Military Review

Stronger than KrAZ: unfulfilled NAMI-076 "Ermak"

45

NAMI-076M at the Moscow motorist festival, 1966.


Steppe eagle


The birth of the concept of the three-axle NAMI-076 was associated with the fashionable foreign trend in the construction of giant desert ships. The first roles were French cars designed to work in the African colonies. These were bonnet trucks, often of cyclopean dimensions, for example, the Berliet T100.

A machine with a gross weight of 100 tons appeared in 1956 and was intended for the needs of oil companies. The idea cannot be called particularly successful - only four trucks were built, which, however, proudly bore the title of "the greatest car in the world." But as an example for the development of the Soviet giant, it was decided to take a much more mundane 25-ton Willeme W8SA model of 1954. The NAMI off-road vehicle department even received a French truck for comparative testing.

But there is no need to talk about direct copying of foreign analogues by Soviet engineers - for the future Yermak they chose a progressive layout for their time with a cabin shifted forward beyond the wheelbase. The Willeme W8SA chosen for comparison was a classic 6x6 bonneted truck with wide tires, powerful air conditioning (working in the desert after all) and an advanced cooling system for a 250-horsepower diesel engine.

Stronger than KrAZ: unfulfilled NAMI-076 "Ermak"


Willeme W8SA and NAMI-076 "Ermak" in comparative tests

NAMI-076 "Ermak" not only for the Soviet Union, but for the world industry was a modern, if not breakthrough, machine. It was distinguished by four-wheel drive with a second axle through passage and a three-speed hydromechanical gearbox, partially unified with its analog from the BelAZ-540 quarry. Given the expected specifics of the work of "Ermak", special attention was paid to the cooling of transmission oil. NAMI engineers equipped the truck with water-cooled disc brakes. This was a revolutionary solution, which, however, was later abandoned in favor of shoe brakes with a pneumohydraulic drive.

It's amazing how different information can be regarding the technical features of Yermak. A lot of quite respectable automotive publications are still spreading the myth about installing a tank engine on a truck. NAMI specialists perfectly understood the limitations of the V-2 combat diesel engine in terms of resource (albeit in a derated version), so they would never have decided on such a simplification of the design.

Therefore, initially, Yermak received a 300-horsepower YaMZ-238N, the power of which made it possible to transport up to 25 tons on hard ground, 20 tons on sand and 15 tons off-road. At the same time, it is important to understand that in the curb condition the truck pulled 21 tons, which is less than the mass of the cargo, and this is a very progressive parameter for the early 60s of the last century.

In the Soviet table of ranks, NAMI-076 received a special place. The largest four-wheel drive truck of the classical layout in the USSR at that time was the KrAZ-214, capable of taking on board no more than 7 tons, while it itself weighed more than 11 tons. All this meant that Yermak alone could replace two or even three KrAZ trucks in the supply chains. There were simply no analogues of this machine in the USSR. Unless, of course, we take the MAZ-537 tractor, which can be very conditionally attributed to mass equipment, given the complexity of operation and the low resource of a tank diesel engine.

You can also cite the Moscow four-axle ZIL-135, but in this case, the civilian use of an expensive and complex SUV was very conditional. The twin-engine layout, coupled with a system of steered wheels on the front and last axles, was worth something.








NAMI-076M. Source: gruzovikpress.ru

At the same time, the developers of the NAMI off-road vehicle department immediately proposed three versions of the Yermak - in two-, three- and four-axle versions. In the performance of 8x8, the NAMI all-terrain vehicle was already becoming a direct competitor to the MAZ-537, which by the beginning of the 60s was already being produced with might and main.

The Moscow version looked much more perfect - the engine power was 650 hp. With. against 525 l. With. at MAZ-547, and the load capacity is up to 40 tons (for a Minsk tractor, the load on the saddle is not more than 25 tons). However, MAZ's competitor did not even appear as a prototype.

