Military Review

Armament complex of the Su-57 fighter

49

A pair of Su-57s at the air parade on May 9, 2018. The leading vehicle (right) carries two underwing pylons. Photo of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation


Like any other fighter, the promising Su-57 is primarily a weapon carrier. The main task of such an aircraft is to deliver aviation means of destruction (ASP) to the line of application with the subsequent defeat of the target. The Su-57 has to deal with a wide range of air, ground and surface targets, which makes special demands on its armament range, and also affects the design of the aircraft.

Aerial platform


During the development of the "Perspective aviation complex of front-line aviation", both mastered ideas and new solutions were used. Like older fighters, the Su-57 has a built-in cannon and several nodes for the suspension of missile and bomb weapons. At the same time, for the first time on a domestic fighter, internal compartments are used to accommodate the ASP.

Su-57 received four compartments at once for weapons... The two main ones are large in size and occupy most of the fuselage length. They are offered for transporting and dropping larger ASPs such as medium and long-range air-to-air missiles, large-caliber bombs, etc. At the edges of the center section, there are two additional reduced-volume cargo compartments that can accommodate only one missile of limited dimensions. The compartments are equipped with special ejection devices that lead a missile or bomb out of the airframe.


AFAR radar N036 "Belka". Photo Wikimedia Commons

An external suspension is also provided. The wing has assemblies for mounting four removable pylons. A pair of similar devices are attached under the nacelles. The use of an external suspension allows you to increase the ammunition being transported, however, it worsens the visibility indicators.

According to various sources, the maximum combat load of the Su-57 can reach 14-16 tons. In the past, it has been repeatedly indicated that the aircraft will be able to use both existing weapons and advanced models. The development of 14 new ASPs of different classes was mentioned. Some of them have now gained prominence, while others seem to be still under development.


Dissolve wing with cannon hatches. Photo by UAC / Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation

The aircraft is equipped with a developed sighting and navigation system of all-round visibility, capable of detecting and tracking a large number of targets in the air and on the surface. In addition, the aircraft is super-maneuverable. All these devices and capabilities are actually intended for the effective use of the ASP and the solution of the combat mission.

Artillery armament


A 30-mm automatic cannon 9A1-4071K (a modernized version of the old and well-deserved GSh-301) is used as built-in and permanent armament. A gun with up to 150 rounds of ammunition is placed in the right wing overhang. To improve aerodynamics and protection from radiation, the muzzle of the gun has a movable cover.


The prototype plane demonstrates the bottom. The outlines of the hatches of the main cargo compartments and protruding side elements are visible. Photo Wikimedia Commons

The cannon armament has passed all the necessary checks at the stand and on the carrier aircraft. Recently, a video of test firing from an airplane at the stand has been freely available. The gun showed the required characteristics of accuracy and accuracy. Accordingly, the fighter gets the opportunity to attack various targets with a high probability of destruction. The effectiveness of the use of the weapon is additionally increased due to modern sighting and navigation devices, aircraft control systems and super-maneuverability.

For aerial purposes


The main tasks of the Su-57 are to intercept enemy aircraft and gain air superiority. Air-to-air missiles of various types with a wide range of characteristics should be used to combat air targets. Depending on the tasks assigned, the characteristics of the departure and other factors, the missiles can be suspended in the inner compartments and under the wing.

Side cargo compartments of limited dimensions are designed to accommodate short-range missiles RVV-MD. The main compartments can accommodate any types of weapons, including medium and long-range RVV-SD and RVV-BD products. According to known estimates, up to 8 RVV-SD missiles or 6 larger and heavier RVV-BD missiles can be transported in two compartments.


Advanced air-to-air missiles. In the foreground is the RVV-BD product, followed by the RVV-SD. Photo Vitalykuzmin.net

Apparently, the range of air-to-air ammunition is not limited to these three products. The Su-57 should be able to use all current missiles, including fairly old samples. In addition, it is known about the development of new weapons, which in the future will complement and replace the current models.

Using only missiles of known types, the Su-57 is capable of attacking and successfully hitting aircraft and other air targets over a wide range of ranges. So, RVV-MD missiles of various modifications allow you to shoot at 20-40 km, and the range of the RVV-BD product is declared at 400 km. The aircraft's own PrNK and the ability to interact with other means of the armed forces make it possible to fully realize the potential of such weapons.

