Military Review

Heavy twin-engined Japanese fighters versus American bombers

90
Heavy twin-engined Japanese fighters versus American bombers

In the pre-war period, the concept of a heavy escort fighter with two engines was quite fashionable. However, the actual course of hostilities has shown that twin-engine fighters are themselves very vulnerable to attacks from more maneuverable and high-speed light single-engine fighters. In this regard, already produced heavy fighters with two engines were mainly used as light high-speed attack bombers and as night fighters.


Ki-45 Toryu heavy fighter


Testing of the Ki-45 Toryu began in 1939, and at the end of 1941 this heavy fighter was put into service. The aircraft of the first production modification Ki-45Kai-a were equipped with two 14-cylinder air-cooled Ha-25 engines with a capacity of 1000 hp each. from. From the end of 1942, more powerful 14-cylinder air-cooled engines Ha-102, 1080 hp each, began to be installed. from.


Ki-45 Toryu

The offensive armament consisted of two fixed 12,7 mm machine guns mounted in the nose of the fuselage and one 20 mm cannon in the lower fuselage. At the disposal of the radio operator was a turret 7,7-mm machine gun for firing backwards. Approximately two dozen heavy fighters in the field were modified to fight enemy bombers at night. Instead of an upper fuel tank, two 12,7 mm machine guns were placed in the fuselage.


Taking into account that 20-mm cannon and a pair of 12,7-mm machine guns were not enough to confidently defeat a heavy bomber, several Ki-45Kai-b aircraft armed with 37-mm tank cannon Type 98. aviation By the standards, this weapon had high ballistic characteristics. A high-explosive fragmentation projectile with a mass of 644 g left the barrel with an initial speed of 580 m / s and had an effective range of up to 800 meters. The only question was the accuracy of targeting and the probability of hitting with one shot. The gun was loaded manually by a radio operator. And due to the low rate of fire, its effectiveness was low.

At the end of 1943, serial production of the Ki-45Kai-c began with the 37mm Ho-203 automatic cannon. This gun had a rate of fire of 120 rounds / min. The initial velocity of the projectile is 570 m / s, the effective range is up to 500 m, the ammunition load is 15 rounds. The 37 mm cannon was installed instead of the front 12,7 mm machine guns, the 20 mm cannon at the bottom of the fuselage was retained.


Ki-45 fighter armed with a 37 mm cannon

In 1944, production of the Ki-45Kai-d night fighter began, on which, instead of a 20-mm cannon, two 32-mm cannons were installed in the fuselage, directed forward and upward at an angle of 20 °. The rear defensive machine gun on this modification was dismantled.

At the end of 1944, several Ki-45Kai-e night interceptors with Taki-2 radar were launched. Due to the fact that the radar equipment took up a lot of space, this aircraft had only one 40 mm Ho-301 cannon with 10 rounds of ammunition.

The most popular were the Ki-45Kai-c (595 units) and Ki-45Kai-d (473 units). Aircraft of these modifications practically did not differ in flight data. An aircraft with a normal takeoff weight of 5500 kg at an altitude of 6500 m in horizontal flight could accelerate to 547 km / h. Ceiling - up to 10000 m. Practical range - 2000 km.

For an aircraft of this size and specific purpose, the Ki-45 was built in fairly large series. Taking into account the experimental and pre-production vehicles, more than 1939 units were produced from 1945 to July 1700. The main disadvantage of all Ki-45s when used as an interceptor was the insufficiently high flight speed. This twin-engine fighter could attack B-29s cruising at economical speed. After the discovery of the Toryu, the pilots of the Superfortress gave full throttle and broke away from the Japanese heavy fighters. Due to the inability to attack again, in early 1945, Japanese pilots flying the Ki-45 began to use ram attacks.

J1N Gekko Heavy Night Fighter


In parallel with the Ki-45 Toryu, created at the Kawasaki company, the Nakajima company based on the terms of reference issued by the command fleet, developed another heavy fighter intended to escort land-based torpedo bombers and naval aviation bombers.

When this aircraft was already created, the Japanese admirals came to the conclusion that the heavy twin-engine aircraft was unlikely to be able to withstand light interceptors in maneuverable combat. And the problem of covering the bombers was partly solved by using outboard fuel tanks on single-engine fighters. However, the plane itself was not abandoned. And they retrained him as a distant scout. Serial production of the aircraft, designated J1N-c Gekko (also known as the Type 2 Marine Reconnaissance Aircraft), began in December 1941. It was officially adopted by the Navy in July 1942.

The aerial reconnaissance aircraft with a maximum takeoff weight of 7 kg had good data for a vehicle of this class. Two engines with a capacity of 527 hp from. each, provided a speed in horizontal flight of up to 1 km / h, a flight range of 130 km (up to 520 km with outboard tanks).

In the spring of 1943, the commander of one of the units armed with J1N1-c reconnaissance aircraft suggested converting this aircraft into a night fighter. In the field workshops, on several aircraft in the navigator's cockpit, two 20-mm cannons were installed with a 30 ° forward-upward tilt and two more - with a downward tilt. The converted aircraft received the designation J1N1-c Kai. Soon, the improvised interceptors achieved their first victories, they managed to shoot down and seriously damage several B-24 Liberator bombers. The success of the experiment, as well as the awareness of the need for night fighters, prompted the command of the fleet to issue the Nakajima firm with the task of starting the production of night interceptors. The production of Gecko fighters continued until December 1944. A total of 479 aircraft of all modifications were built.


J1N1-s Gekko night fighter

Production of the night fighter, designated J1N1-s, began in August 1943. The aircraft's armament was similar to the J1N1-c KAI, but taking into account the intended purpose, some changes were made to the design. Combat experience showed the ineffectiveness of cannons that fired downward, so over time they were abandoned. These machines were designated J1N1-sa.


J1N1-sa Gekko night fighter with airborne radar

Some of the fighters were equipped with radar with an antenna in the bow. FD-2 and FD-3 radars were installed on Gekko heavy fighters. Radars of this type operated in the 1,2 GHz band. With a pulse power of 1,5–2 kW, the detection range was 3–4 km. Weight - 70 kg. In total, no more than 100 stations were manufactured. Searchlights were installed on other interceptors in the bow. Sometimes, instead of a locator or searchlight, a 20-mm cannon was placed in the bow. The cannons and radar antennas worsened aerodynamics, so the maximum flight speed of these night interceptors did not exceed 507 km / h.

After the Japanese troops left the Philippines, the surviving J1N1-s heavy fighters were relocated to Japan, where they were included in the air defense units. The relatively low speed did not allow the Gekko pilots to re-attack the B-29, and therefore often rammed. At the end of the war, most of the surviving Gekko were used as kamikaze.

Heavy fighter Ki-46


Another heavy Japanese heavy fighter converted from a reconnaissance aircraft was the Ki-46-III Dinah. The reconnaissance aircraft with a normal takeoff weight of 5800 kg was originally equipped with 1000 hp engines. from. and in horizontal flight it could accelerate to 600 km / h. This aircraft was put into service in 1941 and initially received the army designation Type 100, in combat squadrons it was called Ki-46. To protect against fighter attacks, the radio operator had a rifle-caliber machine gun at his disposal.


