Military Review

Japanese small-caliber anti-aircraft artillery

93

Given that the B-29 Superfortress strategic bombers could operate at an altitude of more than 9 km, heavy anti-aircraft guns with high ballistic characteristics were required to combat them. However, in the course of devastating sorties against Japanese cities using cluster incendiary bombs, in a number of cases, bombing at night was carried out from an altitude of no more than 1500 m. At the same time, there was a possibility of the Superfortress being hit by small-caliber anti-aircraft machine guns. In addition, shortly before the end of hostilities, a deck aviation The US Navy, as well as the P-51D Mustang and P-47D Thunderbolt fighters based at land airfields. American fighters, inflicting bombing and assault strikes using rockets and large-caliber machine guns, operated at low altitudes and were vulnerable to fire from automatic anti-aircraft guns of 20-40 mm caliber.


Japanese 20 mm anti-aircraft guns


The most common Japanese 20 mm anti-aircraft gun during the Second World War was the Type 98 automatic cannon. weapon dual-use: to combat light armored vehicles and to counter aircraft operating at low altitudes.

The Type 98 automatic cannon, which was put into service in 1938, was designed to replicate the 13,2 mm Hotchkiss М1929 machine gun, the license for which the Japanese government had acquired from France. For the first time, Type 98 cannons entered battle in 1939 in the vicinity of the Khalkhin-Gol River.

For firing from the Type 98, a 20 × 124 mm round was used, which is also used in the Type 97 anti-tank gun.The 20-mm armor-piercing tracer projectile weighing 109 g left the barrel 1400 mm long with an initial speed of 835 m / s. At a distance of 250 m along the normal, it pierced 20 mm armor.

Japanese small-caliber anti-aircraft artillery
20-mm wheeled automatic anti-aircraft gun Type 98

The weight of the installation with wooden wheels was 373 kg. And she could be towed by a horse-drawn carriage or light truck at speeds up to 15 km / h. In the combat position, the anti-aircraft gun was hung out on three supports. The anti-aircraft gun had the ability to fire in the 360 ​​° sector, vertical guidance angles: from –5 ° to + 85 °. In case of urgent need, the fire could be fired from the wheels, but the accuracy dropped. Food was supplied from a 20-round magazine. The rate of fire was 280-300 rds / min. Combat rate of fire - 120 rds / min. The maximum firing range is 5,3 km. The effective firing range was about half that. Reach in height - about 1500 m.


20 mm Type 98 automatic cannon in firing position

An experienced crew of six people could bring the anti-aircraft gun into a combat position in three minutes. For mountain rifle units, a collapsible modification was produced, individual parts of which could be transported in packs.

Production of the Type 98 small-caliber anti-aircraft gun continued until August 1945. About 2400 20-mm anti-aircraft guns were sent to the troops.

In 1942, the 20-mm Type 2 anti-aircraft gun entered service. This model was created, thanks to military-technical cooperation with Germany, and was a 20-mm anti-aircraft gun 2,0 cm Flak 38, adapted for Japanese ammunition.

Compared to the Type 98, this was a much more advanced gun, with greater reliability and rate of fire. The mass of the Type 2 in combat position was 460 kg. Rate of fire - up to 480 rds / min. The horizontal range and reach in height corresponded to the Type 98, but the effectiveness of anti-aircraft fire increased significantly.

The Type 2 automatic construction sight allowed the introduction of vertical and lateral lead. The input data into the sight were entered manually and determined by eye, except for the range, which was measured by a stereo range finder. Together with the anti-aircraft gun, documentation was received for an anti-aircraft fire control device, which could simultaneously transmit data and coordinate the fire of a battery of six anti-aircraft guns, which significantly increased the effectiveness of firing.


In 1944, using the Type 2 artillery unit, a coaxial 20-mm Type 4 anti-aircraft gun was created.

Until the time of Japan's surrender, it was possible to make approximately 500 Type 2 and 200 Type 4 twin pairs. They were produced both in a towed version and on pedestals that could be mounted on the decks of warships or in stationary positions.


For Japanese air defense units tank divisions produced several dozen 20-mm self-propelled anti-aircraft guns. The most widespread was the installation based on the Type 94 three-axle truck (Isuzu TU-10).


However, a small number of 20 mm assault rifles were placed on the chassis of half-track transporters and light tanks.


Japanese 20-mm anti-aircraft guns were mainly in service with army air defense units of the regimental and divisional level. They were actively used by the imperial army in all areas of land battles: not only against allied aircraft, but also against armored vehicles.


At the same time, there were not many 20-mm anti-aircraft guns in the air defense of the Japanese islands. Most of the Type 98 and Type 2 anti-aircraft guns were lost in the occupied territories during the defensive battles of 1944-1945.

Japanese 25 mm anti-aircraft guns


The most famous and widespread Japanese rapid-fire anti-aircraft gun was the 25-mm Type 96, which was produced in single-barrel, twin and triple versions. She was the main light anti-aircraft weapon of the Japanese fleet and was very actively used in the ground air defense units. This automatic anti-aircraft gun was developed in 1936 on the basis of the Mitrailleuse de 25 mm contre-aéroplanes, produced by the French company Hotchkiss. The main difference between the Japanese model and the original was the equipment of the German company Rheinmetall with a flame arrester and some differences in the machine.

Some of the built installations, located at stationary positions in the vicinity of naval bases and large airfields, were automatically guided by means of electric drives according to the data of PUAZO Type 95, and the shooters only had to press the trigger. Single and twin 25 mm anti-aircraft guns were guided only manually.


25mm Type 96 mount at the Chinese People's Revolution War Museum

A single-barreled 25-mm anti-aircraft gun weighed 790 kg, twin - 1112 kg, built - 1780 kg. Single-barreled and twin units were towed; when deployed to a firing position, the wheel drive was separated. In addition to the towed version, there was a single-barreled 25-mm column unit.


Twin automatic 25-mm Type 96 anti-aircraft gun captured by the Americans on the island of Kiska

Paired and triple installations, intended to be placed on warships and on capital well-fortified positions, were moved on cargo platforms and mounted on site using lifting devices.


Built 25-mm anti-aircraft gun on the cruiser Oyodo

To increase mobility, such anti-aircraft guns were often placed on railway platforms, heavy trucks and towed trailers. The single-barrel unit was serviced by 4 people, the twin-barreled unit by 7 people, and the built-in unit by 9 people.


All 25-mm anti-aircraft guns were powered from 15-round magazines. The maximum rate of fire of a single-barreled machine gun did not exceed 250 rds / min. Practical rate of fire: 100-120 shots / min. Vertical guidance angles: from –10 ° to + 85 °. The effective firing range was up to 3000 m. The height reach was 2000 m. The ammunition load could include: high-explosive incendiary, fragmentation tracer, armor-piercing and armor-piercing tracer shells.

In terms of the striking effect, the 25-mm shells significantly exceeded the shells included in the ammunition of the 20-mm Type 98 and Type 2 anti-aircraft guns. The high-explosive 25-mm shell weighing 240 g left the barrel with an initial velocity of 890 m / s and contained 10 g of explosives. In a duralumin 3-mm sheet, it formed a hole, the area of ​​which was approximately twice as large as in the explosion of a 20-mm projectile containing 3 g of explosive. At a distance of 200 meters, an armor-piercing projectile weighing 260 g, with an initial speed of 870 m / s, when hit at a right angle, could penetrate armor 30 mm thick. To confidently defeat a single-engine combat aircraft, in most cases, 2-3 hits of 25-mm armor-piercing tracer shells or 1-2 hits of high-explosive incendiary shells were enough.


