Military Review

Anti-satellite weapons of China and Russia: the main modern challenge for the Pentagon

29

Russian anti-satellite "Nudol". Source: Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation


Americans were the first to start


The militarization of outer space is a purely American idea, which was later simply picked up by other states and, above all, the Soviet Union. In 1961, Yuri Gagarin became the first man in space, and the United States four years later already used the DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) meteorological satellite to plan airstrikes in Indochina.


For the first time, the Americans thought about creating an anti-satellite weapons even before the launch of the world's first satellite - in 1956. For its time, it was a real science fiction. The Pentagon planned to create an orbital device capable of incapacitating their own kind in orbit. This, we recall, despite the fact that the Americans themselves have not even launched an ordinary satellite into space. The machine, which exists exclusively in theory, was called SAINT (SAtellite INTerceptor) and was supposed to reach enemy objects at altitudes up to 7400 km. SAINT took a picture with an onboard thermal imager and sent it to Earth for identification. For 48 hours, the survey satellite accompanied the target in anticipation of the command and, upon confirmation, eliminated it. There is still no exact data on how SAINT was supposed to destroy the target. Naturally, the technological potential of the United States in the 50-60s was not able to pull out such a project, and in 1962 it was quietly shut down.

It is much easier to destroy spacecraft according to the principle of "a cannon at the sparrows" - a nuclear charge through the orbital space, where the satellite is supposedly hanging / flying. And the first combat-ready weapon against satellites from the Americans appeared in December 1962. Then the Program 505 system was tested, equipped with the Nike Zeus DM-15S interceptor missile without a nuclear warhead. From the Kwajalein Atoll, the rocket rose to an altitude of 560 km and hit a conditional target. In combat conditions, each missile would carry a nuclear charge of 1 megaton and would be guaranteed to disable all enemy objects in near space - ballistic missiles or satellites. Program 505 lasted until 1966, when it was replaced by the more advanced anti-satellite system Program 437. The concept of application was based on the Thor medium-range ballistic missile, which was converted to combat satellites. By the way, in the Soviet Union, anti-satellite defense took shape only by March 1967 with the creation of the Office of the Commander of the Anti-Ballistic Missile and Anti-Satellite Defense Troops. By that time, the leading powers had banned nuclear weapons in space, which seriously complicated the prospects for relevant technologies.


The Soviet Army had to adequately respond to the Americans, who had issued a certain priority in the fight against satellites by the mid-60s. This is how the Kosmos-248 spacecraft appeared, launched into space on October 19, 1968. The 248th model was followed by two more vehicles, which became the first anti-satellite "kamikaze". Now the Soviet Union was able to destroy objectionable objects at altitudes from 250 to 1000 km. True, so far not a single country in the world has officially taken advantage of this. Only in 2009, a Russian satellite that had served its end collided to death with a working NASA orbiter. The Americans are hinting that everything happened on purpose, but try to prove it - the emergency happened at such a significant height.

Key vulnerability


Why did satellites become the target of attacks by their own kind of inspectors? For a long time, the Americans have tied a lot to space objects - the echelon of the missile attack warning system, satellite communications, relaying, reconnaissance and, finally, navigation. Until a certain moment, the USSR and China, of course, treated the American satellite threat with attention, but did not overestimate it. However, in the Persian Gulf in 1991, satellites learned to direct Aviation on the enemy and broadcast it almost live. At that time, only the Chinese could adequately respond to the American satellite threat, and they launched a real "cold war" in space. First of all, it was a war over information possession. China has organized two main routes within the space program - C4ISR and AD / A2. In the first case, it is a program for collecting information, control, monitoring, communication and computation by means of a group of satellites and ground infrastructure. Simply put, an advanced space reconnaissance system. The second direction AD / A2 (Anti-Denial / Anti-Access) is already configured for defense against intrusions, as well as target designation for its own forces. In particular, in 2007 and 2008, the Chinese carried out cyberattacks on the Landsat-7 satellites of the US Geological Survey. The devices were turned off for 12 minutes, but control did not work.


The Pentagon, in turn, in the early years of the XNUMXst century was already fully addicted to the GPS positioning of its strike forces, which in many respects predetermined the further development of events. China and Russia, as potential adversaries, decided to use this to their advantage and organized an asymmetric response. Everything was and is very simple - knock out his key advantage from the enemy, and he is yours. In this case, military satellites are critical to the Pentagon. It is believed that Americans do not fight very well without GPS.