Air reconnaissance Type 100

In 1942, the Type 100 reconnaissance aircraft was one of the fastest aircraft in the army aviation. In this connection, it was decided to adapt it to intercept American bombers. Initially, the command of the imperial army could not find anything better than to install a 46-mm Type 37 tank gun in the nose of the Ki-98-II modification aircraft. The first prototype of the cannon "Dina" was ready in January 1943. The tests were deemed satisfactory, after which 16 more such machines were built. These aircraft were sent to reinforce the Japanese aviation group in New Guinea, but they did not achieve much success there.

Due to the acute shortage of high-speed interceptors, in February 1943, Ki-46-II scouts were first equipped with Ta-Dan cluster bomb holders, which contained 30-76 Type 2 HEAT fragmentation bombs. This made it possible to use unarmed reconnaissance as interceptors. And in the future, "air bombs" were used until the end of the war.


Bomb cassette Ta-Dan

Containers, however, like bombs, were developed primarily for use against enemy bombers, although they were allowed to be used against ground targets. The total weight of the containers was 17–35 kg. The Type 2 bomb weighed 330 g and contained 100 g of a mixture of TNT and RDX. The bomb had an elongated aerodynamic shape. In the bow there was a cumulative notch.


The bomb fuse was located in the tail section between the stabilizers and could be set to shock or detonate after a certain time after the release (5-30 s). This bomb had excellent aerodynamics. The trajectory of its flight and, accordingly, the direction of the main force of the explosion were strictly parallel to the velocity vector, which greatly facilitated aiming.

Theoretically, a bomb attack from the rear hemisphere looked the most preferable, however, in practice, Japanese fighter pilots were too vulnerable to fire from tail gunners. In this regard, high-altitude bombing tactics were used against a dense formation of bombers. At the same time, the excess of Japanese fighters flying in parallel courses over the formation of bombers did not exceed 800 m.

However, before dropping the cassettes, it was necessary to accurately determine the lead, which was very difficult. In addition, at the time of the drop, the target was outside the space visible to the pilot of the fighter. In this regard, several other methods of using "air bombs" have been developed.

One of the early tactics involved an attack from a frontal direction exceeding 1000 meters. At a distance of 700 meters from the attacked target, the pilot switched the fighter into a dive at an angle of 45 °, aimed at a standard rifle scope and reset the cassette.

By the time the massive B-29 raids on Japan began, the optimal tactics for using anti-aircraft bombs had been developed. Thus, the massive use of Type 2 bombs with remote fuses presupposed not so much the destruction of an enemy bomber as disorientation and blinding of the pilots and gunners of defensive installations. The attack was carried out from the frontal direction by the forces of several interceptors. The first two, armed with Ta-Dan cassettes, walked side by side, dropped their cargo and abruptly left in different directions - the left fighter banked to the left, the right one, respectively, to the right. The bombs exploded right in front of the formation of the attacked bomber. After which, as a rule, he broke down. And the shooters of different bombers could not provide mutual cover. For a while, the disoriented riflemen reduced the effectiveness of their deadly fire, and other Japanese fighters, taking advantage of this, attacked the Superfortresses using machine-gun and cannon armament.

Despite the rather active use of "air bombs", the results of their use were very modest. it weapon possessed a mass of shortcomings, could not compete with traditional small arms and cannon weapons and compensate for the obvious weakness of the Japanese fighter aircraft.

Taking into account the German experience, unguided aircraft missiles with fragmentation warheads equipped with fuses programmed to detonate after a certain time interval could be effective against large groups of B-29s. Such missiles had a simple design and, given the fairly dense military-technical cooperation between Germany and Japan, they could be quickly mastered in production. However, nothing is known about the massive use of such weapons by the Japanese in combat conditions.

In the late autumn of 1944, when the territory of the Japanese metropolis began to be subjected to the methodical raids of the Superfortresses, a full-fledged interceptor was created on the basis of the Ki-46 reconnaissance aircraft. In November 1944, 46 mm No-46 automatic cannons were installed on six Ki-37-II and one Ki-203-III in the field workshops. The guns were placed in the rear scout cabin at an angle of 75 ° forward and upward. For the first time, improvised interceptors went into battle on November 24, 1944.

Against the background of a total shortage of fighters capable of counteracting the devastating raids of the B-29, a large-scale conversion of scouts into heavy fighters was carried out at repair enterprises and factory facilities.
interceptors.

Ki-46-III Kai, equipped with two 1500 hp engines. with., had a normal take-off weight of 6228 kg. The practical flight range reached 2000 km. Service ceiling -10500 m. According to reference data, this model in level flight could reach a speed of 629 km / h. But, apparently, such altitude and speed characteristics are fair for an unarmed scout. And the installation of weapons could not but worsen the flight data.


In addition to the interceptor with a 37 mm gun on the back, the Ki-46-III Kai-Otsu was produced, armed only with a pair of 20 mm cannons in the bow. There was also a "mixed" modification of the Ki-46-III Kai-Otsu-Hei with 20mm and 37mm cannons. However, this model did not become widespread, since the increased firepower caused a significant drop in flight speed.


Heavy fighter Ki-46-III Kai-Otsu-Hei

In total, approximately 1800 aircraft of the Ki-46 family were built. How many of them were converted into interceptors or immediately built in a fighter modification, it was not possible to establish.


Heavy fighter Ki-46 attacking B-29

Assessing the results of the use of a high-speed reconnaissance aircraft in an unusual role of a fighter-interceptor, we can say that the fighter versions of the Ki-46-III Kai were nothing more than a forced improvisation designed to plug a gap in the Japanese army aviation. "Dina" was a very good high-altitude and high-speed reconnaissance aircraft, but her fighter turned out to be very mediocre: with a low rate of climb, low survivability and weak armament.


The Ki-46-III Kai-Otsu-Hei version with the 37mm cannon was too inert and heavy, and the more numerous Ki-46-III Kai-Otsu, armed with only two 20mm cannons, were too much to fight the B-29. low-power.

The effectiveness of Japanese fighters against B-29 bombers


Taking into account the acute shortage of high-speed fighters with powerful weapons capable of confidently intercepting the B-29, the Japanese actively used air rams when repelling the raids of the Super Fortresses.

At the same time, unlike the "kamikaze" attacking the warships of the allies, the pilots of the Japanese fighter-interceptors were not suicides. They were tasked with surviving as much as possible. Sometimes, after a ramming strike, Japanese pilots succeeded not only in jumping out with a parachute, but also successfully landing a damaged fighter. So out of ten Japanese aircraft that rammed their opponents on January 27, 1945, four pilots escaped with parachutes, one brought his plane back to base and five were killed.


B-29 destroyed by ramming

At the initial stage, such tactics gave certain results, and the losses of the B-29 in the first raids on the Japanese islands were very sensitive.

The loss data reported by the parties varies greatly. According to information published in publicly available sources, a total of 414 "Superfortresses" were lost, of which only 147 had combat damage. At the same time, the Americans admit the loss from the actions of 93 B-29 fighters.

The pilots of the Japanese fighters announced the destruction of 111 heavy bombers only by ram attacks. In total, according to the Japanese side, more than 400 V-29s were destroyed by air defense forces. In the course of repelling the B-29 raids, the Japanese aviation lost approximately 1450 fighters in air battles. And about 2800 more aircraft were destroyed during the bombing of airfields or died in flight accidents.