The 25-mm anti-aircraft gun built by the Americans during the battle for Guadalcanal

Given that the Japanese industry produced about 33000 25-mm installations, and the Type 96 became widespread, it was the calculations of these installations that shot down more of all American combat aircraft operating at low altitudes than the rest of the Japanese anti-aircraft guns combined.


Twin 25-mm anti-aircraft gun in a firing position

For the first time, 25-mm anti-aircraft guns deployed on the Japanese islands opened fire on American bombers on April 18, 1942. These were twin-engined B-25B Mitchells, which had taken off from the USS Hornet aircraft carrier in the western part of the Pacific Ocean.

Subsequently, the Type 96 rapid-fire units took part in repelling the B-29 raids, when they attacked Tokyo and other Japanese cities at low altitude at night with incendiary bombs. However, given that the 25-mm anti-aircraft guns in most cases fired indirect barrage, the probability of hitting the bombers was small.


The American B-29 long-range bomber was a very large, strong and tenacious aircraft, and single hits from 25-mm shells in most cases did not cause critical damage to it. Cases have been repeatedly recorded when the Super Fortresses successfully returned after very close bursts of 75-mm anti-aircraft shells.

Japanese 40 mm anti-aircraft guns


Until the mid-1930s, Great Britain supplied Japan with 40-mm Vickers Mark VIII anti-aircraft guns, also known as "pom-pom". These rapid-fire, water-cooled guns were designed to provide air defense for warships of all classes. In total, the Japanese received about 500 British 40-mm automatic anti-aircraft guns. In Japan they were designated Type 91 or 40 mm / 62 "HI" Shiki and were used in single and twin mounts.


40-mm Type 91 naval anti-aircraft machine gun

The Type 91 anti-aircraft machine gun weighed 281 kg, the total weight of the single-barreled installation exceeded 700 kg. Food was carried out from a tape for 50 shots. To increase the rate of fire, the Japanese tried to use a tape twice as large, but due to a decrease in the reliability of the supply of shells, they refused this. The already standard belt had to be thoroughly lubricated before use for better broaching.


The 40-mm Type 91 mount had the ability to fire in a 360 ° sector, vertical guidance angles: from -5 ° to + 85 °. The rate of fire was 200 rds / min., The practical rate of fire was 90–100 rds / min.

For the late 1920s, the "pom-pom" was a completely satisfactory anti-aircraft gun, but by the beginning of World War II it was outdated. With a sufficiently high rate of fire, the sailors were no longer satisfied with the range of destruction of air targets. The reason for this was the weak 40x158R ammunition. A 40-mm projectile weighing 900 g left the barrel with an initial speed of 600 m / s, while the effective firing range at fast-moving air targets slightly exceeded 1000 m. In the British Navy, to increase the range of "pom-poms", high-speed projectiles with an initial speed of 732 were used m / s. However, such ammunition was not used in Japan.

Due to the insufficient firing range and short height reach at the end of the 1930s, on the main types of Japanese warships, Type 91 submachine guns were replaced by 25-mm Type 96 anti-aircraft guns. Most of the freed 40-mm belt-fed anti-aircraft guns migrated to auxiliary ships and troop transports.


Approximately a third of the Type 91 installations were placed onshore in the vicinity of naval bases. Several "pom-poms" were seized in good condition by the US ILC on the islands liberated from the Japanese.

Given the fact that the outdated 40-mm anti-aircraft guns had insufficient height reach, they did not pose a particular threat to the four-engine B-29s, even when they were lowered for incendiary bombs. But the aircraft of the American carrier-based aviation, "Thunderbolts" and "Mustangs", Type 91 anti-aircraft guns could shoot down. The hit of one 40-mm fragmentation tracer, containing 71 g of explosives, was quite enough for this.

In the 1930s-1940s, the 40-mm Bofors L / 60 cannon was the benchmark for an anti-aircraft gun of this class. With a mass of about 2000 kg, this installation ensured the defeat of air targets flying at an altitude of 3800 m and a range of up to 4500 m. Well-coordinated loaders provided a rate of fire of up to 120 rds / min. The muzzle velocity of the 40-mm "Bofors" was one third higher than that of the "pom-pom" - a projectile weighing 900 g accelerated in the barrel to 900 m / s.


In the course of hostilities, the Japanese pilots more than once had the opportunity to be convinced of the combat effectiveness of the Bofors L / 60 anti-aircraft guns, which the Americans, British and Dutch had. The hit of one 40-mm projectile in most cases turned out to be fatal for any Japanese aircraft, and the firing accuracy, when the anti-aircraft gun was served by a well-prepared crew, turned out to be very high.

After the occupation by Japan of a number of colonies belonging to the Netherlands and Great Britain, the Japanese army had more than a hundred towed 40-mm Bofors L / 60 anti-aircraft guns and a significant amount of ammunition for them at the disposal of the Japanese army.


Taking into account the fact that such captured anti-aircraft guns were of great value in the eyes of the Japanese military, they organized their recovery from ships sunk in shallow water.


Former Dutch naval anti-aircraft guns Hazemeyer, which used paired 40-mm machine guns, were permanently installed on the coast and used by the Japanese in the defense of the islands.

Given that the Japanese armed forces were in dire need of rapid-fire anti-aircraft guns with a higher effective range than the 25 mm Type 96, the decision was made in early 1943 to copy and start mass production of the Bofors L / 60.

Initially, at the production facilities of the Yokosuka naval arsenal, it was supposed to establish the production of paired 40-mm anti-aircraft guns, similar to the Dutch Hazemeyer installation, and towed land anti-aircraft guns.

However, due to the fact that the Japanese engineers did not have the necessary technical documentation, and the industry was unable to produce parts with the required tolerances, in fact, it was possible to master the semi-handicraft production of the Japanese unlicensed version of the 40-mm "Bofors", designated Type 5.

From the end of 1944 in the artillery workshops of Yokosuka, at the cost of heroic efforts, they produced 5-8 towed anti-aircraft guns per month, and ship "twin" were built in a number of copies. Despite the individual fit of the parts, the quality and reliability of the Japanese 40mm anti-aircraft guns were very low. The troops received several dozen Type 5 guns. But due to their unsatisfactory reliability and small numbers of influence on the course of hostilities, they did not.

Analysis of the combat capabilities of Japanese small-caliber anti-aircraft guns


The Japanese 20-mm anti-aircraft guns were generally quite consistent with their purpose. However, given that in 1945 the size of the imperial army was approximately 5 million people, 20-mm machine guns, issued in an amount of slightly more than 3000 units, were clearly not enough.

25-mm anti-aircraft guns were widely used in the navy and ground forces, but their characteristics cannot be considered optimal. Since the food was supplied from 15-round magazines, the practical rate of fire was low. For such a caliber, a belt-fed anti-aircraft gun would be more suitable. But in the 1930s, the Japanese did not have the necessary weapons design school. And they chose to copy the finished French sample.

A significant drawback was only the air cooling of the barrels of the guns, even on ships, which reduced the duration of continuous firing. Anti-aircraft fire control systems also left much to be desired, and they were clearly not enough. Single anti-aircraft guns, which are the most mobile, were equipped with a primitive anti-aircraft sight, which, of course, negatively affected the effectiveness of firing at air targets.