In this stories anti-satellite satellites or "assassin satellites" were first developed in China in the early 2000s. Russia joined the struggle a decade later. Already in 2008, the manned Shenzhou-7 launched the BX-1 inspector satellite into space. Everything would be fine, but its main purpose was to inspect Chinese spacecraft for damage and malfunctions. The BX-1 can photograph its own kind in orbit, which is like horror for the US military.

Five years later, in 2013, China sent a new model Shiyan-7, which can carry out simple repairs and even change the orbit of other satellites. This, of course, was the official version. In fact, this apparatus is potentially capable of easily dealing with almost any space object.

Three years later, in 2016, Beijing announced an orbital scavenger with a large claw. With this device, the apparatus simply pushes the superfluous, in its opinion, space objects towards the Earth. To be sure, the direction is chosen to the ocean expanses. It is quite understandable that in the event of an aggravation, the apparatus can also "throw off" enemy satellites from orbit to the Earth. But formally, all these Chinese novelties could not be directly called anti-satellite weapons - after all, they had a civilian essence.

But the successful destruction of the Fengyun meteorological satellite in 2007 by a medium-range ballistic missile put everything in its place. Many countries, including the US, UK, Canada, South Korea, Japan and Australia, have accused Beijing of unleashing "star wars". China responded by deliberately launching a target satellite into orbit seven years later and knocking it off Earth. But that's not all. According to American intelligence, China has the technology to blind reconnaissance satellites with lasers. More powerful installations are capable of incapacitating spacecraft. The Pentagon does not rule out that similar technologies exist in the Russian army.

Pentagon response


In 2016, the US released the report “War with China. Thinking the Unthinkable ”by the notorious Research and Development Corporation (RAND), which described a hypothetical scenario of a war with China. In 2025, China, widely using its space potential, will definitely not yield to the United States, so it is impossible to speak unequivocally about the outcome of events. Similar calculations for 2015 showed in this case already complete American dominance in all spheres. The RAND report caused quite a stir in the American establishment.

In 2018, Trump announced, and in December 2019, commissioned the Space Force as the sixth independent branch of the US military. At the same time, Russia and China were designated as the main opponents as the main instigators of the "Star Wars". In one of the 2020 United States defense strategy documents, one can see the following:

“China and Russia are using space for military purposes to reduce the combat effectiveness of the United States and its allies and challenge our freedom of action in space. The rapid expansion of commercial and international space activities further complicates the space environment. "

I must say that the new Space Forces did not find any significant achievements in countering the Chinese space threat. But, firstly, not much time has passed, and secondly, all the cards were confused by the pandemic. One of the most important events should be the launch of 150 tracking satellites for hypersonic missiles from Russia and China. They plan to completely withdraw the group by 2024.


The Americans are also enlisting their long-standing partners in the struggle for space. So, great hopes are pinned on the Japanese quasi-Zenith satellite system QZSS, which is able to keep the entire Asia-Pacific region under control. The Japanese last year, under this sauce, appeared their own military space division of the Air Force. At first, there are 20 people serving there, but the staff will steadily expand.

Star Wars seems to be getting more real. The number of countries included in the club of space powers is increasing, and the arsenal is expanding. This means that the chances of unpredictable collisions of state interests not only on land, water and in the air, but also in orbit are growing. And the outcome of such incidents is difficult to predict.
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  1. Free wind
    Free wind April 4 2021 05: 48
    +2
    The Americans decided to use anti-satellite weapons when there were no satellites yet. What nonsense, well, at least they themselves would have launched the satellite, to begin with.
  2. Bongo
    Bongo April 4 2021 05: 53
    +6
    Quite frankly, the publication is very weak. You can say: "about nothing." negative
    1. Thrifty
      Thrifty April 4 2021 07: 20
      +6
      Wongo-Sergei hi for a long time you have not been published on the site, and the author just collected a certain amount of facts, and that's it! Although, even in the USSR, shuttles could irradiate US shuttles with the same lasers, which has been written about many times. So, in which case the Yankees with their satellites in space will not be left without our "attention". PS - I am waiting for your new articles on the site! hi
      1. Bongo
        Bongo April 4 2021 07: 41
        +5
        Quote: Thrifty
        Wongo-Sergei hi for a long time you have not been published on the site, and the author just collected a certain amount of facts, and that's it! Although, even in the USSR, shuttles could irradiate US shuttles with the same lasers, which has been written about many times. So, in which case the Yankees with their satellites in space will not be left without our "attention". PS - I am waiting for your new articles on the site! hi

