Military Review

Romanian air and missile defense system

36



Unlike other, more prosperous states of Eastern Europe, which were members of the Warsaw Pact until 1991, until recently, Romania was not able to allocate significant financial resources for a radical modernization and strengthening of its own air defense system. In this regard, the troops still have heavily worn out Soviet-made radars, which are gradually being replaced by new American radars. The cover of critical facilities and the capital is currently provided by obsolete and outdated air defense systems supplied by the USSR and NATO allies.

Radar means of airspace control


During the Cold War, the radio engineering units of the Romanian Armed Forces were equipped with Soviet-made equipment. So, according to information available in open sources, in the period from 1961 to 1988, 18 standby radar stations of the P-14F meter range and six 5N84A Oborona-14, 10 P-37 decimeter radars, coupled with PRV radio altimeters, were delivered -13, as well as 9 Kabina-66 / 66M radar systems and two ST-68U three-coordinate radars. In addition, the Romanian RTV had about 50 P-12 and P-18 mobile radars of the P-15 and P-19 meter range, as well as low-altitude stations P-XNUMX and P-XNUMX.

Romanian air and missile defense system

Radar P-18

At present, several P-37 radars remain in service from the socialist heritage, working together with the PRV-13, with a dozen mobile P-18s.


Radar P-37 and PRV-13

The most valuable are the new radars: 5 AN / FPS-117 (V), 2 AN / TPS-77 and 17 AN / TPS-79R.


Towed antenna post radar AN / FPS-117 (V)

Three-coordinate phased array radar AN / FPS-117 (V) manufactured by Lockheed Martin operates in the frequency range of 1 215-1 400 MHz, is designed to detect and track ballistic and aerodynamic targets of various classes and is capable of seeing high-altitude air targets at a distance of up to 470 km.


Stationary version of the AN / FPS-117 (V) radar

The AN / FPS-117 (V) radar can be relocated if necessary, but is usually placed permanently. The first AN/FPS-117 (V) type station began operating on Romanian territory in 1998.

The AN/TPS-77 radar is a mobile version of the AN/FPS-117(V) designed for rapid deployment and deployment. The degree of unification at these two stations reaches 80%.


Radar AN / TPS-77

The entire hardware of the AN/TPS-77, along with the operator's workstation and related communication facilities, is located in one container. The radar can be loaded onto a C-130 military transport aircraft and transported on the roads by two heavy army trucks.

In March 2008, Romania signed a contract with the American corporation Lockheed Martin for the joint production of AN / TPS-79R mobile radars.


Radar AN / TPS-79

The station, operating in the 2,7-2,9 GHz frequency range, has a detection range of 110 km, is capable of effectively working on low-altitude air targets and is designed to quickly close gaps in the radar field that can form after the failure of large stationary radars. In the future, the AN / TPS-79R and AN / TPS-77 mobile radars should replace the old Soviet P-18 stations.

All information received from fixed and mobile radar posts flows to the Air Operations Center, located in the city of Otopeni, 16 km north of Bucharest. The reserve air force and air defense control center (2nd airspace surveillance center "North") is located at the 71st air base "General Emanoil Ionescu", located near the city of Campia Turzi.

Stable interaction between all links of the Romanian air defense system is provided by the 85th communications regiment, equipped with modern Western-made equipment.

The main and reserve air defense command posts are connected to the NATO Integrated Air Defense System in Europe (NATINADS), the central command post of which is located at the Ramstein airbase in Germany. Two-way data exchange takes place via digital cable and satellite communication channels. Information coming from radar posts is continuously broadcast in real time.

Anti-aircraft missile systems of object air defense


In the 1960s and 1970s, Romania was the recipient of the most modern Soviet weaponslike other Eastern Bloc countries. So, in the early 1960s, 10 of the latest SA-75M Dvina air defense systems, four technical divisions and 631 V-750 missiles were delivered to this country. These early modification complexes with a 10-cm guidance station and their missiles, with Soviet technical support, underwent several stages of modernization and preventive maintenance between 1971 and 1986, which allowed them to operate until the early 1990s.

Since 1964, the Romanian object air defense was strengthened by the improved S-75M Volkhov air defense system, the guidance station of which worked in the 6-cm frequency range. Until 1982, the USSR transferred 15 such complexes and 708 V-755 missiles. This complex, compared with the SA-75M "Dvina", had greater noise immunity and improved pointing accuracy.


