Military Review

Hybrid power plant for UAVs from MAI

54

Promising GSU at the assembly stage


A number of domestic organizations are now developing advanced power plants specifically for unmanned aerial vehicles. One of the projects of this kind is being created at the Moscow Aviation Institute. It is based on a hybrid scheme, which will provide high technical and economic characteristics. While the project is in its early stages, the first flight of a demonstrator aircraft with a new hybrid installation is planned for this fall.

In the process of development


MAI has extensive experience in the development aviation propulsion systems of different classes, and now it is used in a new project. A hybrid power plant (HPU) for UAVs is being developed at the department 203 "Design and design of engines". The initiator and one of the main participants of the project is the design engineer Kirill Balyasny. Other specialists and students of the Moscow Aviation Institute also participate in the work.

As reported, the design work on the new topic started in May last year and received the support of the MAI leadership. In November, the developing project was presented at the intersectoral competition "Youth and the Future of Aviation and Astronautics", and it won first place in the direction of power plants.

Shortly after that, in December, the management of the Institute, incl. rector Mikhail Pogosyan. The authors were recommended to continue the development of the project in order to create a whole line of aviation HCS. Such products, which have different characteristics, in the future can be used on a variety of aircraft.


In February, the authors of the project reported on the successful continuation of the work. At that time, technical documentation was developed, and a ground test bench was made. Inspections of individual components were carried out and the production of new units continued. In general, the assembly of the GSU demonstrator was at the final stage.

In the near future it was planned to begin bench tests. At this stage, it is necessary to check the operation of individual components, incl. new development, and installation in general. In particular, special attention will be paid to the development of the control system, which ensures the synchronous operation of two engines.

During the year, MAI will build a technology demonstrator aircraft with a new HSU. Its flight tests will begin in autumn; a more precise date is not known. Based on the results of full-scale tests, a promising project will be able to reach production and implementation. However, the timing of this remains uncertain.

Under the hybrid scheme


A new hybrid power plant from MAI is being developed for use on aircraft of various classes and taking into account its requirements. In the future, it is proposed to equip UAVs weighing 400-600 kg or aircraft of the lightest classes with it.


Installation composition

In general, GSU ​​is considered as a domestic analogue of foreign foreign products. So, in terms of power density and mass, it will be similar to the Rotax 912UL. This will bring technical and economic benefits, as well as some new opportunities. In the future, it is possible to develop new modifications or products with other characteristics.

The GSU is built on the basis of an internal combustion engine. This is a gasoline two-stroke aircraft engine RMZ-500 with a power of 50 hp. An electric motor of an unnamed model is also used, capable of operating in generator mode. Engine power - 14-18 kW (18-24 hp) depending on the mode. The engines are connected to each other and to the propeller through a newly developed gearbox. The electric motor is connected to power electronics and control equipment. The project also provides for the use of a lithium-polymer buffer battery with a capacity of 0,9 kW.

The new GSU is distinguished by a high degree of localization - about 70% of the units are of domestic origin. At the same time, the remaining 30% of imports include vital components such as an electric motor controller, a battery and various sensors. In the future, the share of foreign products is planned to be reduced to 10-15 percent.

The own weight of such a HSU is 63,5 kg. Estimated power in different modes varies from 34 to 57,2 kW (45-76 hp). Specific power - 0,9 kW / kg, specific fuel consumption - from 333 to 550 g / kW. Thanks to the use of available components, such as the RMZ-500 engine, the cost of the product is within 500 thousand rubles.


UAV propulsion system "Orion" / "Pacer"

According to the project, the internal combustion engine will operate continuously and in all flight modes, providing the required technical and economic characteristics. In level flight with stable parameters, the electric motor must act as a generator and charge the battery. During takeoff or climb, the electric motor will generate additional thrust. In addition, the electric motor can be used when the main engine fails.