Apparently, American statistics only take into account bombers shot down directly over the target. The crews of many B-29 bombers damaged by Japanese air defense could not reach their airfields, some of them crashed during an emergency landing. And the actual losses of bombers from Japanese fighters were greater.


The photo shows an attack by a Japanese fighter on a formation of American bombers.

On the other hand, the "Superfortresses" often demonstrated miracles of combat survivability, and in some cases returned to their airfields, having received very heavy damage.


B-29 No. 42-65246 after emergency landing

So, on January 27, 1945, during a raid on an aircraft engine plant in the vicinity of Tokyo, B-29 with number 42-65246 was fired on and twice rammed. The Japanese fighters that rammed the Superfortress crashed, and the bomber, which several Japanese pilots were claiming to shoot down, was able to return to its base. During landing, the B-29 broke, but its crew survived.

Quite often, bombers returned from raids with damage caused by anti-aircraft artillery, as well as by the weapons of Japanese interceptors.


So, B-29 No. 42-24664 of the 500th bomber group landed on Iwo Jima, two engines of which on the night of April 13, 1945 were disabled by fighters over Tokyo. When landing, the plane rolled out of the runway and crashed into a stationary car.


Another example of phenomenal combat survivability is B-29 No. 42-24627, which received more than 18 hits on April 1945, 350 during the bombing of Japanese airfields in Kyushu. Surprisingly, none of its crew was injured, the plane was able to return home and land.

In all three cases, heavily damaged aircraft were written off, but they were not included in combat losses. However, no matter how the Americans manipulated the statistics of losses, the US aviation industry easily made up for them.

Deprived of access to raw materials and exhausted by the war, Japan did not have such an opportunity. By May 1945, the resistance of the Japanese fighter aircraft was almost completely broken, and in July the B-29 groups operated practically unhindered. The destruction of airfields, fuel supplies, as well as the death of the best pilots in battles in the air and on the ground, put Japanese fighter aircraft on the brink of collapse. It all boiled down to individual attacks against armada of heavy bombers, which basically ended in the destruction of the attackers.

By that time, the number of combat-ready Japanese fighters was estimated at no more than 1000 aircraft. And in the conditions of air superiority of enemy aviation, they could do little. Although the B-29 suffered losses until the end of hostilities, they were mainly caused by anti-aircraft artillery, associated with equipment failure or pilot errors.

The surviving Japanese fighter pilots were unable to counter the Superfortresses' attacks and were ordered to keep the remaining aircraft in reserve for the final battle expected in the fall. Japan's air defense has been weakened to a critical level. In addition to the shortage of fighter-interceptors and trained pilots, there was a shortage of radars and searchlights.


So on June 1, 1945, after the B-29 raid, the port of Osaka looked from the air

By August 1945, Japan's industry was in ruins, and many of the residents who survived the massive raids of the Superfortresses were left homeless. Despite this, most of the ordinary Japanese were ready to fight to the end, but their spirit was largely undermined. And a very significant part of the population understood that the war was lost.

Thus, the Boeing B-29 Superfortress bomber became one of the decisive factors in the US victory, which made it possible to achieve the surrender of Japan without landing on the islands of the mother country.

To be continued ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
Actions of American strategic bombers against Japan
Actions of American aviation against the Japanese islands at the final stage of the war
Japanese small-caliber anti-aircraft artillery
Japanese anti-aircraft artillery of medium and large caliber
Single-engine Japanese fighters against long-range American B-29 bombers
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  1. Krasnodar
    Krasnodar 22 May 2021 05: 18
    +9
    As always, I learned a lot, thanks! hi
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 22 May 2021 15: 48
      +8
      Hi, Albert, I am clinging to you, because the site, by an ingrained habit, is strange back. request
      The gun was loaded manually by a radio operator

      Well, the Japanese, well, miracle workers! It is necessary to shove a single-shot cannon onto a fighter plane. laughing
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 22 May 2021 16: 21
        +5
        Greetings, Constantine! hi
        As they say in Israel - this is what we have and by this we will win laughing
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 22 May 2021 16: 22
          +5
          Well, Israel is not Japan, what would "jump with a bare heel on a checker." laughing
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar 22 May 2021 16: 38
            +3
            In the 40-50s (until the 56th) they jumped laughing
            Then they became friends with the French and the Britons, they began to receive something more or less modern
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 22 May 2021 16: 40
              +4
              So the French always seem to have helped with military equipment.
              1. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar 22 May 2021 16: 51
                +3
                Not. They began to cooperate through intelligence in about 54, (the Jews leaked information on Egyptian aid to the FLN), the French agreed to sell jet fighters. By 1956, the peak of cooperation began, a couple of days before the six-day war, de Gaulle announced an embargo on the supply of arms to Israel (summer 1967)
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 22 May 2021 18: 05
                  +5
                  So, somewhere right after the Second War, they delivered tanks to Israel, ancient Renault, it is true, but the Arabs did not have that either. And then there was a scandal with some combat boats, also French.
                  1. Krasnodar
                    Krasnodar 22 May 2021 18: 59
                    +7
                    Renault tanks were in Syria laughing Jews bought something from French landfills (there were arms supplies to the parties to the conflict under the embargo, the Arab side bought through third countries, also Arab laughing ) - first Renault, then the Shermans, all through dummy buyers, from Latin America, EMNIP.
                    Scandal - before the Six Day War, boats were bought from France, just before the embargo war, the ships are ready, at the pier, paid for, but they are not going anywhere. Jews insolently hijacked them laughing Prior to that, we actively negotiated the return of money and compensation. wink
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 22 May 2021 19: 22
                      +6
                      I don't remember exactly now, but the Jews definitely had Renault, and one Sherman, in uncompletion, they got for cash from the British, they had to throw the decommissioned tank off the cliff, but it turned out to be with the Jews, only there were problems with the cannon, and with the engine, but did.
                      With boats for sure, I remembered, they just hijacked.
                      1. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 22 May 2021 19: 53
                        +6
                        If you want more details, then - Israel Tank Forces:
                        D.R. February 24, 1948
                        The first commander is Yitzhak Sade., A former physical education teacher from Sevastopol (he also worked as a model for artists in Crimea - yes, yes, nudity laughing )
                        Armament (at creation) - 10 Renault (N-39, bought from France at some dump for $ 41, arrived in Israel on 000/15.06.48/XNUMX), two stolen from the British during their evacuation from Palestine by Cromwell. Then they bought in Italy (my mistake, not in France), Shermans.
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish 22 May 2021 20: 32
                        +4
                        Thank you, I will definitely take a look. It's very interesting how this kind of armed forces was created practically from scratch and without a production base. But they bought Shermanyuga, written off from the British, A. Bolnykh wrote about this in his book "XX century of tanks".
                      3. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 22 May 2021 20: 39
                        +4
                        It is possible, but I am not aware of the presence of Shermans in the ranks of the British Armed Forces in Palestine hi
                        Yes, and it was impossible to buy anything from them then, so to steal for a bribe before leaving home - quite.
                      4. Catfish
                        Catfish 22 May 2021 20: 40
                        +4
                        If I find this passage in the book, I will post it with the indication of the page.
                      5. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 22 May 2021 21: 18
                        +4
                        In general, in 1948 everything began interestingly there - the Air Force from scratch, tank troops, artillery, etc. Everything was at the level of a Central African country at that time laughing
                      6. Catfish
                        Catfish 22 May 2021 21: 36
                        +5
                        And then the atomic bomb. This is interesting. smile
                      7. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 22 May 2021 21: 52
                        +5
                        We don't have her stop
                        But if necessary, we will apply it recourse
                      8. Catfish
                        Catfish 22 May 2021 21: 53
                        +3
                        Why, how ... and in general we are not local ... laughing
                      9. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 22 May 2021 22: 55
                        +4
                        Where did Israel get a nuclear bomb? These are serious, modern technologies of 1945 soldier
                      10. Catfish
                        Catfish 22 May 2021 23: 27
                        +4
                        Well, yes, well, yes, well, yes ... 45th, he is what they used to say - "defining". bully soldier
                      11. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 23 May 2021 04: 18
                        +3
                        Defining and precedent yes
      2. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 23 May 2021 16: 38
        +6
        Israel's first tanks are two Cromwells. British tankers,
        (two) sympathetic to the Jews, drove them from the territory
        military base before the departure of British troops from Palestine.
        The British stayed in Israel, fought with these tanks,
        married Jewish women.
        Here is one of the Cromwells