The 40mm "pom-poms" purchased from Great Britain were clearly outdated by the end of the 1930s. And they could not be considered an effective means of air defense. The Japanese captured relatively little of the very perfect 40-mm Bofors L / 60, and they failed to bring the unlicensed copy of the Type 5 to an acceptable level.

Based on the foregoing, it can be stated that the Japanese small-caliber anti-aircraft guns, due to organizational, design and production problems, did not cope with the tasks assigned to them. And they did not provide reliable cover for their troops from low-altitude attacks by attack aircraft and bombers.

The Japanese military industry was unable to establish mass production with the required quality of the most demanded anti-aircraft guns. In addition, the sharp rivalry between the army and the navy led to the fact that most of the most massive 25-mm anti-aircraft guns were installed on warships, and ground units were poorly protected from enemy air raids.

To be continued ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
Actions of American strategic bombers against Japan
Actions of American aviation against the Japanese islands at the final stage of the war
93 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. serg.shishkov2015
    serg.shishkov2015 4 May 2021 05: 49
    +9
    Thank you! very interesting article!
  2. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 4 May 2021 06: 33
    +10
    Thank you, Sergey! I read it in one breath. Particularly interesting is the first part of the article, which mentions the national developments of the Land of the Rising Sun.
    1. Bongo
      4 May 2021 10: 14
      +12
      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      Thank you, Sergey! I read it in one breath. Particularly interesting is the first part of the article, which mentions the national developments of the Land of the Rising Sun.

      Nazariy, hello! Thanks for the kind words!
      The cycle about the air defense of Japan was promised by me a long time ago. But all the hands did not reach and one of the readers not so long ago reminded me that we must keep our promises. Another question is that this is interesting only to a small group of readers interested in military history.
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 4 May 2021 10: 50
        +7
        Quote: Bongo
        Another question is that this is interesting only to a small group of readers interested in military history.

        Good morning, Sergey! hi
        So this is the target audience of the site. You can, of course, add that the Japanese air defense adopted the development of Asgard Iriysky and other achievements of the Slavic-Aryans, which is proved by the gallogroup of Nagasaki anti-aircraft gunners, as well as the shortcomings of the capitalist system for the production of small-caliber machine guns in the light of Lenin's April theses, but this is already how to insert a bed scene into Tarkovsky's film laughing
        1. Bongo
          4 May 2021 10: 54
          +8
          Quote: Krasnodar
          Good morning, Sergey!

          Good! But it's already evening for me!
          Quote: Krasnodar
          So this is the target audience of the site

          Unfortunately, this is a very insignificant part of VO visitors. recourse
          Quote: Krasnodar
          You can, of course, add that the Japanese air defense adopted the development of Asgard Iriysky and other achievements of the Slavic-Aryans, which is proved by the gallogroup of Nagasaki anti-aircraft gunners, as well as the shortcomings of the capitalist system for the production of small-caliber machine guns in the light of Lenin's April theses, but this is already how to insert a bed scene into Tarkovsky's film

          This is not for me. I can recommend other authors if you like. lol
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar 4 May 2021 11: 08
            +2
            I know the singer of Soviet (Russian) civilization, which offered mankind an alternative to the world of cash in the production of 75 mm anti-aircraft artillery fellow
            Well, and a galaxy of other wonderful proletarians of intellectual labor laughing
            1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
              Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 4 May 2021 11: 56
              +5
              Quote: Krasnodar
              which offered mankind an alternative to the world of cash in the production of 75 mm anti-aircraft artillery, I know

              In my opinion, such a caliber is not entirely tribal for the "Singer of Soviet (Russian) Civilization". 76mm rather)
              1. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar 4 May 2021 14: 12
                +3
                I agree - as 152 mm instead of 155 mm, 5,45, and not 5.56 and developed socialism under Ermak-Cortes instead of the ideology of profit of the gray-skinned Masters of the West, alien to us hi
          2. Knell wardenheart
            Knell wardenheart 4 May 2021 12: 00
            +4
            A question for you, the author! Is it known whether Japan used barrage balloons and NURSs to counter aviation?
            1. Bongo
              4 May 2021 13: 01
              +9
              Quote: Knell Wardenheart
              A question for you, the author! Is it known whether Japan used barrage balloons and NURSs to counter aviation?

              Hello! Japan in general turned out to be poorly prepared to repel air raids. Few shelters were built for the population, and they were mostly wood-earthen, the air target warning system was in its infancy, and there were very few anti-aircraft guns capable of reaching the B-29.
              As far as I know, the Japanese did not use balloons, and they would not help against the "Super Fortresses" capable of bombing from a height of 9 km.
              As for the anti-aircraft NAR, then nothing similar to what was created in Great Britain and Germany in Japan was not created.
              To provide air defense for ground units, they tried to use mortar rounds of 70 and 81-mm caliber.

              Each mine contained up to seven fragmentation submunitions, which were thrown out in the upper part of the trajectory at a distance of 900-1200 m and an altitude of about 600 m. After that, the charges were scattered and dropped by parachute. Each submunition was supplied with a contact and remote fuse.
              1. Knell wardenheart
                Knell wardenheart 4 May 2021 13: 33
                +3
                Thank you! Unfortunately, such moments are very poorly and rarely covered.
              2. English tarantas
                English tarantas 7 May 2021 04: 50
                +1
                Japan in general turned out to be poorly prepared to repel air raids.

                I read the article and in the middle realized that with such air defense the fate of the Japanese was a foregone conclusion. How did they only hold out until the 45th? I'll go read the previous articles from the cycle, ignore it, and wait about something about modern samurai air defense.
      2. Mountain shooter
        Mountain shooter 4 May 2021 11: 37
        +5
        Quote: Bongo
        Another question is that this is interesting only to a small group of readers interested in military history.

        Not such a small group. Thanks for the interesting article.
      3. Mountain shooter
        Mountain shooter 4 May 2021 11: 37
        +2
        Quote: Bongo
        Another question is that this is interesting only to a small group of readers interested in military history.

        Not such a small group. Thanks for the interesting article.
      4. Catfish
        Catfish 4 May 2021 11: 45
        +8
        Sergey, good morning evening. smile
        The article, as always, is beyond praise. good It turns out that they did not have very much with light anti-aircraft guns either, this is in addition to Japanese tanks, which always caused tears of affection in me. Surprisingly, the country was building huge aircraft carriers, but it was not able to make a decent tank or anti-aircraft gun. Paradox. request
        1. Bongo
          4 May 2021 13: 07
          +7
          Quote: Sea Cat
          Sergey, good morning evening.

          Konstantin, welcome!
          Quote: Sea Cat
          The article, as always, is beyond praise.

          drinks
          Quote: Sea Cat
          It turns out that they did not have very much with light anti-aircraft guns either, this is in addition to Japanese tanks, which always caused tears of affection in me. Surprisingly, the country was building huge aircraft carriers, but it was not able to make a decent tank or anti-aircraft gun. Paradox.

          There is no paradox. No. Japan was severely short of resources, which were mainly used by the navy. The army was financed and equipped on a leftover basis. In addition, the lack of competent engineering and technical personnel and the absence of its own scientific school also adversely affected the development and production of advanced air defense systems.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 4 May 2021 13: 16
            +5
            The army was financed and equipped on a leftover basis.


