Military Review

Ukrainian terror mines PFM-1 "Petal"


Ukrainian mine PFM-1 in Lisichansk. Photo Telegram / Poddubny

The retreating Ukrainian armed formations are mining the area and various objects. For this, various types of ammunition and means of their installation are used. In particular, the active use of high-explosive anti-personnel mines PFM-1 is reported. Products of this type pose a great danger to the civilian population, and their use violates international agreements.

Threats in the city

The first reports of the use of PFM-1 mines by Ukraine appeared in mid-March. With the help of such weapons tried to create barriers in the path of the advancing troops. The setting was carried out using special shells for the Uragan MLRS with a cluster warhead carrying 312 mines. However, such minefields did not create any particular obstacles and did not stop a successful offensive, although they added work to our sappers.

Subsequently, in the liberated territories, new areas were repeatedly noticed, "sown" with light anti-personnel mines. It was necessary to search for and neutralize such ammunition both in open areas and on the territory of settlements.

Recently, the allied forces liberated the cities of Lisichansk and the city of Yasinovataya, and a large number of PFM-1 products were found on their territory. Mines lay on the streets, in yards, in green spaces, etc. Our military correspondents reported that they had never seen such a density of mining in populated areas.

A couple of mines in urban areas. Photo Telegram / Colonelcassad

Such "obstacles" within the boundaries of the settlement are of particular danger. Local residents do not have the necessary training and cannot detect a mine in time or identify an explosive device in it. In addition, children may be interested in an unusual object lying on the surface. As a result, several residents were blown up and left disabled. However, Russian engineering units immediately began searching for and neutralizing dangerous objects.

mine in service

The anti-personnel high-explosive mine PFM-1 was developed in the early seventies based on a foreign sample. The American mine BLU-43 / B Dragontooth became a model for copying. The latter was created in the mid-sixties and was intended for the rapid remote creation of minefields. This weapon did not perform well in the jungle, and already in 1970-71. he was refused.

American mines came to the USSR, were studied and interested in the Soviet army. It was decided to create their own version of such ammunition based on the same ideas and solutions, but with some design changes. The result of these works was the PFM-1 mine, also known as the Petal. In addition, remote mining tools were created for its use. They entered service with the engineering troops, rocket artillery, as well as the army and front aviation.

Soviet mines were produced in large quantities and sent to various parts. Since the beginning of the eighties, these weapons have been actively used in Afghanistan on the enemy's movement routes or near his positions. The open mountainous terrain proved to be a convenient theater for the use of such mines, and they showed good results. Later PFM-1 was used in various local conflicts in the post-Soviet space. In particular, with their help, federal forces fought militants in the North Caucasus.

In 1996, the so-called. Protocol II to the Geneva Convention on Conventional Weapons, which introduced a number of new restrictions. In particular, he determined the permissible methods of using mine weapons, and also prohibited the use of mines without the function of self-deactivation or elimination.

Ammunition at the Yasinovataya railway station. Photo Telegram / Rudenko

The PFM-1 mine in the basic version does not have the function of self-detonation within a specified period. In this regard, the Russian army, fulfilling the requirements of the Protocol, removed such mines from service and disposed of them. Only the newer PFM-1S, equipped with self-liquidators, remained in the arsenals. At the same time, products of the first option remained in the armies of the near abroad.

According to known data, at the beginning of the tenth years, at least 6 million PFM-1 mines were in the warehouses of the Ukrainian army. As part of the implementation of the Protocol and the Ottawa Convention, since 2013, with the assistance of NATO and the European Union, their disposal has been carried out. However, its pace remained insufficient, and until now Ukraine has a large number of mines and cartridges with them. As is now known, they are actively used by armed formations.

Conventions and their violation

By using anti-personnel mines PFM-1, Ukraine not only poses a threat to the civilian population, but also violates several conventions and treaties. In fact, we are talking about war crimes. And the allied forces are taking measures aimed at identifying and punishing those responsible.

First of all, Ukraine violates its obligations under the Ottawa Convention. In accordance with this document, she was supposed to destroy stockpiles of PFM-1 and a number of other anti-personnel mines, but so far has not done so. Moreover, mines of this class have been actively used since 2014. At the same time, only PFM-1 mines without a self-liquidator are in service. Their existence and use also violate Protocol II of the Geneva Convention.

