Military Review

Adjustable weapon system 1K113 "Smelchak"

Adjustable weapon system 1K113 "Smelchak"

Self-propelled mortar 2S4 firing a 3F5 mine, Mariupol, 2022. Photo by Telegram / BMPD

At the disposal of Russian gunners there is a wide range of ammunition for various purposes, incl. a range of high-precision samples with different characteristics. For example, to improve the accuracy and efficiency of fire of 240-mm mortars, the 1K113 “Smelchak” corrective weapon system was developed and adopted. It allows you to hit a variety of small or area targets with minimal ammunition consumption.

Firepower and economy

Since the XNUMXs, the issues of creating corrected artillery shells with increased hitting accuracy have been worked out in our country. Calculations showed that such products would simplify the defeat of the intended targets, as well as reduce the consumption of ammunition for solving such a problem. The result of theoretical work in this direction was the emergence of tactical and technical specifications for several new adjustable weapons systems (KKV).

So, in 1977, the Ministry of Defense issued an assignment for the development of KKV for existing and promising mortars in caliber 240 mm. The creation of such a complex and its main components was entrusted to the Moscow Divkon Design Bureau, which actively participated in previous studies. Development work received the code "Daredevil"; the complex was also assigned the GRAU 1K113 index.

The presence of the necessary ideas and developments made it possible to carry out a new R&D in the shortest possible time. Already at the turn of the seventies and eighties, the experienced KKV "Smelchak" went to the test. Fine-tuning the design also did not encounter fundamental difficulties, and the 1K113 complex was put into service. The corresponding resolution of the Council of Ministers was issued at the very end of 1982.

Mine complex "Smelchak" in flight configuration. Photo

In the same period, industry represented by several enterprises mastered the production of new products. Soon, serial KKV of a new type began to enter the army. "Daredevils" and mines for them were delivered to the artillery units of the ground forces, equipped with 240-mm M-240 towed mortars and self-propelled 2S4 "Tulip". The introduction and development of the new KKV did not cause any particular problems, and it was widely used.

Soon there was a full demonstration of the new weapons under realistic conditions. So, during the exercises "West-83", the calculation of the mortar, equipped with "Daredevil", with a minimum consumption of ammunition, hit two small targets. It took only 4 minutes to destroy them.

Technical appearance

KKV 1K113 "Smelchak" is intended for use with existing domestic 240-mm mortars and provides an increase in their firing characteristics. "Tulip" or M-240 with such a complex retain the ability to defeat single and group targets, such as fortifications or structures, weapons or equipment in positions. This improves accuracy and achieves a corresponding increase in efficiency.

The Smelchak complex is being built on the basis of serial 2S4 or M-240 mortars. Mortars do not undergo noticeable processing, but they are supplemented with new devices, such as the 1A35 synchronization system. Mortars are also used with standard means of communication and fire control.

The main component of the KKV 1K113 is the 3VF4 mortar round with the 3F5 corrected mine. The latter is a 240 mm caliber projectile with a length of 1635 mm and a mass of 134 kg. The mine is made in a body with a conical head, a cylindrical central compartment and a tapering tail assembly. The latter is equipped with folding stabilizers. Outwardly, the 3F5 mine looks like an artillery shell for cannons - but many times larger and heavier than such ammunition.

Target designator-rangefinder 1D15, view from the operator. Photo

Under the mine fairing is a semi-active laser homing head. On the descending part of the trajectory, the seeker detects a laser-illuminated target and corrects the trajectory to fall on it. The trajectory changes in a gas-dynamic way. In the tail section of the 3F5 mine, small-sized solid propellant charge-engines are radially installed. At the command of the GOS, they create short pulses and change the direction of the mine's flight.

Guidance and correction tools from the 1K113 composition make it possible to reduce the CEP to 0,8-1,8 m. Due to this, hitting a typical target requires no more than 1-3 minutes. The use of unguided munitions requires many times more consumption.

Mina "Daredevil" carries an explosive charge weighing 32 kg. Such a charge is placed in a metal case, crushed into several thousand high-speed fragments. In terms of high-explosive fragmentation, the 3F5 mine is at least as good as other munitions in 240 mm caliber. The maximum firing range reaches 9,5 km - also at the level of other mines.

