Features and achievements of the Turkish military industry

33

Tank Altay - the most famous "long-term construction" of the Turkish military-industrial complex. Otokar Photos

Turkey seeks to build a powerful and developed military industry with a presence in all major industries and areas. Due to this, it is planned to ensure the maximum possible fulfillment of the requirements of its own army and a profitable presence in the international market. As the statistics of recent years show, such tasks are being successfully solved and give Ankara reasons for great optimism.

Key indicators


In recent decades, Turkey has been taking all the necessary measures to develop its armed forces, which directly affects the state of the military-industrial complex. General trends in these areas are demonstrated by the dynamics of military spending. So, in 2000, Turkey spent 6,25 billion lira on defense, in 2010 the military budget amounted to 26,5 billion lira, and in 2020 - almost 124,5 billion lira. In terms of "modern" US dollars, this is equivalent to 12,5 billion, 10,9 billion and 19,6 billion, respectively.



A significant part of the military budget goes to defense enterprises. In addition, large expenditures on development work are envisaged. To date, such expenses have exceeded $ 1,7 billion per year. Also, money is being allocated for the development of military technologies - already more than $ 250 million. At the same time, it is known about plans to further increase the budget and the volume of purchases from local enterprises.


Recently launched production of engines for the Altai MBT. Photo by the Ministry of Defense of Turkey

This kind of spending pays off. The military-industrial complex has mastered the production of armored vehicles and weapons of the ground forces, naval equipment, some aviation complexes, electronic systems, etc. Currently, Turkey independently satisfies approx. 70% of the needs of the army and at the same time strengthening its presence in the international market.

Internal and external commercial success can be seen in the rankings of the largest arms manufacturers. So, in the "Top-100" from the SIPRI Institute for 2010, there was only one Turkish company - Aselsan AS. Then it got into the rating for the first time and took 92nd place. In 2018, Turkish Aerospace Industries (54th place) entered the last such rating from SIPRI together with Aselsan (84th place).

Now a similar rating is made by Defense News. According to him, seven Turkish companies entered the last Top 100 for 2019. The most successful of them remains Aselsan. At the same time, three other companies slightly worsened their positions in comparison with 2018, and two were included in the rating for the first time.

Features and achievements of the Turkish military industry

SAM Hisar-O - Turkey's own development. Photo by Aselsan AS

In recent years, the Turkish military-industrial complex has shown noticeable success in terms of export. The total volume of annual supplies reached the level of $ 3 billion. The main foreign buyer of Turkish military products is the United States, which is mainly supplied with components and assemblies for various equipment of its own production. American contracts account for up to 60% of exports. Smaller customers are Oman, Qatar and Malaysia, which received 140 million worth of products last year alone.

Organizational matters


The military-industrial complex of Turkey includes several dozen enterprises of various sizes, represented in a number of major industries. Manufacturers of armored vehicles, artillery and missile weapons, ships, UAVs, electronics, etc. are actively developing. At the same time, it has not yet been possible to reach an acceptable level of technologies and volumes in all directions, which is why dependence on foreign partners and supplies remains.

The import problem has recently become more acute. After the well-known events of last autumn, several foreign states refused to supply Turkey with their military products. Because of this, several large and important projects were called into question, incl. providing a large share of exports.


UDC Anadolu during construction, January 2021. Photo by Wikimedia Commons

Taking into account the issues of organization and peculiarities of activity, Turkish military industry enterprises can be divided into three main groups. The first is the oldest organizations that are part of the Turkish Armed Forces Foundation (Türk Silahlı Kuvvetlerini Güçlendirme Vakfı'nın, TSKGV). These are the companies Aselsan, Havelsan, Roketsan, etc., created in the seventies and eighties. With extensive experience in various fields and developed production facilities, TSKGV companies perform approx. 40% of domestic and export orders.

Since the beginning of the XNUMXs, along with the growth of expenses and purchases, a second group has been formed. This includes relatively new joint ventures organized by Turkey with significant foreign participation. The most interesting representatives of this direction are Turkish Aerospace Industries and Otokar.

In recent years, a third group has appeared - new enterprises created with the direct participation of representatives of the Turkish authorities or their closest circle. The most famous example of this approach is Baykar Makina, the head of which is a relative of the Turkish president. BMC, in turn, was created by the leaders of the ruling party.