Remote laying of mines in the territory of a settlement in which the population is present can be considered as the use of indiscriminate weapons. This directly violates the terms of the IV Geneva Convention for the Protection of Civilian Persons. The Uragan MLRS used to launch mines are also non-selective systems.

Clip with products PFM-1S, designed to be loaded into the cassette. Photo by Wikimedia Commons

Finally, the use of anti-personnel mines in cities with residents who could be affected by them is simply immoral. A special aspect of this situation is given by the fact that settlements that the Kyiv regime considers to be mine are being mined. However, when retreating, they immediately begin to fire and / or mine.

It is easy to see that violations of international law related to the use of PFM-1 mines or any other weapon go unnoticed by the notorious "international community". Foreign advocates of morality and legality prefer to discuss fictitious violations on the Russian side, but do not pay attention to the real crimes of Ukrainian formations. The reasons for this are obvious, and, unfortunately, there are no prerequisites for changing this situation.

Explosive "Petal"

The PFM-1(S) is a push-pull anti-personnel mine designed for remote mining systems. This product is 116 mm long, 64 mm wide and 20 mm thick, weighing only 80 g. The mine is made in a characteristically shaped polyethylene case. There are two "wings", one of which is the capacity for the charge, and the other acts as a stabilizer when falling. Between them is a thickening with a fuse.

The mine is equipped with a fuse of the MVDM type, which includes a long-range cocking mechanism and a safety system. In the PFM-1S product, the fuse is supplemented with a self-liquidator with an action time of 1 to 40 hours. There is no separate target sensor for the mine. Its functions are performed by the side wing-balloon, which contains 40 g of liquid explosive. When you press the cylinder with a force of 10-25 kg, the liquid flows into the cavity of the fuse and causes it to work.

Products PFM-1(S) are used with KSF-1 cassettes of several options for ground and air remote mining systems. Each cassette holds up to 72 mines and throws them at a distance of up to 30-35 m. Mines can also be placed using the Uragan MLRS and the 9M27K3 projectile - it carries 12 cassettes with 312 mines and scatters them over a large area.

Cluster warhead of a 9M27K3 rocket. Some of the cassettes have been removed for clarity. Photo

Mines PFM-1 (C) are distinguished by specific combat qualities. Shape and color contribute to camouflage on the ground; a minimum of metal parts makes it difficult to detect by technical means. 40 g of liquid explosive can cause serious damage to the health of an adult, up to traumatic amputation of a limb. Such a mine will simply kill a child.

Fortunately, the fight against these mines is not a fundamental problem. In open areas, the minefield is neutralized by various trawls, elongated charges and other means. In other cases, PFM-1 is destroyed using an overhead charge in compliance with all safety measures. At the same time, the absence of a self-liquidator on the Ukrainian PFM-1 eliminates the sudden detonation of the product and reduces the risks for sappers.

Crime and Punishment

The observed situation with anti-personnel mines once again shows the dubious moral principles and habits of the current Kyiv regime and its armed formations. They do not hesitate to choose methods and means of "armed struggle" and are ready to inflict any damage on settlements, which they consider to be their property.

Fortunately, the Russian army and militia of Donbass are taking the necessary measures to protect the inhabitants and to eliminate the consequences of Ukrainian activities. In parallel with this, the relevant authorities collect the necessary data and conduct an investigation. And it should be expected that those who used mines on peaceful cities and violated conventions will be held accountable or even eliminated.

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  1. Lech from Android.
    Lech from Android. 22 July 2022 05: 12
    All the same, these Ukronatsiks of the Armed Forces of Ukraine ... "checkmate" the victims of such mines will be children and unwary passers-by.
    The military knows these mines well and they will not cause much harm to them.
    The Kyiv Nazi regime generally likes to rely on the terror of the civilian population ... killing both those who disagree and those who have nothing to do with the fighting ... purely Bandera scumbags.
  2. rocket757
    rocket757 22 July 2022 06: 04
    it should be expected that those who used mines on peaceful cities and violated conventions will be held accountable or even eliminated.
    . They are not afraid of anything, they hope to remove over the hill ??? So there they will also be found and then RENTED !!! The owners, and even more so NAGLA, do not need waste material ....
    1. Ross xnumx
      Ross xnumx 22 July 2022 06: 51
      Quote: rocket757
      The owners, and even more so NAGLA, do not need waste material ...