Expected Benefits


The promising GSU from MAI has not yet passed the entire test cycle on the stand and in the air, but its main features and advantages are already clear. In this respect, it does not differ from other developments of its class. Like other HCS, the new one will have several modes of operation that will be able to provide the optimal balance of technical and economic characteristics at all stages of flight.

The GSU is proposed for use on manned and unmanned aircraft. At the same time, the UAV proposal is of the greatest interest. It is the unmanned systems of some classes that are able to most fully realize the potential of hybrid installations. In addition, now in our country there are certain difficulties with engines for UAVs of medium and heavy classes - and the MAI project is able to resolve this situation in the future.

According to calculations, GSU ​​with a capacity of up to 55-60 hp. suitable for use on drones weighing up to 500-600 kg. In this weight category, reconnaissance and reconnaissance-strike aircraft with limited speed and long flight duration can be built. On such equipment, piston engines with the required level of performance are usually used.


The engine and screw reconnaissance-strike UAV "Forpost-RU"

The GSU from MAI in the proposed form is quite suitable for use on UAVs of this category. At the same time, it will be possible to obtain a certain increase in flight data in comparison with similar designs, but with “conventional” power plants. You should also take into account the capabilities of the HCS to generate electricity required by the onboard equipment of the drone.

It is important that the current GSU with a power of up to 60 hp. is only the first experimental sample. If this development shows itself well, new installations with different levels of characteristics can be created on its basis. Different samples of this family can be used in various aviation technology projects, primarily on existing or prospective heavy class UAVs.

It is also planned to offer a hybrid installation to amateur aviation. This category of equipment also faces a lack of suitable engines, and a promising family of projects from the MAI can solve this problem. It is curious that in the case of amateur ultralight aircraft, the main advantage of the GSU will be lower cost compared to foreign counterparts.

Reserve for the future


In general, the new project of an aviation hybrid power plant from the MAI is of interest and may have a great future. Products of this kind are quite capable of finding their place in domestic and, possibly, foreign aviation. At the same time, with their help, it will be possible to close virtually empty niches - and give new opportunities to military and civil aviators.

However, while a promising project is in its early stages. The first bench tests of the new GSU are planned to begin only now. The first full-fledged flight is scheduled for autumn, and the timing and likelihood of launching the series are still in question. However, MAI specialists have extensive experience in the field of aircraft engines, and he will help them in solving their tasks.
Author:
Photos used:
MAI, Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation
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  1. Alien From
    Alien From 22 March 2022 17: 52
    +1
    Interestingly, where is Li-pol battery produced?
    1. soul
      soul 22 March 2022 17: 59
      +4
      Quote: Alien From
      Interestingly, where is Li-pol battery produced?

      In China
    2. Flooding
      Flooding 22 March 2022 18: 01
      -4
      an electric motor of an unnamed model is used, capable of operating in generator mode

      electric motor as a generator?
      I'm not a techie, I stumbled here
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 22 March 2022 18: 42
        +4
        electric motor as a generator?
        Why this is here is not clear from the article. But a number of designs of electric motors can actually work in this mode. In the 80s, there was an experiment with trolleybuses in Uzhgorod - there are a lot of ascents and descents, so in the descent sections the trolleybuses gave the generated current back to the network. Then everything fell silent.
        1. Flooding
          Flooding 22 March 2022 18: 56
          -1
          on the descent, use free torque - an option

          but here, in the role of a generator, the internal combustion engine should rather work if a supply of energy for the electric motor is fundamentally necessary
          1. Nikolaevich I
            Nikolaevich I 23 March 2022 12: 53
            +3
            Quote: Flood
            but here, in the role of a generator, the internal combustion engine should rather work if a supply of energy for the electric motor is fundamentally necessary

            belay what No. request Decipher!
        2. Xenofont
          Xenofont 22 March 2022 19: 13
          +10
          This is the good old recovery mode, used for many years in electric vehicles.
          1. astepanov
            astepanov 22 March 2022 21: 38
            +3
            Okstites, why recuperation on the plane? There that, often it is necessary to brake? On a car, recuperation is needed to store braking energy when driving in a “torn” urban cycle. It's useless on the highway. And in aviation, recovery is impossible.
            1. Vladimir_2U
              Vladimir_2U 23 March 2022 04: 09
              +2
              Quote: astepanov
              And in aviation, recovery is impossible.