Overloading of the B-759 anti-aircraft missile from the transport-loading vehicle to the launcher

Already in 1983, three “seventy-five” of the latest modification at that time, the S-75M3 Volkhov, arrived in Romania. In total, until 1988, Bucharest received 16 such complexes and 674 B-759 missiles, capable of hitting high-altitude targets at ranges up to 55 km, the reach in height was 30 km. Due to the presence of a television-optical sight, the noise immunity and secrecy of the application has increased.

In the early - mid-1980s, Romania was the last among the ATS countries to put into service the low-altitude S-125M1A Neva air defense system. Together with four firing and one technical division, 260 V-601PD missiles were received.

Until the end of the 1980s, 10 Akkord-75/125 simulators, one automated control system ASURK-1ME, one Almaz-2 and six Almaz-3 came from the USSR along with the on-site air defense systems.

However, attention is drawn to the fact that since the second half of the 1970s, the Soviet Union was reluctant to transfer the latest air defense systems to Romania. The only exception is the S-75M3 Volkhov medium-range air defense system. But this complex was widespread among the allies of the USSR, as well as in third world countries, and by the mid-1980s the West had learned to deal with it. Due to the personal ambitions of the Romanian dictator Nicolae Ceausescu and the contradictions they caused with the Soviet leadership, the Romanian air defense system, unlike other countries of the Eastern Bloc, did not receive long-range S-200VE air defense systems and the latest long-range mobile multi-channel systems S-300PMU.

Romania is one of the few countries where, until recently, the S-75M3 air defense systems with rockets fueled by liquid fuel and an oxidizer remained in service.


Launch of an anti-aircraft missile of the Romanian air defense system S-75M3

According to background information, the Romanian Air Force and Air Defense Joint Command now has 6 S-75M3 air defense systems. However, judging by indirect data, the 1st Anti-Aircraft Missile Brigade “General Nicolae Dascalescu”, deployed near Bucharest, still has 2 S-75M3 divisions, but their combat effectiveness is also in question.

The last time the training firing of the Romanian "seventy-five" took place in 2016 at the Capu Midia training ground, located on the Black Sea coast, 20 km north of the city of Constanta. After the launches of anti-aircraft missiles carried out on real targets, the S-75M3 air defense system with three, instead of six, laid down by the state, remained at this position for another three years.


Satellite image of Google Earth: the position of the S-75 air defense system at the Capu Midia training ground

Combat duty of the S-75M3 air defense system in the vicinity of Bucharest was carried until 2018. Currently, the launchers remaining in position do not have combat-ready missiles. According to Romanian officials, the Soviet-made anti-aircraft missile systems will be permanently decommissioned after the replacement in the form of American Patriot anti-aircraft systems arrives.


Satellite image of Google Earth: the position of the HAWK PIP IIIR air defense system to the west of Bucharest

Part of the positions where the "seventy-fives" used to be deployed are now deployed by the HAWK PIP IIIR air defense systems. Satellite images show that the launchers of these complexes are covered with quick-detachable protective domes that protect against adverse meteorological factors.


Satellite image of Google Earth: the position of the HAWK PIP IIIR air defense system to the north of Bucharest

Romania bought from the Netherlands in 2004 8 Hawk low-altitude anti-aircraft missile systems with 213 missiles. But due to financial difficulties, they were only put into operation in 2012. Initially, the air defense systems, released in the 1970s, were supposed to be upgraded to the Hawk XXI level.


SAM HAWK PIP IIIR in position

However, during the restoration work, the complexes of the Cold War era were brought to the intermediate standard of the HAWK PIP IIIR air defense system. At the same time, Romanian sources claim that the existing HAWK PIP IIIR is already capable of interacting with Patriot PAC-3 + anti-aircraft systems.


The main firing unit of the Hawk complex is a two-platoon anti-aircraft battery. The firing platoon has a target illumination radar, three launchers with three anti-aircraft guided missiles on each. In the first firing platoon there is a radar for illumination and guidance, an information processing point and a battery command post, and in the second there is a control post, a radar for illumination and guidance. The HAWK PIP IIIR modification received a computerized universal command post with its own near-field radar, capable of simultaneously seeing several low-altitude targets at a distance of 60 km and can hit supersonic air targets at ranges from 1 to 35 km and in the altitude range of 0,03-18 km.