      What are you? many war criminals were extradited by Canada, the USA? Where did they hand over this leader of the Japanese detachment 731?
      They will not feed, but they will not hand over. They can just quit without financial support.
      1. rocket757
        rocket757 22 July 2022 07: 31
        The brazen ones handed over the Cossacks, and the Yankees handed over those whom they could not hide. They hid "valuable personnel" and on trifles, they handed it over to the easy ...
        The question is whether there will be a trial, such a Schaub in the West, certain individuals were recognized as war criminals and they were put on an international wanted list, it's hard to imagine, but let's wait and see ...
        History sometimes repeats itself, but there are no guarantees.
        1. Ross xnumx
          Ross xnumx 22 July 2022 07: 39
          Quote: rocket757
          The question is will there be a lawsuit, such a Schaub in the West was recognized as war criminals of specific individuals and declared their international wanted list

          Will be. And we don't need Western recognition. It’s time to simply put them before the fact, and representatives of those countries that have recognized Crimea and will recognize the regions that have become part of the Russian Federation can be invited to the tribunal’s meeting.
          And the announced reward for the head (from the funds of gold reserves) can do a "miracle". This may be the best guarantee.
          1. rocket757
            rocket757 22 July 2022 07: 59
            Quote: ROSS 42
            It’s time to simply put them before the fact, and representatives of those countries that have recognized Crimea and will recognize the regions that have become part of the Russian Federation can be invited to the tribunal’s meeting.

            I hope that Kukuev’s shortcomings will not be of interest to their owners, then ... and yet, such a blatant violation of all international norms, THEN, when it’s over with Kukuev’s in that territory, it can excite someone over the hill, worry and even outrage !! ! there are still people, organizations that are able to raise the universal high when they are no longer pressured, limited in black.
            That time may come, then...
            In general, it is NECESSARY to work in this direction!
        2. Seamaster
          Seamaster 22 July 2022 18: 09
          Both the British and the Americans betrayed both Cossacks and Vlasovites, etc. because Stalin delayed the transfer to America and England of American and British prisoners liberated from German concentration camps by Soviet troops. And then, only citizens of the USSR and Russia were extradited. And Bandera was a POLISH citizen.
          1. rocket757
            rocket757 22 July 2022 18: 14
            So there will be an "exchange fund" this time too ... perhaps there will be other options, but that's all THEN!
      2. ARIONkrsk
        ARIONkrsk 22 July 2022 07: 36
        Quote: ROSS 42
        Quote: rocket757
        The owners, and even more so NAGLA, do not need waste material ...

        What are you? many war criminals were extradited by Canada, the USA? Where did they hand over this leader of the Japanese detachment 731?
        They will not feed, but they will not hand over. They can just quit without financial support.

        Saakashvili was leaked.
    2. tihonmarine
      tihonmarine 22 July 2022 08: 13
      Quote: rocket757
      ! The owners, and even more so NAGLA, do not need waste material ....

      And how many Nazi criminals found refuge in the USA, Britain, Brazil, Argentina, Spain after WWII. Even the SSmans of the SS division "Galicien" were not issued even those, and now they will not be extradited even more, but they will always find a use for the "used contraceptive".
      But the most unpleasant thing is that a couple of days ago, Peskov let slip that Russia was open to peace negotiations, and after him, yesterday Lukashenka, tightened the same bagpipes. But suddenly (God forbid) they make peace with the Ruin, then all MILITARY CRIMINALS will go unpunished, especially the leadership of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, SBU, GUR, and the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
      1. rocket757
        rocket757 22 July 2022 08: 22
        Anything can happen... all the same, you need to work, pull out the topic of crimes for everyone to see / consider. And let's see how and what happens.
        A mustachioed face ... but is it worth listening to him ... "ass - du \ R \ ak" also broadcasts different things, but they listened, were surprised / neighed and moved on.
    3. bootlegger
      bootlegger 22 July 2022 14: 26
      No one will let them escape now. And 90% will grind CBO.
      1. rocket757
        rocket757 22 July 2022 14: 44
        Now, to think of something ... no, no, I won’t make a bet, there are too many misunderstood left.
  3. Rusticolus
    Rusticolus 22 July 2022 07: 14
    Actually something strange. Ukraine openly brazenly violates international laws. Why are we silent. Either we wait until the deceitful Western press notices this, then we are looking for some small switchmen. Why hasn’t the UN Security Council been convened so far, who is obliged to either punish Ukraine and force it to comply with the law, or otherwise recognize that it is not necessary to comply with the laws, and they do not mean anything.
    1. tihonmarine
      tihonmarine 22 July 2022 08: 44
      Quote: Rusticolus
      Actually something strange. Ukraine openly brazenly violates international laws.