Air-to-surface


As a fighter-bomber, the Su-57 is capable of effectively attacking ground targets using missile and bomb weapons. It is known that a number of air-to-surface guided ASPs have been integrated into the armament complex. Probably, the aircraft is able to use unguided systems, and a modern PrNK should provide the highest possible accuracy and efficiency.

Open sources reported on the ability of the Su-57 to carry guided bombs with a caliber of up to 1500 kg. There must be compatibility with different guidance tools.


Kh-38MLE air-to-surface missile. Photo Wikimedia Commons

The development of rocket systems continues. For modern and promising front-line aviation, the Kh-38 air-to-ground missile has been developed in several modifications with different guidance principles and different combat units. In the recent past, new modifications of the Kh-58 missile have been created for transportation in internal compartments. The appearance of the next modifications of existing missiles and fundamentally new models is expected.

Air-to-surface armament of existing types allows the Su-57 to attack a variety of ground and surface targets. The range of ammunition includes ASPs designed to defeat troop concentrations, command posts, various weapons systems, radio-technical complexes, etc. There are also anti-ship munitions. The range of destruction with the use of available ATS ranges from several kilometers for aerial bombs to 200-250 km for missiles of the latest models.

Universal complex


For obvious reasons, the main part of the tactical and technical characteristics and combat capabilities of the Su-57 fighter is still classified. But with a certain regularity, certain details are officially announced, allowing you to gradually compose the overall picture. To date, a sufficient amount of open data on the Su-57 armament complex has been accumulated, which allows us to draw some conclusions.


The Su-57 will be able to control the Okhotnik drones, which also carry weapons. Photo of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation

The well-known range of weapons allows us to consider the Su-57 as a full-fledged multipurpose aviation complex capable of solving a wide range of combat missions. It is possible to conduct air combat at any distance in order to intercept or gain superiority. Also, the aircraft can attack various ground and surface targets. At the same time, the possibility of simultaneous suspension of weapons of different classes for one sortie is provided.

It is obvious that the development of the "Perspective aviation complex of front-line aviation" will continue, incl. due to the development and adoption of new types of ASP. They will complement or replace existing weapons with understandable positive consequences for the overall combat capabilities of the aircraft. In addition, in the foreseeable future, the Su-57 will be supplemented by the heavy S-70 Okhotnik UAV, capable of carrying weapons and operating at the command of the aircraft.

Thus, the serial Su-57 for combat units will initially have the highest combat potential, and as the service continues, it will only grow. Unfortunately, the latest fighters have not yet reached full service, but it is already clear what the future of these aircraft and their weapons will be like.
Author:
49 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U April 1 2021 03: 39
    +11
    Thus, the serial Su-57 for combat units will initially have the highest combat potential, and as the service continues, it will only grow.
    There would be bones, and the meat will grow! And the backbone seems to be very strong!
    1. Ross xnumx
      Ross xnumx April 1 2021 04: 08
      +1
      Thus, the serial Su-57 for combat units will initially differ the highest combat potential, and as the service continues, it will only grow.

      A comparison begs itself:
      I am with those
      who came out
      build
      and revenge
      in continuous
      fever
      everyday.
      Country
      I praise
      which is,
      but three times -
      which will be.

      Quote: Vladimir_2U
      There would be bones, but the meat will grow!

      It's all about living things, about where life is "in full swing." So far we have:
      Unfortunately, the newest fighters have not yet reached full service ...

      Perhaps the author is so savvy and technically literate that he:
      ... it is already clear what the future of these aircraft and their weapons will be

      Only there are other sayings about autumn and chickens; about the "riddle", which is not always rich; about a tit in hands and woodpecker in ... pie in the sky ...
      Sorry, last year's pies do not bring satiety. I would like to know when all these "miracles in vegetable oil (no more than 110 rubles per liter)" will start to delight us with their real embodiment in metal ...
      1. Uncle lee
        Uncle lee April 1 2021 04: 17
        -1
        Quote: ROSS 42
        sayings about autumn and chickens

        One "today" is more expensive than three "tomorrow" hi
        1. Ross xnumx
          Ross xnumx April 1 2021 04: 20
          0
          Quote: Uncle Lee
          One "today" is more expensive than three "tomorrow"