The calculations of the Romanian air defense system "Hok" successfully fired at training targets at the training ground in 2012, 2013 and 2017. According to information published in the Romanian media, approximately 30 missiles were used up. It is expected that the HAWK PIP IIIR complexes will remain in service for the next 7 years.

At the end of 2017, Romania entered into an intergovernmental agreement with the United States on the acquisition, under the Foreign Military Sales program, of seven batteries of the Patriot PAC-3 + anti-aircraft missile system with a total value of $3,9 billion. operational-tactical ballistic missiles at a range of about 100 km.


Under the contract, seven AN / MPQ-65 multifunctional radars, seven AN / MSQ-132 command posts, 28 M903 launchers, 56 Patriot MIM-104E Guidance Enhanced Missile-TBM (GEM-T) anti-aircraft guided missiles, 168 anti-missiles are to be transferred Patriot Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3) Missile Segment Enhancement (MSE), seven EPP III power generators and 13 mast lifters. Raytheon and Lockheed Martin are the general contractors for the delivery.


The first Patriot PAC-3+ SAM battery arrived in Romania in early August 2020 and is now being used by the Romanian Armed Forces at the National Air Defense Training Center to train personnel of the 2019th Anti-Aircraft Missile Regiment, specially formed in 74. The next three batteries of the Patriot air defense system should arrive at the end of 2022 and will go into service with the 74th regiment. Three more Patriot PAC-2024+ batteries will be delivered between 2026 and 3.

Aegis Ashore anti-missile system at Deveselu Air Base


In 2016, the AAMDS (AEGIS Ashore Missile Defense System) ground-based missile defense system was put into operation at the Deveselu airbase in southern Romania. The missile defense facility located in Romania was previously in trial operation in the United States, in the vicinity of the city of Morestone, New Jersey.


Due to the fact that the main structural elements are modular, they were tested in the USA and then transported to Romania in containers. The total mass of the metal four-story ground superstructure exceeds 900 tons.


Satellite image of Google Earth: the hardware of the AAMDS complex at the Deveselu airbase

In addition to the Aegis CICS, which includes the AN / SPY-1 multifunctional radar, 24 SM-3 Block IB anti-missiles are deployed here. According to the announced plans, 24 more anti-missiles are planned to be deployed on Romanian territory. These can be SM-3 Block IIA interceptors with a firing range of 2 km and a maximum altitude reach of 000 km.


Satellite image of Google Earth: anti-missile launchers in Deveselu

The modernization of the American AAMDS complexes located in Europe is planned for 2022. In addition to new high-speed computers with improved software, additional SM-6 missiles will appear in the arsenal of anti-missile systems, which will make it possible to effectively deal with cruise missiles and combat aircraft.

Assessment of the state of Romanian air and missile defense and development prospects


Currently, the air defense system of Romania is at the stage of reorganization and modernization, and therefore is not capable of providing worthy resistance to the enemy, who has modern and numerous means of air attack. However, the leadership of the Romanian Defense Ministry is making significant efforts to rectify the situation. First of all, this concerns the cover of important strategic facilities and administrative and industrial centers.

Single-channel Soviet systems with liquid-propellant S-75M3 missiles are being replaced by multi-channel American Patriot PAC-3+ air defense systems, which use solid-propellant missiles stored in sealed transport and launch containers.

In the near future, a replacement for the low-altitude HAWK PIP IIIR air defense systems will also have to be found. According to some reports, these may be the Norwegian-American NASAMS-3 air defense systems capable of receiving target designation in the Link 16 data exchange standard. As part of this complex, developed by the Norwegian company Kongsberg Defense & Aerospace together with the American corporation Raytheon, missiles are used "air-to-air" AIM-120 AMRAAM-ER. The declared firing range is 50 km, and the ceiling is 20 km.

The anti-missile umbrella in the form of PAC-3 MSE and SM-3 Block IB missiles gives hope to repel a limited-scale attack by IRBM and OTR.

To replace Soviet-made radars, it is planned to deploy additional AN / TPS-79R and AN / TPS-77 radars, as well as powerful stationary radars of an unnamed type.

As mentioned in the post "Modern Fighter Aviation of Romania", the Romanian Ministry of Defense acquires 14 F-16 aircraft in Norway in addition to the already existing 32 F-16MLU fighters. In the next few years, the 5th generation F-35A Lightning II fighters should enter service.

