Military Review

The use of captured German 20-mm anti-aircraft machine guns

44

Of all the countries that participated in World War II, Germany possessed the best anti-aircraft artillery. This fully applies to both small-caliber rapid-firing anti-aircraft guns and anti-aircraft guns of medium and large caliber.


The use of captured German anti-aircraft guns in the Red Army became quite natural.

In the initial period of the war, the Red Army experienced an acute shortage of rapid-fire anti-aircraft guns capable of effectively fighting the enemy aviation at low altitudes. And German captured 20-mm automatic anti-aircraft guns were in great demand.

In the post-war period, captured small-caliber assault rifles until the mid-1950s remained on the German destroyers, high-speed landing barges, boats, submarines and a cruiser, inherited by the USSR in the form of reparations.

German 20-mm anti-aircraft guns


During the Second World War, in the armed forces of Nazi Germany, the main role in providing air defense in the frontal zone was played by 20-37-mm rapid-fire towed and self-propelled anti-aircraft guns.

The first anti-aircraft machine gun adopted by the Reichswehr was the 20-mm automatic anti-aircraft gun 2,0 cm FlaK 28 (2,0 cm Flugzeugabwehrkanone - 20-mm anti-aircraft gun model 1928) manufactured by the Swiss company Werkzeugmaschinenfabrik Oerlikon.

The use of captured German 20-mm anti-aircraft machine guns
Calculation of 20-mm anti-aircraft installation 2,0 cm Flak 28 in firing position

The anti-aircraft gun, originally known as the 1S, was developed on the basis of the 20 mm "Becker cannon" created in Germany in 1914.

But for firing from the 2,0 cm Flak 28, a more powerful 20 × 110 mm ammunition was used with an initial velocity of a projectile weighing 117 g - 830 m / s. Without a machine, the gun weighed 68 kg. Rate of fire - 450 rds / min.

Firm "Oerlikon" stated that the reach in height is 3 km, in range - 4,4 km. However, the effective firing range was approximately two times less.

From 1940 to 1944, Oerlikon supplied 7013 20-mm assault rifles, 14,76 million rounds, 12 spare barrels and 520 ammunition boxes to Germany, Italy and Romania.
The Germans captured several hundred of these anti-aircraft guns in Belgium, Holland and Norway. According to German data, the Wehrmacht, Luftwaffe and Kriegsmarine had just over 3000 2,0 cm FlaK 28 installations.

Although the combat rate of fire of the 2,0 cm FlaK 28 (due to the low rate of fire and the use of box magazines for 15 and drum magazines for 30 rounds) was relatively small, in general (due to a simple and reliable design and acceptable weight and size characteristics) it was quite effective weapon, with a range of effective firing at air targets - up to 1,5 km.


20-mm anti-aircraft "Erlikon" on a pedestal mount

To provide air defense for mobile units, a version with a tripod machine and a detachable wheel drive was used. And the 20-mm anti-aircraft "Erlikons" supplied to the fleet were most often mounted on pedestal carriages.

The main means of dealing with enemy aircraft at low altitudes in the armed forces of Nazi Germany were 20-mm anti-aircraft guns 2,0 cm FlaK 30 and 2,0 cm Flak 38, which differed from each other in some details. According to the 1939 staffing table, each German infantry division was supposed to have 12 20-mm FlaK 30 or FlaK 38 anti-aircraft guns.

The anti-aircraft gun 2,0 cm FlaK 30 was developed by Rheinmetall in 1930 and entered service in 1934.

In addition to Germany, these 20-mm anti-aircraft guns were officially in service in Bulgaria, Holland, Lithuania, China and Finland. The advantages of the Flak 30 anti-aircraft gun were: relatively low weight, simplicity of design, the ability to quickly disassemble and assemble.

The principle of automatic operation of the 20-mm anti-aircraft gun was based on the use of recoil force with a short barrel stroke. The installation had a recoil device and ammunition supply from a carob magazine for 20 shells. Rate of fire 220-240 rds / min.


Calculation of the anti-aircraft gun 2,0 cm FlaK 30 at the firing position

The automatic building sight generated vertical and lateral lead. The data were entered into the sight manually and determined visually. In addition to the range, which was measured by a stereo range finder.

For firing from the 2,0 cm FlaK 30, 20 × 138 mm ammunition was used, with a higher muzzle energy than the 20 × 110 mm projectiles intended for the 2,0 cm Flak 28 anti-aircraft gun.

The 115 g fragmentation tracer left the FlaK 30 barrel at a speed of 900 m / s.

Also, the ammunition load included armor-piercing incendiary tracer and armor-piercing tracer shells. The latter weighed 140 g and, at an initial speed of 830 m / s, at a distance of 300 m, it pierced 20 mm armor. The effective firing range at air targets was 2400 m, the altitude reach was 1500 m.