          Exactly, colleague! Something at a "mature enough" age I want to see once ...
        2. Ka-52
          Ka-52 April 1 2021 06: 50
          +5
          One "today is more expensive than three" tomorrow

          in terms of the cost of solving problems from a raw machine "today", then in reality they are not 3, but 3000 times more expensive than the planned commissioned according to the schedule. There are dozens of examples of the creation of combat vehicles in history, which then had to be adjusted and refined for almost a decade. I'm not talking about the price lives of pilots who died because of damp cars. But you can see "your" schedules in your head. You probably know better how to design and how to build.
          1. venik
            venik April 1 2021 08: 44
            +1
            Quote: Ka-52
            But you can see "your" charts in your head. You probably know better how to design and how to build.

            ======
            To paraphrase an old French saying, one might say: "we are too poor to adopt raw technology". drinks
          2. Uncle lee
            Uncle lee April 1 2021 09: 11
            0
            Quote: Ka-52
            "own" schedules

            Actually, I am generalized, and not on a specific occasion. hi
        3. Flooding
          Flooding April 1 2021 07: 00
          -1
          Only yesterday on this topic was in the LiveJournal of Diana Mikhailova



          In total, the aircraft has four cargo compartments: 2 side (BGrO) and 2 main (OGrO).
          The BGRO will house new short-range air-to-air missiles RVV-MD.
          The OGRO will carry a wider range of weapons: medium-range missiles RVV-SD (Product 180), long-range RVV-BD (Product 810), air-to-surface missiles and bombs.


          More details at https://diana-mihailova.livejournal.com/6307316.html
          1. Cympak
            Cympak April 1 2021 11: 47
            +2
            .... thoughtless retelling of LJ Diana Mikhailova, diluted with "journalist water", without including the brain and blind, tk. to make out what is shown in the picture Kirill did not bother.
            The illustration shows that in the main compartments (OGrO) there are 4 AKUs, on which you can hang 4 (4, 1 each) ASP, in the side (BGrO) 2 AKUs on which you can hang 2 ASP (2, 1 pc).
            What can be 14-16 tons of combat load, if the heaviest ASP of tactical aviation is 1500 kg bomb. Those. where to hang 10 1500 kg of bombs? ... They do not fit into the main compartments, there are only 4 pylons left: 2 inner ones under the wing (the outer wing ones obviously will not pull 1500 kg) and 2 under the nacelles, but with the latter there is also a big question: is there enough space in height from the pylon to the ground to accommodate a large bomb ?
            1. voyaka uh
              voyaka uh April 1 2021 21: 00
              +3
              Here is a photo illustrating your post.
              There is a bulkhead between the cargo compartments for the strength of the fuselage.
              In the first version of the PAK-FA, it was not. It was planned to use
              long missiles. But the fuselage without a partition "folded" along its length.
      2. Ka-52
        Ka-52 April 1 2021 06: 15
        +5
        Only there are other sayings about autumn and chickens; about the "riddle", which is not always rich; about a titmouse in hands and a woodpecker in ... a crane in the sky ...

        You should not be like those naive talkers who think that R&D of a modern high-tech complex (like a modern MFI) is a matter of a trifle. First, there is a time step. Even with full funding it is not possible to create such a complex project in a couple of years. The MiG-15 went from drawing board to rolling out in 1 year. Su-27 - in 9 years. F-22 "Raptor" - 17 years old.
        secondly, the cost of developing a modern aircraft is approximately $ 1,25-1,5 billion. And this is without taking into account the development of additional equipment. This is not a small amount of money that still needs to be paid on time in order to maintain the work schedule.
        And of course it's easy for you from the couch - I want to see, take it out and put it down what
        1. sgrabik
          sgrabik April 1 2021 09: 08
          +1
          All in good time, of course, it is necessary to bring new machines, to identify and "cure all childhood diseases", but another distressing thing, the possibilities of mass production are simply scanty and extremely insufficient for the rearmament of our aerospace forces in the foreseeable future, 76 aircraft in 7 years, this is simply not seriously, and if export orders still appear, even these aircraft will not be received by our Aerospace Forces on time.
          1. Ka-52
            Ka-52 April 1 2021 10: 00
            0
            the possibilities of mass production are simply scanty and extremely insufficient for the rearmament of our aerospace forces in the foreseeable future, 76 aircraft in 7 years, this is simply not serious, and if export orders still appear, then even these aircraft will not be received by our aerospace forces on time.