        There was a funny dialogue at the English base of the commander of one of the Jewish self-defense units with the British tankers:
        "How do we organize the armored forces?"
        "Do you have any tanks?"
        "Not"
        "Then I don't know how to organize your armored troops."
        (English humor) laughing
      3. Catfish
        Catfish 23 May 2021 16: 55
        +2
        Thank you Alex hi
        But the humor of the British is really specific. laughing
  • Proctologist
    Proctologist 22 May 2021 16: 42
    +2
    Apparently, the experience of torpedo bombers was haunted.
  • Proxima
    Proxima 22 May 2021 22: 17
    +4
    Well, it just does not fit in my head, why such a nomenclature? As for single-engine fighters, and even more so for twin-engine ones. Tolley we have: a line of liquid-cooled fighters - Yak and air - La. The same is true for the Fritzes: Me-109 and, accordingly, FV-190. But the British abandoned air vents altogether, they all fell on the shoulders of liquid-cooled engines. Such an extensive range is not technologically advanced and therefore expensive. How many spare parts and, accordingly, factories for their production are needed? And all for what? - to produce mediocre fighters? request
    1. English tarantas
      English tarantas 27 May 2021 04: 24
      0
      I'm afraid to scare you, but La planes grew out of the roots of LaGG planes with in-line liquid-cooled engines, there was also a Yak-3U, if I am not mistaken with an air star. And the British had the same corsairs, also a burden on logistics, even if they did not produce parts.
      Such an extensive range is not technologically advanced and therefore expensive. How many spare parts and, accordingly, factories for their production are needed?

      Yes, it's not straightforward to be scary, one plant makes some engines, the second others, again at which plants what to do was determined by the plant's access to certain necessary materials. And also different engines gave different possibilities. Liquid-cooled engines in the union did not work well at high altitudes, could not solve the problem of pressure drop, power dropped, but La fighters worked quite well at altitude. If it were not for one of them, the war would have gone differently, at all.
  • cormorant
    cormorant 23 May 2021 09: 10
    +5
    Yes, bombs against bombers, it's just hard! I had no idea that they could think of this.
  • Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 22 May 2021 07: 06
    +12
    Taking into account the German experience, unguided aircraft missiles with fragmentation warheads equipped with fuses programmed to detonate after a certain time interval could be effective against large groups of B-29s. Such missiles had a simple design and, given the fairly dense military-technical cooperation between Germany and Japan, they could be quickly mastered in production. However, nothing is known about the massive use of such weapons by the Japanese in combat conditions.

    1. << The most massive of these was the incendiary 60-kg missile "Type 3 No. 6 Model 27 Kai1, which was used by naval aviation against American heavy bombers since the spring of 1944. The missile was used from the underwing guides of Japanese naval fighters. Among them were the famous Zero in the A6M5s version, model 53s, the Raiden and Shiden interceptors, the Gecko twin-engine night fighter. Probably the actions of the missiles "3-Shiki 6-Gou" were observed by the crews of the patrol "Liberators"


    A report from the crew of one of the Liberator bombers: The bomber shooter noted that he observed characteristic flashes on the wing edge of a Japanese fighter attacking them. The flares were about three times the size of the typical 20mm cannon salvo and were reddish in color with white edging. In addition, on the right and left wings of the fighter, the flashes alternated with a fairly long period of time, which is not typical for cannon fire. On the trailing edge of the wing, a reverse trail with white smoke was also observed. The shooter was absolutely sure that these flashes were not the result of the use of 20-mm cannons or aerial bombs.
    2. The crew report of one of the PB4Y-1 patrol bombers contained the following comments: The crew observed a coordinated attack by 36 Japanese aircraft against the Liberators group of the 13th US Air Force. Japanese fighters, divided into two groups of 12 and 14 aircraft, among which were 6 twin-engine, lined up in a chain, alternately attacked two American B-24 bombers. Observers from the American aircraft noted that the Japanese made approaches to the enemy, but did not enter the effective firing zone. About three miles ahead of the Japanese planes, strange puffs of smoke were forming. These clubs appeared suddenly, without characteristic routes leading to them, and hung in the air for a long time. The puffs of smoke resembled the explosions of Japanese aerial bombs, but there were no other Japanese aircraft of a higher level that could drop bombs. The observation of the battle was carried out from a distance of about 2 miles in conditions of excellent visibility.

    The explanation for the strange smoke caps boiled down to the assumption that the Japanese used rocket weapons, and the possibility of using rocket-propelled grenade launchers was also not excluded.
    3.In addition, there is information from the American Trophy Commission, which, in turn, refers to the archives of the Japanese army. It claims that army aviation in early 1945 used 87mm rockets that were structurally reminiscent of the German Panzerschreck. Two missiles of this type were suspended under each wing of the fighter. This information seems quite plausible, given the active military-technical cooperation between Germany and Japan at the end of the war. In addition, the indicated caliber of 87 mm is quite consistent with the 88-mm German rocket. It is likely that a certain number of Panzershrek missiles could have been delivered by German submarines to Japan at the end of the war. As samples ...
    1. Knell wardenheart
      Knell wardenheart 22 May 2021 12: 42
      +9
      I was surprised about this even in the last article, it is completely incomprehensible to me why the Japanese did not consider the option of using NURS, while investing in such dubious weapons as anti-aviation bombs - indicated in this article and incendiary with phosphorus indicated in the last. Unguided rockets would be very effective against dense clusters of bombers, even without the high perfection of their design.
  • Thrifty
    Thrifty 22 May 2021 07: 24
    +4
    Sergei hi Thanks, I really read it with pleasure! Interestingly, the Japanese fought against American aviation for so long, could not they have thought of abandoning the use of machine guns, especially small caliber guns against American aviation? After all, the inefficiency of these machine guns was clearly visible. It was necessary to install only 37mm cannons as a replacement. And, the very low protection of Japanese fighters, especially in the rear hemisphere, made them good targets now for American fighters.
    1. Blackmokona
      Blackmokona 22 May 2021 08: 34
      +9
      They did not have the resources to do everything right, they set what they had
    2. Alf
      Alf 22 May 2021 22: 58
      +1
      Quote: Thrifty
      It was necessary to install only 37mm cannons as a replacement.