In metal "Ermak" was born in 1963 in a triaxial version. It was a giant with a length of more than 10 meters and a width of more than 3 meters, designed to work in the deserts of Central Asia and in the oil fields of Western Siberia. On tests, he overcame snow up to one and a half meters deep. However, from the very beginning, the true purpose of the projected Yermak was not fully understood.




Photos from the Moscow holiday of motorists allow us to more accurately assess the size of the Yermak









"Ermak" in various periods of its existence. Unfortunately, the machine stories remained only in the photo and drawings.

The car was simultaneously adapted for the conditions of the cold north and the sultry south. The cockpit windows were double, developed thermal insulation was mounted, and the side windows were prudently closed from the sun by blinds. The heavy truck was not suitable for the Soviet army because of its gigantic dimensions and incomprehensible functionality.

By that time, all the needs for military tractors were covered by KrAZ, the latest Urals and ZiLs. NAMI-076 was, of course, good on rough terrain and in terms of carrying capacity, but in terms of dimensions it was not suitable, perhaps, for any army in the world. "Ermak" with a three-meter height theoretically was not included in any, even projected, transport aircraft.

Therefore, NAMI began to look for a customer.

Forest beast


Since no one needed the onboard Yermak, NAMI engineers turned to the Central Research Institute of Mechanization and Energy of the Forestry Industry. Simply put, they tried to attach a giant to forestry. To do this, the car was converted into a timber road train with a carrying capacity of 45 tons, which, however, proved to be imperfect. The brakes were not effective enough, and the motor was weak.

NAMI began large-scale alterations - they mounted a 12-cylinder 320-horsepower diesel engine, and, as mentioned above, they installed shoe brakes. By the way, the brake drum of the Yermak updated in 1968 turned out to be a record diameter for its time - 510 mm. Friction material for brake linings was specially developed at the Tambov plant of asbestos products.

The hydropneumatic brake drive was unified with a similar Ural-375 system, which was previously developed at NAMI. However, this machine, known as NAMI-076M, did not find serial implementation - the country did not have a decent production base for such a complex design.






"Ermak" - timber carrier.

Hope appeared only in 1969, when the MoAZ automobile plant in Mogilev received the task of mastering a logging road train with high cross-country ability and a carrying capacity of up to 50 tons.

As a result, NAMI had to reshape the Yermak design for the third time.

It didn’t work out very well, mainly due to the requirement of the Ministry of Automotive Industry to “develop the chassis of the tractor with the widest use of units of existing production.” All the innovations of engineers that were implemented in NAMI-076M turned out to be out of work, and the resulting monster MoAZ-7411 turned out to be a frankly overweight machine.

The timber carrier was built in 1974 and in terms of curb weight exceeded the "Ermak" immediately by 7 tons! Naturally, this mass was taken away from the carrying capacity of the truck, and the resulting product no longer interested anyone - the tactical and technical requirements of the Minavtoprom were not met. Even the powerful 500-horsepower YaMZ-240N diesel engine did not help, which was replaced by the previous one with 320 liters. With.


















MoAZ-7411 is an example of a regression of the automotive concept. The Mogilev tractor differed from NAMI-076M in a larger curb weight, which did not allow it to meet the tactical and technical requirements of the Minavtoprom. Simply put, the tractor managed to become obsolete even at the testing stage. The photo shows various generations of MoAZ, built on the basis of Yermak.

There were attempts to build a tank carrier on the basis of the Mogilev tractor, but the military already had their own MAZs, albeit less perfect ones.

Finally, the hope for the implementation of the concept of "Ermak" in the serial incarnation disappeared after the construction in 1976 of the MoAZ-7411 timber carrier with double rear axle tires. The engineers tried to increase the carrying capacity of the tractor by reducing the cross-country ability, but this option was also rejected.

NAMI-076 "Ermak" is a typical example of the isolation of the scientific and engineering potential of the Soviet Union from production capabilities. The car, in many respects ahead of the global auto industry, turned out to be too complicated for the industry.

The cool attitude of the military towards Yermak also played a significant role here - if the army really needed the tractor, it would inevitably be brought to the series, albeit at the cost of some simplifications.