The calculation of the Flak 20 30-mm anti-aircraft gun translates it into a combat position

During transportation, the gun was placed on a two-wheel drive and secured with two brackets and a connecting pin. It took only a few seconds to remove the pin. Then the clamps were loosened. And the system, together with the gun carriage, could be lowered to the ground. The carriage provided the possibility of circular fire with the greatest elevation angle of 90 °. The mass in the combat position with a separate wheel travel is 450 kg, in the stowed position - 740 kg.

For use on warships, a 2,0 cm FlaK C / 30 installation was produced. A 20-mm anti-aircraft gun on a pedestal-carriage with a drum magazine for 20 rounds was intended for arming warships. But it was often used in permanent (engineering-protected) positions. A significant number of such anti-aircraft guns were in the fortifications of the "Atlantic Wall".


Calculation with 20-mm anti-aircraft installation 2,0 cm FlaK C / 30

The 20-mm rapid-fire anti-aircraft gun G-Wagen I (E) leichte FlaK had a purely railroad specificity. And it was designed to be installed on railway platforms. This installation was used to arm mobile anti-aircraft batteries. Also, this modification was installed on armored trains.

The baptism of fire of the 20-mm FlaK 30 anti-aircraft gun took place in Spain.

She proved to be an effective means of air defense and anti-aircraft defense. On average, 15-16 hits were enough to confidently defeat the I-2 and I-3 fighters. The presence of rapid-fire anti-aircraft guns in the target area forced the crews of SB-2 bombers to bomb from an altitude of more than 1500 m, which negatively affected the effectiveness of bomb strikes. Soviet lung armor tanks T-26 and BT-5 confidently penetrated 20-mm shells at a distance of 400-500 m.

Following the results of combat use in Spain, the Mauser company proposed a modernized sample, designated 2,0 cm Flak 38. This anti-aircraft machine gun used the same ammunition, the ballistic characteristics also remained the same.

The principle of operation of the automatics remained the same as on the 2,0 cm FlaK 30, but due to the reduction in the weight of the moving parts, the rate of fire was doubled - up to 480 rds / min. To compensate for the increased shock loads, special buffers-shock absorbers were introduced.

The changes made to the carriage design were minimal. In particular, a second speed was introduced in manual guidance drives.

Mass deliveries of the 2,0 cm Flak 38 began in the first half of 1941.


Since 20-mm anti-aircraft guns were often used for fire support of ground units, starting in 1940, some of them were equipped with an anti-fragmentation shield.

For the armament of warships, the 2,0 cm FlaK C / 38 column mount and the 2,0 cm FlaK-Zwilling 38 twin were produced.

By order of the mountain infantry units, the 1942 cm Gebirgs-FlaK 2,0 anti-aircraft gun was mass-produced since 38 - on a lightweight carriage, which ensures the transportation of the gun in a "pack" way.

Anti-aircraft guns 2,0 cm Flak 30 and 2,0 cm Flak 38 were used in parallel. And they were often installed on various mobile platforms: half-track Sd.Kfz.10 / 4 tractors, Sd.Kfz.251 armored personnel carriers, Czech-made Pz.Kpfw.38 (t) light tanks, German Pz.Kpfw.I and Opel Blitz trucks.


20-mm anti-aircraft gun Flak 38 on a half-track tractor

Self-propelled anti-aircraft guns were involved to accompany the columns, covered the places of concentration. And they often provided fire support to infantry units.

Taking into account the fact that the magazine supply of ammunition greatly limited the combat rate of fire, Mauser specialists based on the 2,0 cm Flak 38 assault rifle created a 20 mm 2,0 cm Vierlings-Flugabwehrkanone 38 quadruple anti-aircraft gun (2 cm quad anti-aircraft gun). In the army, this system was usually called - 2,0 cm Flakvierling 38.


Quadruple 20-mm anti-aircraft gun 2,0 cm Flakvierling 38

The rate of fire of the 2,0 cm Flakvierling 38 was 1800 rds / min. At the same time, the number of the crew (compared to single-barreled 20-mm assault rifles) doubled and amounted to 2 people.

The carriage allowed firing in any direction with elevation angles from −10 ° to + 100 °.

Serial production of quad units continued until March 1945. A total of 3768 units were transferred to the troops.


In the firing position, the quad mount weighed more than 1,5 tons, which negatively affected mobility. In this regard, the 2,0 cm Flakvierling 38 was often placed in stationary, well-prepared positions in engineering, installed on railway platforms. In this case, the calculation in front was covered with an anti-splinter shield.