            1. Agree on the delivery plan. Unfortunately, the Ministry of Defense still has the opinion that 100 cheap and outdated fighters are better than 10 expensive and modern ones. History shows the opposite. But I think the main problem is that in addition to production, a lot of money is still required for support, so to speak. That is, maintenance of equipment, its storage, retraining of flight personnel (+ simulators and training vehicles). All this money needs to be poured in the first years of the start of deliveries in parallel with the transfer of machines to the shelves.
            2. There is a stock of production capacity in order to close export at the same time with an internal order
            1. nobody75
              nobody75 10 May 2021 20: 55
              0
              that 100 cheap and outdated fighters are better than 10 expensive and modern ones. History shows the opposite.

              Americans also believe that 100 obsolete F-15s with 20 long-range darts are better. Modern air combat is a team and network-centric game ...
              Sincerely
          2. EvilLion
            EvilLion April 1 2021 10: 20
            -1
            Do you even know how the contract is drawn up? Or in your head it's just a bazaar, where someone came and offered a price slightly higher, and the factories put a bolt on the already concluded contracts.
          3. Angry Alt-Right
            Angry Alt-Right April 1 2021 13: 21
            -1
            Quote: sgrabik
            All in good time, of course, it is necessary to bring new machines, to identify and "cure all childhood diseases", but another distressing thing, the possibilities of mass production are simply scanty and extremely insufficient for the rearmament of our aerospace forces in the foreseeable future, 76 aircraft in 7 years, this is simply not seriously, and if export orders still appear, even these aircraft will not be received by our Aerospace Forces on time.

            Ummm, first of all, do the Americans have a lot of the same F-22s? a direct analogy suggests itself with him, since according to the totality of the characteristics of the Su-57, it is more likely to stand next to it in a niche (?)
            And secondly, we do not forget about the aging of gliders. The F-22 will be, with less versatility, clearly closer to retirement than the more recent Su-57. And they have no prospects in the form of F / A-XX on the horizon yet.
      3. venik
        venik April 1 2021 08: 36
        -3
        Quote: ROSS 42
        I would like to know when all these "miracles in vegetable oil (no more than 110 rubles per liter)" will start to delight us with their real embodiment in metal ...

        =======
        And quickly, as you know - only rabbits breed ...
      4. Viktor Sergeev
        Viktor Sergeev April 1 2021 13: 17
        0
        Tell me, is Russia now at war with a strong adversary, or maybe such a war is planned for at least the next 10 years? Well, the United States has done its Stealths, and what, who needed them? Perhaps on the Su57, technologies are being developed for the 6th generation, or maybe they are waiting for RAFAR? Where to rush to get a crude plane and refine it for 10 years, like the F35?
      5. NEOZ
        NEOZ April 1 2021 15: 43
        0
        Quote: ROSS 42
        Sorry, last year's pies do not bring satiety. I would like to know when all these "miracles in vegetable oil (no more than 110 rubles per liter)" will start to delight us with their real embodiment in metal ...

        SU57 went into production .... what else do you want?
        1. Ross xnumx
          Ross xnumx April 1 2021 16: 53
          +1
          Quote: NEOZ
          SU57 went into production .... what else do you want?

          I wanted to answer in the style of guarantee advice about the fight and the first strike. After I thought, why, in fact, pester the poor? The author writes:
          Unfortunately, the newest fighters have not yet reached full service ...