Unfortunately, the "live" artifact of the machine was not preserved for posterity, clearly illustrating the potential of Soviet engineering, capable of creating masterpieces without foreign components.
Author:
45 comments
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  1. andrewkor
    andrewkor 9 February 2022 04: 35
    +9
    About copying foreign vehicles. In 1978-81, he worked at ZIL in the GLTsKCH (foundry). I went to the plant from Biryulyovo-tovarnaya by train. Through the Avtozavodskoy bridge and the checkpoint near the Engineering Building and the Experimental Workshop. That's where I saw enough foreign technology, which was completely open. We were especially impressed by executive class cars: Chevrolet, Cadillac, Buick.
    Mercedes trucks, similar to KamAZ, only ours is simpler.
    1. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 9 February 2022 05: 11
      -20
      Quote: andrewkor
      Mercedes trucks, similar to KamAZ, only ours is simpler.

      Why is he faster then? You rattled in the foundry for two years and fled. What was hard?
      1. antivirus
        antivirus 9 February 2022 05: 53
        -21
        found. that's who ruined the USSR!
        and 50 years ago, compromises to retain influence in the national elites led to compromises in the national economy.
        it was necessary to develop the national outskirts and pulled them.
        MAZ and KRAZ were spurred on by this freak. and centrally transferred what was interesting to serial plants.
        Maskva with fat is furious now and then they received money for a whim.
        but they didn’t calculate the numbers for the repair and maintenance + they needed some other 1000 complete workshops to build. not on the knee and on the ground to exploit these "advanced" ones.
        probably, before closing the project, they took into account a lot, including the culture of exploitation in motorcades and, last but not least, the price of maintenance and ?? ton-kilometer
        1. Mordvin 3
          Mordvin 3 9 February 2022 05: 56
          +4
          Quote: antivirus
          spurred on by this freak MAZ

          There is no need to call Belarusians freaks.
          1. antivirus
            antivirus 9 February 2022 06: 03
            -7
            I have a freak - this one is from us.
            and not in appearance .... but in fact --- most likely (now it is customary to admire that all design "breakthrough" ideas) and inside there were a lot of "over the knee" "for later" pending ideas not brought to mind
            not work horses
            1. Mordvin 3
              Mordvin 3 9 February 2022 06: 07
              +3
              Quote: antivirus
              inside there was a lot of "over the knee"

              That's not necessary. Somehow I read a textbook on the device of cars. There, even the wheels were deduced by formulas.
              1. antivirus
                antivirus 9 February 2022 08: 47
                +1
                formulas - it was smooth on paper ... but they forgot about the conveyor and competitors ... and the development of productive forces and production relations.
                fantasies, they have remained so to this day. good-heartedness ... and for 15 years we have been engaged in screwdriver assembly or simply from machine kits. the design school did not stretch the auto industry.
                needed first of all (both earlier and now) - vocational schools, to rise to others, a higher level of production culture
                1. Mordvin 3
                  Mordvin 3 9 February 2022 08: 49
                  +5
                  Quote: antivirus
                  fantasy

                  Not fantasy at all, but science.
                  1. antivirus
                    antivirus 9 February 2022 08: 57
                    -9
                    science in Detroit was at its best. Yes, they died from the price - in Mexico and China it is cheaper and better.
                    we have the same way.

                    "breakthrough" anything is not enough for a breakthrough. masses of people must be brought into that breakthrough to "occupy new frontiers" and to learn and simply make blanks (according to US knowledge)
                    1. Mordvin 3
                      Mordvin 3 9 February 2022 09: 03
                      +1
                      Quote: antivirus
                      China cheaper and better .

                      Worse. How did he repair a Chinese car. So there is a foil tin, and the wings are on three bolts.
                      1. antivirus
                        antivirus 9 February 2022 09: 20
                        -4
                        this is the development of productive forces and production relations.