Just like single-barreled 20-mm assault rifles, the quad anti-aircraft gun was used to create self-propelled anti-aircraft guns on the chassis of half-track tractors, armored personnel carriers and tanks.

The scale of the use of 20-mm anti-aircraft guns can be judged by the statistics compiled by the German Ministry of Armaments. As of May 1944, the Wehrmacht and the SS troops had 6 355 Flak 30/38 anti-aircraft guns. And the Luftwaffe units providing German air defense had more than 20 000-mm cannons. Several thousand more 20-mm anti-aircraft guns were installed on the decks of warships and transport ships, as well as in the vicinity of naval bases.

The use of captured German 20-mm anti-aircraft guns in the USSR


In the early 1930s, the Red Army had a chance to get an analogue of the 2,0 cm FlaK 30.

On August 28, 1930, an agreement was signed with the German firm Bureau für technische Arbeiten und Studien (abbreviated as Butast), which was the front office of Rheinmetall-Borsig AG, an agreement was signed on the supply of a 20-mm automatic anti-aircraft gun to the USSR, among other guns. The German company provided technical documentation for a 20 mm anti-aircraft gun, two ready-made samples and one spare swinging part.

After testing the 20-mm automatic cannon, it was put into service under the name "20-mm automatic anti-aircraft and anti-tank gun model 1930".

The production of the 20-mm assault rifle was entrusted to plant No. 8 (Podlipki, Moscow region), where it was assigned the 2K index.

The plant began manufacturing the first batch of 20-mm cannons in 1932. However, the quality of the machines produced turned out to be extremely low. And the military acceptance refused to accept anti-aircraft guns. The main reasons for the disruption of serial production of 20-mm automatic guns mod. 1930 was the imperfection of the machine tool park of plant No. 8 and low technological discipline.

For the first time, a significant number of 20-mm anti-aircraft guns (100 units) appeared in the arsenals of the Red Army after the Baltic republics joined the USSR in June 1940. Before that, the MZA 1S (2,0 cm Flak 28) produced in Switzerland belonged to the Lithuanian army.

In the initial period of the war, our main air defense assets were: a quadruple 7,62-mm M4 machine gun mount, as well as 76,2 and 85-mm anti-aircraft guns.

ZPU M4, which used four machine guns of the Maxim system with forced circulation of coolant, had a fairly high rate of fire. But they were cumbersome. And their effective range of fire against air targets did not exceed 500 m.

Anti-aircraft 76,2-mm cannons Model 1931 and Model 1938, as well as 85-mm Arr. 1939 - were quite modern weapons. But they were of little use for dealing with rapidly moving low-altitude air targets.

It was only in the second half of the war that it was possible to fill the shortage in the Red Army with 12,7 mm DShK machine guns and 37 mm 61-K assault rifles. And that is largely due to the supply of 12,7-mm American ZPU and 40-mm "Bofors" under Lend-Lease.

In the first years of the war, captured 20-mm anti-aircraft guns were highly valued. They had a simple and straightforward design. In most cases, there were no problems with their development.


20-mm anti-aircraft gun Flak 30 with Soviet calculation

It is now impossible to establish how many suitable for further use German MZA were captured by the Red Army.

In combat units, they were usually used in excess of the staff. And often they were not taken into account anywhere.

Most often, the 20-mm FlaK 28, FlaK 30 and FlaK 38 anti-aircraft guns were not divided by type. And during the war years in the Red Army, all 20-mm anti-aircraft guns were called "erlikons". Although, compared to other German anti-aircraft guns of the same caliber, produced in Switzerland, the FlaK 28 was not so much.

Quite often, 20-mm anti-aircraft guns of German production in the Red Army were installed on trucks and railway platforms. Our troops willingly used captured ZSU based on half-tracked transporters. Often, such captured vehicles were used for reconnaissance and fire support for infantry.


Assessing the effectiveness of the use of German rapid-fire anti-aircraft guns in the Red Army, it should be recognized that (due to poor training of calculations) in firing at air targets, it was lower than that of the Germans. Also affected by the lack of ammunition for the very "gluttonous" 20-mm machine guns.

Our soldiers usually did not know how to use optical rangefinders. And the range to the target in the sights, as a rule, was introduced to the "eye", which negatively affected the accuracy of shooting.

After the end of the war, the trophy towed 20-mm anti-aircraft guns available in the ground forces were sent to storage bases, where they were located for about 15 years.

At the same time, until the second half of the 1950s, single-barreled 2,0 cm FlaK C / 38 and twin 2,0 cm FlaK-Zwilling 38 were in significant quantities in the USSR Navy. They were armed with the warships inherited after the partition of the Kriegsmarine.