            This is true, but in the navy with anti-aircraft weapons it was not very good, right? request
          2. Yaroslav Tekkel
            Yaroslav Tekkel 8 May 2021 20: 23
            0
            Not certainly in that way. Even more money was allocated for the army than for the navy. But since 1937, huge costs went to the war in China, and little was left for rearmament. In addition, Japan did not have separate air forces as in the USSR, Germany or England with France. Funding for the Air Force also came from the budget of the army, and airplanes cost a lot of money. Finally, it is worth noting that the development and production of automatic weapons was then high-tech. The USSR also suffered in all the thirties, and licenses did not help, they simply could not master it in mass production. Only by the beginning of the war something working and serial appeared. The Americans (!) Were forced to abandon their developments (28-mm and 37-mm ZA) in favor of the Swiss 20-mm "Erlikons" and the Swedish 40-mm "Bofors". And the Swedes themselves could not produce their own guns in a normal series, because they also had an individual fit, like the Japanese. For mass production, the Americans completely redid the entire process technology. The 25-mm "Hotchkiss" was good because, for all its shortcomings, it could be produced in large quantities even with crooked hands on poor machines (33000 is a very strong series even by US standards, for the Japanese it is simply huge).
        2. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 4 May 2021 14: 20
          +4
          Quote: Sea Cat
          Surprisingly, the country was building huge aircraft carriers, but it was not able to make a decent tank or anti-aircraft gun. Paradox. request

          They counted on a war with the Chinese and in the jungle, where tanks played a secondary role, to support the infantry.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 4 May 2021 14: 25
            +4
            Stunning shortsightedness, but what about us, or after a couple of border conflicts, they decided not to climb anymore? Oh, I doubt it.
            1. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 4 May 2021 14: 42
              +5
              We decided to solve problems as they were received. After the Halkin Gol with the Zhukovskaya attack with bare tanks, the Yap's priority was to provide a resource base at the expense of Southeast Asia and China. After the victory in the Pacific theater of operations, they probably hoped to transfer industrial capacities to the ground forces + their aviation was quite good.
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 4 May 2021 15: 26
                +6
                Their problems began from the very beginning of the war with the United States, namely from the raid on Pearl Harbor - there was not a single aircraft carrier or the latest heavy cruisers. Those. the goals set before the attack were not achieved, and later everything ended in disaster.
                1. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 4 May 2021 15: 47
                  +5
                  And most importantly, they did not destroy the huge reserves of fuel, in warehouses that were practically defenseless against an air attack.
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 4 May 2021 15: 52
                    +4
                    And this is generally nonsense! The ships, of course, could have gone and gone, but they are not accustomed to running gasoline with fuel oil on their own. laughing
                    1. Krasnodar
                      Krasnodar 4 May 2021 18: 24
                      +4
                      Exactly laughing But even if they could bomb everything, the sad ending for Japan would be postponed by a maximum of a year, if not less.
                      1. Catfish
                        Catfish 4 May 2021 18: 48
                        +5
                        Well, yes, they obviously have not met an animal named Arctic fox before, they do not have it. request
                      2. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 4 May 2021 19: 10
                        +3
                        Until 1945 was not found laughing
      5. puskarinkis
        puskarinkis 5 May 2021 00: 47
        0
        An interesting note about the skew in the development of technology: cool ships and handicrafts in the rest of the technology. "Alternative historians" are voicing their own version and, it seems to me, there is a rational grain in their opinion. The essence of their version is that the hulls of the ships went to Japan from the "antediluvian civilization" and the Japanese only finished building them and used them. And if you look at the level of production development, resources, infrastructure development, and other conditions that are required for the construction of large ships, then there are big doubts about the ability of Japan of those years to launch ships of the size and in such quantities that we know about. Information on this topic can be found on the internet without any problems.
        1. unknown
          unknown 5 May 2021 06: 05
          0
          If we continue to develop this topic, then a lot of interesting things will come out.
          There is no ancient Japan.
          Real Japan began to appear in the middle of the nineteenth century, thanks to the Europeans.
          How did Europeans in less than half a century manage to create a state, society, elite, language from Polynesian and Macronesian scum (and introduce it, despite its transcendent and unnecessary complexity)? And this, created from scratch, also managed to "win" two wars?
        2. Catfish
          Catfish 5 May 2021 09: 03
          +2
          ... the hulls of the ships went to Japan from the "antediluvian civilization" and the Japanese just finished building them ...


          Very interesting. laughing And where were these buildings stored, and even so that no one could find them? And how did the sons of Yamato clean them of rust, or were the stainless steel hulls built?
          Hmmm, alternatives sometimes give out such that at least stop, at least fall. wassat
          1. puskarinkis
            puskarinkis 7 May 2021 06: 04
            +1
            Alternatives are not developing the theory from scratch. Do not confuse the level of industrial development in modern Japan and those years, and access to resources was limited. And the speed and number of launches of new ships is impressive! Even if you throw all the resources for the needs of the fleet, then you need to have not only a very developed industry, but also shipyards of the appropriate level, logistics. technologies, skilled labor, roads ... There are interesting photos of those years, which also make you think about some points. For example, over the discrepancy between the general level of development of technologies and those that were used in the construction of individual buildings. Yes, and the complexity of creating a cruiser and a tank is somewhat different, but nevertheless, everything except ships or bought very clumsily ... Hence the version of the appearance of shipyards and ships in Japan ...
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 7 May 2021 12: 13
              0
              Hence the version of the appearance of shipyards and ships in Japan ...


              Did they come out of nowhere?
              1. puskarinkis
                puskarinkis 7 May 2021 14: 06
                0
                Reasoning on this topic at the link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rIfasAgLbPQ
        3. cat Rusich
          cat Rusich 6 May 2021 19: 59
          +2
          Quote: puskarinkis
          An interesting note about the skew in the development of technology: cool ships and handicrafts in the rest of the technology. ...
          Japan island ...
          It is logical to throw all forces into building a fleet to ensure the safety of Japan.
          Weak military equipment in the ground army - Japan faced only the army of China (1894-95), the Russian Empire (1904-05). The participation of Japan in WWI and the occupation in the Russian Far East will be taken out of brackets ...
          A weak "land enemy" did not require a strong land army. The outbreak of war with China in 1937 only confirmed the need to strengthen the ground army - the Japanese army was winning ... everything went well until Khalkhin Gol in 1939. Having met with the Red Army in Mongolia, Japan began to "move" to strengthen the ground army, began to order new tanks, but "the ship had already gone far and for a long time" ...
          soldier
      6. unknown
        unknown 5 May 2021 05: 58
        0
        No paradox.
        The main resources went to the fleet.
        But ... it's not for nothing that the British called the Japanese school of shipbuilding "amateurish".
        Not a single fleet knew such an epic with bringing heavy cruisers back to normal through numerous and endless "upgrades".
    2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 4 May 2021 18: 25
      +5
      Sergey, thank you very much! I read the article with sincere pleasure. As always, high-quality and well-illustrated work.
      Special thanks to comrade VladKub, if not for the namesake, I would have missed the article !!!
  • Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 4 May 2021 06: 37
    +6
    Yoksel-moxel ... how Japan has changed in the post-war years! Back in the early 40s of the last century, the Japanese carried cannons on wooden wheels and "cleaned the guns with bricks"! And now in many technologies there are legislators! Auto, electronics - the world standard! How did it happen ? Who is guilty"? Why couldn't we? Indeed, in the 30-40s. in the 20th century, Japan was technologically lagging behind Germany, the United States ....! During WW2, Japan developed: 1.jet fighters, 2. anti-aircraft guided missiles, 3. anti-ship guided missiles, guided aerial bombs; 4. remote-controlled tankettes-landmines; 5. torpedoes with acoustic seeker ... in some cases with the help of Germany; but everything was limited to prototypes! They had no more time to do anything!
    PS By the way, the Americans, "justifying themselves" for the nuclear bombings, explained that without nuclear bonbs, Japan would have resisted for more than one year, and then the Japanese would have had time to organize the production of many types of guided weapons and the victory would have gone to the Americans at a much higher price! Something like that !
    1. The comment was deleted.
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. The comment was deleted.
    2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 4 May 2021 08: 57
      +12
      Quote: Nikolaevich I
      Back in the early 40s of the last century, the Japanese carried cannons on wooden wheels