        Hello!
        Almost weekly, VO publishes my articles on the use of German captured weapons. With regard to this topic, it would be possible to make a much deeper and more interesting publication, and not so - on the tops. In my opinion, if he took up the topic, then the author is obliged to fully disclose it.
      2. Intruder
        Intruder April 4 2021 20: 15
        +1
        Although, even in the USSR, shuttles could irradiate US shuttles with the same lasers, which has been written about many times.
        This is from the realm of urban legends, from articles of the "yellow press", as well as foil hats, as total protection from "psychotronic emitters", and then from: WiFi / GSM / 5G, etc.!? laughing There was no then (as now) in the USSR, such a "fence" technical ability to direct coherent radiation, and even on an orbiting object, with a speed of up to 7,68 km / s. (27 648 km / h), which is about Mach 23 at sea level, and even now it is possible not, neither there nor here !!! wink
  3. Konstantin Gogolev
    Konstantin Gogolev April 4 2021 07: 30
    +12
    Probably, let's go along a thread with a pine forest).
    An inspector satellite is one of the types of spacecraft designed to ensure the safety of the operation of the orbital constellation of the Russian Federation. According to the British analytical agency Jane's, from 2013 to 2017, Moscow launched several experimental devices. They are supposedly capable of maneuvering, moving hundreds of kilometers, and inspecting foreign artificial earth satellites (AES).

    It is alleged that on June 23, 2017, with a Soyuz-2.1v carrier rocket, Russia launched three "inspectors" into orbit: "Kosmos-2519", "Kosmos-2521" and "Kosmos-2523". According to British analysts, such devices are part of the anti-satellite arsenal of the Russian Federation.
    AES of the "Cosmos" type, as well as other small inspection satellites are being developed within the framework of the 14K167 "Level" project. They use "pseudo-impulses" to move in orbit - this method of maneuvering is economical in terms of fuel consumption. In addition, in the future, Russian inspection satellites will become less visible to surveillance equipment due to a special radio-absorbing coating.

    With reference to the report of the Foundation for a Safe World and its own sources, The Space Review writes that Moscow is creating many anti-satellite ground and aviation systems to disable satellites in low-Earth orbit (about 200-1200 km from Earth). Also, Russian enterprises are allegedly developing satellites of the "Burevestnik" type, capable of hitting vehicles in the geostationary belt (about 35,7 thousand km).
    In August 2018, at a conference on disarmament in Geneva, US Assistant Secretary of State Ilem Poblet said that the latest Russian satellites are indeed capable of disabling foreign satellites. According to her, the United States is concerned about the "very abnormal behavior" of the devices launched by the Russian Federation.
    The development of domestic satellites inspectors and anti-satellite weapons systems is Russia's response to the consistent militarization of outer space, which is being carried out by Washington.

    USA.

    “The X-37B has been designed for a wide variety of missions. There is no doubt that this unit can inspect and damage satellites. Its advantage lies in the ability to stay in orbit for a long period (about two years). "

    There is reason to believe that the X-37B is currently being used to collect information about foreign satellites, including Russian satellites. The American spacecraft poses a danger to the Russian and Chinese orbital groups.

    The X-37B and Washington's plans to improve the missile defense space echelon make space militarization inevitable and open an arms race. This is a fact to be reckoned with. Therefore, the claims of the United States and some Western countries to our satellites-inspectors are groundless. Russia is forced to create defense and countermeasures in outer space.
    The dependence on satellites in the modern world is enormous. These are navigation, communications, observation, reconnaissance, target designation. Meanwhile, effective methods of protecting satellites (like air defense) do not exist and they are unlikely to appear in the foreseeable future. As a result, the leading powers are developing offensive weapons. The most vulnerable devices are in near-earth orbit. It is relatively easy to disable them by kinetic action - both from orbit and from the Earth.
    Anti-satellite potential is possessed by the S-400 Triumph and S-500 Prometheus anti-aircraft missile systems, the MiG-31 fighter-interceptor with the updated Contact missile, the Peresvet laser complex, and the Tirada-2.3 satellite jamming system.
    The increase in the defense potential of the domestic orbital group is carried out through the development of technical vision technologies. This scientific direction was the subject of a conference that took place in mid-October in the Era technopolis (Anapa). At it the Mozhaisky Military Space Academy (St. Petersburg) presented a project of a promising onboard space observation system.