                        they lack both according to Marx and according to capitalist theory - "price-quality."
                        + for their villages and small towns - it's the norm to turn the screws yourself. without special pullers and other squiggles of services.
                        as in 30-60-80 years on our collective farms .. and in Nigeria now it’s the same in Laos and everywhere else
                      2. Mordvin 3
                        Mordvin 3 9 February 2022 09: 27
                        +1
                        Quote: antivirus
                        this is the development of productive forces and production relations.

                        What development? I would never buy this foil tin. Zaporozhets, even better.
                      3. antivirus
                        antivirus 9 February 2022 10: 25
                        -5
                        China -1.5 billion people
                        there were 300 car factories.
                        not 3-10 like ours. there are eternal cars. eat from foil
                      4. Mordvin 3
                        Mordvin 3 9 February 2022 11: 51
                        +3
                        Quote: antivirus
                        China -1.5 billion people
                        there were 300 car factories.

                        The USSR built the first Chinese automobile plant.
                      5. vadim dok
                        vadim dok 9 February 2022 16: 50
                        +3
                        And the Americans built the first Soviet automobile plant and the truck, so what?
                      6. Mordvin 3
                        Mordvin 3 9 February 2022 17: 23
                        +5
                        Quote: vadim dok
                        And the Americans built the first Soviet automobile plant and the truck, so what?

                        Yes, nothing. I also write that the Chinese learned from ours. Now they produce dozens of models, but where are we?
              2. NDR-791
                NDR-791 9 February 2022 08: 48
                +5
                Quote: Mordvin 3
                Somehow I read a textbook on the device of cars. There, even the wheels were deduced by formulas.

                This is because then TEACHED. Now they are teaching which button to press on the computer, and it will calculate itself there. "Why study geography if a cab will take you" was written long before us.
      2. andrewkor
        andrewkor 9 February 2022 17: 28
        0
        Trained for the ZiL branch under construction in Yartsevo, Smolensk region.
        1. Mordvin 3
          Mordvin 3 9 February 2022 17: 35
          0
          Quote: andrewkor
          Trained for the ZiL branch under construction in Yartsevo, Smolensk region.

          And I plowed at the Novomoskovsky ArZ for 12 years.
        2. Titus_2
          Titus_2 16 February 2022 18: 26
          0
          Engines were made there, it was before the New. Unfortunately, the weather there did not allow us to see anything besides the fence, but Yartsevo itself can be seen without a city-forming plant, it does not feel very good.
          1. andrewkor
            andrewkor 17 February 2022 08: 30
            +1
            In Yartsevo there should be two plants - branches of ZiL. Foundry and diesel on both sides of the railway. I remember they were designed as in KAMAZ and the equipment should be American as well as there. But then Afghanistan struck and sanctions for it, and the foundations under the line have already been erected. The Union had to copy everything itself at different factories. Here, the construction has been delayed.
    2. Timon2155
      Timon2155 9 February 2022 22: 41
      +3
      Yermak was made as a land carrier - for transporting earth when digging navigable canals. The author, you are writing about the YaMZ-238 V8, and on the diagram you provided, the V12 YaMZ-240 is clearly visible already on the very first version of Ermak - compare with the photo, exactly the 240th!

  2. Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 9 February 2022 09: 01
    -1
    In this niche, the Chinese are now with their small mining dump trucks and piece Russian dump trucks
    1. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 9 February 2022 09: 31
      0
      Quote: Zaurbek
      chinese sos

      Not understood. Why sos?
      1. Zaurbek
        Zaurbek 9 February 2022 09: 55
        +2
        with their ..... dump trucks.
      2. The comment was deleted.
  3. Falcon5555
    Falcon5555 9 February 2022 13: 03
    +4
    In Australia, hyper-road trains run through the desert: one super-powerful tractor and many trailers. Why it didn’t work for us on the roads of the north (but in the off-road version) is not clear.
    1. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 9 February 2022 15: 03
      +2
      Quote: Falcon5555
      Why it didn’t work for us on the roads of the north (but in the off-road version) is not clear.