          while
          did not have time to reach
          to full
          Service
          fool
          I don't need anything from you personally, especially in virtual communication. Cook on and on in your own stop juice.
          PS I hope the author will fit your cross.
  2. Esaul
    Esaul April 1 2021 09: 19
    -1
    It is necessary to quickly test it in Syria in combat use, while the barmaley still remain there.
    1. El Chuvachino
      El Chuvachino April 1 2021 10: 51
      0
      Already tested in Syria
  3. Operator
    Operator April 1 2021 09: 24
    -7
    The Su-57 has six weapons bays - four universal in the fuselage and one each for the RVV MD in the wings.
  4. prior
    prior April 1 2021 09: 50
    +1
    Well, everything is good with the capabilities of the SU-57.
    But where are the planes? request
    1. EvilLion
      EvilLion April 1 2021 10: 21
      +1
      Paid for and produced.
    2. Viktor Sergeev
      Viktor Sergeev April 1 2021 13: 17
      0
      Are you in a hurry?
      1. prior
        prior April 1 2021 13: 30
        +1
        No, but four hundred NATO F-4s would like to oppose something today.
        1. Viktor Sergeev
          Viktor Sergeev April 1 2021 13: 32
          -1
          1500 ready-to-use warheads and more than 6500 in total, will you be satisfied? We will not be at war with an enemy with strong aviation in the near future. All estimates say one thing: any local US-Russia war turns into a global nuclear one.
          1. prior
            prior April 1 2021 13: 36
            0
            It will be quite satisfied. The main thing is that those on whom it depends do not hesitate to use our nuclear weapons.
            1. Viktor Sergeev
              Viktor Sergeev April 1 2021 20: 27
              -1
              The main thing here is not shyness, but the horror of the United States before the application. They think we are inadequate and certainly will not risk it.
              1. prior
                prior April 2 2021 09: 31
                0
                Are they adequate ?!
                I would also "pour salt" on the Americans, namely, it would be nice for Russia to withdraw from the Nuclear Testing and Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaties, from the Council of Europe. So that all their "barking" was heard into the void.
                I represent the faces of some if Russia offered Iran nuclear weapons!
                Or he will respond to any sanctions with a series of nuclear explosions!
                The withdrawal from the Treaties does not threaten Russia in principle.
                But the West will have to squeeze the "tails".
  5. Maks1995
    Maks1995 April 1 2021 10: 55
    -1
    Ah, SU's weekly praise article ....
    They seek to compensate for the lack of aircraft with the number of PR articles ...
    1. EvilLion
      EvilLion April 1 2021 13: 49
      +1
      From Kievisho everyone knows better.
      1. Maks1995
        Maks1995 April 1 2021 14: 04
        -2
        So as not to troll, wherever they lodge, when there is nothing to object
  6. El Chuvachino
    El Chuvachino April 1 2021 11: 00
    +2
    Yeah, cool article. About the armament of the Su-57. And not a word about the Kh-59 "Gadfly"
  7. Holuay T.O
    Holuay T.O April 1 2021 11: 05
    -3
    As long as it will be brought up, it will become obsolete
    1. Viktor Sergeev
      Viktor Sergeev April 1 2021 13: 34
      0
      And if it turns out to be outdated, Russia is a double winner, has not spent tens of billions on unnecessary weapons and does not have a bunch of useless, expensive-to-maintain hardware. On Su57, technologies for the future are simply being worked out, and Su30, 35, 34, 24 are enough for wars.
  8. Basarev
    Basarev April 1 2021 11: 28
    -6
    Bad plane. If there are external suspensions, then you can immediately delete them from the fifth generation. Because one of the key requirements of the fifth is armament especially in the internal compartments, because stealth dictates so - the most important requirement, superior in importance to all the others. You don't need a gun - now it's not Korea or even Vietnam, enough to live in the past. For ground targets, the plane should not work, it is a fighter and its only task is to shoot down air targets. All goals. That is, there should not be a current zoo of fighters and interceptors; there is only one plane to work by air. Super-maneuverability is not needed, because close air combat is outdated, and you still can't turn the missile. It would be very good, in the interests of stealth, not to carry the radar on board at all, to work on external target designation ... But in such a situation it would be easier and cheaper to make a flying headquarters on the basis of the A-50 or the promising A-100, commanding the flocks Hunters or Thunders. Their task is not very difficult: to reach the line of attack and launch a missile on target designation.
    1. Cympak
      Cympak April 1 2021 11: 55
      +3
      They wanted to write off the gun for a long time: the Americans are on the F-4, we are on the MiG-25. But she came back. It's too early to write off the guns.
      The American tactical F-35 provides for both internal and external suspensions.
      Configuration with internal suspensions ("stealth") for gaining air superiority, striking important strategic targets with unsuppressed air defense.
      A configuration with external suspensions ("beast mode") for work on the ground, when enemy aircraft and air defense have already been suppressed and there is no sense in "stealth".
      1. Basarev
        Basarev April 1 2021 12: 07
        -4
        Now is not even the time of the youth of the MiG-25. And the cannon is completely obsolete. And I do not consider the F-35 the fifth generation precisely because of the presence of external suspensions. As for work on the ground, in my opinion, a specialized anti-ground aircraft will cope with this much more efficiently.
        1. Avior
          Avior April 1 2021 13: 44
          +6
          The suspensions are removable
          The current trend is versatility of use, aircraft are more and more expensive and, accordingly, their number is decreasing, therefore, versatility is in demand
          1. Basarev
            Basarev April 1 2021 14: 57
            -1
            Universality is evil. The main way to improve efficiency is division of labor and specialization. I see hyperspecialization as a logical ending, in terms of aircraft, this is a single-tasking machine that can only do one thing, but with truly godly efficiency. And the fighter does not need more than one task, it is, in essence, only a flying missile launcher for air combat.
            1. Avior
              Avior April 1 2021 17: 50
              +2
              All this is good, but resources for aircraft are limited.
              If you have money for 30 cars, you can buy 30 universal multifunctional fighters, and you can buy 10 fighters, 10 bombers, 10 attack aircraft.
              And it may well be a situation that 20 out of thirty will stand all the time of the conflict, and out of 10 used, 5 of those who have been rinsed or need servants will become unusable for flights.
              And you will have 5 against 25, in fact, there will be no one to fly soon, after all, the load on the plane is more, there is more downtime, and you will have 5 puff for everyone.: ((
    2. El Chuvachino
      El Chuvachino April 1 2021 13: 27
      0
      That's where you come from, such "know-it-alls"? Subtracted something somewhere, on the topic do not represent anything from yourself, but bring to the masses "unique" knowledge, called nonsense ...

