Military Review

New opportunities and high potential. Combat use of the Kh-101 cruise missile

40

Preparing for a combat mission. The X-101 missile is hidden under the case. 2017


Russian strategic aviation has a wide range of missile and bomb weapons to solve various combat missions. One of the latest developments in this area is the Kh-101 strategic air-launched cruise missile (ALCM) and its nuclear variant Kh-102. The conventional missile has already been repeatedly used against real targets and has shown good results.

Rockets over Syria


According to various sources, the design of the future X-101/102 ALCM was completed in the mid-nineties, and in 1995-98. flight tests started. These activities could continue until the end of the XNUMXs, and according to their results, the rocket was put into service. It can be assumed that a large number of launches were carried out as part of the tests, and the missiles confirmed the calculated characteristics.

The combat use of the latest missiles began in 2015, a few weeks after the start of the military operation in Syria. On November 17, a group of strategic missile carriers took off from the Engels airbase and launched a series of modern ALCM launches at terrorist targets on Syrian territory. In particular, a pair of Tu-160 bombers used up 16 Kh-101 products. The missiles were reported to have successfully hit their intended targets.


Suspension of the product on the Tu-160 launcher

On November 19 and 20, similar sorties took place. They again involved two Tu-160 aircraft with a total load of 16 missiles. The assigned tasks were again solved. The missiles have confirmed their performance and full compatibility with carriers. In addition, they most actively helped in the fight against the enemy. However, foreign media reported that one or two missiles from three volleys did not reach their targets and fell on the territory of Iran.

No new launches of the X-101 ALCM were reported for about a year. Perhaps, as a result of the first massive attacks, all suitable targets were knocked out, and the missiles were literally left without work. A new missile strike took place only on November 17, 2016 - exactly one year after the first combat use. This time, upgraded Tu-95MSM bombers became the carriers of the missiles. Unfortunately, the outfit of forces and means, as well as the consumption of ammunition, were not reported.

On July 5, 2017, Kh-101 missiles were again used against targets in Syria. Four items were dropped by the Tu-95MS missile carrier. A similar event was held on 26 September. After that, the use of X-101 ALCMs against objects on Syrian territory was not reported. Apparently, this is due to the overall success of the Russian operation - all suitable targets were destroyed, and the use of ALCMs no longer makes sense.


In Special Operation


In the current Special Military Operation, aircraft of the Aerospace Forces carrying one or another weapon take an active part. Since the first days of the operation, the Ministry of Defense has regularly reported the use of air-launched cruise missiles. At the same time, the types of missiles and their carriers are not specified. In particular, the use of long-range aviation and the modern strategic ALCM Kh-101 was not reported.

A few days ago, an amateur video with a cruise missile flyby, filmed somewhere in the Kharkiv region, was circulated on social networks. The video shows how a product of an obscure type with a characteristic hum and whistle sweeps over an amateur operator at high speed. Despite the poor image quality, you can see the general layout and proportions of the rocket. Based on the appearance of the ammunition, it is assumed that it was the X-101 missile.

It is not clear how true this version is. The details and results of the use of the rocket also remain unknown. In addition, new photos and videos with the possible use of the X-101 have not yet appeared. With all this, official information is also missing. The Ministry of Defense is in no hurry to share all the data on modern weapons in the Special Operations.

Technical potential


According to known data, the Kh-101/102 cruise missile has been developed since the eighties or nineties as a more advanced replacement for the existing Kh-55 product. Like its predecessor, the new ALCM was to be used by existing carriers and hit targets at strategic ranges. This included important innovations.


In order to improve combat qualities in the X-101 project, technologies for reducing visibility and electronic countermeasures were used. As a result, the body of the rocket is made, presumably, from composites and has a characteristic shape formed by curved surfaces and pronounced edges. The wing and plumage deployed in flight are made according to traditional schemes. There is information about the presence of an onboard electronic warfare station to counter enemy radars.

The X-101 is equipped with an autopilot with inertial and satellite navigation, a laser altimeter and a reference map correction. Earlier it was reported about the presence of an optical-electronic or radar homing head for correction in the final section of the trajectory.

Like other domestic ALCMs, the Kh-101 is equipped with a short-life compact turbojet engine. It allows you to develop high subsonic speed and provides a flight range of about 5500 km. Various flight profiles are envisaged, incl. air defense breakthrough at low altitudes with enveloping the terrain.


The product has a total length of approx. 7,5 m with a wingspan of approx. 3 m. Starting weight - no more than 2,4 tons. Of these, 400 kg falls on the warhead. The Kh-101 missile is equipped with a high-explosive warhead, and the Kh-102 carries a thermonuclear warhead with a yield of up to 1 Mt.