At one of the Turkish Air Force bases. The sentry's plane and rifle are of foreign origin. Photo by US Air Force

All the main enterprises of the military-industrial complex receive support at one level or another, but so far they have been able to manage without large and high-profile conflicts. Fields of activity are distributed between different companies and organizations, taking into account their capabilities and ability to promote their interests. Direct cooperation of various kinds also often takes place. Thus, about two-thirds of R&D and R&D activities are carried out with the participation of enterprises from the TSKGV structure.

For yourself and for export


The military-industrial complex of Turkey provides most of the needs of the army, but it is not possible to fulfill all the tasks set. Thus, enterprises cope with the task of repair and modernization of cash tanks, but the development and production of new ones proved to be an overly difficult task. The first Turkish MBT Altay is still preparing for the series. However, there are already large plans for their own rearmament and the first agreements on export.

A wide range of automotive, military and special equipment for ground and other troops is produced. Attempts are being made to master new directions. For example, the presence of the Turkish military-industrial complex in the field of artillery and missile weapons is gradually expanding. At the same time, armored vehicles from Turkey enjoy a certain popularity abroad, in their original form and as a basis for joint development.

So far, the construction of the naval forces is mainly based on foreign aid. All the main types of surface ships and submarines in the Navy are built according to foreign projects or using foreign experience. For example, the largest combat unit fleet in the near future will become the UDC Anadolu, built under a Spanish license. In such a situation, Turkey is unable to produce ships for foreign orders.


The Bayraktar TB2 strike-reconnaissance UAV is the main "star" of the Turkish military-industrial complex. Photo Wikimedia Commons

An ambiguous situation is emerging in the field of aviation. In the field of manned aircraft, Turkey is still only capable of repairing and modernizing foreign-built equipment. At the same time, it is planned to create its own fighter of the current 5th generation. Also, until recently, the Turkish industry participated in the American F-35 fighter project as a supplier of a number of instruments. At the same time, we managed to master the licensed production of foreign helicopters, as well as create our own modifications. TAI's T129 combat helicopters are already being sold to third countries.

Much better things are in the field of unmanned aircraft. Baykar Makina and other organizations, having received assistance at the highest level, have developed a whole line of UAVs for various purposes, including reconnaissance and strike products and Drones-kamikaze. Such equipment entered service with the Turkish army, and also took its place in the international market.

Plans for the future


Currently, the Turkish military-industrial complex is participating in the implementation of the national development plan for 2019-23. By the end of this period, the military industry should provide 75% of the needs of its own army. It is also required to increase sales of weapons and equipment to foreign armed forces, which will attract money to the country, and will also become an additional incentive for the development of the military-industrial complex.


Advanced UAV TAI Anka-2. Photo by TAI

Trends and processes observed in recent years show that such a development plan is realistic, and the tasks set can be achieved within the specified time frame. The military industry continues to develop and show new successes. Several samples, including the well-known "long-term construction", have been brought to production and sales, and there are also serious investments in promising development and renovation of production facilities. At the same time, negative factors and risks remain, such as the refusal of third countries to supply the necessary products.

Thus, in the last 10-15 years, Turkey has been able to carry out a major modernization of its military-industrial complex, thanks to which it has received a number of new opportunities. Now they are used to develop their army and earn money in the international market, and the situation as a whole is conducive to optimism. However, with all the achievements and successes, Turkey is unlikely to ever be able to reach the level of world leaders - Russia, China or the United States.
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  1. -6
    27 May 2021
    The Sultan's plans are enormous ... who will stop him now?
    1. -3
      27 May 2021
      In fact, Erdogan's personality plays a minor role here. All these processes began in the 80s. Such industries have been created for decades. It takes several generations to change.
      And now the results of the policy of the Turkish state over the past 40 years. Erdogan actively uses them, attributing these victories to himself.

      A vivid example:

      Baykar Makina is a Turkish aircraft manufacturer founded in 1984 year as an entrepreneur Ozdemir Bayraktar.
      In the first years after its foundation, the company was engaged in production of parts for engines, pumps and automobile transmissions. (thanks to the import substitution program)
      Since 2000, Baykar Makina began work in the field of aircraft construction, in particular, in the development and production of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). These works were actively attended by sons Ozdemir Bayraktar - Haluk, Selcuk and Akhmet Bayraktary.
      The research team of the company consists of 800 people, engineers and technicians.
      Selcuk Bayraktar graduated from Istanbul Technical University in 2002. Has a master's degree The University of Pennsylvania and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Doctorate holder Georgia Institute of Technology

      And he married daughter of Erdogan in 2016... Those. at the beginning, his family became prosperous in the production of spare parts, then he became the "star" of the Turkish UAV building, only then he received permission to get married.
      1. 0
        28 May 2021
        then he became the "star" of the Turkish UAV building, only then he received permission to get married.