      For reference: all modern fighters have the ability to use weapons and modules on external suspensions. This is a must.
      1. Basarev
        Basarev April 1 2021 13: 29
        -3
        So this is the fourth generation, which is rapidly becoming obsolete right now. In the fifth, everything is completely different.
    3. EvilLion
      EvilLion April 1 2021 13: 48
      0
      F-35 in the know? And then he has pendants and external. The rocket, due to its higher speed, has a much larger turning radius, so the missiles are successfully evaded. The cannon should at least be suspended, since in the daily database it allows you to give warning by tracers.

      Stealth is needed first of all for an attack aircraft, the interceptor already shines with radar.

      Learn materiel and do not write nonsense.
    4. Nestor Vlakhovski
      Nestor Vlakhovski April 1 2021 15: 03
      +1
      If there are external suspensions, then you can immediately delete them from the fifth generation.
      if the enemy does not have (or does not have) radar, then why not use the suspension of weapons to the existing equipment ?!
      You don't need a gun - now it's not Korea or even Vietnam, enough to live in the past.
      gun already in the sky of Vietnam faded into the background. But this does not mean at all that it is not needed at all. One of the main tasks of the "strikers" is air interception, and the targets can be various cold and radio-transparent targets like balloons or drones, which missiles can hardly aim at. Also, do not forget about the "forced landing" of offenders, whom the cannon tracer do a good job of sobering up.
      For ground targets, the plane should not work, it is a fighter and its only task is to shoot down air targets
      a very strange statement, there is no logic whatsoever.
      Super-maneuverability is not needed, because close air combat is outdated, and you still can't turn the missile.
      it is "super-maneuverability" in the form in which it is seen in the Russian Air Force - somersaults in the air, of course, has no practical application. But energy conservation maneuvers are as relevant as ever.
  9. Victor Tsenin
    Victor Tsenin April 1 2021 16: 38
    0
    14-16 tons of load still does not fit in my head. It was written here about it, I did not believe it, I thought of some kind of innuendo, I apologize. The plane is of course breakthrough and delightful right now, and in the full version it will be simply amazing!
  10. Pavel57
    Pavel57 7 May 2021 17: 07
    0
    Quote: Ka-52
    Unfortunately, the Ministry of Defense still has an opinion that 100 cheap and outdated fighters are better than 10 expensive and modern ones.

    10 of the best and most expensive planes will be knocked out in the first minutes of the war. 100 worse will be knocked out later. The question of which park to have is not so simple in terms of all sorts of restrictions.