The main modern missile carriers that have undergone the necessary modernization are used as carriers of the X-101/102 ALCM. Tu-160 aircraft can carry up to 12 of these missiles on internal drum sets. Tu-95MS carry 8 missiles on four pylons under the wing. It should be expected that in the future the Kh-101 will be included in the ammunition load of the promising missile carrier PAK DA.

High potential


During the Syrian operation, the Kh-101 air-launched cruise missiles demonstrated their performance on standard carriers, and also confirmed the calculated flight performance, accuracy and power. At the same time, they failed to fully realize their stealth - due to the lack of any sufficiently developed means of air defense among the terrorists.

New opportunities and high potential. Combat use of the Kh-101 cruise missile

Presumably X-101 over Ukraine

It is assumed that now X-101 are used for the demilitarization of Ukraine. To date, Ukrainian air defense has been almost completely destroyed, although some systems and complexes are still able to continue working. Under such conditions, the new Russian ALCM could have undergone a more thorough combat test.

Taking into account the peculiarities of operations in recent years, it can be assumed that the Kh-101 missile has not demonstrated all of its capabilities and has not realized its full potential. In particular, the missiles did not have to fly at full range and break through advanced modern air defense. This means that the missile can still keep some "surprises" for a potential enemy.

As part of the well-known episodes of combat use, the required damage was inflicted on the enemy, affecting its combat capability and further actions. In addition, and not least, strategic aviation got the opportunity to test new weapons outside the range and gain experience in their operation. And it is quite possible that the Syrian experience is now used in the defense of Donbass.
Author:
Photos used:
Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, Telegram / "Truha"
40 comments
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  1. Giant thought
    Giant thought 24 March 2022 18: 51
    +8
    An excellent missile that will delight our eyes for a long time and cause nervous tremors in our enemies.
    1. Thrifty
      Thrifty 24 March 2022 19: 22
      -4
      PHENOMENAL!!! High subsonic speed is like ??? It's 1199 km / h, right? Higher is supersonic! Cyril, can you write without technical mistakes? You have been working on the site for a long time, you need to delve into the essence of the subject you are describing negative
      1. OgnennyiKotik
        OgnennyiKotik 24 March 2022 19: 39
        +17
        Quote: Thrifty
        High subsonic speed is like ???

        This is approximately 900-1000 km / h. Next comes the transonic speed of 0,8-1,2M, supersonic speed starts from 1,2M.
        The author wrote absolutely correctly, you did not delve into the essence of the subject and those who + put it.
        1. Thrifty
          Thrifty 24 March 2022 20: 24
          -4
          A fiery cat, as a pvoshnik in reserve, I know that subsonic speed is up to 1199 km / h, and the newfangled concept of transonic was introduced only as an attempt to average the ratio of speed to flight terrain conditions. So, I know the essence of the subject at least well!
          1. OgnennyiKotik
            OgnennyiKotik 24 March 2022 21: 25
            +17
            Quote: Thrifty
            I know as a pvoshnik in stock

            It is because of these types of "pvoshniks" that our ships are drowned and airfields are bombed.
            Quote: Thrifty
            that subsonic speed is up to 1199 km / h

            I report that there is a branch of physics called "Continuum Mechanics", which I had the honor not to study for long, but to study.
            The speed of sound is not constant even in the atmosphere. It depends on temperature, pressure, composition and other properties of the atmosphere. Starting from about 10 km altitude, the speed of sound is below 1080 km/h, respectively, the speed indicated by you of 1199 km/h is already 8 kilometers as it is not correct and is just a guideline for primary and secondary school students.
            Therefore, the measure "Mach Number (M)" was introduced to determine whether the speed of the flow of the gaseous medium (or movement in the gas of a body) exceeds the speed of sound or not. For physical bodies (rockets and airplanes they are) moving in gas in aerodynamics, the following classification of velocities is accepted:

            Subsonic <0,8M
            0,8M< Transonic <1,2M
            1,2M< Supersonic <5M
            5M< Hypersonic

            Accordingly, when speaking about the X-101 rocket, this classification should be used, and not the school “1199 km / h”. And it's been going on since the 50's and 60's. It is “newfangled” only because you specifically heard it recently, for me this is a small part of the knowledge gained at the university.