Taking into account the fact that the country is a member of NATO and in the event of an armed conflict, other members of the alliance are obliged to take the side of Bucharest on the side of Bucharest, in the future, Romanian air defense in the event of an armed conflict in which only conventional weapons are used can become a serious force capable of inflicting significant loss to any enemy.
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  1. Toucan
    Toucan 30 July 2022 05: 51
    +4
    In the early - mid-1980s, Romania was the last among the ATS countries to put into service the low-altitude S-125M1A Neva air defense system. Together with four firing and one technical division, 260 V-601PD missiles were received.

    Strangely, the USSR very widely exported S-125 air defense systems, as well as S-75. These complexes were received not even by the most friendly countries in relation to the Union, which were not part of the Warsaw Pact. Why was Ceausescu so guilty that he was kept "in a black body" in terms of military-technical cooperation?
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 30 July 2022 07: 20
      +11
      Strangely, the USSR very widely exported S-125 air defense systems, as well as S-75. These complexes were received not even by the most friendly countries in relation to the Union, which were not part of the Warsaw Pact.
      Nothing strange. This cunning Romanian saved money, by the end of his reign he paid off the entire external debt of the country. True, I could not explain to the population that turning on electricity for only 2 hours a day is good.
      1. Toucan
        Toucan 30 July 2022 07: 33
        +6
        Quote: Aviator_
        Strangely, the USSR very widely exported S-125 air defense systems, as well as S-75. These complexes were received not even by the most friendly countries in relation to the Union, which were not part of the Warsaw Pact.
        Nothing strange. This cunning Romanian saved money, by the end of his reign he paid off the entire external debt of the country. True, I could not explain to the population that turning on electricity for only 2 hours a day is good.

        I don't think it's about finances. The USSR very often supplied weapons on credit, these debts have already been written off by the Russian government.
        Romania, as a member of the Warsaw Pact, could count on preferential supplies. But given that Ceausescu was flirting with the West, most likely the Soviet side limited supplies, fearing that NATO intelligence would gain access to our modern weapons.
      2. Bongo
        30 July 2022 14: 02
        +6
        Quote: Aviator_
        Nothing strange. This cunning Romanian saved money, by the end of his reign he paid off the entire external debt of the country.

        The absence of public debt in the country still does not say anything, and often does not affect the level and quality of life of the population. For example, we can take Poland, which in the late 1980s had a public debt of more than $10 billion.
        As for the "cunning Romanian", he, like many dictators, surrounded by nonentities and sycophants, having believed in his own indispensability and genius, ended badly. Unfortunately, history teaches nothing, and every permanent authoritarian head of state sincerely believes that this cup will pass him by. In any case, grateful subjects will inevitably recoup, if not on the leader and his family, then on the memory of him.
        1. Aviator_
          Aviator_ 30 July 2022 16: 42
          +5
          The absence of public debt in the country still does not mean anything,
          So I'm talking about the same. National debt is an abstract indicator that does not directly affect the standard of living until those who issued this debt remind them of it at the right time for themselves. Ceausescu tried to eliminate this moment. Well, how much better the inhabitants in Romania began to live after the execution of Ceausescu is a philosophical question. Someone lived well then, someone lives now, but the majority, who believed in the glossy life of the Western world, are very disappointed.
          1. LastPS
            LastPS 1 August 2022 11: 56
            +2
            In Romania, there was a uniform PPC during the time of Ceausescu, so I don’t think that the glossy West disappointed anyone
        2. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 30 July 2022 17: 21
          +3
          Is Orban moving towards this by leaps and bounds?
          Hello, Sergey! Hello Olga too!
          1. Bongo
            31 July 2022 01: 46
            +5
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            Hello, Sergey! Hello Olga too!

            Hello! Thank!
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            Is Orban moving towards this by leaps and bounds?

            Orban, although corrupt, is a child compared to other figures, and even close to Ceausescu can never be compared. No.
            The guarantee of the sanity of any head of state is his turnover. Orban will not be able to remain in power indefinitely, and after leaving the post of prime minister, he is very likely to face a criminal investigation, and possibly a trial.
  2. spech
    spech 30 July 2022 06: 06
    +4
    as part of the Foreign Military Sales program, seven batteries of the Patriot PAC-3 + anti-aircraft missile system with a total value of $ 3,9 million

    Maybe MRD?
    1. Bongo
      30 July 2022 13: 54
      +4
      Quote: spech
      Maybe MRD?