              Not exactly recuperation, but Gulia suggested using superflywheels in small aircraft.
              1. astepanov
                astepanov 23 March 2022 12: 01
                +2
                Eh, come on. Basically there is no difference: what is the flywheel, what is the battery. And in reality, Gulia's ideas never germinated into practice: flywheels (even "super") have a lower specific energy intensity than modern batteries.
                1. Vladimir_2U
                  Vladimir_2U 23 March 2022 14: 04
                  +1
                  Quote: astepanov
                  flywheels (even "super") have a lower energy density than modern batteries.

                  As far as I remember, the super flywheel was offered as an emergency battery for 15-20 minutes, no more.
              2. Nikolaevich I
                Nikolaevich I 23 March 2022 12: 56
                +2
                Quote: Vladimir_2U
                Not exactly recuperation, but Gulia suggested using superflywheels in small aircraft.

                Duc, and steam engines were offered to aviation! fellow
                1. surok1
                  surok1 28 March 2022 16: 42
                  0
                  Hybrid power plants were offered in transport to use the existing internal combustion engine in single-mode operation with the best efficiency. Electric transmission is generally more flexible in terms of layout. A fully functional model based on the An-2 aircraft under the code "Partizan" clearly cannot be implemented otherwise.
            2. Nikolaevich I
              Nikolaevich I 23 March 2022 13: 31
              +3
              Quote: astepanov
              Okstites, why recuperation on the plane?

              Well, with the recovery on the plane, the people, of course, went too far! But what is the point: a hybrid power plant on an airplane, drone? 1. The main working engine is an electric motor (!), but there are aircraft schemes where they prefer to install several electric motors and, sometimes, in the most unexpected places! This is the "convenience" of electric power plants ... But batteries, nevertheless, currently have limited capabilities; a.w.s. you can’t install it everywhere, and even distribute one dvs on several screws. sometimes it’s not comme il faut! This is where the “hybrid” comes to the rescue! An aviation "hybrid" is a type of that "gasoelectric unit" that is installed on mobile electronic communications equipment in the army, installed on stationary communication centers as a source of backup power supply, people buy for dachas and remote villages ... only, it happens , slightly less ! That is, d.v.s. needed only to ensure the operation of the electric generator!
              2. However, a slightly different function of the DWS is also possible. ! Well, for example, to the "battlefield" (outside it ...) the UAV flies on the "D.V.S." engine. ... when approaching the "battlefield" it switches to an electric engine in order to reduce thermal radiation and acoustic "noise"! Well, something like this !
              1. svd-xnumx
                svd-xnumx 23 March 2022 20: 11
                0
                The article directly says that the electric engine will be used as an additional one during takeoff and increase in speed to help the internal combustion engine, as well as when it fails as a backup.
                1. Nikolaevich I
                  Nikolaevich I 23 March 2022 21: 12
                  +1
                  Quote: svd-xnumx
                  The article directly says that the electric engine will be used as an additional one during takeoff and increase in speed to help the internal combustion engine, as well as when it fails as a backup.

                  The article describes a rather "special" case! I described more "popular"...!
        3. Mik13
          Mik13 22 March 2022 20: 14
          +2
          In any such installation, a generator and an electric motor are required. Here it is the same.