          2. riwas
            riwas 25 March 2022 12: 25
            +6
            newfangled concept of transonic introduced

            Well, what is it newfangled? I studied aerodynamics and aeromechanics at NETI 50 years ago, and then they operated with such a concept.
      2. alystan
        alystan 24 March 2022 21: 34
        0
        He chose for himself the first part, descriptive, and left the rest to delve into the essence.laughing
      3. Zaurbek
        Zaurbek 25 March 2022 10: 12
        +1
        TRDs are slightly different ..... with a high degree of bypass (as on all modern passenger aircraft) very economical (almost like a theater) - they give speeds of 750-800 km / h and have a large diameter. With a low bypass ratio - faster and more compact .... 800-1100 km / h, but less economical.
  2. EMMM
    EMMM 24 March 2022 18: 56
    0
    Thanks for the information, otherwise the mercenaries at TopCor stood up for this fake
  3. Ros 56
    Ros 56 24 March 2022 18: 56
    +1
    That's for sure, tests in combat conditions, the most it is to bring the product to standard.
    1. Charik
      Charik 24 March 2022 20: 49
      -4
      Fine-tuning the rocket that was invented 40 years ago wassat
      1. Ros 56
        Ros 56 25 March 2022 05: 28
        +2
        Quite right, they came up with 40 years ago, but it came in handy today, and what's so surprising about that? Life flows, everything changes.
        1. Charik
          Charik 26 March 2022 22: 33
          0
          Nothing surprising, it's just that it has already been brought up for a long time, and whoever minuses is not justified, the donkey sniffed you laughing
          1. Ros 56
            Ros 56 27 March 2022 08: 26
            0
            There is no limit to perfection, and even more so in technology, so don’t smack the crap like
            it's just that it's been brought up for a long time,

            There is always something to upgrade. wassat
            1. Charik
              Charik 27 March 2022 15: 58
              0
              so modernize or bring it to readiness for use - if used - it means it has been brought up, so do not spoil the crap of the type - to bring the product to standard.
      2. sgrabik
        sgrabik 26 March 2022 21: 42
        0
        What was invented at least 40, even 50 years ago, but with great potential, is constantly being modernized, improved and improved, this is the most effective combat-ready and reliable weapon, if a bicycle, a car or an airplane have long been invented, they do not need to be reinvented with from the very beginning, but it is necessary to improve and improve, the same thing happens with the creation of weapons, in the West, by the way, they also understand this and go the same way.
    2. avg
      avg 24 March 2022 21: 08
      0
      Quote: Ros 56
      That's for sure, tests in combat conditions, the most it is to bring the product to standard.

      They tested and brought to mind, and dill can be beaten perfectly with the X-555, you can also use the X-65. Still, they are larger and cheaper.
      1. Vadim237
        Vadim237 25 March 2022 00: 26
        +1
        X 101 has already produced several thousand since 2008 - but X 555 is no longer produced because it is outdated like X 65.
  4. Commodore Arctic
    Commodore Arctic 24 March 2022 19: 24
    +3
    To date, Ukrainian air defense has been almost completely destroyed, although some systems and complexes are still able to continue working. Under such conditions, the new Russian ALCM could have undergone a more thorough combat test.


    It would just not be bad to test it with real anti-aircraft defense, as it is known in Syria, air defense is portrayed by camels, which somewhat distorts the combat potential of Our missile!
  5. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 24 March 2022 19: 26
    +1
    Yes ... X-101 is good! Although it could be better! I don’t know what kind of “optical-electronic” GOS the author had in mind, but I read about television ...! Of course, thermal imaging will not hurt (!); but perhaps it appeared in the latest modification! X-101 is equipped with a turbojet engine, but a turboprop engine was also in the plans! Thanks to him, it was supposed to reach a range of 8.000-10.000 km! So, let's wait for the "other" X-101!
    1. Boratsagdiev
      Boratsagdiev 24 March 2022 19: 58
      0
      CoreKeeper
      - maybe "turbofan"? repeat
      1. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 24 March 2022 20: 24
        0
        Quote: BoratSagdiev
        maybe turbofan?

        A turbofan (TVD) is a bypass turbojet engine ... I said about a gas turbine engine with propfen-type propellers!
        1. Boratsagdiev
          Boratsagdiev 25 March 2022 19: 18
          +1
          You already decide, otherwise you started for health, but finished ...
          They themselves wrote "turboprop", gas turbine engines are different.
          And who in their right mind would put screws on a rocket?! ...
          Speed, noise and glow will be like a Christmas tree on the radar.
          1. Nikolaevich I
            Nikolaevich I 25 March 2022 19: 26
            -2
            How am I supposed to "decide" if you are talking terry nonsense!? You are completely incompetent! Shut up so as not to disgrace yourself further!
            1. Boratsagdiev
              Boratsagdiev April 1 2022 10: 37
              0
              Calm down dear and do not shift your sores to strangers.
              Breathe deeper, slower. Collecting thoughts and writing.
    2. Zaurbek
      Zaurbek 25 March 2022 10: 12
      +1
      This is immediately a cross on stealth
      1. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 25 March 2022 10: 25
        0
        Quote: Zaurbek
        This is immediately a cross on stealth