      Thanks for noticing. hi Of course de $3,9 billion. yes
  3. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 30 July 2022 06: 10
    +8
    Many thanks to Sergey for the interesting work on air defense.
    Regards, Vlad!
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 30 July 2022 09: 39
      +6
      Good morning Vlad! smile
      I fully agree with your words. good Although the Romanians have never been considered serious warriors, in my opinion, it is better for them to trade in the bazaar, and not to engage in war.
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 30 July 2022 10: 29
        +5
        Good day Uncle Kostya. Serious Romanians or frivolous warriors, but they will get into a mess with us. So that's worth considering.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 30 July 2022 10: 44
          +6
          So that's worth considering.


          This is understandable, they have a tidbit there at their side, on which they have been drooling for a long time.
          But, as one of the Russian generals said, having learned that Romania nevertheless entered the war on the side of the Entente - "Well, another minus two of our corps to cover a new ally." I don’t remember the exact quote and to whom specifically it belongs too. But, here is the assessment of the new "ally".
          1. Negro
            Negro 30 July 2022 13: 49
            -2
            If you are talking about Transnistria / Moldova, then another camp of Romanian rogues is unnecessary, there is nothing to feed their own. But if Moldova demonstrates, so to speak, LDNRization, then by itself it will be necessary to restore order.
            1. Bongo
              30 July 2022 14: 25
              +7
              Quote: Negro
              If you are talking about Transnistria / Moldova, then another camp of Romanian rogues is unnecessary, there is nothing to feed their own.

              In vain you are so ... Moldova is a very interesting and original country and Romania is making no small effort for a "soft absorption". I urge everyone not to show any disdainful attitude towards any country or its peoples. In the forehead of the state there are different people: stupid and geniuses, scoundrels and saints.
              1. Negro
                Negro 30 July 2022 14: 52
                +3
                Quote: Bongo
                Moldova is a very interesting and distinctive country and Romania is making no small effort for a "soft takeover".

                No questions to Moldova. She, like many others, was unlucky. As for the soft takeover, there is a counter movement, so to speak - half of Moldova has a Romanian, or even an Italian residence permit. Including, by the way, Transnistria.

                However, an Anschluss scenario is proposed here, as I understand it. It is possible only if the EU allocates a budget for this Romanian GDR - the Romanians do not have their own money.
              2. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 30 July 2022 17: 25
                +2
                I urge everyone not to show any disdainful attitude towards any country or its peoples.
                Golden words!
              3. g1v2
                g1v2 31 July 2022 19: 51
                +4
                It's just that people measure everything by our sizes. For such a huge country as Russia, Moldova is a piece of land. And for Romania, this is just a step into the future. This is an opportunity for expansion, an increase in its economy, population and growth in weight in the world.
                For her, this would be one of the defining historical events. The territory in Europe has already been divided and any change in borders is a historical event that is reflected in the entire history of the country. It was we who rejoiced at Crimea for a couple of years and switched to other news and problems. For any European leader, this would be just a step in history. Tch should not be measured by Romanians or Poles by our standards. When we annex all of Novorossiya, we will take it for granted and will grumble why so few? And for any European state, the accession of even a piece of land is a historical accomplishment. Therefore, Romanians and Poles cannot but dream of expansion into the Ukrainian regions and Moldova. Only the fear of war with us interferes. But whether or not they decide to send troops, it is impossible to predict the risk of war. And so their strength must be assessed in advance. To avoid surprises.
      2. Bongo
        30 July 2022 14: 10
        +6
        Quote: Sea Cat
        Many thanks to Sergey for the interesting work on air defense.

        Kostya, Vlad, thank you so much for the kind words! The support of the thinking part of VO visitors means a lot to me! drinks
        Quote: Sea Cat
        Although the Romanians have never been considered serious warriors, in my opinion, it is better for them to trade in the bazaar, and not to engage in war.