        The brothers, of course, are talented and hardworking.
        As Selchuk got married, they began to receive orders.
        Prior to that, their UAVs were not particularly interested in the army.

        Selcuk Bayraktar became widely known in May 2016 by taking part in the joint military training in Izmir, where Baykar Makina presented its new development: the Bayraktar TB2 reconnaissance unmanned aerial vehicle. By the decision of the Chief of the General Staff of the Turkish Armed Forces Hulusi Akar, this UAV was adopted by the Turkish army

        When did he get married? In May 2016. hi
    2. -10
      27 May 2021
      the turkey also thought to marry the cook ... the result is known to everyone))
      the main thing is to make sure that turkey interests do not spread over our territory))
    3. 0
      27 May 2021
      Allah is known. They have a bad receiver there. Well, as history shows, the Ottomans have their own mini-cycle - a la China, good sultans -> so-so sultans -> collapse / struggle for power / female citizen / fall into the abyss -> decades of extrication - well, further in a circle.
    4. -3
      27 May 2021
      Solntseliky ... with cubs
    5. +2
      27 May 2021
      He will stop himself. Defense spending is huge, and the economy is lousy, and no improvement is foreseen. 2% of GDP for defense is the norm for NATO, although it is ignored by many. Because it is very difficult for the economy. Even Germany is 1,4%.
      1. +1
        27 May 2021
        To justify military spending, he needs victories, albeit tiny ...
        1. 0
          28 May 2021
          So far, with victories, he is also lousy)))
          1. 0
            28 May 2021
            So yes, military and political victories are not ice, BUT, it must be borne in mind that the case, albeit not organized by him, he picked up and carries on ... the idea of ​​pan-Turkism, the economic expansion of Turkish companies outside and other different things, if not on takeoff, then it does not stand still, that's for sure!
            Those. for such a companion neighbor, you need an eye and an eye, and then you will not have time to tweet, as he will intercept something, something that would have been handy!
            In general, who can stop him ??? This is not an idle question, but a very topical one! For us, not least.
            1. 0
              28 May 2021
              Not according to Senka's hat, the navel will be untied. It was good when Western technologies, albeit not the newest ones, were flowing, but now Erdik is stuck with the West and this is his mistake. Gulen is sitting in the United States and waiting for an opportunity.
              1. 0
                28 May 2021
                Maybe so, and a pandemic, in an easy one, will not be enough for them.
                It will be more or less clear later.
                We do not discount the accounts, you never know how things will turn out.
                1. 0
                  28 May 2021
                  You can "be friends" with someone, against someone. But you cannot conflict alone with everyone at once. Erdogan has spoiled relations with everyone, to a greater or lesser extent. We do not take into account his friends - Azerbaijan, Georgia, Banderland. They are not independent players. They will hand over Erdogan as soon as they receive the command.
                  1. 0
                    28 May 2021
                    Who will be SULTAN, it doesn't matter, the main thing is in which direction it goes !!!
                    And the options, alas, are worse than each other!
                    1. 0
                      28 May 2021
                      For now, he walks towards the personal graveyard.
          2. 0
            30 May 2021
            But there is a faithful Pykhtotin. Who killed the prisoners in the 96th. And, by the way, he is aiming for president.
  2. -8
    27 May 2021
    All is well, as long as you can buy parts in the EU and the United States. I would have looked at their production in the conditions of Russia, South Korea or Iran
    1. +2
      27 May 2021
      Sorry, exactly South Korea?
      1. +2
        27 May 2021
        Quote: Avior
        exactly South Korea?

        probably confused with the North.
        Although there is also a military-industrial complex.
        The Turks were working. And they worked efficiently. And they managed to fight with their weapons.
        They themselves worked, they created them, they themselves fought and advertised for them.
        And quite effective.
        Everything is deserved.
        Because at one time they did not lose their bright young heads, they taught and taught in the best schools in the world. And they were interested and provided.
        This is no less difficult for the state. But they did it. Good example.
        1. +2
          28 May 2021
          Turks have been surprising lately.
          Their achievements do not at all match the ideas of many who have been to Antalya at sea - waiters, obsessive sellers, agricultural workers in greenhouses, at most builders. As it turned out, they are very diverse.
          I remember that a similar effect was once produced on me by a book about a king - a songbird, which, out of habit to read what falls into his hands, he took from his wife "for a look" - before that there were simplified ideas about the Turks.
  3. +8
    27 May 2021
    Turkey stands out for the almost complete absence of Chinese-made goods.
    Most of what is Chinese in Europe, Turkish in Turkey.
    1. +1
      28 May 2021
      Quote: Avior
      Turkey stands out for the almost complete absence of Chinese-made goods.
      Most of what is Chinese in Europe, Turkish in Turkey.