The target is illuminated by the gunner from the ground using a laser designator-rangefinder. Initially, the 1D15 device with 1A35 synchronization tools was used as part of the Smelchak KKV. In the mid-eighties, a more advanced 1D20 was created. According to some information, now the 1K113 complex is also used with other means of illumination. For example, reconnaissance UAVs can help mortarmen.

Operating principle

The application of KKV "Daredevil" is as follows. The calculation of the M-240 or 2S4 mortar deploys to the selected position. In addition, the operator of the target designator-rangefinder takes its place. If necessary, the positions of the mortar and the gunner can be separated by some distance. The gunner finds the target and specifies its coordinates, which are used to calculate the data for shooting.

The "Tulip" crew reloads a high-explosive fragmentation mine. Photo by the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation

Before firing, the 1D15 or 1D20 device is aimed at the selected target. Then the mortar fires, and the corresponding signal through the 1A35 synchronization system is sent to the rangefinder-target designator. At the estimated time, 1-3 seconds before the mine falls on the target, the target designator turns on the laser illumination beam.

Mina 3F5 on the descending part of the trajectory detects the reflected laser radiation and is aimed at it. With the help of a gas-dynamic system, it corrects its trajectory and falls on the target or with a minimum deviation from it. The entire correction process lasts no more than 0,1-0,3 seconds, after which the mine continues uncontrolled flight along the established trajectory.

"Daredevils" in battle

According to known data, KKV 1K113 was first used in a real operation in 1985 in Afghanistan. With the help of 3F5 mines, M-240 mortars destroyed enemy fortifications. The new weapon not only reduced the consumption of ammunition, but also accelerated the solution of a combat mission, leaving no time for the enemy to react. Also in Afghanistan self-propelled mortars "Tulip" were used. Probably, part of the episodes of their combat work was also associated with the Daredevil.

240-mm mortars were also used during both wars in Chechnya. Depending on the current needs and tasks, they used conventional and adjustable ammunition. The Smelchak complex once again confirmed its high performance, and also contributed to the speedy completion of operations.

In early April 2022, several 2S4 self-propelled mortars were delivered to Mariupol. They were used to destroy the enemy on the territory of the Azovstal plant. To increase the efficiency of fire and reduce risks for surrounding objects, 3F5 corrected mines were used. After methodical and effective shelling from Tulips and other guns, the surviving Ukrainian militants preferred to surrender.

Shot 2S4. Photo by the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation

To improve performance

Domestic 240-mm mortars in towed and self-propelled versions are distinguished by high fire performance. They are capable of attacking various targets at ranges up to 9-9,5 km, and a large caliber provides high power even for a single mine. The potential of the M-240 or "Tulip" has been repeatedly demonstrated in practice.

Complex 1K113 "Smelchak" allows you to save the main advantages of such weapons, as well as improve its key characteristics. A correctable mine increases the accuracy and efficiency of fire, reduces the consumption of ammunition and speeds up the execution of a combat mission. At the same time, the 3F5 product practically does not differ from conventional mines in terms of range and power.

It should be noted that Daredevil faces some objective limitations. So, the mine and other components of the complex were created 40 years ago and use the old element base. The firing range of the 3F5 product, like other mines, does not exceed 9,5 km, which leads to some risks. In addition, the corrected mine depends on weather conditions and other factors, because. it requires a line of sight to the illuminated target.

However, the obvious advantages completely outweigh any existing limitations. Despite its considerable age, limited range, etc., the 1K113 Smelchak corrective weapon system remains a convenient and relevant means for destroying the enemy. And not so long ago, this was again confirmed during combat use.

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  1. ism_ek
    ism_ek 5 August 2022 05: 42
    The film is about Vladimir Vishnevsky, the developer of Smelchak and Centimeter. Completely Russian (Soviet) development (Krasnopol copied from the American counterpart). Unfortunately, Vishensky died and the development of shells stalled (. It is necessary to highlight the target from a drone, plus target designation using GPS (GLONASS) has shown its effectiveness.
    1. kytx
      kytx 5 August 2022 06: 08
      Krasnopol is illuminated from a UAV. Dear, he is really a dog. IMHO the price tag is too high.
      1. ism_ek
        ism_ek 5 August 2022 06: 24
        Quote: kytx
        the price tag is too high