        Kostya is largely a stereotype. They are not such bad warriors, even if you take VM. Another question is that the equipment of the Romanian army has always been worse than the German one. If the actions of the Romanians were directly led by the Germans, then they fought not badly. But this is not about that. Now the Romanian army is mainly served by a generation that did not catch Ceausescu. If, for example, we take the professionalism of F-16 pilots or SAM crews, then they are prepared no worse than their counterparts in other NATO countries. It is also worth understanding that Romania will never come face to face with Russia. And we will not be able to take out a direct clash with NATO without the use of tactical nuclear weapons.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 30 July 2022 14: 17
          +6
          Hello, Sergey! drinks

          And we will not be able to take out a direct clash with NATO without the use of tactical nuclear weapons.


          I don't even want to think about it. If it wasn't for our kids, I wouldn't care at all.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 30 July 2022 17: 30
            +5
            My youngest is 18 in December. What's next?
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 30 July 2022 17: 55
              +5
              I don’t know what to say, my, thank God, won back his own there and now it’s far from here.
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 30 July 2022 17: 59
                +5
                Do not say. These are my problems.
        2. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 30 July 2022 17: 28
          +5
          The support of the thinking part of VO visitors means a lot to me!
          Sergey, "I do not comment" does not mean "I do not read"!
          1. Bongo
            31 July 2022 01: 48
            +4
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            Sergey, "I do not comment" does not mean "I do not read"!

            I didn't doubt you!
        3. g1v2
          g1v2 31 July 2022 19: 55
          +3
          Even if the Romanians themselves are worse than warriors, it is still a weight that can be on the scales on a specific TVD and turn the tide. Again, in any case, then they will not be alone, but together with the Poles, Moldovans and the Saloreich. A few batteries of patriots is a serious weight in any case. You can not ignore not only them, but also the old c75. At a minimum, they will have a limiting effect on the capabilities of our videoconferencing.
  4. paul3390
    paul3390 30 July 2022 09: 28
    -2
    Romanians and combat readiness are incompatible concepts. That they have proven time and again throughout their history ..
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 30 July 2022 10: 32
      +5
      Quote: paul3390
      Romanians and combat readiness are incompatible concepts. That they have proven time and again throughout their history ..

      Peasant downtrodden Romania has remained far in the past, today it is a different state and different people.
      And, in any case, not our allies!
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 30 July 2022 16: 45
        +3
        Peasant downtrodden Romania has remained far in the past, today it is a different state and different people.
        It is, of course, everything is different than 50 years ago, but Romania is not the "locomotive of the EU". Rather, a wagon with unlubricated axle boxes.
        1. Popescu Ion
          Popescu Ion 31 July 2022 13: 53
          +1
          List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita:
          Romania - 36,622
          Russia - 30,013
    2. Tech_Orchestra
      Tech_Orchestra 30 July 2022 13: 50
      +1
      Wallachia is located on the territory of Romania if that.
  5. merkava-2bet
    merkava-2bet 30 July 2022 11: 21
    +4
    At the end of 2017, Romania entered into an intergovernmental agreement with the United States on the acquisition of seven Patriot PAC-3+ anti-aircraft missile systems worth $3,9 million under the Foreign Military Sales program.

    The amount of the contract is surprising, maybe $ 3,9 billion ???
    Since the composition of the means of seven batteries is very large.
    Under the contract, seven AN / MPQ-65 multifunctional radars, seven AN / MSQ-132 command posts, 28 M903 launchers, 56 Patriot MIM-104E Guidance Enhanced Missile-TBM (GEM-T) anti-aircraft guided missiles, 168 anti-missiles are to be transferred Patriot Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3) Missile Segment Enhancement (MSE), seven EPP III power generators and 13 mast lifters.
    1. Negro
      Negro 30 July 2022 13: 50
      +3
      Quote: merkava-2bet
      maybe $3,9 billion???

      Obviously a typo. One PAC-3 missile costs 3M.
    2. Bongo
      30 July 2022 14: 16
      +6
      Quote: merkava-2bet
      The amount of the contract is surprising, maybe $ 3,9 billion ???
      Since the composition of the means of seven batteries is very large.

      Andrey, greetings! Of course, $ 3,9 billion. Moreover, the "Patriots" in Romania did not get expensive yet. Poland paid $4,75 for four anti-aircraft batteries. However, the fields were supplied with complexes with more advanced AN / MPQ-65А radars, additional cryptographic equipment and the Link 16 data exchange system.
  6. iouris
    iouris 30 July 2022 12: 27
    -3
    "Decent resistance." Who is going to attack peaceful Romania?
    And who is going to attack peaceful Romania?
    That's the same.