Ivan Ivanov ... landed on Mars ...)))))


        And also, the advanced detachment of the Russian airborne forces and space marines, cleared the territory for the future colony from local living creatures. soldier lol
  19. Volkhov
    Volkhov 5 November 2012 23: 13
    -1
    Generally, Mars is the first planet from the Sun (except for satellites and asteroids), the rest are "moving stars" in terms of their internal structure. The second is only Pluto.
    1. Val_y
      Val_y 7 November 2012 18: 00
      0
      What, but Venus or Mercury belay By the way, Pluto is already a "dwarf planet" like Ceres
      1. Volkhov
        Volkhov 8 November 2012 15: 08
        0
        Stars (they have a different internal device and there is a magnetic field in case of rotation), the difference is fundamental.
  20. Yun Klob
    Yun Klob 12 November 2012 13: 42
    0
    You give the exploration of the moon and then Mars. How else?
  21. Volkhov
    Volkhov 17 November 2012 00: 19
    0
    AMERICAN MARS ALL OVER



    In addition to the blue sky, a site cleared by a bulldozer is visible ...

    "NASA has been able to figure out exactly how the winds blow on the Red Planet, and why there are no dust storms in Gale Crater. This was helped by the Curiosity rover, which has added to the study of Martian soil and the search for extraterrestrial life also the study of weather on Mars. compiled a map of the winds in the territory of Gale Crater, where the rover is currently operating. "

    You can still see the dry bed of the stream, apparently some kind of volcano in America, the sky is still Earthly, there should be a shade of dustiness on Mars and the Martians are put on guard, but the rover is not dragged by a bulldozer.
  22. Honory
    Honory 24 November 2015 19: 51
    0
    The moon has already landed, sooner or later, but Mars will also be explored.