The complex began to develop 25.08.1960 in accordance with the Resolution of the USSR Council of Ministers. The deadline for submission of proposals for further work (including shooting tests of an experimental batch of missile samples) is QNUMX III quarter. The decree provided for the development of a lightweight portable anti-aircraft missile complex, consisting of two parts weighing no more than 1962-10 kilograms each.
The complex was designed to hit air targets that fly at altitudes from 50-100 meters to 1-1,5 kilometers at speeds up to 250 meters per second, at a distance of up to 2 thousands of meters. The lead developer of the complex as a whole and an anti-aircraft guided missile - OKB- 16 GKOT (later it was transformed into the Design Bureau of Precision Engineering (KBTM) of the Ministry of Defense Industry). This organization in the war years and the first postwar years under the leadership of the chief designer Nudelman A.E. has made significant progress in the development of anti-aircraft ship and aircraft small-caliber gun armament. By the beginning of 1960-g. The OKB has already completed the development of a complex anti-tank complex equipped with a Phalang radio-controlled missile. When developing the Strela-1 air defense system (9K31), unlike other short-range missile systems (such as the American Red Eye and Chaparel), it was decided to use not a infrared (thermal) rocket, but a photo-contrast head homing. In those years, due to the low level of sensitivity of infrared homing heads, the selection of targets in the forward hemisphere was not ensured, and therefore only enemy aircraft were fired at enemy aircraft, mainly after they completed combat missions. In such tactical conditions there was a high probability of destroying anti-aircraft missile systems even before they launched missiles. At the same time, the use of a photo-contrast homing head made it possible to destroy a target on a head-on course.
The main organization-developer of the optical GOS for an anti-aircraft guided missile was identified by the Central Design Bureau 589 GKOT, the chief designer - Khrustalev V.A. Subsequently, TsKB-589 was transformed into the TsDB Geofizika MOP, work on the homing head for the Strela guided missile was headed by D.M. Khorol.
Already in 1961, the first ballistic missile launches were conducted, and by the middle of the next year telemetry and software launches. These launches confirmed the possibility of creating a complex that basically meets the approved requirements of the Customer - the Main Missile-Artillery Directorate of the Ministry of Defense.
In accordance with the same Resolution, the development of another portable anti-aircraft missile system, the Strela-2, was also conducted. Overall dimensions and weight of this missile complex were less than that of the Strela-1 air defense missile system. Initially, the development of Strela-1 to some extent supported the work on Strela-2, which was associated with a greater degree of those. risk. After solving the fundamental issues related to the development of the Strela-2 air defense system, the question arose of the further fate of the Strela-1 complex, which had practically the same LTX. For the expedient use of the Strela-1 air defense system in the military, the CCTT leadership addressed the Government and the Customer with a proposal to establish higher requirements for this missile complex in terms of maximum reach in height (3,5 thousand meters) and damage range (5 thousand meters) by abandoning the portable version of the missile complex, going to the placement on the car chassis. At the same time, an increase in the mass of the rocket to 25 kg (from 15 kg), diameter to 120 mm (from 100 mm), and length to 1,8 m (from 1,25 m) was envisaged.
The customer by this time decided on the concept of combat use of the Strela-1 and Strela-2 anti-aircraft missile systems. The Strela-2 portable complex is used in the battalion unit of the air defense, and the Strela-1 self-propelled air defense missile system is used in the regimental air defense unit, in addition to the Shilka self-defense anti-aircraft missile, whose range of fire (2500) does not defeat helicopters and aircraft the enemy before the line of launch of guided missiles by their targets and positions of the tank (motorized) regiment (from 4000 to 5000 m). Thus, the Strela 1 anti-aircraft missile system, which has an extended strike zone, fit perfectly into the developed system of military air defense. In this regard, the relevant proposals of the industry supported.
Somewhat later, the BRDM-1 armored reconnaissance vehicle was used as a base for the Strela-2 self-propelled anti-aircraft missile system.
