Today we will talk about very interesting ships. Ships in general are rarely boring and uninteresting, but such zigzags and course changes that were prepared for these ships rarely happened to anyone.
So let me introduce our heroes. These are Mukhtars of border waters, project 10410 patrol ships.
The project was developed in the 80s of the last century as a replacement for the Project 205 Tarantula and Project 12412 Molniya-2 ships.
The first ones are completely outdated, the second ones, created on the basis of Project 12411 Molniya missile boats, turned out to be too expensive both to build and to operate.
Therefore, it was decided to design and build new ships to protect the maritime borders and the 200-mile economic zone. The development was carried out by Almaz Central Design Bureau and obviously did it successfully. It is worth noting that at the time when these boats were being developed, there was a practice that in the event of a war, the border guard was instantly reassigned to the command fleet. That is, the protection of the border - yes, and in the event of hostilities, the boats had to stand in the general system.
The Central Design Bureau "Almaz" and the team of designers, led by Konstantin Avanesov, in my opinion, turned out to be a very high-quality boat. With a displacement of 375 tons, it had the following dimensions:
- length: 49,5 m;
- width: 9,2 m;
- draft: 2,16 m.
Three M520 diesel engines with a total power of 5400 hp. they accelerated the ship to a combat speed of 29 knots, and in case of emergency, the boat could develop 33 knots. The cruising range at 13 knots was 2200 miles. The crew of 38 people, autonomy, depending on the load of supplies - from 10 to 30 days.
These boats, by the way, became the first ships in the Soviet fleet with permanent air conditioning of the crew quarters.
Seaworthiness was also on the level. No wonder Avanesov was the chief designer of the government yachts "Caucasus" and "Crimea". It was on these yachts that Secretary General Leonid Brezhnev liked to take walks along the Black Sea.
The Fireflies, like the yachts of the 1360 Chaika project, were distinguished by their soft entry into the wave, smooth pitching, and less overloads in waves. Very useful qualities for a patrol boat.
Armament for boats of this displacement was very decent. It differed somewhat depending on the place of construction. Ships built in Leningrad / St. Petersburg were armed with the following kit:
- 1 x AK-176M 76 mm;
- 1 x AK-630M 30 mm;
- 16 x MANPADS "Igla";
- 2 grenade launchers MRG-1 or DP-64;
On ships built by the Yaroslavl Shipyard, the armament was lighter:
1 x AK-306 30mm;
2 x MTPU 14,5mm;
16 x MANPADS "Igla".
In addition, the boats had additional weapons:
- 2 OTA-40-204A anti-submarine torpedo tubes with a caliber of 400 mm,
- 2 bombers for 12 BB-1 depth charges.
The boats had a towed sonar MG-349 "Uzh", an electronic warfare complex "Slyabing", a jamming complex PK-16. In addition, there was a GAS MG-747 for detecting divers.
In general, it turned out to be a very successful combination of a patrol boat and a small anti-submarine ship. A fully combat-ready ship of the coastal zone, capable of working for different purposes, depending on the requirements of the situation.
The ships of the project did not receive their own name, but the name that the ships were given in NATO structures took root. So the project 10410 was called "Svetljak" ("Firefly"). We liked it and the name stuck in Soviet circles.
They started building boats at three factories at once: in Leningrad, Vladivostok and Yaroslavl. The first ship of the project was built in Vladivostok and became part of the Marine Border Guard in April 1989.
Subsequently, the boat was named "Korsakov" and serves as part of the Border Guard Department of the Far Eastern Federal District to this day.
In total, 44 ships of project 10410 were built. 12 in Soviet times, the rest in Russian. 7 ships were exported (6 to Vietnam, 1 to Slovenia).
Today, the Fireflies serve as the main ships of the Coast Guard of the Border Service of the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation in all border maritime directions.
The ships turned out to be so successful that it was decided to strengthen their weapons. In the early 90s, a modernized project 10411 was developed within the walls of the Almaz Central Design Bureau. These ships were supposed to carry two quad launchers of Uran anti-ship missiles.
However, the project did not go into series, since its basis, the Uran anti-ship missile, was put into service only in 2003.
And the ships of project 10410 began to undergo reverse "modifications" and "upgrades".
First, torpedo tubes and bomb releasers were removed. The ships ceased to be the anti-submarine reserve of the fleet, but they became much lighter.
Then they revised the artillery armament. 76-mm AK-176M guns were no longer installed on ships under construction, replacing at best with AK-630M.