    This complex of technical vision will be able to track the movement of vehicles that pose a potential threat to the orbital group of the Russian Federation. First of all, we are talking about foreign satellites-inspectors. Observation means are planned to be installed on satellites weighing up to 200 kg, which will be located at an altitude of 2-3 thousand km.
    Total: at least 3 countries (Russia, China, USA) can eliminate enemy satellites. But everyone has a problem with protection. The era of "Star Wars" never came. For now. But everything must be prepared vigorously, for a modern war without satellite escort is impossible.
    1. Intruder
      Intruder April 4 2021 20: 42
      0
      They are supposedly capable of maneuvering, moving hundreds of kilometers, and inspecting foreign artificial earth satellites (AES).
      Hundreds of kilometers, hmm ... somehow a little and causes a smile, if you remember the dimensions in the Earth's orbit, plus target designation for these small sizes, I can also understand guidance from the ground, or an orbital platform station, such as: Almaz-T (Resurs-R) , and apparatus for inspection, such as:
      In 1962, an inspector of space objects - "7K-P" was designed, which was supposed to solve the problem of inspecting and disabling enemy spacecraft. This project received the support of the military leadership, since the US plans to create a military orbital station Manned Orbiting Laboratory were known and the Soyuz-P maneuvering space interceptor would be an ideal means to combat such stations.
      Initially, it was assumed that Soyuz-P would ensure the approach of the spacecraft with an enemy space object and the cosmonauts' exit into open space for the purpose of examining the object, after which, depending on the results of the inspection, the astronauts would either disable the object by mechanical impact, or “remove »It from orbit by placing it in the container of the ship. Then such a technically complex project was abandoned, as there was a fear that with this option, astronauts could become victims of booby traps.
      Later, the designers changed the concept of using the spacecraft. It was supposed to create a modification of the spacecraft: 7K-PPK ("Manned interceptor") for two cosmonauts, equipped with eight small rockets. He was supposed to get close to the enemy's spacecraft, after which the cosmonauts, without leaving their spacecraft, had to visually and with the help of on-board equipment inspect the object and make a decision about its destruction. If such a decision was made, then the ship had to retire a kilometer from the target and shoot it with onboard mini-missiles. However, plans to create interceptor ships "Soyuz-P / PPK" were subsequently abandoned due to the refusal of the Americans to work on their own project MOL Manned Orbiting Laboratory. On the basis of the 7K-OK project, the Soyuz-R (Scout) warship was developed, and then on its basis - the Soyuz-VI (Military Researcher). The project of the 7K-VI (Soyuz-VI) spacecraft appeared in pursuance of the Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of August 24, 1965, ordering to accelerate work on the creation of military orbital systems. The designers of the 7K-VI spacecraft promised the military to create a universal combat ship that could carry out visual reconnaissance, photographic reconnaissance, and perform maneuvers to approach and destroy enemy spacecraft. In 1967, D.I. Kozlov, at that time the head of the Kuibyshev branch of OKB-1, after unsuccessful launches of 7K-OK (the death of cosmonaut V.M.Komarov, as well as accidents and failures in the flight program of unmanned spacecraft of the "Soyuz" type and, accordingly, the impossibility of TsKBEM to engage in lunar and military programs at the same time) - completely re-assembled and modified the "7K-VI" transferred to its original project. New model of spacecraft with HP-23 (modification of the tail gun of the Tu-22 jet bomber, modified specifically for firing in a vacuum). Another innovation applied at Zvezda was a power plant based on a radioisotope energy source.
      This modification could become the basis for the further development of the Soyuz spacecraft, but the head of OKB-1 (TsKBEM) V.P. Mishin, who took this post after S.P.Korolev's death, using all his authority and state connections, achieved the cancellation of all flights "7K-VI" and closed this project, promising to create "7K-VI / OIS" through minor modifications of the outdated 7K-OK. Later, the final decision was made that it makes no sense to create a complex and expensive modification of an existing one.
      ship "7K-OK", if the latter is quite capable of coping with all the tasks that the military can put before it. Another argument was that it is impossible to dissipate forces and means in a situation where the Soviet Union may lose its leadership in the "moon race". In addition, the leaders of TsKBEM did not want to lose their monopoly on manned space flights. Ultimately, all projects for the military use of a manned spacecraft in the Kuibyshev branch of OKB-1 were quietly covered in favor of unmanned systems.
  4. rocket757
    rocket757 April 4 2021 07: 41
    +1
    Is there a possibility that for the profitable / efficient use of near-earth space, the leading powers will have to create ... garbage troops !!! space-class ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? space class ???
    No longer in order to "annoy" the enemy / competitor, but for their own / common needs.
  5. sayeret Matkal
    sayeret Matkal April 4 2021 08: 46
    -4
    Only for some reason satellites fall near the Russian Federation, and inform us about this not in my, but from the United States. As usual, "not in the know"
    1. bk0010
      bk0010 April 4 2021 11: 33
      +4
      Quote: sayeret Matkal
      Only for some reason satellites fall near the Russian Federation, and inform us about this not in my, but from the United States. As usual, "not in the know"
      I know. They warned me two months in advance. But here the trick is also that those who follow our satellites should not tell you anything. So, until you start serving in large positions in the Aerospace Forces, you will receive information of this kind from foreign sources.
      1. sayeret Matkal
        sayeret Matkal April 4 2021 23: 01
        -1
        The government should answer to the people, have you heard about public hearings following the example of the United States?
        The more control and pressure on the state, the better the people.
        Instead of hiding failures and incidents, let them investigate publicly, identify shortcomings, etc.