      Wooden wheels are, Nikolaich, holy)
    3. Catfish
      Catfish 4 May 2021 11: 51
      +6
      Back in the early 40s of the last century, the Japanese carried cannons on wooden wheels and "cleaned the guns with bricks"! BUT

      STE is a national tragedy. The bell, which sounded at Midway, they did not smoke, and brought the catastrophe to Hiroshima. A particular style of thinking for samurai?
      In general, of course, it's funny:
      ... a rig with wooden wheels ... it could be towed by a horse-drawn carriage or light truck at a speed of up to 15 km / h.

      And at a speed of 16 km / h, the wheels just fell off. laughing
      1. Intruder
        Intruder 4 May 2021 12: 38
        +2
        And at a speed of 16 km / h, the wheels just fell off. laughing
        Yes, they would put it on skis made of a turtle shell and drive it on - until the area of ​​the supporting (working) surface is completely abraded !? wink
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 4 May 2021 13: 17
          +5
          Yes, without fish, the turtle can become cancer. laughing
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar 4 May 2021 14: 21
            +4
            Quote: Sea Cat
            Yes, without fish, the turtle can become cancer. laughing

            Or they can put it like this laughing
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 4 May 2021 14: 34
              +5
              Poor animal! crying
              1. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar 4 May 2021 14: 43
                +3
                On a wheelchair and with self-defense equipment laughing
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 4 May 2021 15: 30
                  +4
                  Well, something like. smile
                  1. Krasnodar
                    Krasnodar 4 May 2021 18: 26
                    +2
                    Yes, not a fig, behold good
          2. Intruder
            Intruder 4 May 2021 14: 38
            0
            Yes, without fish, the turtle can become cancer.
            Constantine, well, this is too much, maybe in the modern world and the norm (poor amphibians and all sorts, but in such a situation ... wink ), but we are with you ... we still remember that the fist is a playful blonde! ??? yes
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 4 May 2021 15: 32
              +2
              ... that fist is a playful blonde! ??? yes


              Denis, this thesis requires clarification. request
              1. Intruder
                Intruder 4 May 2021 16: 16
                0
                Denis, this thesis requires clarification
                this is just free rhetoric, why precise explanations !? What if they read us - minors, pregnant women and people with an unstable psyche! ??? wink
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 4 May 2021 16: 21
                  +7
                  With an unstable psyche, they definitely read! laughing laughing drinks
                  1. Krasnodar
                    Krasnodar 4 May 2021 18: 27
                    +3
                    Quote: Sea Cat
                    With an unstable psyche, they definitely read! laughing laughing drinks

                    I confirm! Gyyy wassat
                2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
                  Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 4 May 2021 17: 55
                  +3
                  Quote: Intruder
                  this is just free rhetoric, why precise explanations !? What if they read us - minors, pregnant women and people with an unstable psyche! ???

                  Honestly, I don't belong to any of these categories, but your flood, guys, makes me sick. Why is this here?
                  1. Intruder
                    Intruder 4 May 2021 18: 01
                    0
                    Honestly, I don't belong to any of these categories, but your flood, guys, makes me sick
                    Do not rate it for rudeness, honestly .., but I specifically wrote about free rhetoric ... !!! And so, you have strange physiological reactions, just like, according to the written:
                    pregnant women and people with an unstable psyche
                    laughing
                    PS Honestly, only on the basis of words and precisely from your comment ...
    4. Knell wardenheart
      Knell wardenheart 4 May 2021 12: 17
      +8
      I don't think Japan would have been able to fix anything. Raw materials supplies to the metropolis were imposed very fiercely - copper, fuel, aluminum, rolled metal, electricity - all of this was in a very large deficit. The massive obscuration of the Japanese industry also played a role.
      In my opinion, 2 points played against the Japanese scientific school in those years - 1) Japanese science was a "servant of two masters" - the army and the navy conducted their scientific research in separate institutes, each of which had limited funding and cooperated with creak between these departments ... The emperor was far from a "Fuhrer", and if Adolf sometimes made strong-willed (right or wrong, another question) decisions about the development or construction of something, then the Japanese did not have such a central figure in general, and the finances were thinner ...
      2) Technological archaism, I would even say the cavernous nature of most of the Japanese military - to a lesser extent, this concerned the command of the fleet. The remnants of the medieval mentality still wandered at the top of the nation, which resulted in a critical underestimation of the characteristics of technology and the absence of its proactive modernization during the war. Some progress was already at the very end, but even then - most of the resources were spent on idiotic projects such as human torpedoes, plywood aircraft for kamikaze, etc. From the point of view of the medieval mentality, their militarists often thought it would be more beautiful to throw away their hooves, and not effectively solve the problem, as the finale approached.

      Post-war Japanese society was demilitarized, which made it possible to get rid of both the scientific separation between the interests of these groups and, to a certain extent, from the defectiveness of their views.
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 4 May 2021 14: 48
        +3
        Well, how ... also Akutagawa Ryunokse described the Japanese enthusiasm for their victory over a European country - Russia, since the beginning of the 20th century they have already changed a lot.
    5. Intruder
      Intruder 4 May 2021 12: 22
      +3
      Yoksel-moxel ... how Japan has changed in the post-war years! Back in the early 40s of the last century, the Japanese carried cannons on wooden wheels and "cleaned the guns with bricks"!
      Precisely, in 2005 he was also fucking crazy about their smartphones for the domestic market, a friend bought two models with an OS, on the Linux kernel, then in Russia he surprised his friends at home gatherings over a beer, with this wonderful world of Japanese digital genius ... a glamorous red clamshell, but inside ... hi-tech, compared to this my working smart, like: Nokia 6680, dull and slow brick - on Series 60 v.2, was ... And then, by the will of fate, I contacted the Japanese guys , in 2017 against the backdrop of a wave of crypto-fever in August of that year, so compared to the Chinese "sly-hustle" laughing contractors, they very much opened my eyes to the development from scratch of any "small things" smart ..., such as small-scale consignments: ASIC and FPGA chips, they got an excellent experience then ...
    6. unknown
      unknown 5 May 2021 06: 08
      0
      No wonder.
      External pumping with money and technology.
      Japan, South Korea, China.
      When the need disappears, the country is slowed down, like Japan was slowed down after the 80s.
    7. English tarantas
      English tarantas 7 May 2021 04: 58
      +2
      How did it happen ? Who is guilty"? Why couldn't we?