It was envisaged that the anti-aircraft missile system, which has enhanced combat capabilities, will be presented for joint tests in the third quarter of 1964. But due to difficulties with working out the homing head, the work was delayed until 1967.
State tests of the prototype Strela-1 air defense missile system were carried out at 1968 at the Donguz testing ground (head of the Finogenov MI testing ground) under the guidance of the commission headed by Andersen Yu.A. The complex was adopted by the Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers of 25.04.1968.
Serial production of the 9А31 combat vehicle of the Strela-1 anti-aircraft missile system was launched at the Saratov MOP plant, and 9М31 missiles at the Kovrovsky mechanical plant MOP.
Nudelman A.E., Shkolikov V.I., Terentyev G.S., Paperny B.G. and others for the development of the air defense system "Strela-1" awarded the State Prize of the USSR.
The Strela-1 SAM system as part of a platoon (4 combat vehicles) was part of an anti-aircraft missile artillery battery (Shilka-Strela-1) of a tank (motorized) regiment.
The 9А31 combat vehicle of the Strela-1 complex was equipped with a PU with 4 anti-aircraft guided missiles placed on it, placed in transport-launch containers, optical means of aiming and detection, missile launch equipment and communications equipment.
The complex could fire on helicopters and airplanes flying at altitudes of 50-3000 meters at a speed of up to 220 m / s on a catch-up course and up to 310 m / s on a heading course with course parameters up to 3 thousand m, as well as on drifting balloons and on hovering helicopters. The capabilities of the photo-contrast homing head allowed firing only on visually visible targets against a cloudy or clear sky, with angles between the directions to the sun and the target of more than 20 degrees and with an angular excess of the line of sight of the target over the visible horizon of more than 2 degrees. Dependence on the background, weather conditions and illumination of the target limited the combat use of the Strela-1 anti-aircraft complex. But, average estimates of this dependence, taking into account the possibilities of action aviation the enemy, mainly under the same conditions, and later the practical use of air defense systems in exercises and during military conflicts showed that the Strela-1 complex could be used quite often and effectively (in terms of military-economic indicators).
To reduce the cost and increase the reliability of the combat vehicle, the PU was aimed at the target due to the muscular efforts of the operator. With the help of a system of lever-parallelogram devices, the operator with his hands pulled the launching frame with rockets, the rough sighting device and the optical sighting device lens to the required elevation angle (from -5 to + 80 degrees), and with the help of knee stops connected to the seat, suggested the launcher in azimuth (while pushing off from the cone attached to the floor of the car). The front wall of the tower in the sector 60 degrees in azimuth was made of bullet-resistant transparent glass. Launchers in the transport position fell to the roof of the car.
Shooting in motion was ensured by the almost complete natural balance of the swinging part, as well as by combining the center of gravity of the launcher with the missiles with the intersection point of the rocking axes of the combat vehicle, thanks to the operator's ability to reflect the low-frequency oscillations of the hull.
In the 9М31 SAM was implemented aerodynamic scheme "duck". The missile was aimed at the target with the help of a homing head using the proportional navigation method. The homing head converted the radiant energy flow from a contrasting target against the sky into an electrical signal that contains data about the angle between the target-missile line of sight and the axis of the homing coordinator, as well as the angular velocity of the line of sight. Uncooled lead-sulfur photoresistances served as sensitive elements in the homing head.
Behind the homing head there were successively placed the steering drive of the aerodynamic triangular rudders, the control system equipment, the warhead and the optical fuse. Behind them was located a solid-fuel rocket engine, trapezoidal wings were fixed on its tail section. The rocket used a dual-mode single-chamber solid-fuel rocket engine. The rocket at the launch site accelerated to a speed of 420 meters per second, which was maintained approximately constant on the main course.