Why at the best? Because in the worst case, they began to install the AK-306, also a six-barreled 30-mm machine gun, only aiming was carried out not with the help of the MR-123 Vympel radar, but with the help of the usual Lazur optical sighting station, which was significantly inferior in its characteristics sighting system with radar, and the rate of fire of the AK-306 was five times lower than that of the AK-630. But it did not require water cooling.
It wasn't a crime. global trend. The "Iron Curtain" collapsed, the time has come for detente and general appeasement. Coastal guard ships were assigned purely border functions and the fight against terrorists and smugglers. And for these tasks, heavy weapons were not needed.
Naturally, all this significantly reduced the cost of ships.
As for our “Fireflies” personally, they got rid of “extra” weapons, they became more autonomous, were able to improve living conditions and place more modern detection tools on board.
But as warships in the future and if necessary, they lost all value, moving into the category of patrol ships.
Combat value… Very thin material. Even for boats.
It is worth remembering the 2018 incident in the Kerch Strait. Then two artillery boats of project 58155 "Gyurza-M" of the Ukrainian Navy and the raid tug "Yany Kapu" operating with them made an attempt to violate the state border of Russia by sea.
The Coast Guard had to ask for the help of the Black Sea Fleet in order to prevent the breach. In general, that incident showed that not everything is fine with us in terms of protecting maritime borders. Suffice it to recall how many ships were involved in order to stop and detain three Ukrainian ships, one of which was a low-speed tug.
Patrol boats of the Border Service "Mongoose" and "Sobol" easily caught up with the violators. But what could they really oppose to Ukrainian boats? Two 14,5mm machine guns against four 30mm automatic cannons is a very bad deal when it comes to a fight. And it’s good that the Ukrainians were going to just arrange a provocation, without using weapons.
Everyone remembers how Ukrainian ships were stopped?
The tug "Yany Kapu" "braked" in bulk PSKR "Don", project 745P. This ship is larger than the Sobol, 1620 tons and well armed.
The Berdyansk was stopped by the Izumrud, which opened fire with its AK-306 on the apparently departing Ukrainian ship. The speeds of projects 58155 and our 22460 are approximately equal, but Berdyansk was clearly leaving, so we had to use guns.
"Nikopol", which demonstrated miracles of speed and crew control, was generally stopped by a Ka-52 helicopter. Holes from shells in the sides in the photo spread all over the world and aroused genuine sympathy for Ukrainians in the West.
What if the weather was bad and aviation could you help? Then the options for the development of events would not be so rosy. Especially when you consider how many forces were involved in order to cope with the three provocateurs. At least 4 ships were involved from the FSB of the Russian Federation: PSKR Don and Emerald, boats of the Sobol and Mongoose projects. From the Black Sea Fleet, the minesweeper "Vice-Admiral Zakharyin", the MPK "Suzdalets" and 2 artillery boats of project 1204 participated. That is, 8 ships, 2 aircraft and 2 helicopters.
For two and a half semi-combat troughs of the Ukrainian Navy - too much. Caused by certain circumstances, but overkill.
In general, in terms of possible provocations and conflict situations, the Black Sea is perhaps the “hottest” region both today and in the future. Exclusively thanks to Ukraine.
And it cannot be said that our command does not understand this. The so-called "armored boats" of the "Gyurza-M" type are not a headache, especially since the boat grouping of the forces for protecting the water area was reinforced by boats of project 1204 "Bumblebee" and artillery versions of the "Fireflies" of the first series.
But recently there was information that makes you think a lot about the prospects in the Black Sea region.
We are talking about the receipt by Ukraine from the United States of the first patrol boats of the Mark VI type.
A series of 16 boats has been ordered, and, I must say, this can make life much easier for the Ukrainian military during various provocations.
The Mark VI boat has a displacement of only 65 tons. A small boat, but toothy. 2 25mm Mark 38 automatic cannons, heavy machine guns and optional AGM-176 "Griffin" rockets. You can’t call this anti-ship missile, but a warhead weighing almost 6 kg of explosive is really dangerous for boats.
Plus, the speed is impressive: 41 knots maximum and 45 knots in forced mode. Even the "Mongoose" will be difficult to catch up, but in terms of weapons, the American is much superior to the Russian boat.
And I repeat, 16 units of such boats have been ordered. Are there any doubts that they will be delivered to Ukraine? I do not have. Proxy tension is a normal US method of action. So the boats will go to the Ukrainian fleet. At least in order to be able to create tension in the region.
But that's not all. With great joy, the Ukrainian media reported on the signing on June 21 last year of an agreement on the construction of 8 modern missile and artillery boats of the P50U type for the Ukrainian Navy. And in 2024, the first two boats will have to enter the Ukrainian fleet, and the rest will be assembled in Nikolaev.