      They became an American zone of occupation, and, together with Korea, fell victim to the gaze of American capital. The Americans invested monstrous money in Japan, while the Japanese themselves, being strong and not stupid people, plowed for three, but did not allow themselves to be deceived. A purely oriental mentality - study and work like a cursed person, and there will be a sunrise in your country.
  • Toucan
    Toucan 4 May 2021 06: 38
    +4
    The Japanese zoo in antiaircraft guns was certainly notable. Along with modern designs, there was also enough outright old stuff.
    In 1942, the 20-mm Type 2 anti-aircraft gun entered service. This model was created, thanks to military-technical cooperation with Germany, and was a 20-mm anti-aircraft gun 2,0 cm Flak 38, adapted for Japanese ammunition.

    On a good level, the Japanese should have acquired a license for the German 37-mm anti-aircraft machine gun, and not tormented with the non-licensed production of the 40-mm "Bofors".
    1. Monster_Fat
      Monster_Fat 4 May 2021 09: 15
      +7
      In fact, the topic of the air defense of the countries participating in WWII is very little covered in the Soviet-Russian literature. Especially in the part that concerns the radar. Literature is practically absent. The most interesting (from my point of view) book in this regard is the book by M. Zefirov "Swastika over the Volga. Luftwaffe against Stalin's air defense". https://royallib.com/book/zefirov_mihail/svastika_nad_volgoy_lyuftvaffe_protiv_stalinskoy_pvo.html
      1. Bongo
        4 May 2021 10: 44
        +9
        Quote: Monster_Fat
        In fact, the topic of the air defense of the countries participating in WWII is very little covered in the Soviet-Russian literature.

        A lot has been written about this on VO. Here's just a part of mine:

        Czechoslovakia
        https://topwar.ru/157057-pvo-chehoslovakii-chast-1.html

        German anti-aircraft small-caliber anti-Soviet aircraft (part of 8)
        There are active links to previous ones at the end of this part.
        https://topwar.ru/152215-nemeckie-malokalibernye-zenitnye-ustanovki-protiv-sovetskoj-aviacii-chast-8.html

        Surrogacy of the Red Army during the Great Patriotic War
        https://topwar.ru/134732-surrogatnye-sredstva-pvo-rkka-v-gody-velikoy-otechestvennoy-voyny.html

        Suomi's country's air defenses (part 4)
        https://topwar.ru/121162-pvo-strany-suomi-chast-4.html

        Anti-aircraft guns against tanks. Part 5
        https://topwar.ru/103159-zenitki-protiv-tankov-chast-5-ya.html

        Domestic anti-aircraft machine guns. 1-Part I
        https://topwar.ru/70758-otechestvennye-zenitno-pulemetnye-ustanovki-chast-1-ya.html

        American anti-aircraft defense during the Second World War. Part 2
        https://topwar.ru/55782-amerikanskie-zenitnye-sredstva-pvo-v-gody-vtoroy-mirovoy-chast-2-ya.html

        British anti-aircraft defense during the Second World War. Part 2
        https://topwar.ru/55279-britanskie-zenitnye-sredstva-pvo-v-gody-vtoroy-mirovoy-chast-2-ya.html

        American anti-aircraft machine guns
        https://topwar.ru/174730-amerikanskie-zenitnye-pulemety.html
        hi
  • Zufei
    Zufei 4 May 2021 06: 39
    +2
    It is strange that the state that built the Yamato could not master the production of Bofors.
    1. Shiden
      Shiden 4 May 2021 07: 13
      +10
      And what is strange here, in the USSR, they also could not master the production of 20mm assault rifles, although there was German documentation for production. Yes, from 37mm assault rifles the same story happened, Bofors had to be copied. Well, and lastly, the Imperial Japanese Army, and so in the offended, went all the money was taken by the fleet and aviation.
      1. serg.shishkov2015
        serg.shishkov2015 4 May 2021 07: 52
        +7
        The 20-mm submachine guns you mentioned were produced 30 pieces - the military representatives accepted only a few, 37-mm submachine guns - a dozen and a half, the military representatives did not accept a single one, the 152-mm German howitzer NG and the NM mortar turned out to be too complicated for our industry then and they were released small series, in * dry residue * from German technologies - 37 - mm PTO and 76 mm antiaircraft gun
        1. Shiden
          Shiden 4 May 2021 11: 19
          +4
          And here the oddities already begin that the management of the plant in Podlipki was not punished, although in other industries they could have been punished for a trifle. the USA and England did not have a normal 28mm unsuccessful and the British had half the walls and the Poles helped.
          1. Intruder
            Intruder 4 May 2021 12: 29
            +4
            And here the oddities already begin that the management of the plant in Podlipki was not punished, although in other industries they could have been punished for a trifle. the USA and England did not have a normal 28mm unsuccessful and the British had half the walls and the Poles helped.
            Well, the point is, if it was a systemic phenomenon, the sense is from the article, if indeed:
            the military representatives did not accept a single one, the 152-mm German howitzer NG and mortar NM turned out to be too difficult for our industry then
            we can recall the star-shaped aircraft engines for the I-16s, they were also copied from the Americans, and the rest of the first turbojet and turboprop models were taken somewhere, either legally under a license, or with the help of faithful comrades copied "into quiet" !?
            It's just that the technological level of production and scientific personnel of Germany, Spain and Italy with France was higher than even the young USA and the young Soviet Republic in general ... All major scientific and technical exhibitions, in that era: Berlin and Paris, and then the rest ...
            1. Shiden
              Shiden 4 May 2021 16: 09
              +2
              Quote: Intruder
              And here the oddities already begin that the management of the plant in Podlipki was not punished, although in other industries they could have been punished for a trifle. the USA and England did not have a normal 28mm unsuccessful and the British had half the walls and the Poles helped.
              Well, the point is, if it was a systemic phenomenon, the sense is from the article, if indeed:
              the military representatives did not accept a single one, the 152-mm German howitzer NG and mortar NM turned out to be too difficult for our industry then
              we can recall the star-shaped aircraft engines for the I-16s, they were also copied from the Americans, and the rest of the first turbojet and turboprop models were taken somewhere, either legally under a license, or with the help of faithful comrades copied "into quiet" !?
              It's just that the technological level of production and scientific personnel of Germany, Spain and Italy with France was higher than even the young USA and the young Soviet Republic in general ... All major scientific and technical exhibitions, in that era: Berlin and Paris, and then the rest ...