      If only the Japanese had them. In normal form, not in the form of one-shot pornography. Something like Mk-103 or 108 in narrow-eyed and did not fly close.
  • antivirus
    antivirus 22 May 2021 07: 27
    -2
    Thus, the Boeing B-29 Superfortress bomber was one of the decisive factors in the US victory, which made it possible to achieve the surrender of Japan.

    -Does B29 stand as a monument in Japan? on US bases or for peaceful purposes in a Tokyo park?
    1. Narak-zempo
      Narak-zempo 22 May 2021 14: 45
      -2
      It is imperative to put a replica of Enola Gay in Hiroshima.
      Otherwise, most of the Japanese are already sure that the bomb was dropped by the Russians.

      By the way, why did you have to replace the English "a" with the Russian "a" in the name of the aircraft, otherwise the site swears at "invalid text? angry
      1. Alf
        Alf 22 May 2021 23: 02
        +5
        Quote: Narak-zempo
        By the way, why did you have to replace the English "a" with the Russian "a" in the name of the aircraft, otherwise the site swears at "invalid text?

        The robot counted the word "Gay" as "Gay". There was also a scandal inscribed in the annals of history VO, when the robot replaced the name of the great physicist Gay-Lussac with "homosexual Lussac".
      2. Black lotos
        Black lotos 22 May 2021 23: 35
        +7
        Quote: Narak-zempo
        Otherwise, most of the Japanese are already sure that the bomb was dropped by the Russians.

        old fake.
        They have both a day of mourning and bombing museums.
        Who and when-they know.
        1. Narak-zempo
          Narak-zempo 22 May 2021 23: 39
          -7
          Quote: Black Lotos
          old fake.

          Why fake?
    2. Bongo
      23 May 2021 13: 41
      +5
      Quote: antivirus
      how the Boeing B-29 Superfortress bomber was one of the decisive factors in the US victory, which made it possible to achieve the surrender of Japan

      Apparently, you have not read the previous parts of the cycle, and were not interested in the history of the Second World War. No.
      Especially for you, I will quote excerpts from: Actions of American aviation against the Japanese islands at the final stage of the war
      https://topwar.ru/182379-dejstvija-amerikanskoj-aviacii-protiv-japonskih-ostrovov-na-zavershajuschem-jetape-vojny.html
      Massive incendiary bombing of Japanese cities resulted in very significant casualties among the population. Different sources cite different casualty figures, but most of the publications on Japan's losses in World War II cite data from the American post-war report "The Impact of Bombing on Health and Medical Services in Japan." This report says that 333 Japanese were killed and 000 injured .... A number of historians in their studies claim that up to 473 thousand people could have died from the consequences of the American bombing ...

      The bombing caused significant damage to Japanese housing stock. In 66 cities that were subjected to air attacks, about 40% of buildings were seriously damaged or destroyed. This amounted to approximately 2,5 million residential and administrative buildings, as a result of which 8,5 million people were left homeless ...

      The raids of American bombers also had a huge impact on the decline in military and dual-use production. During the bombing, more than 600 large industrial enterprises were destroyed. The transport infrastructure and facilities of the fuel and energy complex were badly damaged. When American aircraft approached, all enterprises in the area where the air raid was announced stopped working, which negatively affected production ...

      Statistical data processed by American specialists in the post-war period showed a direct relationship between the number of B-29 sorties and the decrease in production volumes by Japanese enterprises, as well as the ability of the Japanese armed forces to conduct hostilities.

      But air strikes on residential areas, factories and factories were not the only reason for the decline in the Japanese economy. The work of Japanese enterprises was severely affected by the lack of resources and fuel caused by the mining of shipping lanes and strikes on ports. In addition to large-scale bombing raids, American and British naval aviation disrupted coastal Japanese shipping. The Allied air campaign and attacks on merchant ships destroyed 25 to 30% of Japan's national wealth.

      The evacuation of a significant part of the population to the countryside has partially reduced the losses from the bombing. But in early 1945, incessant bombing of ports and heavy losses of the merchant fleet made it impossible to transport food, which, combined with a poor rice harvest in many areas, caused food shortages. There was also a widespread shortage of liquid and solid fuels ...

      If the war continued, then at the end of 1945, if the current situation persisted, the Japanese population would begin to die of hunger ...

      Thus, it is clear that the B-29s played a leading role in the destruction of the Japanese defense industry, and largely undermined the Japanese determination to continue the war.
      1. antivirus
        antivirus 23 May 2021 18: 15
        -6
        there are many Kheniyev in the site - for them a specialist - YOU TESTED NOT MY THOUGHT, BUT THE TEXT OF THE ARTICLE. I DO NOT GIVE MINUSES FOR THE BLIND AND WITH A BAD MEMORY I GIVE FOR THE JOY OF LIFE ONLY +
        1. zyablik.olga
          zyablik.olga 24 May 2021 06: 32
          +1
          Quote: antivirus
          YOU PROVIDED NOT MY THOUGHT, BUT THE TEXT OF THE ARTICLE. I DO NOT GIVE MINUSES FOR THE BLIND AND WITH A BAD MEMORY I GIVE FOR THE JOY OF LIFE ONLY +

          Are you sick or drunk? wassat
      2. Phage
        Phage 28 May 2021 01: 59
        -1
        Bombs. B-29, B-24, etc. They did not become the decisive factor in the victory. Although, no doubt, they made a significant contribution to undermining the economic component of the enemy. The myth of the victory brought by the wings of strategic bombs. It took shape much later than the end of the war, somewhere in the mid-70s, and very well laid down with such a medical plaster on the national mental trauma from defeat in Vietnam.
        In 1946-47, a series of scientific and practical conferences were held in the Union to summarize the experience of the war with the involvement of materials from the allies and trophy materials, too.
        They were declassified, in part, in bad memory, perestroika.
        The Americans gave the following forecast for the continuation of the war with Japan:
        It will be possible to start landing on the main Japanese islands no earlier than December 1945. And before that, bombing mercilessly. The hostilities will last at least until the end of 1947. It was assumed that the losses could be up to 1,3-1,5 million.
        At the same time, the end of existence was not guaranteed. Jap. Imp.
        This was consistent with the Japanese directive to move everything and everyone to the mainland in Manzhou Guo. The emperor intended to stay on the islands and lead the struggle until victory or perish in the "flaming palace".
        A beautiful samurai tale - the emperor is mortal - the empire is eternal.