The composition of the Soviet naval fleet included one captured German cruiser, 10 destroyers, 10 submarines, 44 minesweepers, 25 high-speed landing barges, 30 torpedo boats and a significant number of auxiliary vessels.

After the captured ships were mastered by our crews, it was assumed that in the future they would be re-equipped with Soviet-style antiaircraft guns.


Cruiser "Admiral Makarov"

Thus, the anti-aircraft armament of the cruiser "Admiral Makarov" (formerly "Nuremberg"), which was in service until 1957, initially included four twin 88-mm cannons, four twin 37-mm machine guns and four 20-mm machine guns.

During the modernization carried out in 1948, the 37-mm anti-aircraft guns were replaced by Soviet machine guns of the same caliber. And instead of 20-mm automatic cannons, 12,7-mm machine guns were installed.


Destroyer "Agile"

At the same time, the German-built EM, BDK and TC have mostly retained their original armament. And they carried 20-mm anti-aircraft guns until they were decommissioned. For example, EM "Agile" (formerly Z-33) had four 20-mm anti-aircraft guns 2,0 cm FlaK C / 38.

The use of 20-mm German anti-aircraft guns in the armed forces of other states


During World War II, 20-mm rapid-fire anti-aircraft guns of the German model were available in Bulgaria, Hungary, Spain, Italy, China, Romania and Finland.


Finnish crew with 2,0 cm Flak 30

In the post-war period, German-made 20-mm installations became widespread.

In Europe, they were in service in Bulgaria, Hungary, Holland, Denmark, Spain, Italy, Portugal, Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Finland, France and Yugoslavia. In some of these countries, they operated until the early 1980s.


20-mm anti-aircraft gun Flakvierling 38 at the Belgrade War Museum

20-mm anti-aircraft guns from German arsenals were resold to third world countries. And they participated in a number of local armed conflicts.


In the second half of the 30s, within the framework of military-technical cooperation with Germany (in exchange for raw materials), China received a large batch of 2,0 cm FlaK 30 anti-aircraft guns.


20-mm anti-aircraft gun Flak 30 at the War Museum of the Chinese Revolution

The Kuomintang troops actively used 20-mm anti-aircraft guns against Japanese aviation and to combat armored vehicles. During the civil war, several such installations were at the disposal of the armed detachments of the Chinese communists.

Subsequently, the US military noted the use of a 20-mm MZA during the hostilities on the Korean Peninsula.

There is reason to believe that the single-barreled Flak 30/38 and the quadruple Flakvierling 38, transferred by the Soviet Union, fought in Korea.

To be continued ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
Use of captured German pistols in the USSR
The use of German captured submachine guns in the USSR
The use of captured German rifles and machine guns in the USSR
The use of captured German machine guns in the USSR
The use of captured German tanks and self-propelled guns in the initial period of the Great Patriotic War
Use of captured "Panthers" and "Tigers" at the final stage of the Great Patriotic War
The use of captured German self-propelled guns in the Red Army at the final stage of World War II
The use of German armored vehicles in the postwar period
The use of captured German mortars and multiple launch rocket systems
Use of captured German anti-tank guns
Captured German infantry guns in service in the Red Army
Captured German 105-mm howitzers in service in the Red Army
Captured 105-mm cannons and 150-mm heavy field howitzers in service in the Red Army
44 comments
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  1. polpot
    polpot 30 March 2021 18: 15
    +6
    Thank you, obviously they were not superfluous.
  2. Catfish
    Catfish 30 March 2021 18: 20
    +12
    Sergey, hello and best wishes. hi
    The article, like the previous ones, is beyond praise. good
    I have my own attitude towards German BDBs, I went to them under water on the Black Sea. Of course, it’s pretty much stuffed with them. smile

    1. The leader of the Redskins
      The leader of the Redskins 30 March 2021 18: 35
      +9
      I join. One of the few articles "on the case" for today, to which I wanted to respond and thank. The cycle turned out to be excellent.
      1. kapitan92
        kapitan92 31 March 2021 01: 19
        +5
        The anti-aircraft gun, originally known as the 1S, was developed on the basis of the 20 mm "Becker cannon" created in Germany in 1914.