The roll missile did not stabilize. The angular velocity of rotation with respect to the longitudinal axis was limited to the use of rollerons — small rudders on the tail plumage (wing), inside of which there were discs connected to the rudders. The gyroscopic moment from the disks rotating at high speed unfolded the rolleron so that the roll rotation of the rocket was slowed down by the resulting aerodynamic force. Such a device was first used on the American-made Air Side air rocket and on the K-13, its Soviet copy, which was launched into mass production simultaneously with the launch of the development of the Strely-1 air defense system. But on these rockets, roller skaters, having small blades around the circumference, unwound long before launch under the influence of the air flow that flowed around the carrier aircraft. In order to unleash the rollers of an anti-aircraft guided missile in a timely manner, the designers of the Strela-1 complex used a simple and elegant device. On the roller was wound a rope attached to the transport launch container with a free end. At the start, the roller skaters unwound with a cable according to a scheme that was similar to that used to start boat engines.
A contact magnetoelectric sensor with a direct hit, or a non-contact electro-optical sensor, in the case of a flight near the target, used a PMF (safety-actuator) to undermine the guided missile warhead. With a large miss PIM through 13-16 seconds from the combat position was derived and could not undermine the warhead. An anti-aircraft guided missile deformed, rather than exploded, when it fell to the ground, without causing significant damage to its troops.
The rocket diameter was 120 mm, length - 1,8 m, wing span - 360 mm.
The 9М31 rocket, along with the Strela-2 rocket, was one of the first Russian anti-aircraft guided missiles that was stored, transported in a transport and launch container and launched directly from it. To the frame of the launcher, the dust-splash-proof TPK 9YA23, which protected the missiles from mechanical damage, was fastened with the help of bows.
The combat operation of the Strela-1 anti-aircraft missile system was carried out as follows. When visually self-detecting a target or upon receiving target designation, the switch operator directs the launcher with heavy guided missiles at the target, using an optical reticle to increase accuracy. At the same time, the power supply of the bead of the first guided missile (via the 5 c - the second one) takes place and the TPK covers are opened. Hearing a beep about capturing the homing head and visually assessing the moment of entry into the target launch area, the operator, by pressing the “Start” button, launches the rocket. While the rocket is moving along the container, the power supply cable of the guided missiles is cut off, while the first stage of protection was removed in the PIM. The fire went on the principle of "shot and forget."
During the tests, we determined the probabilities of hitting one guided missile when firing towards a target moving at an altitude of 50 m at a speed of 200 m / s. They were: for a bomber - 0,15..0,64, for a fighter - 0,1..0,6. With an increase in altitude to 1 km and speed to 300, m / s the probabilities for the bomber were 0,15..0,52 and for the fighter - 0,1..0,42.
The probability of hitting targets moving at a speed of 200 m / s when shooting in pursuit ranged from 0,52 to 0,65, and at a speed of 300 m / s - from 0,47 to 0,49.
In accordance with the recommendations of the State Commission for testing with 1968 on 1970. The complex was upgraded. A passive radio direction finder developed by the Leningrad Scientific Research Institute "Vector" of the Ministry of Radio Industry was introduced into the anti-aircraft missile system. This direction finder provided target detection with on-board radio equipment, its tracking and entering into the field of view of the optical reticle. The possibility of targeting information from an anti-aircraft missile system equipped with a passive direction finder to other Strela-1 systems of a simplified configuration (without a direction finder) was also provided for.
Thanks to the improvement of the rocket, the near boundary of the zone of destruction of the air defense missile system was reduced, the accuracy of homing and the probability of hitting targets flying at low altitudes increased.
They also developed an inspection and test machine that allows you to control the operation of the combat equipment of the Strela-1 anti-aircraft missile system, taking into account the changes introduced during the modernization.
State tests of the upgraded Strela-1M air defense missile system were conducted at the Donguz proving ground in May-July, 1969, under the guidance of a commission headed by V.F. Voropayev. The Strela-1М anti-aircraft missile system adopted the 1970 of the year for the armament of the air defense forces of the ground forces.
According to the test results, the air defense missile system could ensure the destruction of helicopters and airplanes flying at altitudes of 30-3500 m, at speeds up to 310 m / s, at course parameters to 3,5 km, and maneuvering with overloads up to 3 ... from 0,5 to 1,6 km.