        They write that a shot to HiMARS costs $150000.
        On the other hand, if you calculate how many conventional shells are needed to hit the target. And these shells still need to be delivered to the front line, stored somewhere ... The resource of gun barrels is also not eternal. MSTA has only 2000 rounds.
        1. Sergei_tactics
          Sergei_tactics 5 August 2022 07: 35
          According to the price tags for American ammunition like this:
          Projectile 155 (n/a) - $600
          Projectile 155 (UD) - $4000
          Projectile 155 (KB) - $5000
          RZSO shell (n / a) - $ 80
          RZSO shell (UD) - $150
          RZSO shell (KB) - $250
      2. Sexton
        Sexton 6 August 2022 16: 11
        There are no "Centimeters" "and" Daredevils" in service! The plant was destroyed, the designer died, the technologies were lost and reinvented for the Tornado-S MLRS shells. There are no UAVs in service that can illuminate the ancient two-block Krasnopol projectile with manual insertion parameters. Experiments and show-offs on experimental individual samples at the Gerasimov exercises are not accepted ... The guidance technology from the ground requires impossible conditions and is not really used. No need to engage in profanity and wishful thinking. ... Portable equipment of the Malachite complex for illumination from the ground there is not a single photo and video in NWO!
        1. ZAV69
          ZAV69 7 August 2022 09: 13
          Technology cannot be lost. At the factory where I worked there was a 5th department. Documentation from other factories for similar products was stored there, we did not produce it, but if necessary we could master it. Surely the documentation for the daredevil at a couple of factories lies
          1. Sexton
            Sexton 7 August 2022 13: 57
            For all. And this is no more. There is no general. "Krasnopoltsy" could not repeat the technology, they killed the plant ... The main one died ...

    2. Nikrus
      Nikrus 5 August 2022 08: 46
      I wonder from which analogue Krasnopol was copied? As far as I know, in the 90s, Americans wanted to buy a batch of red fields. A lot of money was offered. The situation was decided at the level of the president. It was assumed that the Americans would most likely dismantle it for subsequent copying, and since the money was offered large and it was necessary for the state budget, the chief designer was called for a consultation and asked if our product could be copied soon. To which an answer of approximately the following content was given - the Americans are able to create a similar product and they will most likely create something similar, but not in the coming years. And even if they decompose our product into molecules, it will not help them much.
      1. ism_ek
        ism_ek 5 August 2022 10: 49
        Quote from Nikrus
        I wonder from which analogue Krasnopol was copied?

        1. Nikrus
          Nikrus 5 August 2022 17: 02
          Unlikely. The direction in which you need to work, yes, and the projectile itself is completely our constructive.
      2. MVTUshnik
        MVTUshnik 5 August 2022 16: 28
        In the early 80s, after MVTU, my wife worked for several years in one research institute (I won’t say which one), where she processed data after testing two types of homing projectiles - 152 and 205 mm. Then they had not yet received their name. The head of the department received the Lenin Prize for these developments.
      3. ABC-schutze
        ABC-schutze 8 August 2022 14: 05
        And there was a real contract with the French ... Also, I believe that if it were an "analog" from the US, it would be easier for Paris to turn to Washington "for a purchase" ...
        1. ABC-schutze
          ABC-schutze 8 August 2022 14: 10
          At the beginning of the 2000 thousandth there was such infa from Rosvooruzhenie ...

          "France plans to purchase 500 Krasnopol-M guided artillery shells from Russia for the amount of 24,6 million euros. On the Russian side, the Instrument Design Bureau (Tula) should be the executor of this contract, and on the French side, the Silas company.
  2. Sergey Kuzmin
    Sergey Kuzmin 5 August 2022 06: 12
    Mina "Daredevil" carries an explosive charge weighing 32 kg. Such a charge is placed in a metal case, crushed into several thousand high-speed fragments. In terms of high-explosive fragmentation, the 3F5 mine is at least as good as other munitions in 240 mm caliber. The maximum firing range reaches 9,5 km - also at the level of other mines.
    The charge is powerful, but the firing range is 9 km ... Although ... for street fighting and swotting in fortified areas, that's it
    1. neworange88
      neworange88 5 August 2022 07: 41
      Why 9 km?
      Shooting "Centimeter" and "Daredevil", having a range of 20 and 18 km, respectively, is carried out as follows. The gunner with the appropriate guidance equipment is located at a distance of 5-7 kilometers from the target, which can be both fixed and mobile. After that, it transmits the coordinates to the battery. When the projectile flies up to the target at a distance of about 500-600 meters, the gunner briefly, from 1 to 3 seconds, illuminates the target with a laser beam. The backlight is captured by a passive homing head. And the impulse correction of the trajectory begins.