        It's not just about satellites
        1. bk0010
          bk0010 April 4 2021 23: 29
          +2
          Quote: sayeret Matkal
          The government should answer to the people, have you heard about public hearings following the example of the United States?
          I heard. But this is not the government, it is the military. They have instructions. Get the instructions changed - you will know everything. In the meantime, there is a letter on this information, you will not know anything. Even if you can watch it on the Internet.
        2. Charik
          Charik April 5 2021 09: 45
          0
          And someone has nothing to fall, well, only a Polish toilet brush from his hands.
    2. ccsr
      ccsr April 4 2021 11: 42
      0
      Quote: sayeret Matkal
      Only for some reason satellites fall near the Russian Federation, and inform us about this not in my, but from the United States.

      So they are, according to the plan, de-orbited, and the Americans change diapers every time, because we can notify them about the beginning of de-orbiting, but no one knows where the unburned debris can get. Once in Canada, our satellite with a radioisotope generator fell, we even had to pay compensation to them. But on purpose, he fell, or by chance there is still no consensus either among us or among the Americans.
      Quote: sayeret Matkal
      As usual, "not in the know"

      Who needs to know everything, they just don't ring the bells, and that's all.
  6. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh April 4 2021 10: 11
    +5
    SpaceX has now demonstrated that it is possible to launch satellites in large
    packs of 60 at intervals of several days.
    Moreover, these are not mini-satellites: each StarLink satellite is the size of a solid kitchen table.
    (without solar panels).
    22 packs have already been launched. More than 1300 pieces.
    Of these, 9 packs - one single first stage. The start is cheap.

    And the Pentagon naturally became interested in the method itself.
    A tender has been announced, and most likely SpaceX will win.
    The Pentagon is going to hang a dense network of reconnaissance over the Earth.
    and satellites constantly exchanging data with each other and with the command.
    It is possible to shoot down each of the satellites, but the loss of units will not damage the network.
    And it's easy to make up for the loss.
    1. Shopping Mall
      Shopping Mall April 4 2021 10: 48
      +3
      Quote: voyaka uh
      SpaceX has now demonstrated that it is possible to launch satellites in large
      packs of 60 at intervals of several days.
      Moreover, these are not mini-satellites: each StarLink satellite is the size of a solid kitchen table.
      (without solar panels).
      22 packs have already been launched. More than 1300 pieces.
      Of these, 9 packs - one single first stage. The start is cheap.

      And the Pentagon naturally became interested in the method itself.
      A tender has been announced, and most likely SpaceX will win.
      The Pentagon is going to hang a dense network of reconnaissance over the Earth.
      and satellites constantly exchanging data with each other and with the command.
      It is possible to shoot down each of the satellites, but the loss of units will not damage the network.
      And it's easy to make up for the loss.