        The Soviet Union, according to experts, could not provide effective assistance until mid-1947, based on the scale of the losses incurred.
        It is from here that the well-known story of the alleged division of Japan stems from the transfer of the Kuriles and Hokkaido to the Soviet Union as Soviet zones of occupation. Naturally, the SA had to win them back on its own, reducing the losses of the allies.
        Now in the network there is a lot of speculation on this topic and a lot of all sorts of fake, but the plans were worked out up to the level of "Preliminary Operational Proposals" for the organization of the landing with the calculation of the order of forces, means, transport needs, etc.
        If this had happened, the story would have gone differently.
        Relations with America would have been different too.
        In real history, the leadership of the USSR staked on the creation of a friendly China and the defeat of the historical enemy here and now, instead of a ghostly romance with America.
        The defeat of Manchou Guo (Kwantung Army) put an end to Japan's ability to continue to actively fight.
        The Manchurian Operation brilliantly carried out in August 45 deserves a more detailed discussion and is not a subject of this topic.
        So where is the strategic role of bomber aviation here?
        And she simply does not exist. Operational? Yes, perhaps an important one? Yes, without a doubt, but the time for a strategic offensive operation by aviation will come later with the development of nuclear missile weapons, and even then all this is a big question even now.
        And then at 45, and later in Korea, Vietnam? No, it doesn't go away.
        Is that in a Hollywood style:
        "Kiss me baby yesterday I bombing Tokyo"
        It was sung once.
        Respect to the author of the article. I learned new details.
  • The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 22 May 2021 07: 41
    +5
    I will repeat myself in my words of gratitude to Sergei. Sufficiently detailed and compact.
    I read about air defense bombs, but I see illustrations for the first time.
    Well, the additions in the form of comments deserve special thanks.
    In general, until Saturday morning succeeded!)))
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 22 May 2021 11: 53
      +4
      The Germans were also engaged in similar bombs.
  • Narak-zempo
    Narak-zempo 22 May 2021 08: 40
    -13%
    Still, they pinched the pendos.
    1. Dkuznecov
      Dkuznecov 22 May 2021 12: 35
      +6
      The Americans were our allies
      I don't understand gloating.
      1. Narak-zempo
        Narak-zempo 22 May 2021 14: 17
        -12%
        Quote: DKuznecov
        The Americans were our allies
        I don't understand gloating.

        Still, we need to share the aid to us in the war and the bombing aimed at destroying the civilian population, which, in fact, was a war crime.
        And, in all conscience, Lemey and Nimitz should have been judged on a par with some Keitel or Itagaki, if the Nuremberg and Tokyo trials were not simply the massacre of the winners over the vanquished.
        Moreover, we were not at war with Japan at that time.
        1. Cherry Nine
          Cherry Nine 22 May 2021 15: 44
          +6
          Quote: Narak-zempo
          was a war crime

          What a tenderness.
          Quote: Narak-zempo
          should have been judged on a par with some Keitel or Itagaki,

          Quite possible. Only who could implement this "necessary"? Really comrade. Vyshinsky?
        2. WapentakeLokki
          WapentakeLokki 22 May 2021 20: 45
          +5
          ... about military crimes, it is worth remembering Shanghai and detachment 731 ... cannibalism (the same famous `` swallow strike '' breaking (by the way, a prisoner everywhere) with a katana obliquely and subsequent eating of the liver ... you can continue but I will give an interesting moment ... in August, pilot Bush was shot down over Japan but managed to reach the water where he was picked up by the submarine, but his comrade was unlucky, he fell on land was decapitated and ... eaten (it is so real - in order to raise morale) and it happened weeks before surrender .. so do not feel sorry for them .. even now little is known about their actions on the territory of Sakhalin in the Russo-Japanese 1904 .. well, in the Civil they were noted in the Far East .. and not always the enemy of my enemy will become your friend. .ha
          1. Narak-zempo
            Narak-zempo 22 May 2021 21: 30
            -4
            Quote: WapentakeLokki
            it is worth remembering Shanghai and detachment 731 ... cannibalism

            Well, let's say there was something like that, although which of this is true, we still need to figure it out. History, as you know, is written by the victors, and the interest of the winners is to present the enemy as absolute evil and thereby justify their own inhuman methods of waging war.
            But even if so, all these atrocities were not committed by the people who burned in the "firestorms" organized by the aircraft of the "allies" in German and Japanese cities.
            It was the Naglo-Saxons who in that war brought the scientific base under terror and the destruction of the civilian population and solved this problem with an American industrial scale.
            1. WapentakeLokki
              WapentakeLokki 23 May 2021 17: 57
              +2
              ... interesting logic .. those are not the same ... the country whose subjects are quite supportive of their government (aha the same Emperor) are exactly responsible for ALL the actions of the military in this war ... in other words, what you sow is what you reap .. and, by the way, it was only the Americans who got theirs for Pearl Harbor, but China for Shanghai and the notorious detachment YET. . and in the east they remember for a long time .. and may the gods of Japan help when (exactly when and not if) the new Chinese fleet will approach the shores of Japan .. and there will be Kamikaze winds to save the sons of Amaterasu ...
        3. Alf
          Alf 22 May 2021 23: 06
          +4
          Quote: Narak-zempo
          And, in all conscience, Lemey and Nimitz should have been judged on a par with some Keitel or Itagaki,

          Somewhere I came across the phrase of Lockwood, insisting on Doenitz's innocence, that if Doenitz were tried for violating the laws of warfare, then our guys (in the sense of the American ones) would also have to be seated next to him on the Bench. One case of the execution of Bismarck fleeing in the sea is worth a lot.
          1. Narak-zempo
            Narak-zempo 22 May 2021 23: 08
            0
            Personally, I read this in the book "The Nuremberg Epilogue" (I do not remember the author).
            1. Alf
              Alf 22 May 2021 23: 09
              +3
              Quote: Narak-zempo
              Personally, I read this in the book "The Nuremberg Epilogue" (I do not remember the author).

              What and speech.
        4. Black lotos
          Black lotos 22 May 2021 23: 38
          +3
          Quote: Narak-zempo
          Still, we need to share the aid to us in the war and the bombing aimed at destroying the civilian population, which, in fact, was a war crime.

          pictures of Stalingrad, Nanking and others can be seen.
          Whoever sows the wind will receive the storm. Winners are always right. The Germans and Japanese deserved and destroyed many more civilians.
          1. Narak-zempo
            Narak-zempo 22 May 2021 23: 43
            -8
            Nanjing is purely intra-Asian affairs, so to speak, intra-family squabbles, there is no need for gaijins to get involved in them.
          2. Narak-zempo
            Narak-zempo 22 May 2021 23: 51
            -7
            Quote: Black Lotos
            Winners are always right

            Well, well.
            But the Germans and the Japanese could have won that war, so what would you sing?
        5. Bongo
          23 May 2021 13: 55
          +5
          Quote: Narak-zempo
          Still, we need to share the aid to us in the war and the bombing aimed at destroying the civilian population, which, in fact, was a war crime.

          Excuse me, you mean that our bombers dropped sweets and toys to the "peaceful" German population during the raids on Berlin?
          And it would not be bad for you to study what the ADD was doing in February 1944.
          1. Narak-zempo
            Narak-zempo 23 May 2021 14: 03
            -4
            Quote: Bongo
            Quote: Narak-zempo
            Still, we need to share the aid to us in the war and the bombing aimed at destroying the civilian population, which, in fact, was a war crime.

            Excuse me, you mean that our bombers dropped sweets and toys to the "peaceful" German population during the raids on Berlin?
            And it would not be bad for you to study what the ADD was doing in February 1944.