      The backlight laser also works in pulsed mode, and the GOS of the projectile is tuned to the same frequency.

      great secrecy of the gunner's actions, which highlights the target for a short time. And, therefore, it is more difficult to detect and destroy it with return fire. However, with impulse flight correction, it is impossible to point the projectile at the target with absolute accuracy.

      Another rather serious advantage of the Centimeter and Daredevil compared to the Krasnopol, as well as the American 155-mm Copperhead projectile, is that the complete failure of the guidance and automation of the projectile itself is not critical. In this case, both Centimeter and Daredevil behave like ordinary projectiles flying along a ballistic trajectory. And ammunition with aerodynamic flight correction in the event of a failure of the guidance and control system can fly "to unknown lands."
      1. Romario_Argo
        Romario_Argo 5 August 2022 12: 46
        I agree, 20 km. while the UAV illuminates targets continuously through GOES-540
        these are Tulip mines - UOS Daredevil turn on their optical seeker for only 1-3 seconds
        The UAV only highlights the following targets for the next incoming mines
      2. nonsense
        nonsense 5 August 2022 18: 42
        Quote from: neworange88
        Shooting "Centimeter" and "Daredevil", having a range of 20 and 18 km, respectively, is carried out as follows.

        I told you - 9 km. This is the real firing range of the Daredevil. And 18 (and even 19) km is the firing range active-reactive(but never adjustable!) mine. The girls from this svpressa will write something else for you there ...
  3. Sergei_tactics
    Sergei_tactics 5 August 2022 07: 21
    The author, of course, very sparingly indicated the limitations - an aerosol curtain (albeit natural, including low clouds, even man-made, including smoke from explosions and fires) negates the use of ammunition with LGSN
    1. Glory1974
      Glory1974 5 August 2022 08: 56
      disadvantages are a continuation of merits, without them in any way.
      In 90% of the time, it can be used due to weather conditions. Fortified areas do not have aerosol protection, not all vehicles have such an opportunity. Therefore, you can shoot almost anytime.
      1. Sergei_tactics
        Sergei_tactics 5 August 2022 09: 23
        Dada, it's like when one smart guy told me that UAVs in Chechnya would solve all problems. And when I told him that there in the mountains 3/4 of the season is either rain or fog or snow or all mixed up, then in response this "expert" also called me)))
        What is "90% of the time can be used according to weather conditions"? Do you have statistics from the hydrometeorological center? Or blurted out from the bulldozer? But what about the smoke on the battlefield from fires and explosions? Here is a photo of the SD in Popasnaya - is everything fine in your expert opinion?)
        1. Glory1974
          Glory1974 5 August 2022 09: 59
          100% of the time you can shoot with unguided ammunition. For a guided projectile, smoke on the battlefield is not a problem. The problem is only in special aerosol countermeasures. And yes, in Chechnya in the mountains, low cloud cover can interfere, but not snow or rain.
          1. Sergei_tactics
            Sergei_tactics 5 August 2022 10: 59
            For a guided projectile, smoke on the battlefield is not a problem.

            Yeah? There must be something new in physics laughing run faster win the nobel prize in optics as you have just destroyed all the fundamental laws laughing
            1. Aag
              Aag 5 August 2022 16: 49
              Quote: Sergey_tactics
              For a guided projectile, smoke on the battlefield is not a problem.

              Yeah? There must be something new in physics laughing run faster win the nobel prize in optics as you have just destroyed all the fundamental laws laughing

              Do I understand correctly ?:, - a complex for laboratories, "parades", demonstration exercises, and "Ren-TV?
              Well, as I understand it, even to throw a couple of kilometers, you need a spotter-illuminator (!).
              ... The title photo, - does it not work in multi-storey building conditions? As in any other case of lack of direct visibility .... ((( Then the range is not particularly valuable ...
              Again problems with target designation! am
            2. Glory1974
              Glory1974 8 August 2022 09: 25
              do you think fools came up with aerosol countermeasures? You could just burn the smoke and protect yourself from laser-guided weapons.
              But practice has shown that this is not so. Therefore, there is less aplomb. The realities are not what you imagine.
              1. Sergei_tactics
                Sergei_tactics 8 August 2022 10: 21
                Lord, what is the glory of 1974 with your head then? Why didn't she learn to think from you? How many have seen your comments - one stupid nonsense. Aerosol ammunition and installations are needed to put the smoke screen at the very moment when it is needed. And where it's needed. And do not sit and wait - whether the Almighty will bring fog or cloudiness. And even more so in order not to run around the battlefield collecting brushwood and kindling it fool lol
                1. Glory1974
                  Glory1974 9 August 2022 08: 48
                  How many have seen your comments - one stupid nonsense.