      In my opinion, there are a lot of people here who simply refuse to believe in it.
    2. spolo
      spolo April 4 2021 13: 50
      0
      Again, vigorous loaf and amy
      1. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh April 4 2021 16: 52
        +4
        In space - vacuum - there is no blast wave - the main destructive factor
        nuclear explosion. And EMP and hard radiation act over short distances.
        1. Vadim237
          Vadim237 April 4 2021 18: 29
          0
          It depends on the power of the charge detonated in orbit.
        2. Svetlana
          Svetlana April 4 2021 20: 10
          -1
          Quote: voyaka uh
          In space - vacuum - there is no blast wave - the main destructive factor
          nuclear explosion.
          But in space, fragments of the moon may appear. See https://1gai.ru/publ/526309-chto-proizojdet-esli-skinut-na-lunu-jadernuju-bombu.html
          https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qEfPBt9dU60
          In a thermonuclear explosion with a total power of 100 Mt on the Moon, a crater with a diameter of more than 1 km is formed in the center of the explosion, and 100 million cubic meters of dust and stones will scatter around it.
          Since there is no atmosphere on the lunar surface and gravity is weak, most of the projected dust and rocks will fly into space. Almost all of the meteoric dust formed in this way will fall to the Earth. True, almost nothing will reach the surface of the planet, since most of it will be the size of pebbles. But this pebble will successfully pierce and disable the artificial satellites of the Earth, which are outside the atmosphere.
          To increase the efficiency and speed of destruction of near-earth satellites, cumulative simultaneous explosions of three penetrating thermonuclear ammunition can be used.
          It is possible to reach the Moon in a threatened period with the help of silo-based nuclear missiles, equipped with nuclear rocket engines (NRM), which allow, with a sufficiently compact size, to provide a mass of 10..20 tons into a circumlunar orbit from a silo launcher. NRE can be installed on the first and / or second stage of the rocket. The third stage is equipped with chemical rocket engines for orbital maneuvering in circumlunar orbit, aiming and shielding warheads from penetrating radiation from nuclear-powered missiles.
          The specific impulse on the ground at the RD-0120 hydrogen-oxygen engine is 353 sec. But cryogenic fuel components cannot be stored for a long time - they evaporate.
          The specific impulse of solid-phase NRE will be 850-900 s, which is more than twice the performance of the most advanced chemical rocket engines. surface, which allows you to effectively heat the gaseous working fluid (water or liquid ammonia with an alkali metal dissolved in it). These coolants are stored for a long time in a fueled ampulized rocket located in a silo launcher.
    3. Klingon
      Klingon April 4 2021 20: 41
      -3
      or you can launch a couple - three barrels of balls from broken-down bearings at a speed of 9 km / s into exactly the same orbit where the packs of satellites are located. How do you like this alignment? count what is cheaper wassat
  7. certero
    certero April 4 2021 10: 36
    +2
    The biggest danger right now is the launching of tens of thousands of small satellites to create Internet access. This network will be the ideal source of information.
  8. Old26
    Old26 April 4 2021 14: 02
    +3
    Quote: Free Wind
    The Americans decided to use anti-satellite weapons when there were no satellites yet. What nonsense, well, at least they themselves would have launched the satellite, to begin with.

    This is not nonsense, Alexander. In fact, starting around 1953, it became clear that there were only a few years left before the start of the space age. Moreover, both we and the Americans have officially announced that we will launch satellites during the International Geophysical Year (which is July 1, 1957 to December 31, 1958). The development of the military component has always been slightly ahead of civilian space. And it is quite clear that in parallel with military satellites, they began to develop anti-satellite defense systems.
  9. Bad_gr
    Bad_gr April 4 2021 14: 41
    +2
    At one time, we tested a satellite killer. He went to meet the satellite that must be destroyed and shot him in the forehead. A very well thought-out tactic: all the debris flew in the opposite direction of the satellite movement. That is, in relation to the Earth, they had a lower speed, went into low orbits, and there it was a stone's throw from orbit. That the Americans and the Chinese do not take this into account: after their tests of anti-satellite weapons, there is a heap of garbage in different orbits, from satellites destroyed by them.
  10. Old26
    Old26 April 4 2021 15: 51
    +2
    Quote: spolo
    Again, vigorous loaf and amy

    A nuclear explosion, with all its damaging factors, is not a panacea. The same EMP, particle radiation has a range limit. And it's not a fact that such an explosion can hit more than 4-5 satellites out of a hundred launched.
  11. Old26
    Old26 April 4 2021 16: 49
    +6
    Quote: Bad_gr
    At one time, we tested a satellite killer. He went to meet the satellite that must be destroyed and shot him in the forehead. A very well thought-out tactic: all the debris flew in the opposite direction of the satellite movement. That is, in relation to the Earth, they had a lower speed, went into low orbits, and there it was a stone's throw from orbit. That the Americans and the Chinese do not take this into account: after their tests of anti-satellite weapons, there is a heap of garbage in different orbits, from satellites destroyed by them.