        The birth of the Oerlikon cannon For the first time an automatic cannon with a caliber of 20 mm was released in 1927. The birthplace of the invention was the production workshops of the Swiss concern Oerlikon, where the design development of the Semag company was successfully implemented.
        Swiss designers did not reinvent the wheel and relied on a ready-made industrial model of the German 20 mm cannon designed by Reinhold Becker. This talented German managed to create an effective rapid-fire cannon during the First World War. The gun had excellent fire and operational capabilities, but the end of hostilities put an end to successful development. In defeated Germany, Becker could not further realize his idea, since all anti-aircraft artillery fell under the strict restrictions of the Versailles Treaty. For many German designers, the only place where they could continue to work in the field of weapons development was neutral Switzerland.
        Becker sold his patent to the Swiss, who rushed to implement the project and released the first few samples.
        Only in 1927, the final presentation of the finished samples of the rapid-fire cannon took place. Work on the new weapon was carried out in three modifications at once. The gun, created by the German Becker, was named Oerlikon F, the development of Semag received the Oerlikon L index, and the owners of the concern named their own invention Oerlikon S
        It's like a small addition.
        Per article +
    2. zyablik.olga
      zyablik.olga 31 March 2021 14: 56
      +4
      Quote: Sea Cat
      Sergey, hello and best wishes.

      Konstantin, hello! Seryozha is on duty today.
      Quote: Sea Cat
      The article, like the previous ones, is beyond praise.

      This article "hung" on moderation for about 10 days. About 30-mm anti-aircraft guns are also waiting for their turn.
      Quote: Sea Cat
      I have my own attitude towards German BDBs, I went to them under water on the Black Sea.

      Konstantin, how can you "go under water" on surface vessels?
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 31 March 2021 16: 25
        +5
        Good afternoon, Olga. love

        They generally go by sea, including under water. And the surface vessel from which we dived was called WFD-47 and flew under the flag of the auxiliary vessels of the Navy. The forty-ton box with a compressor, equipment and a pressure chamber was assigned to the Emergency Rescue Service (ACC), and was based in the Streletskaya Bay of Sevastopol. The crew was civilian and, with the permission of the unit command, they provided assistance to local archaeologists from the Chersonesos reserve.
        There was a separate story with the BDB, the border guards were asked to inspect for the presence of weapons that could be lifted up. They already caught a visiting client on the shore, who was climbing this barge in his scuba gear. We went and looked, except for antiaircraft guns there was nothing there, and the holds were littered with sand, lathered by storms over the years. That's all, actually. smile
  3. John22
    John22 30 March 2021 19: 05
    +6
    Yes, anti-aircraft guns and guns were in short supply throughout the war. Especially the first two years. As well as shells. According to the memoirs of front-line soldiers, airfields initially did not have anti-aircraft cover. There is nothing to say about the infantry. In the memoirs of an anti-aircraft soldier, during an offensive near Kharkov in May 1942, a tank battalion was covered with two (instead of 4) 37 mm guns mod. 1939 and one DShK. But when firing planes (mainly Ju-87), they were forced to save shells. There were no armor-piercing shells at all. When repelling a tank attack, fragmentation and tracer shells were useless. Such a story.
  4. svp67
    svp67 30 March 2021 19: 07
    +7
    1993 units of such anti-aircraft machine guns were supplied to the USSR from the USA ...
    1. igordok
      igordok 30 March 2021 19: 27
      +4
      Quote: svp67
      1993 units of such anti-aircraft machine guns were supplied to the USSR from the USA ...

      Was the ammunition interchangeable in Soviet, German and American 20mm anti-aircraft guns?
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 30 March 2021 20: 53
        +3
        Of course not.
      2. svp67
        svp67 30 March 2021 21: 10
        +8
        Quote: igordok
        Was the ammunition interchangeable in Soviet, German and American 20mm anti-aircraft guns?

        At the expense of ours it is not clear, but here the German and American ones seem to be yes, they used the same cartridges

        Cartridge 20x110RB

        The ammunition load of the 20-mm Oerlikon cannons of all types included shells of the following types:
        a) fragmentation (about 9 g of TNT);
        b) tracer (4 g of TNT and luminous composition, the length of the route is 1500 m);
        c) incendiary (4 g of TNT and 3 g of white phosphorus);
        d) armor-piercing (4 g detonite);
        e) armor-piercing incendiary (equipped with white phosphorus).
        The mass of the projectile, depending on the type, ranged from 124 to 130 grams.