                  wassat You are a commentary genius.
                  not to run around the battlefield collecting firewood and kindling it

                  Judging by the comment, he wasn’t in the army. If he was, he knew that devices for forming a smoke screen were installed on the equipment, which do not protect against a laser beam. What I wrote in the comment, but you didn’t understand.
                  Less aplomb and you won't be so funny hi
                  1. Sergei_tactics
                    Sergei_tactics 9 August 2022 17: 52
                    Thank you, when I served in the army, you painted parental walls with poop. And you tell your nonsense about "smoke does not protect against a laser beam" to the same mediocrity as yourself. Since only high-energy lasers of combat lasers can break through a channel in an aerosol, and then if it is a vapor-water suspension. And if the aerosol contains solid particles (soot, for example), then the beam of a laser designator-rangefinder with an energy of hundredths of a J has no chance of breaking through. However, even light cloud cover will stop this. After all, the laser beam must not only hit the target, it must also be reflected in order for the LGSN to fix it
                    Silly juvenile, please do not bother more in the discussion of topics related to physics. You didn't get it lol
        2. ism_ek
          ism_ek 5 August 2022 19: 15
          Quote: Sergey_tactics
          Do you have statistics from the hydrometeorological center?

          This is the number of sunny days in the village of Vedeno... In general, the North Caucasus holds the record in Russia for the number of sunny days. Therefore, there are a lot of telescopes located there.
          1. Sergei_tactics
            Sergei_tactics 8 August 2022 10: 18
            It's cool when an astronomer tells me about the weather in the mountains, who was there on a business trip in 1996 and 2002 laughing
            1. ism_ek
              ism_ek 8 August 2022 11: 21
              It's not what year you were there, but what month.)
              Well, I won’t joke about the police and “fire water”.
  4. Sadok
    Sadok 5 August 2022 12: 36
    but how does the gunner illuminate the target at 9 km? How does he even see her? from a height of one meter, visibility on the planet is only 3,5 km. then, kmk, at such a distance, the scattering of the beam will be quite large. or as in the joke "sprinkle him with flour and give him a mace"?
  5. Serafim
    Serafim 5 August 2022 14: 39
    Does this tsatska apply today to 404?
  6. nonsense
    nonsense 5 August 2022 18: 56
    IMHO, of course, but the Soviet military leadership made a mistake by starting to develop all these "Centimeters", "Krasnopli" earlier than after the "Daredevil" in cal. 240mm to develop the same adjustable mine in cal. 120mm. This would really increase the power of Soviet artillery. And then what's the use of the corrected projectile 152mm art. systems with a range of 20 km, if laser target designation is carried out only at 5 km? Hit targets on the battlefield? So 120 mm mortars may well do this. I see the target - I shoot. At that time, there were no UAVs of the required purpose in order to provide target designation behind enemy lines. Was it the generals-seniles (they are tactical theorists) of the Soviet General Staff who were going to send target designators (suicide bombers) behind enemy lines?
    1. Harald
      Harald 6 August 2022 23: 37
      Sorry, but I have to disagree. Target illuminators behind the front lines are not suicide squads, but can be used very effectively. I was an officer in the German intelligence troops for 23 years. We had a well-thought-out tactic: we deliberately entered enemy territory or hid when the enemy attacked, and then actively operated in enemy territory. We then reconnoitered the targets visually or by radar and transmitted the location by radio, illuminated the targets with lasers, or - in exceptional cases - attacked or blew up the targets ourselves. The residence time of such a reconnaissance group (4 soldiers) can be several weeks. 24 hours a day. Much longer than any drone.
      1. nonsense
        nonsense 7 August 2022 17: 30
        :) And at the same time, some parts of the field gendarmerie / internal troops / wassat "Death"? - If they had acted, then the very first highlight of the target by your group would have become the last ... EMNIP in the first Gulf War in 1991, the Americans used such "illuminators" for the Tomahawk missile defense system, according to their media, super effectively. But now I highly doubt that at least half of these "illuminators" remained alive ...
        1. Harald
          Harald 8 August 2022 16: 07