      Because in Europe there is a limit on the length of the truck. And, for example, they are not in the United States. Therefore, in Europe, e-cabins are being developed, but not in the USA. As in Australia, I don’t know. Well, damn it .. As I called the cabins, they removed it. Okay, keep it short.
      1. The comment was deleted.
        1. Mordvin 3
          Mordvin 3 9 February 2022 17: 43
          0
          Quote: flc9800
          Another thing is that cabovers are much less popular than classic trucks!

          Well, I wrote that in the USA there are no restrictions on the length of a car. Unlike Europe, where the length of the road train should not exceed how many meters there. That's why they make short cabins.
          1. Falcon5555
            Falcon5555 10 February 2022 10: 37
            0
            And here Europe (in the sense of the European Union)? It is clear that non-standard road trains will not be allowed there, but they do not need to go there. They would have to be not only long, but also likely to go beyond the European and today's Russian standards for ordinary roads. How Russian standards could be reformed for this purpose is a separate question.
      2. ZAV69
        ZAV69 19 February 2022 09: 19
        0
        Quote: Mordvin 3
        Because in Europe there is a limit on the length of the truck. And, for example, they are not in the United States. Therefore, in Europe, e-cabins are being developed, but not in the USA. As in Australia, I don’t know. Well, damn it .. As I called the cabins, they removed it. Okay, keep it short.

        Well, actually there is. Moreover, each state has its own, somewhere for the length of the trailer, and somewhere for the length of the hitch. Some states even allow additional trailers. And Australia has it. And road trance go only in one area, in Sydney they can’t say so, but in Alice Springs just right.
  4. Undecim
    Undecim 9 February 2022 13: 19
    +6
    A machine with a gross weight of 100 tons appeared in 1956

    Not in 1956, but in 1957.

    In 1956, the sixty-ton Berliet GBO15 appeared.
  5. Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 9 February 2022 14: 44
    0
    Tonar is releasing now, in small batches .....

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GO4rJQlwLds
  6. Free wind
    Free wind 9 February 2022 15: 54
    +6
    The brakes are not disc, but multi-disc, they were not cooled by water, but worked in an oil bath, "hydro" in technology is not water at all, a hydraulic tank is not a tank with drinking water. lol . If the brake drive is like in the Urals. who all curse. I’m afraid to imagine what a hundred-ton bandura will do with failed brakes, this tractor has no controllability. the turning radius is huge .. What can I say about this auto research institute, that I can’t remember the car developed by them and put into production, although ERAZ and Colchis seem to be from there. Well, they do have quite a reputation. MoAZ could possibly become a demanded car. Change the design, improve the comfort in the cab. improve build quality. Articulated joints are now in steady demand. Alas, we flew like plywood over Paris. request
    1. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 9 February 2022 17: 49
      0
      Quote: Free Wind
      The brakes are not disc, but multi-disc, they were not cooled by water, but worked in an oil bath, "hydro" in technology is not water at all, a hydraulic tank is not a tank with drinking water. lol . If the brake drive is like in the Urals. who all curse. I’m afraid to imagine what a hundred-ton bandura will do with failed brakes, this tractor has no controllability. the turning radius is huge .. What can I say about this auto research institute, that I can’t remember the car developed by them and put into production, although ERAZ and Colchis seem to be from there. Well, they do have quite a reputation. MoAZ could possibly become a demanded car. Change the design, improve the comfort in the cab. improve build quality. Articulated joints are now in steady demand. Alas, we flew like plywood over Paris. request

      Colchis seems to be assembled on the basis of Zila. But what the Georgians did to her is unclear. Somehow they brought us to the capital, so the guys begged her to exchange it for a zil 130.
    2. Tima62
      Tima62 9 February 2022 22: 55
      +1
      Quote: Free Wind
      What can I say about this auto research institute, that I can’t remember the car they developed and put into production

      URAL 375 with those damned brakes.
  7. Grossvater
    Grossvater 9 February 2022 16: 27
    +3
    In my opinion, the problem here is with goal setting. Did Lyalka is unknown for what and whom. Like a grit-tsa: "We can't be led astray, we don't care... well, it doesn't matter where we go."
    It's strange that something worthwhile happened at all.
  8. The comment was deleted.
  9. andr327
    andr327 9 February 2022 16: 57
    +2
    The Moscow version looked much more perfect - the engine power was 650 hp. With. against 525 l. With. at MAZ-547, and the load capacity is up to 40 tons (for a Minsk tractor, the load on the saddle is not more than 25 tons).