About 500 tons of displacement, a speed of 40-45 knots is declared (it is doubtful, the design of the Protector 50 patrol ship, taken as a basis, assumed a speed of 30-35 knots), artillery armament from a 76-mm Leonardo Super Rapid artillery mount, or 57 -mm artillery mount BAE Systems Bofors Mk 110, or 40-mm BAE Systems Bofors Mk 4.
Rocket armament of four launchers for anti-ship missiles "Neptune" and four launchers for anti-aircraft missiles.
Such boats can not only arrange provocations, but also distract more significant ships of the Black Sea Fleet.
And given that the main patrol boat forces of the Black Sea Fleet were created in Soviet times, it may turn out that there will be nothing to oppose to the new Ukrainian boats. Especially considering the plans of the fleet command to write off project 12411 Molniya missile boats from the composition, and project 10410 boats also do not shine with freshness and a huge resource.
And something will have to be contrasted, because the picture of speedboats of Ukraine dissecting with impunity not far from the Crimean bridge is not something that will be pleasant to watch.
And here is the option - to quickly start building all the same Fireflies.
Fortunately, the factories in Yaroslavl and St. Petersburg have not gone away. And on them it is quite possible to start the production of boats, which are so necessary for the protection of the Black Sea region. Still, the protection of such objects as the Crimean bridge should be entrusted to ships that can easily cope with such a task.
That is, these should not be just patrol boats, but I would characterize them as anti-boat defense boats. With all the ensuing consequences. And these boats should not only provide some nominal resistance in the event of provocations from Ukraine, but eliminate the very possibility of provocations in the bud.
This requires appropriate weapons.
AK-176MA is relevant if guidance is carried out using the ship's radar fire control system MR-123/176. Sights and rangefinders just in case of emergency are not bad, but for accurate shooting you still need the appropriate radar.
AK-630. Yes, precisely because this is not the newest, but quite relevant gun mount works on the same guidance principle, it is also good. AK-306 with actually manual guidance, I would not consider at all. It is clear that weight and all that, but shooting at optics is the last century.
Especially if there is a radar that allows you to do this.
And if the warhead has a radar station at its disposal, according to which it is possible to work, it would be good to have missiles on such ships. Anti-boat missiles, homing or with operator control, it doesn’t matter. It is important that they could cause damage to any boat with a displacement of up to 1000 tons or so.
3M-47 "Bending" - a possible solution.
In this variant, when not 2 anti-aircraft missiles are loaded into four launchers of the installation, "Willows" from the helicopter and the crew will be able to brush aside, but all 4 Attack missiles. An anti-tank missile will turn the enemy boat around just as well tank.
"Gibka" has already been installed on the patrol boat of project 22460 "Rasul Gamzatov" and on patrol boats of project 14310 "Mirage", so the issue of registration on similar ships is not worth it. Everything is possible.
Anti-boat missiles, along with artillery, will significantly enhance the combat capabilities of ships. Of course, according to some experts, it makes no sense to install normal anti-ship missiles of the Uranus type on boats with a displacement of up to 1000 tons. For this, there are carriers of the corvette class and above.
But in order to complicate the existence of an ordinary high-speed boat of the Gyurza-M type or whatever the allies will present to the Ukrainian fleet, Attacks are more than enough.
The fact that today our factories have begun to build Fireflies again is wonderful. This is evidence that there is an understanding of possible further provocations on the part of Ukraine, fortunately, there is someone to incite.
But ships need to be armed based on the fact that the current situation is not the same as it was 20 years ago. And stroking a potential enemy with machine guns is not very significant.
With regards to the boats of the 10410 project and how they should be armed, the 10412 Triglav project, built in one copy for the Slovenian Navy, looks like the most profitable option.
If we start from this option, then we get a very good set of weapons in general: one 76-mm AK-176, one six-barreled 30-mm AK-630, 4-8 Ataka missiles and 16 Igla MANPADS. 14,5-mm machine guns and AK-306 can be left overboard, and instead of them, install something small-sized, but harmful from the electronic warfare area.
4-6 such boats, based in the immediate vicinity of the Crimean Bridge facility, will be able not only to ensure the safety of the bridge, but also to take control of the entire adjacent water area of the Black and Azov Seas.
The first ship of project 10410 "Korsakov" was launched back in 1989. Two extreme (and I hope not the last), "Sochi" and "Novorossiysk" - in the past. It remains to be hoped that these frankly successful ships will have a very long life, because the protection of our maritime borders, especially in the Black Sea, is a very important task.