          It is powered by an internal combustion engine, not a propeller.
        4. max702
          max702 23 March 2022 19: 54
          0
          According to this scheme, mining dump trucks work over a hillock, like in Norway they mine ore at the top of the mountain and when the car goes loaded down, the batteries are charged, then it goes uphill on them without load .. The starter generator has long been used on BMW, right there a banal hybrid .. My only question is why two-stroke?
        5. vlad106
          vlad106 April 24 2022 17: 01
          0
          A number of similar engines should have been created a long time ago. In the end, copy from someone else and do not drizzle! 2020 showed that drones are the future...
        6. Starover_Z
          Starover_Z April 25 2022 20: 59
          0
          Quote: Aviator_
          In the 80s, there was an experiment with trolleybuses in Uzhgorod - there are a lot of ascents and descents, so in the descent sections the trolleybuses gave the generated current back to the network. Then everything fell silent.

          Now used in trolleybuses with batteries.
        7. opposite28
          opposite28 18 June 2022 22: 36
          0
          Did the wires break in some sections? laughing
      2. Bad_gr
        Bad_gr 22 March 2022 19: 01
        +6
        Quote: Flood
        electric motor as a generator?
        I'm not a techie, I stumbled here
        Our T-64 and T-72 tanks have starter-generators. That is, the same unit is both a starter (engine) and a generator.

        On the government "Aurus" - the same.
        1. Flooding
          Flooding 22 March 2022 19: 37
          +2
          starter draws electricity
          it can generate it only when the engine is on

          for UAVs, this mode of operation may be necessary only to ensure the operation of onboard equipment

          that is, it is not a generator in its purest form. when the engine is off, it will not generate anything
          1. Bad_gr
            Bad_gr 22 March 2022 19: 50
            +9
            Quote: Flood
            that is, it is not a generator in its purest form. when the engine is off, it will not generate anything
            There is no mention of such a regime. Why is he needed?
            Electric motor-generator:
            1) when the internal combustion engine is running, it works as a generator (operation of aircraft electronics, battery charging)
            2) during the takeoff of the aircraft, in the electric motor mode, it adds its power to the internal combustion engine.
            3) in case of failure of the main engine (for example, failure of the internal combustion engine during takeoff), it can be replaced for a short time (it will make it possible to save the aircraft, or take it aside to minimize damage)
            1. Bad_gr
              Bad_gr 22 March 2022 20: 54
              +5
              Quote: Bad_gr
              Electric motor-generator

              1)....-3) I forgot about one more thing - starting the internal combustion engine from it.
              I think that a starter-generator in one device is also a gain in weight (compared to a separate generator + a separate electric motor (starter)), both of which are necessary on an airplane.
      3. andrewkor
        andrewkor 23 March 2022 06: 19
        +1
        On railway transport, the recuperation mode has long been used on long descents!
      4. SovAr238A
        SovAr238A 23 March 2022 11: 54
        +6
        Quote: Flood
        an electric motor of an unnamed model is used, capable of operating in generator mode