      The West has long ceased to recognize any international laws, but when they are bitten in the ass (Anglo-Saxon prisoners), then immediately the cry "Russia violates the laws!"
      1. Rusticolus
        Rusticolus 22 July 2022 10: 23
        Well then, the same score on the laws. I wonder how many drones Iran will give for a couple of TNW installations?
  4. Eug
    Eug 22 July 2022 07: 41
    "Petals" Mi'-8 puts slowly ....
    (From Afghan folklore, A. Babenko "To the caravan")
    1. madrobot
      madrobot 27 July 2022 14: 57
      There are a hell of a lot of installation options for Petals. Moreover, these options, each individually, refer to completely different types of troops. Here are engineering troops, and artillery (MLRS), and front-line aviation.
      Just in itself, this type of weapon is completely barbaric. It is aimed primarily at turning people into cripples, and not at all at killing.
      But I am not at all surprised that it is the Ukrainians who use these mines.
      1. Korax71
        Korax71 29 July 2022 05: 23
        Did the Ukrainians also use them in the North Caucasus, or rather in the Chechen Republic? namely pfm1, which is without a self-liquidator
        1. madrobot
          madrobot 31 July 2022 19: 05
          Can you still remember the massive use of defoliants in Vietnam? (Agent Orange) Or maybe nuclear weapons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki? What, I'm not a good person, for being so selective when it comes to history?