      Because they work with China in the same market. Both those and those produce mainly household goods and simple technical products. The Turks almost repeated the Chinese version of economic development. Therefore, the products are almost identical. The labor force in Turkey is also cheap. And therefore, Chinese goods cannot penetrate there ...
      1. 0
        28 May 2021
        If all countries where labor is cheap showed such results ...
  4. 0
    27 May 2021
    The UDC has a strange nose, what kind of planes did they want to use on it, penguins with a short take-off? No.
    1. 0
      28 May 2021
      Yes, we were going
      It sits down vertically, everything is thought out, when landing, the fuel is depleted, so it sits down much easier than taking off in terms of fuel consumption. In addition, they sit down automatically.
  5. +4
    28 May 2021
    The enemy and his potential cannot be underestimated, but this is already the second article on VO, where the capabilities of the Turkish military-industrial complex are not only greatly exaggerated, but, unfortunately, the assessment and analysis itself is very superficial.
    Western NATO members and Turkey's partners in this bloc keep it on a short leash, preventing the transfer of key, critical technologies. The formation of their own school among the Turks is not quite complete, but they are not even half way.
    All that the Turks shine with now is either outright old-fashioned or yesterday's technology, not even today, and there are no prerequisites to talk about the groundwork and prerequisites for a breakthrough and leadership tomorrow.

    Take ANY project in Turkey over the past decade, any fiasco, failure.
    1. Light reconnaissance and attack helicopter T-129 Attack, in fact a copy of the Italian helicopter with other American engines, less advanced, but cheaper local systems. NATO partners are not interested, attempts to export supplies to Azerbaijan and Pakistan were blocked by the United States and not only.
    2. Fyrtyn's self-propelled guns, again localized, frankly simplified and accordingly cheaper, a copy of the South Korean Thunder self-propelled guns. NATO partners, even a dwarf from the Baltic states, buy the original of South Korea, that is, they are not interested in the Turkish self-propelled gun, export supplies are in fact impossible, since the engine, transmission, etc. German production.
    The Turks claim that they have developed a domestic engine and transmission for this self-propelled guns and a number of other equipment, including infantry fighting vehicles, but these are words, and until they bring everything to mind, years will pass, by that time the same Fyrtyn self-propelled gun will not be interesting even to their army.
    3. The Altai MBT, again a simplified copy of the Korean Black Panther MBT, has not even begun deliveries for its own Armed Forces, the deliveries of German engines and transmissions are blocked by Germany, the supply of armor by France. All the Turks ended up with was the production of towers from the Altai MBT and the modernization of the old versions of the Leopard 2 by installing these towers on them.
    4. The developed light tank together with Malaysia by installing a European-made turret (Kokeril) on Allah knows once again the modernized chassis of the American M113 armored personnel carrier, which is the basis of all tracked armored vehicles of the Turkish Armed Forces. With this tower for their aircraft, the Turks are again in flight, so they are developing an "improved" one, that is, their own and wretched one.
    5. BMP Tulpar, the same trouble as with the Altai MBT, plus its developer Otokar, to put it mildly, is not in favor, because of the disagreements between its owner Koch, one of the richest Turks, with Erdogan.
    6. The wheeled armored personnel carrier Arma, also developed by Otokar, was also "stabbed" for the same reasons. Instead, it will be armed with an armored personnel carrier produced by the Federal Tax Service, a state-owned company, the manufacturer of the same "forever young" chassis of the M113 armored personnel carrier, and this despite the fact that their armored personnel carrier was lost by ArmA and tested in its own armed forces and abroad.
    7. Assault rifle MRT 76, a rifle from Heckler and Koch spoiled by the Turks, in fact, the American M16 improved by the Germans by introducing a gas piston with a short stroke. By the way, in the photo in the article, where a Turkish fighter against the background of an F16 fighter, in his hands is a Heckler and Koh G3 assault rifle produced in Turkey under license, as well as a machine gun and a submachine gun developed by the same company.
    The Turks for the MRI 76 preferred to keep the main caliber 7,62x51 (.308 Vin) as in the G3, the 5,56x45 (.223 Rem) version is produced only for the police forces.
    It is natural that few people were interested in this Turkish masterpiece in the foreign market, and the fighters of the Turkish special forces prefer licensed copies of assault and sniper rifles, and Heckler and Koch machine guns, prefer our AK, SVD and PK.
    The closest and most loyal ally Azerbaijan, having signed a memorandum on MRI 76, in the end chose to buy a license from us for the production of 100 thousand. AK-74M and in our own caliber 5,45x39.
    8. Impact UAV Bayraktar, that is to say, is promoted, since it was used more intensively than UAVs of the same class of production in other countries, but in terms of level it is significantly inferior to analogues.
    9. Large-caliber MLRS, here it is entirely China and not the most modern.
    10. OTRK here they still grow and grow to neighboring Iran.