    We did not just test such a satellite. He was in service. In particular, the IS-MU has been a satellite for 3 generations. It was not necessary to "go head-on" to the enemy satellite. It was just that the sheaf of submunitions was going forward. The range of damage is about 0,5-1 km (in the opposite direction, the radius of damage was half as much)
  12. Old26
    Old26 April 4 2021 23: 26
    +3
    Quote: Svetlana
    In a thermonuclear explosion with a total power of 100 Mt on the Moon, a crater with a diameter of more than 1 km is formed in the center of the explosion, and 100 million cubic meters of dust and stones will scatter around it.

    It would be nice to have such a 100-mt charge with a 100% guarantee of operation, and deliver it to the moon. Then you can be clever (this is in relation to the authors of the article) about the fragments of the moon in space

    Quote: Svetlana
    But this pebble will successfully pierce and disable the artificial satellites of the Earth, which are outside the atmosphere.

    It will go like a solid wall (pebbles from pebbles at a distance of 5-10 cm? Having walked 400 thousand kilometers before that?

    Quote: Svetlana
    To increase the efficiency and speed of destruction of near-earth satellites, cumulative simultaneous explosions of three penetrating thermonuclear ammunition can be used.

    So far, only the V-61-11 EMNIP bomb is known from nuclear penetrators

    Quote: Svetlana
    It is possible to reach the Moon in a threatened period with the help of silo-based nuclear missiles, equipped with nuclear rocket engines (NRM), which allow, with a sufficiently compact size, to provide a mass of 10..20 tons into a circumlunar orbit from a silo launcher. NRE can be installed on the first and / or second stage of the rocket. The third stage is equipped with chemical rocket engines for orbital maneuvering in circumlunar orbit, aiming and shielding warheads from penetrating radiation from nuclear-powered missiles.

    That would be for a change in threatened to have missiles with nuclear engines. Talk about them has been going on for 60 years, no less, but "things are still there"

    Quote: Klingon
    or you can launch a couple - three barrels of balls from broken-down bearings at a speed of 9 km / s into exactly the same orbit where the packs of satellites are located. How do you like this alignment? count what is cheaper wassat

    Can? And when such barrels are detonated (in order for these balls to create a speed exceeding the speed of the satellite, there is a guarantee that the satellites will be unharmed and the balls (and such an explosion will cause a cone of fragments) will not fly by. Even our specialized satellites such as IS, the range of destruction was about 500 m (maximum 1 km). If further - all balls - "past"
    1. Svetlana
      Svetlana April 5 2021 16: 49
      -2
      Quote: Old26
      It will go in a solid wall (pebbles from pebbles at a distance of 5-10 cm? Having passed 400 thousand kilometers before that?

      Due to the fact that the Earth attracts these lunar pebbles, it will gather around the Earth in near-Earth space and eventually all fall to Earth.
      But before the fall of the lunar pebble to the earth (which will occur for several months with a gradually decreasing intensity, a kind of meteor shower from the moon), it, partially captured by the gravity of the Earth into near-earth orbits, within a few days with a probability of 100% will destroy all the satellites of the Earth in spite of the American grandmother, freezing her ears and damaging her eyes.
      There are not so many artificial earth satellites in Russia compared to the number of American satellites. Nothing, in the Second World War they did without GPS. And now we'll get by. Let's move from GPS to maps and inertial guidance systems. This will equalize our chances in a global conflict. Cheap and angry, an asymmetrical response to the deployment of a cloud of satellites that are "easy to renew if lost."
    2. Svetlana
      Svetlana April 5 2021 17: 42
      -1
      Quote: Old26
      to spite my grandmother's ears frostbite

      To freeze ears the fastest with the help of a frozen magnetic field, freezing the Earth's near-Earth magnetic field in a plasma ring formed by three simultaneous nuclear explosions at an altitude of 6400 km and then compressing the magnetic field frozen into the plasma ring several times expanding at a speed of 1000 km / s with fireballs of three cosmic thermonuclear explosions 30Mt each.