              The point is that in other countries the engineering and technical staff adjusted to the technical capabilities of production, and in the USSR, when the Second World War began, they began to stir.
            2. unknown
              unknown 5 May 2021 06: 18
              -4
              Where does the young Soviet Republic have scientific and technical personnel?
              If during the capture of Russia by the Comintern, which is presented in the form of a revolution and a "civil war", the country has lost its elite. That either left the country or was physically destroyed. That part of the elite that took the risk and remained to serve the Comintern was later also destroyed in the course of the so-called "Stalinist repressions", in fact, the same civil war, only continued in a different form.
              It takes at least ninety years to raise the first generation of the elite, since the first generation of the elite is actually the third after the start of the process.
              The Soviet Union lasted less.
              1. meandr51
                meandr51 5 May 2021 08: 42
                +2
                Well, yes, and those 250 thousand engineers in 1940 who filled up the front with modern, suitable equipment, you do not agree to include in the "elite". They were crunching not French rolls, but breadcrumbs ... Fi!
    2. Kosh
      Kosh 4 May 2021 09: 24
      +7
      It should be borne in mind that the production of copies of the Bofors began just when the Japanese islands began to be subjected to large-scale bombing, which in itself made it extremely difficult to launch mass production of products and greatly affected the quality. That is, in connection with the destruction of large land-based factories, those industries that could not or did not have time to move underground had to be carried to small shops, workshops, etc., which led to delays and major problems with the quality of production. Well, the death of trained workers and engineers as a result of the destruction of city blocks also affected.
    3. bk0010
      bk0010 4 May 2021 14: 35
      +4
      Quote: Zufei
      It is strange that the state that built the Yamato could not master the production of Bofors.
      Bofors - they are. Ask what happened when the states bought the Bofors license, very instructive. In short, they had to redesign the gun completely in order to ensure the possibility of its conveyor production, because the real Swedish Bofors was manufactured by hand assembly and fitting of parts by highly qualified workers (the production time of the gun was reduced 32 times).
      1. Zufei
        Zufei 4 May 2021 16: 05
        +5
        It seems to me that the main problem of American Bofors is the conversion of drawings from metric to inch system. Tolerances and fit, their mother
        1. bk0010
          bk0010 4 May 2021 21: 52
          +1
          Quote: Zufei
          It seems to me that the main problem of American Bofors is the conversion of drawings from metric to inch system. Tolerances and fit, their mother
          The main problem was that the "fit with a file in place" operation did not adapt to the conveyor, and the handicraft production of the states' needs for such anti-aircraft guns did not fundamentally meet.
        2. unknown
          unknown 5 May 2021 06: 24
          -2
          Suffice it to recall the construction of ships in the Russian Empire before the Russo-Japanese War.
          In Russia - the inch system, in France and Germany - the metric system.
          As a result, what came out of the projects "Tsesarevich" and "Bogatyr" when you tried to reproduce them in a series built at domestic shipyards? Construction overload.
          "Retvizan" is designed in an inch system, but ... the construction technology is different.
  • Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
    Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 4 May 2021 08: 43
    +10
    The licensed Hotchkiss 13.2mm (Type 93) was also used as an anti-aircraft gun. In single, twin or quad versions, on a special circular rotation machine, with an anti-aircraft sight and a pedal trigger. And although by the middle of the war it was recognized as ineffective as an anti-aircraft gun, nevertheless, out of despair, they continued to equip air defense units with it. And it seems that even the fleet supplemented the scarce 25mm with them.
    1. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I 4 May 2021 10: 13
      +7
      Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      The licensed Hotchkiss 13.2mm (Type 93) was also used as an anti-aircraft gun. In single, twin or quad versions,

      In Japan, under license, they mainly produced single 13,2-mm machine gun mounts ... and much less, coaxial 13,2-mm mounts ...
      1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 4 May 2021 11: 48
        +4
        Quote: Nikolaevich I
        In Japan, under license, they mainly produced single 13,2-mm machine gun mounts ... and much less, coaxial 13,2-mm mounts ...

        Nothing like this. The Twin Type Ho 13 was a very widespread version in the navy. Quad installations - yes, they were rare, but with regard to paired you are wrong.
        1. Nikolaevich I
          Nikolaevich I 4 May 2021 12: 06
          +4
          Perhaps .... it so happened that once I came across figures on the number of weapons in the Japanese armed forces ... I don’t remember the exact numbers; but, for some reason, it remained in my memory that 13,2- mm of coaxial machine gun installations, there were fewer than single ...
        2. Nikolaevich I
          Nikolaevich I 4 May 2021 13: 27
          +3
          Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          in relation to the coupled you are wrong.

          Perhaps, in something, and not right ... The reason for the discrepancy in my and your data may be as follows: 1. In addition to licensed weapons, the Japanese armed forces had a certain number of 13,2-mm machine gun installations purchased in France. ..; 2. 13,2-mm machine guns in the Japanese Armed Forces had different designations (depending on the type (type) of the Armed Forces ...? Year of delivery to the troops? ...): "Ho type"; "type 92" (13,2 mm); "type 93" ("renamed" type 92) ... Perhaps I came across data on weapons that went to the Armed Forces under a certain designation!
    2. Bongo
      4 May 2021 10: 20
      +11
      Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      The licensed Hotchkiss 13.2mm (Type 93) was also used as an anti-aircraft gun.

      I deliberately did not write about Japanese ZPUs, since they did not play any role in repelling the air strikes inflicted by the Americans on the Japanese islands.

      As for anti-aircraft machine guns, there were other samples in the Imperial Army. For example, the American 12,7-mm large-caliber Browning M2 machine guns, captured in significant numbers, were very popular in the Japanese armed forces. A copy of this machine gun, put into production in 1941, received the designation Type 1 (pictured).
      1. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 4 May 2021 12: 18
        +1
        Quote: Bongo
        For example, the American 12,7-mm large-caliber Browning M2 machine guns were very popular in the Japanese armed forces.

        If my memory serves me, then from 13,2-mm machine guns it was possible to shoot American cartridges of 12,7 x 99 mm caliber ... Moreover, at one time in France, cartridges of 13,2 x 99 mm were replaced by 13,2 x 96 mm so as not to be confused with Browning cartridges! (In any case, I have come across such a "version" on the Internet!) By the way, despite the fact that the cartridge 13,2 x 99/96 mm, as it were, has "sunk into oblivion" by now, in Ukraine in " there is a 13,2-mm sniper ("anti-material") rifle in a heap of "developed small arms"!
        1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 4 May 2021 13: 54
          +2
          Yes, I do not understand the subject of the dispute at all. For 10 years, something about 12000 Type 93 barrels were fired - what is the difference, by and large, how many barrels were assembled from them?
        2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 4 May 2021 18: 19
          +6
          Quote: Nikolaevich I
          If my memory serves me, then from 13,2-mm machine guns it was possible to shoot American cartridges of 12,7 x 99 mm caliber ...

          By the way, returning to the question of wood - when teaching the calculations of the Type 93 machine gun, cartridges with a wooden bullet were used - a hollow imitation of pressed bamboo fibers with a caliber of 13.2mm. Weight 2 grams. The cartridge had a charge of 11 grams. pyroxylin. The weight of the loaded cartridge is 64 g.
        3. Undecim
          Undecim 4 May 2021 21: 18
          +7
          If my memory serves me, then from 13,2-mm machine guns it was possible to shoot American cartridges of 12,7 x 99 mm caliber ...

          Changes. That is why the 13,2 × 99 Hotchkiss cartridge was converted into a 13,2 × 96 Hotchkiss so that the American cartridge would not be pushed into the French machine gun.
          As for the Ukrainian rifle "Askoria", you have to deal with its cartridge. They write on the net. which is based on 13,2 × 96 Hotchkiss.
          However, in the photo, the sleeve is clearly not his.

          Much more like a sleeve from the 12,7x108R ShVAK.
          1. Nikolaevich I
            Nikolaevich I 5 May 2021 01: 20
            +3
            Well, maybe partly "I'm not guilty! ..."?