        electric motor as a generator?
        I'm not a techie, I stumbled here


        In modern machines using the "start-stop" mode, a so-called reversible generator is used, combining the functionality of a starter and a generator ...
        So it's not a problem anymore.
  2. Giant thought
    Giant thought 22 March 2022 17: 55
    +3
    Nevertheless, the percentage of the use of imported components is quite high, which is a disadvantage of this product. The absence of imported parts will be a significant plus when considering the use of this installation.
  3. gridasov
    gridasov 22 March 2022 17: 58
    -4
    Sometimes I think that human stupidity is a disease. Well, after all, you need to understand that the drive or the engine is carrying out the process of supporting the interaction of the mover with the energy environment. And for the dull ones, that having created an effective propulsion system, all issues with the engine are resolved on completely new principles
    I am surprised at myself that it takes ten years to explain what people in their nature are not able to understand. There is a parable when God warned people to stock up on water because there will come a time when water will become poison. And only one wise man began to make such stocks, and all the rest did not want to hear the warning. And then the moment came when the water became poison. And people began to die. But the sage poured out all the living water and did not use it.
  4. moscowp
    moscowp 22 March 2022 18: 07
    +4
    Happy for the guys, I would like to wish them success and bring the development to the commercial stage!
    It's not their fault that we don't make the right batteries and controllers
  5. rocket757
    rocket757 22 March 2022 18: 08
    +1
    Reserve for the future
    . Somehow this does not inspire, purely from experience, as it happened with us more than once, they patched up, remade, and then bought over the hill, then, but not that!
    I hope, as always, this time will not.
  6. astepanov
    astepanov 22 March 2022 18: 13
    +4
    Am I the only one who thinks this article is weird? Judge for yourself:
    This is a gasoline two-stroke aircraft engine RMZ-500 with a power of 50 hp. An electric motor of an unnamed model is also used, capable of operating in generator mode. Engine power - 14-18 kW (18-24 hp) depending on the mode. The engines are connected to each other and to the propeller through a newly developed gearbox. The electric motor is connected to power electronics and control equipment. The project also provides for the use of a lithium-polymer buffer battery with a capacity of 0,9 kW.
    Those. battery power is 3,7 to 5% of the power of the electric motor!. What is the capacity of this battery? What are its electrical specifications? Who is producing? Is it not Chubais "Liotech"? And what is the use of the electric motor in this case? Further:
    specific fuel consumption - from 333 to 550 g / kW.
    This is a meaningless figure, it does not say anything about fuel consumption, since time is not included in the dimension.
    You need to work more carefully, gentlemen, authors.
  7. Thrifty
    Thrifty 22 March 2022 18: 32
    +2
    If Poghosyan himself was noted there, then the work will be curtailed, or they will go down a dead end!
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 22 March 2022 18: 38
      +3
      Pogosyan is there in the honorary position of rector, and he was appointed right after a kick from the chair of the KLA. He did not even have the title of associate professor (I'm not talking about a professor) and immediately became a rectors. In a good way, he should be judged for "Superbudget" (RRJ)
      1. Vadim237
        Vadim237 22 March 2022 21: 35
        -1
        The Superjet plane is normal, its main problem was service support, we are waiting for a completely domestic Superjet, it should seem to take off next year.
        1. Aviator_
          Aviator_ 22 March 2022 21: 39
          0
          Superjet plane is normal, its main problem was service support
          Well, yes, in the service provision with foreign components. And the fact that Pogosyan started his "Superbudget" from scratch and ruined the Tu-334, already certified by that time, is trifles.
  8. Leha667
    Leha667 22 March 2022 18: 44
    +5
    Comparing the rmz-500 with a dead electric motor with a 912 rotax is so incorrect and wild that I just can’t find the words.
    Rmz-500 is a copy of an old weak rotax, and unreliable. IMHO another cut.
    1. Vadim237
      Vadim237 22 March 2022 21: 39
      -3
      The engine is at the R&D stage - and you already have an unreliable copy that you personally took part in its development?
      1. Zaits
        Zaits 23 March 2022 00: 23
        +6
        Quote: Vadim237
        Engine in R&D


        Vadim, did you bother to read the article?

        Students with associate professors are molding a hybrid power plant based on RMS-500. They do not develop the engine itself, because. Rmz-500 is far from young and well-known in narrow circles of internal combustion engines.
        The deep meaning of this project is a short-term increase in the total peak power of the power plant due to the parallel operation of the internal combustion engine and the electric motor. Expensive. With dim prospects.