    Maz 547 - six-axle, and 650 hp. but never was a truck tractor. The mass of the chassis is 27 tons, and he still dragged almost 68 tons of regular ones. And it was created for the Strategic Missile Forces. The author probably meant one of the MAZ-543 options
    And these MAZs in operation proved to be quite good.
  10. Tarasios
    Tarasios 9 February 2022 17: 53
    +1
    Willeme W8SA on the third photo looks like a Kirovets tractor...
  11. evgen1221
    evgen1221 9 February 2022 20: 00
    +1
    There is an opinion that NAMI was generally out of touch with reality and developed machines for the table. Few of their developments of machines went into the series, not to be confused with the units and assemblies they developed.
    1. ivan2022
      ivan2022 9 February 2022 22: 55
      -2
      Quote: evgen1221
      There is an opinion that US was generally divorced from reality

      There is an opinion that Henry Ford was cut off from reality when he created his first engines and cars in the garage.
      Or maybe - on the contrary - the leaders of industry in our blessed fatherland were divorced from science? They brought the country to a standstill.
      There is an opinion that our people, for the most part, are very smart, but only their smart brains are inserted into the head, as it were, on the contrary - "upside down."...
  12. ivan2022
    ivan2022 9 February 2022 21: 41
    +2
    The machine, in many respects ahead of the global auto industry, turned out to be too complicated for the industry?.

    Curiously, but rocket and nuclear technology did not turn out to be "too complicated"? "Wonderland" - domestic sausage or boots - a stumbling block ...... But how did they win the Second World War with such "difficulties"? "Three-ruler for three" and sapper shovels?
    But the most surprising thing is that the 6th five-year plan (1956-1960) in 1959 also suddenly turned out to be "too complicated", although in 4 years the nat. The country's income has more than doubled.
    And in general, the planned economy turned out to be "too complicated", and the country itself "is not like it should be" ....... It is much easier to plunder the country and live on imports, and the simpler, the better!
    It is understandable ... for a society in which the word "authority" means not a scientist, but a bandit, in general, everything that a scientist offers is "too complicated." Scientist ! Go on ..... we are a simple people ....
  13. Lewww
    Lewww 10 February 2022 14: 33
    +2
    In metal "Ermak" was born in 1963 in a triaxial version. It was a giant over 10 meters long and over 3 meters wide,
    the width was exactly 3 m, the length was 10750 mm, the cabin height was 2950

    A.V. was responsible for the development. Rodionov - future director of NAMI
    the tactical and technical requirements of the Minavtoprom were not met.
    TTT is with the Ministry of Defense, the Ministry of Automotive Industry has just TTT
  14. Lewww
    Lewww 10 February 2022 14: 47
    +3
    Quote: Free Wind
    The brakes are not disc, but multi-disc, they were not cooled by water, but worked in an oil bath, "hydro" in technology is not water at all, a hydraulic tank is not a tank with drinking water.

    Initially, it was sealed disc brakes with a special system that were installed. water cooling - the author accurately wrote
  15. Lewww
    Lewww 10 February 2022 15: 02
    0
    Quote: Free Wind
    What can I say about this auto research institute, that I can’t remember the car they developed and put into production, although ERAZ and Colchis
    offhand: NAMI-I, ZAZ-965, LuAZ, Oka, Ural-375 (with modification on UralZIS)
  16. ivan2022
    ivan2022 17 February 2022 17: 25
    +1
    Mentally normal people do not have a separation of new ideas from the possibilities of industry. Because the industry itself is the result of the implementation of new ideas. Especially in a country richest in natural resources in the whole world.
    This thought is not mine, but from a cartoon in which even the cat Matroskin understood that we have enough of everything, except for the mind.