            Our aviation has never organized thousands of raids, purposefully designed for the effect of a "fire storm".
            The bombing of Berlin in 1941 was pin-pricked and pursued exclusively internal goals - raising morale amid catastrophic defeats.
            In 1944, the ADD, it seems, was engaged in forcing Finland to peace, but what can we talk about if its cumulative bombardment was inferior to that of the "allies" groups in the raids on Hamburg or Tokyo?
            1. Bongo
              23 May 2021 14: 12
              +5
              Quote: Narak-zempo
              Our aviation has never organized thousands of raids, purposefully designed for the effect of a "fire storm".

              Your ideology is ahead of common sense. Due to the small number of our ADD, it was not possible to arrange a "fire storm".
              Quote: Narak-zempo
              In 1944, the ADD, it seems, was engaged in forcing Finland to peace, but what can we talk about if its cumulative bombardment was inferior to that of the "allies" groups in the raids on Hamburg or Tokyo?

              And I'm talking about the same ... If my grandmother had ...
              Is everything all right with logic? No.
              1. Narak-zempo
                Narak-zempo 23 May 2021 15: 07
                -5
                Quote: Bongo
                Due to the small number of our ADD, it was not possible to arrange a "fire storm"

                Our ideology and military doctrine denied the mass destruction of the population, that is why Douai's theories of air war were not accepted and strategic aviation was not built in the capacity in which the Naglo-Saxons saw it.
                1. Bongo
                  24 May 2021 00: 03
                  +1
                  Quote: Narak-zempo
                  Our ideology and military doctrine denied the mass destruction of the population

                  What a stupid thing ... fool
                2. Toucan
                  Toucan 24 May 2021 01: 03
                  0
                  Our ideology and military doctrine denied the mass destruction of the population, that is why Douai's theories of air war were not accepted and strategic aviation was not built in the capacity in which the Naglo-Saxons saw it.

                  Do you consider Comrades Stalin and Golovanov to be clinical idiots? wassat
                  They certainly weren't. No.
                  If the USSR had the opportunity to bring the victory over the aggressor closer by destroying its cities and industry, this opportunity would certainly be taken advantage of. And there is no need to smear snot about the humanism of the Soviet leadership. We did not spare our own people what to say about the Germans, Romanians and Hungarians.
                  1. Narak-zempo
                    Narak-zempo 24 May 2021 09: 19
                    -1
                    Quote: Tucan
                    We did not spare our own people what to say about the Germans, Romanians and Hungarians.

                    There was something of their own - for educational purposes.
                    And Europeans in Russia have always been treated with respect, even their enemies. Because, although they are enemies, they know how to live like people.
            2. WapentakeLokki
              WapentakeLokki 23 May 2021 18: 04
              +2
              ..You are so sure that Comrade Stalin doubted at least a little, if he had the OPPORTUNITY to crush German cities from the air ... after Leningrad and Stalingrad .. just .. I have a desire but I have no opportunity (and, by the way, this is our ace in the deck that today WE CAN - if anything) .. so it's not worth talking about those times from the standpoint of modern humanism and leberasty .. I think if you had Uncle Joe vigorous -baton he would undoubtedly put it into action against the III Reich and .. in my opinion ... CORRECT ... let them all burn in the fire forever ...
          2. Cherry Nine
            Cherry Nine 23 May 2021 14: 41
            +3
            Quote: Bongo
            Did our bombers drop sweets and toys to the "peaceful" German population during raids on Berlin?

            Sure. You've probably heard of Operation Mann in Holland in '45 or the candy / raisin bombing of Berlin in '48. So, the liberals hide that the first to dump food from the planes were, of course, our, Russian, Soviet pilots. It is not difficult to find, "Molotov's bread bins".
            1. Toucan
              Toucan 24 May 2021 01: 06
              +1
              So, the liberals hide that the first to dump food from the planes were, of course, our, Russian, Soviet pilots. It is not difficult to find, "Molotov's bread bins"

              Hardly a person who writes:
              Our ideology and military doctrine denied the mass destruction of the population ...
              knows about Molotov's breadbaskets.
              1. Cherry Nine
                Cherry Nine 24 May 2021 07: 56
                +2
                Seriously speaking, our politically literate comrade, oddly enough, is right.
                Quote: Narak-zempo
                Our ideology and military doctrine denied the mass destruction of the population, that is why Douai's theories of air war were not accepted and strategic aviation was not built in the capacity in which the Naglo-Saxons saw it.

                The USSR, like the Reich, relied on tactical aviation. Material values ​​and, above all, industrial capacities, he would like to seize, not destroy. In plain text, this thesis can be found, say, in the description of the actions of the Red Army in Silesia (how to combine this with the scorched earth tactics during the retreat of 41-42 - the devil only knows).
                It is rarely possible to praise the Red Army, especially its aviation, so I will take the opportunity. In theory, the Soviet side was right (as usual, the execution failed). Strategic bombing, in my deep conviction, was not only a crime, but also a mistake that prolonged the war.
                1. Toucan
                  Toucan 24 May 2021 08: 03
                  +1
                  Hopefully "politically literate" was that irony?
                  Strategic bombing, in my deep conviction, was not only a crime, but also a mistake that prolonged the war.

                  But for Japan, the strategic bombing worked very well.
                  1. Cherry Nine
                    Cherry Nine 24 May 2021 08: 18
                    +1
                    The Navy didn't think so.
                    If you exchange Tinian for Okinawa, shifted by 3-6 months, one for one will come out. The story of the B-29 raids from India is generally pure sabotage. Put 16 thousand Wright engines mentally on 16 thousand Skyriders.

                    Here it is necessary to clarify.
                    Was the military sense of the bombing other than zero? Yes of course.
                    Was this a wise use of resources? In my opinion, definitely not. First of all, this concerns the Air Force of the Army, which, with their duetism, completely abandoned tactical aviation. As a result, we see a fighter converted from a dive bomber and a dive bomber converted from a fighter.
      2. Alf
        Alf 22 May 2021 23: 03
        -5
        Quote: DKuznecov
        The Americans were our allies

        They were not our allies, rather, they were fellow travelers.
        1. Dkuznecov
          Dkuznecov 22 May 2021 23: 07
          +9
          False. They were allies.
          Complete. And they crushed this evil
          in the Pacific theater of operations to be honest.
          Perhaps you have some kind of special History,
          or are you for Japan ...
          You have the right, we have a free country.
          1. Alf
            Alf 22 May 2021 23: 08
            +1
            Quote: DKuznecov
            or are you for Japan ...

            I am not for Japan, I respect a worthy opponent, although I would do my best to destroy him.
          2. Narak-zempo
            Narak-zempo 22 May 2021 23: 17
            -7
            They were such allies.
            2 years delayed the opening of the second front in Europe, while we were bleeding to death at Stalingrad, Rzhev, Sychevka.
            And they decided to land when the Bagration was about to start, when it became clear that we would definitely be in Berlin. Exclusively for the sake of so that all of Europe up to the English Channel is not liberated by Soviet troops and made part of the socialist camp.
            By the way, even in Soviet times, materials about the bombing of Japanese cities, about Hiroshima and Nagasaki were written in a sympathetic way towards the Japanese.
            1. Cherry Nine
              Cherry Nine 23 May 2021 00: 47
              +7
              Quote: Narak-zempo
              We were such allies

              Yes, the alliance with the USSR was a so-so decision.
              Quote: Narak-zempo
              2 years delayed the opening of the second front in Europe

              Comrade Stalin opened the second front in Europe on September 17.09.1939, XNUMX.
              Quote: Narak-zempo
              while we were bleeding to death at Stalingrad, Rzhev, Sychevka.