        That's how to build another Potemkin village from Chinese controllers, MAI would be better off teaching its students to distinguish kW from kWh. On the advertising picture of these losers from the MAI, there is a complete disgrace - as many as 2 errors in the dimension of the parameters.
        1. surok1
          surok1 28 March 2022 16: 53
          0
          They might have a workshop on Chinese ingredients. And then the pathos caught up. Reported. :))
  9. FoBoss_V
    FoBoss_V 23 March 2022 01: 50
    -1
    The kids need to speed up ... There is no time for buildups
  10. Ilya_Nsk
    Ilya_Nsk 23 March 2022 05: 38
    +2
    yeah-yeah .. I read somewhere an epic about how a piston engine was made for an UAV .. About 10 years, based on a foreign one, it never "took off" ...
  11. Engineer
    Engineer 23 March 2022 09: 32
    +2
    RMZ-500avia is a clone of rotox 503, which has long been discontinued, and "MAI, which has extensive experience in the development of aircraft propulsion systems of various classes," is trying to breathe new life into this corpse. A sad treadmill. This means that replacements for imported engines on our drones, even military ones, are not expected.
  12. Alekandr
    Alekandr 23 March 2022 10: 22
    0
    In takeoff or climb mode, the aircraft uses an internal combustion engine + an electric motor (in thrust mode). In cruising mode, this power is not used, only the internal combustion engine works for traction. And the electric motor works in the generator mode (the source of mechanical energy of the internal combustion engine) and charges the battery.
    If LioTech is still working, then the system can use 100% domestic components.
  13. km-21
    km-21 23 March 2022 10: 50
    +3
    Guys, well, what for you all these troubles? For the sake of a penny improvement in efficiency, you get into the production of a wide range of components, which is fraught with catastrophic problems in the event of force majeure. In war, everything must be simplified in order to depend as little as possible on negative circumstances. On the contrary, you increase this dependence.

    It would be much more correct to stupidly and cheaply repeat this same Rotax 912 and rivet it in sufficient quantities so that it would not be a pity to lose it. It is in this way that normal Chinese go, and with their successes they convincingly prove the strategic expediency of such an approach. Instead, we endlessly tediously try to develop breakthrough technologies, and during this time we fatally lag behind the rest of the world in the implementation and use of what has long been invented and developed.
    1. max702
      max702 23 March 2022 20: 00
      +1
      You still offer ZMZ and UMP to buy a license for normal diesel engines and make them ..
      1. JPD
        JPD 28 March 2022 08: 59
        0
        ZMZ had a good licensed Steyr ... but technologically rather complicated, how it all ended .... it didn’t work ... it’s a pity they would have received good competencies in technology ..
        1. max702
          max702 28 March 2022 09: 06
          0
          Steyr was a dead end .. They needed to buy a license 15-20 years ago .. Folks 1,9., Toyota or Nissan, Mercian diesel 2.9, cubota .. great choice
          1. JPD
            JPD 28 March 2022 09: 22
            0
            And what is the dead end?! ... but the technology would be very useful, as well as the equipment ...
            1. max702
              max702 28 March 2022 12: 14
              0
              So there was equipment and technology, the design itself was a dead end ..
  14. zontov79
    zontov79 25 March 2022 04: 46
    +2
    You should at least put injectors on this rotax, in the late 90s rotax already put injectors on two-stroke ones. Fuel economy and power would increase.
  15. surok1
    surok1 28 March 2022 16: 46
    0
    I understand that this is a presentation, not an overview of the industry, the general state of which is sad. Our patent law does not promote progress, it is predatory. Capitalism, motherfucker! And this baby for half a million is pitiful.
  16. Dedok
    Dedok 11 May 2022 11: 42
    0
    again we are shown mock-ups, active or not, but mock-ups!
    especially liked:Thanks to the use of available components, such as the RMZ-500 engine, the cost of the product is within 500 thousand rubles." - How is that?
    at a rate of 70-80 rubles. for a dollar?
    I don't even want to discuss after reading: "So, in terms of power density and mass, it will be similar to the Rotax 912UL. At the same time, technical and economic advantages will be obtained, as well as some new opportunities.." where could there be advantages ?, if in the original everything possible from the engine is already "squeezed out"? - and here is only a copy ...
    another chatter...
  17. Vladimir Michailovich
    Vladimir Michailovich 7 June 2022 22: 04
    -2
    For the words “hybrid” and “digitalization” one should put an unambiguous cut marker against the wall.