        The propeller is "pushing" ... "Propfens" with a small "span" of the blades, but with high-speed rotation they allow you to realize an acceptable "thrust"!
        1. Zaurbek
          Zaurbek 25 March 2022 10: 27
          0
          There are a lot of questions .... radar visibility, acoustic visibility, the diameter of the screws (they somehow need to be folded and laid out). On passenger planes, modern turbojet engines with a large fan have already reached the same fuel efficiency.
          1. Nikolaevich I
            Nikolaevich I 25 March 2022 10: 59
            +1
            Quote: Zaurbek
            modern turbojet engines with a large fan have already reached the same fuel efficiency.

            Well, I'm not saying that the engine with "propfens" is the "miracle of the great Manitou"! But, in fact, there is a long-established opinion that turboprop engines are more economical than turbojet ones! If you "dig" the history of the creation of the KR X-101, you can read that initially a turboprop engine was created for the KR ... but it didn't work out in time (!), And I had to resort to a "fallback" option ... TVD! After successful tests of the X-101 in Syria, the design bureau did not rule out a return to the refinement of the turboprop engine ... By the way, the Americans once planned to develop a "tomahawk" with a turboprop engine! But, either they considered the longer range to be excessive for the CD of that time and those tasks ... or they also met with technical difficulties and did not have time on time!
            1. Zaurbek
              Zaurbek 25 March 2022 11: 03
              -1
              I read .... Now the turbojet engine has made great progress in terms of efficiency and they are crowding the theater.
              1. Nikolaevich I
                Nikolaevich I April 1 2022 22: 09
                0
                Getting acquainted with the information about the rocket engines, the conclusion suggests itself that in the foreseeable future one of the modifications of the X-101 will indeed be able to fly 10 thousand kilometers. Now the rocket is equipped with a small-sized turbojet engine RD-95TM-300, which develops a thrust of 500 kgf. However, in the late 90s, there was an idea to use a propfan engine having two coaxial three-bladed pusher propellers rotating in the opposite direction. Such engines can significantly reduce fuel consumption while ensuring the speed of the aircraft up to 900 km/h. Accordingly, the range of the missile should also increase significantly. It is likely that now the designers have returned to this idea. (svpressa.ru)
        2. garri-lin
          garri-lin 26 March 2022 19: 33
          0
          And if it is also placed in the annular channel !!! How will it differ from turbo fan ???
          1. Nikolaevich I
            Nikolaevich I 26 March 2022 19: 38
            0
            Quote: garri-lin
            And if it is also placed in the annular channel !!! How will it differ from turbo fan ???

            Well, the one that will still be called a turboprop ... repeat
            1. garri-lin
              garri-lin 26 March 2022 21: 50
              0
              The question is only in the title???
  6. svoroponov
    svoroponov 24 March 2022 19: 35
    +4
    X-101 All worked properly in Syria when launched from aircraft. About the fall of several missiles in Iran, so the author confused them with Caliber, launched from ships in the Caspian Sea. And even then it was byd fake, no one confirmed in the future. It's just that the Western press had to at least somehow spoil the Russian success. But nothing worked
  7. Maks1995
    Maks1995 24 March 2022 23: 25
    0
    All of this was written.
    The rocket is good, like everyone else.
    Big, probably expensive, it doesn't fit anywhere.
    the main question is how many there are, how expensive they are. There are no answers to this.

    It is only indirectly possible to note by the dates of launches - they are rarely launched, for inadequate purposes, rather for a test.
    That is, few, very expensive.

    And the rest is not so important. There, everything is shot through with Caliber.
    1. Vadim237
      Vadim237 25 March 2022 00: 29
      +2
      At a cost of around 36 million rubles per unit for production, it is estimated from 2008 to 2022 - 5000 units.
  8. Ilya_Nsk
    Ilya_Nsk 25 March 2022 09: 02
    -2
    Was there at least one object in Syria worthy of defeat by such a thing?
    1. Zaurbek
      Zaurbek 25 March 2022 10: 13
      +1
      practice and tactics of application .... but in Ukraine there are a lot of such objects and air defense.
  9. savoj
    savoj 10 June 2022 14: 22
    0
    ..... flight range of about 5500 km .... This is probably a mistake, with such dimensions and a weight of 2,4, this is unrealistic.