In the modernized complex, in comparison with the Strela-1 complex, the near zone boundary was reduced by 400-600 meters, and the lower zone - to 30 meters. The probability of hitting a non-maneuvering target with uniform backgrounds increased and at altitudes up to 50 meters with a target speed of 200 m / s when firing towards the bomber was 0,15-0,68 and for the fighter - 0,1-0,6. At 300 and 1-0,15, 0,54-0,1 and 0,7-0,58, 0,66-0,52 and 0,72-XNUMX, respectively.
The combat work of the Strela-1M anti-aircraft missile system had some differences from the autonomous operation of the Strela-1 SAM system. All the platoon complexes on the ground were guided in the coordinate system that was the same for the Strela-1-Shilka anti-aircraft missile and artillery battery. Between the machines maintained radio communication. The commander of the anti-aircraft missile system on sound and light indicators of the circular review monitored the radio situation in the area of the direction finder. When sound and light signals appeared, the commander estimated the state belonging of the target. After making a decision about the belonging of the detected signal to the radar of the enemy aircraft, the commander, using internal communication, informed the commander of the battery, the operator of his car and the rest of the combat vehicles of the platoon the direction to the target. The commander of the battery carried out the target distribution between the platoon cars ZSU and ZRK. The operator, having received data on the target, included a system of accurate direction finding, deployed PU on the target. Convinced that the received signal belonged to the enemy’s means, he accompanied the target using synchronous signals in the headset and on the indicator light before it entered the optical sighting field. After that, the operator pointed to the target PU with missiles. Then the launch equipment was switched to the "Automatic" mode. The operator, when approaching the targets to the launch zone, turned on the “Bort” button and energized the board of the guided missile. The rocket was launched. The “Forward” - “Back” modes of operation provided for in the air defense system made it possible for the operator, depending on the position relative to the target complex, its speed and type, to fire towards or towards. For example, during launches in pursuit of all types of targets, and during launches towards slow-speed targets (helicopters), the Back mode was set.
The battery was controlled by the regiment air defense commander through automated PU - PU-12 (PU-12М) - which he and the battery commander had. Orders, commands, and target designation data for the Strela-1 complexes from PU-12 (M), which was a battery commander's station, were transmitted via communication channels formed using radio stations available on these control and destruction facilities.
The Strela-1 and Strela-1М SAM systems were exported from the USSR to other countries quite widely. The air defense system was delivered to Yugoslavia, to the countries of the Warsaw Pact, to Asia (Vietnam, India, Iraq, North Yemen, Syria), Africa (Angola, Algeria, Benin, Guinea, Egypt, Guinea-Bissau, Madagascar, Libya, Mali, Mozambique , Mauritania) and Latin America (Nicaragua, Cuba). Using these states, the complexes repeatedly confirmed the simplicity of their operation and rather high efficiency during shooting practice and military conflicts.
For the first time, the Strela-1 anti-aircraft missile systems were used in 1982 in the fighting in South Lebanon in the Bekaa Valley. In December of the following year, the A-7E and A-6E planes were shot down by these complexes (perhaps the A-7E was hit by the Strela-2 family of vehicles). Several Strela-1 systems in 1983 were captured in southern Angola by South African invaders.
The main characteristics of the Strela-1 anti-aircraft missile systems are:
Name: "Strela-1" / "Strela- 1М";
1. Affected area:
- in range - 1..4,2 km / 0,5..4,2 km;
- in height - 0,05..3 km / 0,03 .. 3,5 km;
- by parameter - to 3 km / to 3,5 km;
2. The probability of hitting a single guided fighter rocket - 0,1..0,6 / 0,1..0,7;
3. The maximum speed of the target being hit towards / in pursuit is 310 / 220 m / s;
4. Reaction time - 8,5 s;
5. Guided missile flight speed - 420 m / s;
6. The mass of the rocket - 30 kg / 30,5 kg;
7. The mass of the warhead - 3 kg;
8. The number of anti-aircraft missiles on a combat vehicle - 4;
9. Year of adoption - 1968 / 1970.
Regimental self-propelled anti-aircraft missile system "Strela-1"
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