              Who cares about this?
              Quote: Narak-zempo
              decided to land when the "Bagration" was about to begin

              You're lying. Preparations for the landing were going on when Bagration was not even in sight. Moreover, the success of Bagration is explained, first of all, by Normandy. Almost all Panthers, for example, have been in France.
              Quote: Narak-zempo
              it became clear that we will definitely be in Berlin

              How interesting. But comrade. Stalin did not understand this, not only in the spring of 44, but a year later.
              So who will take Berlin - we or the allies?

              According to Zhukov, this question was asked on April 1, 1945.
              Quote: Narak-zempo
              Exclusively for the sake of so that all of Europe up to the English Channel is not liberated by Soviet troops and made part of the socialist camp.

              In order to prevent the USSR from releasing too much, it would be reasonable to accept Churchill's Balkan plan. And finish with LL at least from Kursk.
              Quote: Narak-zempo
              By the way, even in Soviet times, materials about the bombing of Japanese cities, about Hiroshima and Nagasaki were written in a sympathetic way towards the Japanese.

              The enemies of the Soviet regime changed very quickly. By the end of the 40s, it turned out that in the civilian world they had fought with the Americans - who would have thought! - invaders, and not just like that. Naturally, the strange story that the Americans offended the Japanese went on fine. So, the loss of the Japanese civilians at the level of Yugoslavia or, there, Ethiopia.
              1. Narak-zempo
                Narak-zempo 23 May 2021 11: 53
                -4
                Quote: Cherry Nine
                or, there, Ethiopia

                Well, if you take Ethiopia, then there are no white people killed.
                1. Cherry Nine
                  Cherry Nine 23 May 2021 14: 43
                  +2
                  Oh, take a take from the victors of Nazism, I love it.
                  1. How many "white people" died in Japan?
                  2. How many citizens of the USSR met the high German standards of "whiteness"?
                  1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Toucan
      Toucan 24 May 2021 12: 51
      +1
      [/ quote] [quote = Narak-zempo] Still, they pinched the pendos.

      The Americans managed to inflict irreparable losses on Japan with their bombing, putting it on the brink of defeat. By mid-1945, Japan had practically lost its fighter aircraft. And who "pinched" whom?
  • The comment was deleted.
  • Undecim
    Undecim 22 May 2021 21: 25
    +3
    One fighter used against the B-29 "is not on the list."

    Kawasaki Ki-102.
    1. Bongo
      23 May 2021 14: 08
      +3
      Quote: Undecim
      One fighter used against the B-29 "is not on the list."

      Kawasaki Ki-102.

      Before the surrender of Japan, two dozen Ki-102 serial interceptors were released, and nothing is known about their combat use. In the interceptions of the B-29s, they tried to use two experienced Ki-102a, but I have no reliable information that their crews managed to achieve success.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 23 May 2021 14: 52
        +1
        but I have no reliable information that their crews managed to succeed


        I have no reason not to believe this pilot, Yasuhiko Kuroe, who announced that the B-29 was shot down on the Ki-102a.
        1. Bongo
          24 May 2021 00: 05
          +2
          Quote: Undecim
          I have no reason not to believe this pilot, Yasuhiko Kuroe, who announced that the B-29 was shot down on the Ki-102a.

          With all due respect, Japanese fighter pilots reported shooting down 400 B-29s. Do you believe them?
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 24 May 2021 00: 43
            -2
            Soviet tank crews also knocked out more "Ferdinands" than the Germans produced. But we believe in Soviet tank crews.
            1. Toucan
              Toucan 24 May 2021 01: 08
              +1
              Quote: Undecim
              Soviet tank crews also knocked out more "Ferdinands" than the Germans produced. But we believe in Soviet tank crews.

              So-so argument.
  • Alf
    Alf 22 May 2021 22: 47
    +1
    However, the actual course of hostilities has shown that twin-engine fighters are themselves very vulnerable to attacks from more maneuverable and high-speed light single-engine fighters.

    This is you tell Koldunov, who after the battle on Nishem said-Well, who could have known that this twin-engine .. female dog turns bends like our YAK-9.
    1. Cherry Nine
      Cherry Nine 23 May 2021 00: 28
      +3
      Quote: Alf
      Well, who could have known that this twin-engine .. female dog turns bends like our Yak-9.

      There are more questions for the Yak-9. Over Africa, lightning proved to be uncompetitive against skinny ones.
      1. Alf
        Alf 23 May 2021 00: 30
        0
        Quote: Cherry Nine
        Over Africa, lightning proved to be uncompetitive against skinny ones.

        When he was tied to the guard, then Yes, but when did he engage in free hunting?
        1. Cherry Nine
          Cherry Nine 23 May 2021 00: 53
          +4
          Also no. Unlike the Pacific Ocean, it did not have advantages in vertical maneuverability, altitude and horizontal speed. So the Americans' successes over Africa were more than modest. They were mainly used as information security, and was asleep as a clean fighter.

          Now, if life had turned out so that I had to hunt Yaki with Eli - then yes, I would bend again. With its speed, height and dive, it is difficult for the yaks to do something. And the weapon is more than convincing.
  • Kostadinov
    Kostadinov 28 May 2021 11: 59
    -3
    Although the B-29 suffered losses until the end of hostilities, they were mainly caused by anti-aircraft artillery, associated with equipment failure or pilot errors.

    Fighters are the most expensive and ineffective air defense unit. This has been confirmed in Europe and in Korea and Vietnam.
    The surviving Japanese fighter pilots were unable to counter the Superfortresses' attacks and were ordered to keep the remaining aircraft in reserve for the final battle expected in the fall.

    One of two - did not have the opportunity or had the opportunity, but they were ordered to keep the aircraft in reserve. The second is more plausible.
    By August 1945, Japan's industry was in ruins, and many of the residents who survived the massive raids of the Superfortresses were left homeless.

    Japan's industry was not in ruins. She lost the imported syiriya, but could well provide the decisive battle in Japan itself with everything she needed. It is true about the krish for millions of inhabitants, but they were evacuated and places were found for them.
    Despite this, most of the ordinary Japanese were ready to fight to the end.

    Not only the rank-and-file Japanese, but also the 5 million ground army was ready to fight and not "to the end", but until the landing on the islands was defeated.
    Thus, the Boeing B-29 Superfortress bomber became one of the decisive factors in the US victory, which made it possible to achieve the surrender of Japan without landing on the islands of the mother country.

    In light of the above, the bomber did very little to help defeat Japan and its ineffectiveness was later confirmed in Korea.
  • yehat2
    yehat2 9 July 2021 14: 34
    0
    It seems to me that the Japanese should have relied on the tactics of preparing a meeting in the air in advance, rather than a clean interception, relying on radars, including those deployed on patrol vessels and other early warning means. So it was possible to reduce the requirements for fighters and make their strikes massive. A cluster bomb to destroy a formation is also a good thing.
  • Cowbra
    Cowbra 19 July 2021 05: 07
    0
    Surprisingly close - and the prototype of the Superfortress crashed precisely because of the unreliability of the engines)))