    Etc.

    The point is not that the Turks are stupid, but that they simply do not have modern technologies or schools and are completely dependent on imports. Their military-industrial complex is still a teenager who has so far only learned to assemble LEGO constructors from other people's parts, donated or found in the trash heap, or bought from a junk dealer.

    We must be aware that all the "breakthroughs" in the Turkish military-industrial complex are more PR Erdogan. So, by the way, he is already flying into space almost the other day, but in fact the Turks do not even have a decent rocket for the OTRK. Basically, these "successes of Turkey" are replicated in our country by the citizens of the Turkic-speaking countries of the CIS.
    1. 0
      28 May 2021
      Well, Erdogan changes course every day, "now yours, now ours" ... You cannot trust such a person ... Therefore, the West does not allow him.
  6. +3
    28 May 2021
    Quote: onstar9
    Well, Erdogan changes course every day, "now yours, now ours" ... You cannot trust such a person ... Therefore, the West does not allow him.

    For the West, Erdogan is like Lukashenka for us, no more, no less. They stupidly tolerate him, they only pull him back when he obviously begins to destroy the Turkish army, which he fears like the devil of incense. For the West, Turkey is the Bosphorus and the 2nd largest army in NATO, or more precisely, the number 1 resource for cannon fodder in case of a major conflict involving this bloc, including in the event of a war against us.
  7. 0
    28 May 2021
    Quote: TermNachTER
    Gulen is sitting in the United States and waiting for an opportunity.

    He is 81 years old and suffers from 3 complex diseases.
    So Gülen is not a rival to Erdogan!
  8. +1
    28 May 2021
    Quote: TermNachTER
    We do not take into account his friends - Azerbaijan, Georgia, Banderland. They are not independent players. They will hand over Erdogan as soon as they receive the command.

    And from their friends Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, etc. as independent players do you take into account? Do you take Great Britain, Germany and Pakistan as independent players into account on the side of Turkey? Do you take into account the fascist Assad regime on your side as an independent player? And who do you take into account on your side as an independent player?
  9. 0
    28 May 2021
    [i] [/ i] Yes, the Turks themselves develop and develop their country, which cannot be said about us. Having everything, we lose it all, at such a rate the people will disappear from the face of the earth, and Russia from the world map, this power and oligarchs are thieves almost brought the country to the handle and lead further into oblivion.
  10. +1
    30 May 2021
    Quote: Azimuth
    .... We must be aware that all the "breakthroughs" in the Turkish military-industrial complex are more PR Erdogan. So, by the way, he is already flying into space almost the other day, but in fact the Turks do not even have
    a decent rocket to the OTRK. Basically, these "successes of Turkey" are replicated in our country by the citizens of the Turkic-speaking countries of the CIS.

    plus, briefly and to the point.

    in the photo (SAM Hisar-O - own development of Turkey. Photo by Aselsan AS)
    German equipment, with a further deterioration in relations with the European Union, there will most likely be no spare parts or equipment - you will have to "import substitution", given the disastrous state of the Turkish economy, it is not a fact that it will work out.
  11. 0
    2 2021 June
    The Western world is not that simple. But! if something works flawlessly. Then they don't change the schema. When it was necessary to tear China away from communist Eurasia. China has been given technology and markets. When it was necessary to create resistance to the Soviet troops in Afghanistan. They created sabotage schools, allocated funds. And they started a guerrilla war. Also for screaming in European countries, they often substitute the plane. Turkey was given carte blanche for the advancement and development of the Transcaucasus. Turkey can also get a part of Syria, but without the oil regions. BUT! Plans of the West and Turkey to get a part of the Caucasus. And if Turkey follows this path, everyone will endure.

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