            (((The Land of the Rising Sun was the only one in which this cartridge (13,2 mm) was used in aircraft armament, when in the middle of the war the Japanese adapted the 12.7 mm American Browning AN / M2 under the 13.2 mm Hotchkiss cartridge, having launched into production the Type 3 aircraft machine gun of the fleet. (It is characteristic that the Japanese machine gun, which was quite massively used in the second half of the war, could fire not only regular 13.2-mm cartridges, but exceptional cases even captured American 12.7x99, and also use standard American machine-gun belts. The use of a smaller caliber bullet, of course, negatively affected ballistic performance weapons, but nevertheless, the machine gun did not jam and it worked quite well.)))
            Quote: Undecim
            Changes. That is why the 13,2 × 99 Hotchkiss cartridge was converted into a 13,2 × 96 Hotchkiss so that the American cartridge would not be pushed into the French machine gun.

            Quote: Undecim
            As for the Ukrainian rifle "Askoria", you have to deal with its cartridge.

            Mdaaaa ...! You can't figure it out without Sherlock Holmes!
            When I saw the photo you provided, it seemed "terribly familiar" to me! Looked into the "archive" ... it is! This photo also "appears" in the internet, as: 1. Shiryaev's arrow-shaped sub-caliber bullet; 2.Dvoryaninov's arrow-shaped sub-caliber bullet ... 3. Well, here's another, and like a bullet to "Ascoria"! fool By the way, in the first message that appeared about the Ukrainian rifle with a caliber of 13,2 mm, there was infa about the French cartridge 13,2 x 99 mm ... and truncated! It was only much later that data on the "developed in Ukraine" cartridge with an arrow-shaped bullet began to appear! And if you consider that the Austrians (Steyr) "invented" an arrow-shaped sub-caliber bullet for their 15,2 / 15,5 mm calibers and there are also enough such pictures on the Internet ... and the Chinese made a sub-caliber bullet for a 14,5-mm machine gun .. ., then the famous detective would have gone crazy! hi
            1. Undecim
              Undecim 5 May 2021 06: 59
              +5
              There is nothing on the network for this rifle. Some sculpt this cartridge for it, others write that this is Shiryaev's cartridge of the sixties and the rifle was designed for it. Still others write that this patron has nothing to do with her, nothing is known about the real patron, perhaps he is in this photo.

              In addition, there is information that the cartridge of the Hotchkiss machine gun of 1917 was taken as a basis. But there is no such machine gun in nature.
              That is, a case is another confirmation. that the Internet cannot be a source of reliable information.
  • Knell wardenheart
    Knell wardenheart 4 May 2021 11: 59
    +7
    Thanks for the good article! I think the Japanese at the beginning of the war and in a nightmare could not dream of how they would be bombed closer to its end. Therefore, they relied more on aviation and the expansive activities of the fleet, which would stupidly deprive suitable bases in a sufficient radius.
    1. Intruder
      Intruder 4 May 2021 12: 35
      +4
      Therefore, they relied more on aviation and the expansive activities of the fleet, which would stupidly deprive us of suitable bases in a sufficient radius.
      They would still have their oil industry on the islands a couple of large deposits and raw materials for non-ferrous and ferrous metallurgy and a couple of years in reserve, then, perhaps, many modern island states in the Pacific would still be under the Japanese flag, but it was not set then, or maybe and for the better ... especially for China and Korea, and the Soviet Far East, would have turned out to be more compact than it is now!
      1. unknown
        unknown 5 May 2021 06: 32
        -1
        There is a funny version that the four "South Kuril" islands, which the Japanese demand to return, are in fact the so-called "Japanese" islands. That is, the islands of Japan proper. According to this version, Japan, which does not have a peace treaty with Russia (the Soviet Union) in fact, illegally holds these southern islands of the Kuril ridge.
  • Undecim
    Undecim 4 May 2021 15: 03
    +2
    In 1944, using the Type 2 artillery unit, a coaxial 20-mm Type 4 anti-aircraft gun was created.
    Here the author was mistaken. The twin anti-aircraft gun of two Type 2s was called Twin AA Type 2.
    A twin Type 4 setup consisted of two Type 98s.
  • Constanty
    Constanty 4 May 2021 22: 20
    +1
    25-mm anti-aircraft guns were widely used in the navy and ground forces, but their characteristics cannot be considered optimal. Since the food was supplied from 15-round magazines, the practical rate of fire was low. For such a caliber, a belt-fed anti-aircraft gun would be more suitable. But in the 1930s, the Japanese did not have the necessary weapons design school. And chose to copy the finished French sample.



    Let me remind you that the 25-mm automatic anti-aircraft gun of the 1940 model (72-K) was put into service in 1941, also not with a belt feed. Loading is made from 7-round clips. Better than from stores, but not from ribbon feed. Didn't have the necessary design and weapons school?

    Or maybe just all the analogs: Polsten, Flak 38, Flak 103, Hotchkiss, Breda Modello 35 and just Type 98 like this they fed on ammunition. This was the accepted standard.
    1. Bongo
      5 May 2021 02: 22
      +4
      Quote: Constanty
      Let me remind you that the 25-mm automatic anti-aircraft gun of the 1940 model (72-K) was put into service in 1941, too, not with a belt feed. Loading is made from 7-round clips. Better than from stores, but not from ribbon feed.

      Thanks for the comment, although I certainly don't need reminders like that.
      As for the 25-mm 72-K, in turn, I can recall that this anti-aircraft gun, created on the basis of the 37-mm 61-K, was certainly unsuccessful and did not receive wide distribution. Cycle loading for such a caliber is less preferable than even a magazine one, since the length of a continuous burst is shorter than that of a magazine-fed anti-aircraft gun of a similar caliber. This is very important when shooting at a fast moving target.
      I can also remind you that in the post-war naval twin 25-mm anti-aircraft gun 2M-3, tape power was used.
      Quote: Constanty
      Didn't have the necessary design and weapons school?

      Of course, you cannot but know that before the war we created a very good 23-mm aircraft cannon VYa belt fed, which was quite suitable for use as an anti-aircraft gun. Unfortunately, there was not enough VYa-23 even for attack aircraft. I can also remind you that for firing from the post-war ZU-23 (2A13), the shot originally created for VYa is used.
      Quote: Constanty
      Or maybe just all the analogues: Polsten, Flak 38, Flak 103, Hotchkiss, Breda Modello 35 and just Type 98 like this they fed on ammunition. This was the accepted standard.

      Yeah, "standard" is, of course, very important and categorically does not allow the use of other technical solutions to increase combat effectiveness. yes
      What can you say about the very active and successful use by the Germans of 15-20 mm MG 151/20 anti-aircraft guns? Maybe it's not about the standard?
      1. Constanty
        Constanty 5 May 2021 06: 59
        +1
        Thank you for your reply.

        Cycle loading for such a caliber is less preferable than even a magazine one, since the length of a continuous burst is shorter than that of a magazine-fed anti-aircraft gun of a similar caliber.


        This is controversial, because on 72-K, a new clip can be fed before the previous one is used up, which ensured the ability to conduct continuous fire, limited only by the skills of the loader and the intensity of heating the barrel.

        You are right. Yes, I know VYa-23, MG-151/20 or the Japanese Ho-5 or the "Model 5 Navy machine gun". All of them are aircraft guns, which are not analogous to the purely ground-based anti-aircraft guns mentioned here.

        I can also remind you that in the post-war naval twin 25-mm anti-aircraft gun 2M-3, tape power was used.

        the keyword is a word post-war
        It seems to me very inappropriate to compare and evaluate the guns of the mid-1930s with post-war buildings.

        Regards