          I was out of service for so long that I myself only trained this tactic and honed it in the exercises. Only after the mission of the Bundeswehr in Afghanistan did such troops begin to be actively deployed. All of them survived these missions. Before that, to my knowledge, there were only a few selective deployments of the Special Forces Command, which almost always survived these missions.
          The task is to avoid enemy counterintelligence. For example, radar installations always deploy in the direction of the enemy after entering enemy territory. So that enemy radar reconnaissance does not detect its own radar.
          Or radio is transmitted only on long waves. For this purpose, livestock fences can be used as antennas and thus evade radio intelligence.
  7. Rzzz
    Rzzz 5 August 2022 21: 19
    In the title photo, it is fawn - a firing mortar is hiding in residential areas.
    Is that what "they" do? Or are we too?
  8. Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 5 August 2022 22: 57
    We need a mine with glonnas guidance. Bulk and cheap
    1. Romario_Argo
      Romario_Argo 8 August 2022 12: 14
      we need guided projectiles for self-propelled guns 203-mm Malka and Pion - they were somehow cheated with UASs
      120 mm Threat, 122 mm Edge, Kitilov, 152 mm Krasnopol, Centimeter, 240 mm Daredevil
      - but for 203 mm UAS no
      and GLONASS will be expensive - the cheapest is a laser seeker on a projectile and target illumination with a laser from an UAV using GOES-4/540 or from a Sich-type container
      the operator only has time to re-highlight the following targets for the approaching UAS
      1. Zaurbek
        Zaurbek 8 August 2022 12: 21
        For the Americans, this option is the cheapest (with satellite guidance), now the GOS are dual-guided .... Krasnopol is a more complex design.
        1. Romario_Argo
          Romario_Argo 8 August 2022 12: 27
          on the contrary, UAS Krasnopol is the cheapest - it stands there if roughly and briefly
          photodiode for 2-wave laser spectrum of our optical stations
          and nothing more (!!!)
          photodiode costs - $150 - this is the retail price at the radio market in Mitino (not for research institutes)
          in the USA, the M982 155-mm Excalibur projectile controlled by GPS price is $ 68000 - $ 232000
          1. Zaurbek
            Zaurbek 8 August 2022 13: 05
            Excalibur has a double seeker. And you also need to take into account the projectile simply with correction or fully controlled. Gross projectile (not expensive) should be based on the usual one with a slight correction
            1. Romario_Argo
              Romario_Argo 8 August 2022 13: 14
              On excalibur double seeker

              it’s very good that you can jam US shells - electronic warfare + optics to blind
              on UAS Krasnopol, a simple "photodiode" works from 1 to 3 seconds on a mark from a laser on an illuminated target in 2 spectra
              the conclusion suggests itself: we need a UAV spotter and target illumination
              with 2 hanging containers like Owl
              so that it gives out not 1 channel, but 20 channels - so that immediately under the salvo of the art division
              1. Zaurbek
                Zaurbek 8 August 2022 16: 07
                Something I don’t see much success in jamming ... Hymars fly and hit with might and main. Air defense only fights them.
                1. Romario_Argo
                  Romario_Argo 8 August 2022 23: 08
                  military wonderful people - they are probably preparing a surprise
  9. Earnest
    Earnest 7 August 2022 10: 43
    In the title photo, it is fawn - a firing mortar is hiding in residential areas.
    Is that what "they" do? Or are we too?

    The maximum firing range of 9 km during urban battles, when both sides are within the same settlement, is just our case. But the planned deployment of long-range (here I mean 15 or more km, that is, a range exceeding the size of the city itself) weapons in such places is bad manners
  10. Bogatyrev
    Bogatyrev 14 August 2022 00: 46
    Domestic 240-mm mortars in towed and self-propelled versions are distinguished by high fire performance.

    And what is "high fire performance" in this case? Compared to what?
    Isn't it better to say that in modern conditions the "Smelchak" is a very specific weapon, that no one in the world has developed such systems, which in fact is used as a heavy assault artillery system for the effective destruction of fortified positions due to the high accuracy and power of the projectile? This is how it differs from the mass of other KUVs that can be used for counter-battery combat or accurate engagement of a wide range of targets.