        Between 1940 and 1944, Oerlikon's transactions with the Axis powers alone (Germany, Italy and Romania) amounted to CHF 543,4 million. francs and included deliveries of 7013 20-mm guns, 14,76 million pieces of cartridges for them, 12 520 spare barrels and 40 thousand ammunition boxes.
        1. John22
          John22 April 7 2021 11: 46
          +1
          In aircraft guns of the USSR ShVAK 20 mm, the sleeve was cylindrical, converted from a cartridge of 12,7x108 mm.
  5. Alien From
    Alien From 30 March 2021 19: 17
    +12
    Great article and all the previous ones! Thanks to the author hi PS antiaircraft gun from the article during the Second World War, 400 meters from my dacha
    antiaircraft gun during the Second World War, 400 meters from my dacha
  6. CommanderDIVA
    CommanderDIVA 30 March 2021 19: 31
    -5
    The author I have for you two essential questions about the article:
    1. "To make up for the shortage in the Red Army 12,7-mm DShK machine guns and 37-mm 61-K assault rifles were fully succeeded only in the second half of the war. And that was largely due to the supply of 12,7-mm American ZPU and 40-mm" bofors "On lend-lease" - give the numbers pliz, the ratio in the air defense units of the red army of domestic systems and supplied under the lend-lease, how many memoirs of our front-line soldiers have re-read well, nowhere have I seen about anti-aircraft "bofors".
    2. "Our fighters usually did not know how to use optical rangefinders. And the range to the target in the sights, as a rule, was entered by the" eye ", which negatively affected the accuracy of shooting" - another tale about stupid and illiterate anti-aircraft gunners "Ivanov"? Where are the links to the sources, maybe there are some memoirs or declassified archives confirming your statement?
    1. motorized rifle
      motorized rifle 30 March 2021 20: 43
      +5
      So the second point jarred me. It's a great science to measure the distance with a stereo range finder: aimed at the target, twisted the vernier, the image stopped doubling, read the reading from the scale and transmitted it by voice. Another question, for an effective firing range of 1500m (see article), is the distance of a direct shot, here a correction for the range is not needed, a correction for the elevation angle and for lead is needed, here the rangefinder is not needed. Pre-aiming was carried out on the sight and was corrected during firing along the track (all tracer ammunition). And a low-flying target, for example IL-2, at a speed of about 300-380 km / h (on average 100 m / s) was in the effective fire zone 1500X2: 100 = 30 seconds, and during this time, the range will also change at a speed of 100 m / s ... What is the point of measuring it?
      Therefore, such cannons fired mainly with barrage fire at pre-targeted angles.
      1. Intruder
        Intruder 31 March 2021 03: 27
        +4
        It's just a great science to measure the distance with a stereo range finder: aimed at the target, twisted the vernier, the image stopped doubling, read the reading from the scale and transmitted it by voice
        Well, most likely, at that time, not everywhere the Red Army had optical rangefinders, such as stereo rangefinders in air defense, hence it is possible and "by eye - the old fashioned way" !?
        for effective firing range
        and here, more precisely - an inclined firing range, because ballistics has not yet been canceled at that time ??? laughing wink
        And so, an excellent machine ... especially in its ingenious "pragmatism":
    2. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I 30 March 2021 22: 43
      +4
      Quote: CommanderDIVA
      It was only in the second half of the war that the shortage of 12,7 mm DShK machine guns and 37 mm 61-K assault rifles was fully replenished in the Red Army. And that is largely due to the supply of 12,7-mm American ZPU and 40-mm "Bofors" under Lend-Lease "

      You have asked an interesting question! Yes, under the lend-lease, American 40-mm anti-aircraft guns were supplied to the USSR ... but at one time I was not able to find out where and in what quantity these weapons were used! The fact is that 40-mm and 37-mm anti-aircraft guns are very similar (one base!) ... that's the difficulty! (I even had to read that the American anti-aircraft guns were sent to warehouses and they stayed there throughout the war ... but I think that this is not true! There were over 5000 of them!) In general, 90-mm anti-aircraft guns came from the USA, and even 120 -mm ... really, "a little bit"!
      Quote: CommanderDIVA
      Our soldiers usually did not know how to use optical rangefinders. And the range to the target in the sights, as a rule, was introduced to the "eye", which negatively affected the accuracy of shooting "- another tale about stupid and illiterate anti-aircraft gunners" Ivanov "?

      But this is really strange! After all, there are pictures of the front-line years, where our anti-aircraft gunners work with optical rangefinders! For example, this ... 1943
      1. Mordvin 3
        Mordvin 3 30 March 2021 23: 53
        -2
        Quote: Nikolaevich I
        that American anti-aircraft guns were sent to warehouses

        Nikolaich, these anti-aircraft guns were seized by the headquarters. And the rangefinder is not needed. They'll make scratches on their cap, here's a rangefinder.
      2. Toucan
        Toucan 31 March 2021 07: 06
        +1
        Quote: Nikolaevich I
        But this is really strange! After all, there are pictures of the front-line years, where our anti-aircraft gunners work with optical rangefinders!

        So these are trained calculations of anti-aircraft guns, the batteries of which were regularly equipped with stereo range finders. Trophy anti-aircraft guns were often captured one by one, and on incomprehensible rangefinder pipes if they
        there were, the rank and file of the Red Army, perhaps, did not pay attention.
        1. Nikolaevich I
          Nikolaevich I 31 March 2021 07: 25
          +1
          Quote: Tucan
          So these are trained calculations of anti-aircraft guns, the batteries of which were regularly equipped with stereo range finders. Trophy anti-aircraft guns were often captured one by one, and on incomprehensible rangefinder pipes if they
          there were, the rank and file of the Red Army, perhaps, did not pay attention.