          PS: the facts of the massive use of PFM-1 by the RF Armed Forces in settlements --- in the studio.
          1. Korax71
            Korax71 2 August 2022 07: 46
            And in Ukraine, defoliants are used ??? why this passage of yours? you are not a bad person, you just twitch. On August 9, 1999, near the village of Zemo-Omalo, two Su 25 attack aircraft of the Russian Air Force, violating the airspace of Georgia, unloaded cassettes with pfm1 mines, as a result which blew up 3 local residents. One "rook" can carry up to 6 KMGU, in one container 1248 mines. The self-formed minefield was eliminated in 2011.
            PS. Please, the facts are precisely the massive mining of residential buildings in Donetsk by this type of mines. Let me tell you, Ukraine, if it is able to use this type of mines in Donetsk, then only with the use of MLRS Hurricane missiles 9m27k3, but here the most interesting begins, these missiles were equipped only pfmys, i.e. with a self-destruct mechanism.
  5. Electrical
    Electrical 22 July 2022 08: 50
    Humanity is already in the 21st century. And capitalism continues to kill and make money in the war. At the same time, insisting on its exclusivity and irreplaceability. This is the degradation of the human race!
    1. Sergey Aleksandrovich
      Sergey Aleksandrovich 22 July 2022 10: 32
      Agree, SVO, in your opinion, is carried out in the interests of the capitalists?
      1. Electrical
        Electrical 26 July 2022 21: 50
        Yes, it is in the interests of Russian capitalists too! Let's separate the flies from the cutlets! We are not in a thought with you, and we do not need to justify our cosmic content at the common expense!
    2. LastPS
      LastPS 24 July 2022 08: 40
      The degradation of the human race to consider that "humanity is the 21st century."
      1. Electrical
        Electrical 26 July 2022 21: 57
        It is the 21st century of human degradation! Otherwise, there is no explanation for this story with fascist Ukraine to drag on for all eight years!
  6. Owl
    Owl 22 July 2022 09: 07
    PFM-1 of old issues did not have a self-liquidator, in the winter of 1999-2000 the Czechs collected these mines and laid them out in the places where their ambushes were carried out, on our BTR-80 a "fang" on the front right wheel was pulled out by such a mine.
  7. Sergey Aleksandrovich
    Sergey Aleksandrovich 22 July 2022 10: 38
    Mining during the assault on cities is very useful, it allows you to disrupt the communications of the defending enemy, making it difficult to move and supply. If use without self-destructors is prohibited, mines with self-destructors should be used. The use in conjunction with POM-2 and POM-3 mines looks even better.
  8. Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 22 July 2022 10: 47
    An insidious mine .... there will be a sharp increase in the wounded .... and long after the wars. in Afghanistan, her second insidiousness was the lack of treatment and the wounded died from secondary cases, such as gangrene and blood loss and the rest
  9. Emergency
    Emergency 22 July 2022 11: 19
    A nasty thing, but throwing it like that is no problem at all. On the routes of the caravans, they also threw them onto the spiritual paths, and along them the cattle walked, and the population, and our intelligence went out. A very nasty infection. So no illusions about the Armed Forces of Ukraine and their attitude towards the population of Donbass. The Armed Forces of Ukraine are occupiers and punishers.
  10. Paul Siebert
    Paul Siebert 22 July 2022 11: 21
    It is necessary to identify all the persons who gave orders for mining and destroy them by special forces.
    And even abroad they can wind away, fleeing retribution ...
    This is exactly what our intelligence officers did in 1943-1944 in relation to the fascist officers who ordered to poison our soldiers in the Adzhimushkay quarries with gas.
    Neither we nor the Germans used gas on the front line. And here, in the rear, they decided to use it ...
    As a result, ours decided all the defendants. And Hitler got the hint. No more gas on the fronts... Unlike concentration camps... am
  11. Aleksandr Ivanov
    Aleksandr Ivanov 22 July 2022 11: 34
    Who decided to shame? Natsik? They are there and there are others. On the rest of them from a high tower. Moreover, the use of such mines does not fall under "Crimes against humanity". And that's all. They are clean before the world community. This post is just a blast. But, there is one but. How to make a country go bankrupt, it is necessary to impose actions to destroy something or remake it. As soon as our mines have proven themselves well in the North Caucasus, sign the hell out ... How in 1903 they banned the lead bullet and forced to make a shell bullet for the mosquito, and the hell out of the war with Japan.
    Let's get back to the post. Well, they use it, they mine it, well, what will change from this if we use our tongues here? Nothing . The only thing: to scatter leaflets over Ukraine, in which to explain that the Armed Forces of Ukraine are mining the abandoned territory, do not touch foreign objects, walk only along the explored roads, etc., etc. It is in the MO that they should know how and where, and why not done, the question is. This is also part of the information war.
  12. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 22 July 2022 12: 51
    Interestingly, if you hit it with a ball from a slingshot, will it blow up? She does not give splinters ... So go around and shoot ...
    1. Sergey Aleksandrovich
      Sergey Aleksandrovich 22 July 2022 14: 13
      Make a slingshot from a medical tourniquet, or ask local boys? wassat If it is without a self-liquidator, then you can even carefully pick it up. crying
      1. Mountain shooter
        Mountain shooter 22 July 2022 15: 43
        Quote: Sergey Alexandrovich
        without a self-liquidator, then you can even carefully pick it up.

        Dangerous. There's also liquid explosives in one segment. Explodes when hit in the central part. They showed the explosion of such a mine, they just threw it on the road ... Well, the explosion was a package in terms of power. So I wanted to take a bamboo pole ...
        1. Sergey Aleksandrovich
          Sergey Aleksandrovich 22 July 2022 15: 59
          No, it’s better to either call specialists in suits or crush them with caterpillars. Pebbles may appear next to the mine, they will not kill, but they can cripple. belay
      2. PSih2097
        PSih2097 23 July 2022 14: 51
        Quote: Sergey Alexandrovich
        If it is without a self-liquidator, then you can even carefully pick it up.

        there are no fools, I’d rather shoot from AK or SVD if it’s scary to approach her from old stocks (before the 90s) ...
  13. Viktor Sergeev
    Viktor Sergeev 23 July 2022 17: 42
    Here's another crime for you - the use of prohibited mines.
  14. Nord11
    Nord11 23 July 2022 22: 32
    Well, the world community will graciously write off this prank to the Kyiv pranksters, declaring it the cost of the formation of a young Central European democracy ..
  15. Brandashmg
    Brandashmg 16 September 2022 18: 49
    Hm. Judging by the article, Russian troops knocked out Ukrainians from settlements that were sown with petals.
    I would suggest that the sowing was carried out by the troops of the Russian Federation when the Ukrainians were in positions.