          Duc, captured anti-aircraft guns and were used mainly as part of "professional" anti-aircraft batteries! And the "rank and file infantrymen" could only shoot at their "colleagues" in the war!
          1. Toucan
            Toucan 31 March 2021 08: 20
            +2
            In the photo given by the author, where the damaged 20-mm anti-aircraft gun is installed on a half-track tractor, it is clearly not professional anti-aircraft gunners. And the installation itself has probably mostly changed for ground targets. Yes, and captured them in battle, too, were not anti-aircraft gunners.
            Most likely, the situation with anti-tank guns was repeated, when in the initial period of the war they were used by superstaffs in the presence of ammunition, and they were often not reported to higher headquarters.
    3. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 30 March 2021 23: 47
      0
      Quote: CommanderDIVA
      Well, nowhere have I seen about anti-aircraft "bofors".

      Their staff rats grabbed themselves. Read Pershavin's memoirs: "Penalty, tanker, suicide bomber." It was there that the staff grabbed their anti-aircraft gun.
    4. Toucan
      Toucan 31 March 2021 01: 02
      +1
      The share of imported 40-mm L60s during the war was really large in our country. In 1945, the Red Army had approximately 11 thousand 37-mm 61-K. The Americans supplied us with more than 5.5 thousand 40-mm anti-aircraft guns.
  7. ccsr
    ccsr 30 March 2021 20: 07
    +5
    Author:
    Linnik Sergey
    ... Our troops willingly used captured ZSU on the basis of half-track conveyors. Often, such captured vehicles were used for reconnaissance. and infantry fire support.

    Due to the fact that one of the topics raised the issue of lend-lease, and in particular the supply of vehicles to us, I really wanted the author to dwell in more detail on captured vehicles, especially in terms of their use in our army during the war years. I think that this is no less interesting question than the use of captured weapons, and if the author has material, we will wait for a new article.
    As for this work, it is, as always, interesting and informative.
    1. kytx
      kytx 31 March 2021 05: 15
      +3
      Why bother the author?
      the simplest query produces a bunch of articles on this topic
      at VO was also
      https://topwar.ru/170459-avtomobili-v-lend-lize-polza-i-vygody.html
      1. ccsr
        ccsr 31 March 2021 11: 47
        +5
        Quote: kytx
        Why bother the author?
        the simplest query produces a bunch of articles on this topic
        at VO was also

        First of all, I like the articles of this particular author, he is a professional in this matter.
        Secondly, in the article you recommended, there is not a word about trophy cars, but they were in large quantities, i.e. in it one-sidedly considered the ratio of domestic technology and lend-lease, and this is the wrong approach.
        Thirdly, I do not bother the author, he himself said that
        To be continued ...

        Well, what is closer to him, he himself will determine - I just expressed my wish.
        1. kytx
          kytx 31 March 2021 18: 22
          +2
          I like the author's articles too
          but I think it's better when they write about what you want to write about yourself, even if it is even controversial

          By the way, I didn’t recommend you, but just gave an example
          just a topic hackneyed material on it is full
          that's what I wanted to say
  8. mr.ZinGer
    mr.ZinGer 30 March 2021 20: 31
    +2
    Abdulin Mansur Gizatulovich in the book
    "160 pages from a soldier's diary"
    There is a description of how a Ju 52 was shot down at Stalingrad from a quad memory, according to the description it looks like Flakvierling 38.
  9. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 30 March 2021 20: 56
    +7
    Nice article, informative. I buried my father in 2004 with the fragments from the "Oerlikon", and in 1944 they didn’t get it out of him.
  10. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 30 March 2021 22: 59
    +4
    During the Second World War, Soviet designers, like the Germans, also worked on the creation of anti-aircraft self-propelled guns (anti-aircraft tanks, as they were called then!) ... prototypes of anti-aircraft "tanks" were created: T-90 (base: T-70M; weapons: spark DShK ...

    ZUT-37: (base: T-70; weapon: 37-mm anti-aircraft gun ...

    Unfortunately, it was not enough to finalize and launch production of the "strength"! Moreover, at that time the introduction of new technology was often hampered by the inertness of thinking of the then military leaders ...
    1. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 30 March 2021 23: 59
      +2
      Quote: Nikolaevich I
      spark DShK ...

      Nikolaich, so the DShK was adopted as an anti-aircraft gun.
      1. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 31 March 2021 07: 15
        +4
        Quote: Mordvin 3
        DShK and was adopted as anti-aircraft.

        Well, DShK was used in different "guises"! But, as anti-aircraft, DShK in the ground forces were used "one by one"! It is only known that an insignificant number of built installations with DShK were produced, and there are references to the fact that in the military workshops "crazy people" created handicraft paired anti-aircraft installations! In the "mass" number of paired installations went to the fleet ...
        1. Mordvin 3
          Mordvin 3 31 March 2021 07: 22
          +2
          I agree that the DShK was used in different ways, but Degtyarev and Shpagin designed it precisely as an anti-aircraft machine gun.
  11. Saxahorse
    Saxahorse 30 March 2021 23: 31
    +5
    Nice sequel. Many thanks to the author!

    And the most interesting question from the comments, of course, is about ammunition. Antiaircraft gun business is not such an economical way to shoot.
  12. Niko
    Niko 30 March 2021 23: 52
    +3
    Nice article, thanks. However, I do not quite agree with the statement that Germany had the best anti-aircraft artillery. At least not unconditionally. American remote fuses produced in the second half of the war (although they were used only in the navy for secrecy purposes) were a real breakthrough, in combination with excellent fire control devices comparable to a computer gave a noticeable advantage
    1. Toucan
      Toucan 31 March 2021 02: 18
      +2
      It is worth recognizing that the technically very advanced American anti-aircraft guns and fire control systems did not have such an impact on the course of hostilities as the German ones. In terms of the saturation of the MZA troops, the Germans excelled all, and the technical data of the 20-37-mm machine guns were at their best. Many people could envy the training of German anti-aircraft gunners. As for the larger calibers, let's not get ahead of ourselves, the author will probably tell you more about them.
      1. Niko
        Niko 31 March 2021 07: 58
        0
        Quote: Tucan
        It is worth recognizing that the technically very advanced American anti-aircraft guns and fire control systems did not have such an impact on the course of hostilities as the German ones. In terms of the saturation of the MZA troops, the Germans excelled all, and the technical data of the 20-37-mm machine guns were at their best. Many people could envy the training of German anti-aircraft gunners. As for the larger calibers, let's not get ahead of ourselves, the author will probably tell you more about them.

        It is possible to agree (just as I wrote already: not unconditionally) "(American) did not influence the course of hostilities" it is possible - the development of world anti-aircraft artillery (and not only anti-aircraft, and not only artillery) - UNDoubtlessly. In addition, the guns themselves were "German" only partly "Ehrlikon" and "Bofors" which really influenced everyone and everything (including the Germans) were still "not Germans"
      2. CommanderDIVA
        CommanderDIVA 31 March 2021 09: 35
        -4
        "Many people could envy the training of German anti-aircraft gunners" - again, an unconfirmed statement, at least give the statistics of enemy aircraft shot down by the Germans and the Red Army, the Germans had a whole 100 thousand army of anti-aircraft gunners to cover the Ruhr industrial region, this did not really help them from shuttles and others raids by the Americans and the British, but at least compare the photos of the streets of Berlin in 1945 and Moscow in 1941.
        1. zyablik.olga
          zyablik.olga 31 March 2021 13: 33
          +4
          Quote: CommanderDIVA
          "Many people could envy the training of German anti-aircraft gunners" - again, an unconfirmed statement, at least give the statistics of enemy aircraft shot down by the Germans and the Red Army, the Germans had a whole 100 thousand army of anti-aircraft gunners to cover the Ruhr industrial region, this did not really help them from shuttles and others raids by the Americans and the British, but at least compare the photos of the streets of Berlin in 1945 and Moscow in 1941.

          And give the statistics, how many bombers participated in the raids on Moscow and Berlin, and what percentage of enemy bombers were shot down near Moscow by anti-aircraft guns?
          1. CommanderDIVA
            CommanderDIVA 31 March 2021 15: 53
            -4
            You need to explain who answers the question with a question, especially since he was asked to the author of the article, and he keeps deathly silence
            1. zyablik.olga
              zyablik.olga April 1 2021 00: 04
              +2
              Quote: CommanderDIVA
              You need to explain who answers the question with a question, especially since he was asked to the author of the article, and he keeps deathly silence

              You watch others, but you are not able to answer for yourself. No.
  13. Hunter 2
    Hunter 2 31 March 2021 05: 52
    +6
    The article is just great! Sergey Linnik - Thank you so much! An amazing series of articles turned out good
  14. NF68
    NF68 31 March 2021 16: 36
    0
    Why should the good be lost.
  15. exo
    exo 31 March 2021 17: 42
    +3
    I read it with pleasure. I fill in the knowledge gaps. Thanks to the author!