Military Review

Browning's unique designs. Let's start with the A-5 gun ...

39
Browning's unique designs. Let's start with the A-5 gun ...
The receiver of the A-5 shotgun. Photo by Alain Daubresse


"... does not favor the speed of human feet ..."
(Psalms 146: 10)

Weapon and firms. Although it is said in the Bible that He does not favor the speed of human feet, but only speed in a person's life means a lot. And it is clear that not only in walking, but also in shooting. So, different designers tried at different times to make it so that it was his weapon that fired most of the others. The first to use the recoil force to accelerate the shooting process was the famous H. Maxim. However, John Moses Browning, who was collaborating at that time with the Winchester firm, did not waste his time either, and already in 1898 he began work on several types of self-loading rifles at once, using the recoil force to operate the automatics. Among the patentable designs was the Browning Auto 5 (or Automatic 5 - A-5) smoothbore shotgun, which used the recoil energy of the barrel for reloading, which he developed in 1898. A patent for it was obtained in 1900, and it turned out that it was the first and, moreover, a successful self-loading rifle, which was in production until 1998!


John Moses Browning with his famous shotgun

And now it’s like this: there were already materials about this weapon on the VO. In 2016. But that was a long time ago. In addition, materials from publicly available Internet sites and Wikipedia were used in their design. But you always want something new, right? So in this case, you, dear readers of VO, will find something new here as well.


Drawing shotgun A-5 from the catalog

The most interesting thing is that Browning designed not one gun, but three options at once (and this later came in handy for him!), And in all three options, the recoil energy of the barrel was used for reloading. He considered one of them the most promising and offered it to his longtime partner, Winchester. However, the fate of the new gun was adversely affected by the human factor. It's just that the plant director T. Bennett, convinced of his experience, considered Browning's development unpromising. It is important to understand here that personal experience, of course, always plays a certain role. But instead of doing a thorough marketing research of the market, Bennett decided everything himself and, as it later turned out, made a very serious mistake. True, in this case, an important role was also played by the fact that Browning this time asked from the company for his design not a fixed amount, as it was before, but a certain percentage of the cost of each rifle released by the company, which seemed too expensive.


Browning patent for a recoil gun, 1900

Then Browning turned to the Remington Arms Co., but he was unlucky there either: its president died of a heart attack right in his office just a few minutes before meeting with Mr. Browning, and, of course, no one would decide there after that for a long time. could not do anything. And Browning did not want to wait for the weather by the sea, and he turned to the Belgian company Fabrique Nationale, with which he already had experience of cooperation, and which produced his pistol, created in 1896 under the brand FN Browning model 1900. Here, his development is yet another once approved and immediately began to release. Moreover, Browning made 10 thousand guns in order to then sell them in America and he was immediately successful - all of them were sold in the first year. After that, in 1906, he offered Fabrique Nationale some of his rights to transfer to the Remington Arms company, after which Remington began producing Model 11 guns, with the most minimal differences from the Belgian model.


Diagram of the device A-5

The gun gained popularity among hunters, and then it began to be used even in the army. It seems to be already from the First World War, but there are no photographs of American soldiers of that time with this gun. However, this does not mean anything, since it was used in World War II and even during the Korean War. And the last time it was used at all during the Vietnam War, where Browning Auto 5 again proved to be the best.


A soldier of the 18th Separate Brigade of the British Armed Forces in the jungle of Malaya with an A-5 gun in his hands. Illustration from Christopher Shant's book Infantry Weapons: An Encyclopedia of Small Arms. M .: Omega, 2004.S. 224

After World War II, these guns were widely used by the military in parts of the world such as Central and South America. However, Browning's rifles became a real military weapon only when the uprising in Malaya in 1948-960 was suppressed. The British Army used Greener GP and Browning Automatic rifles throughout this protracted campaign, sometimes shortening the long barrel for convenience. Most of the guns used by the British were 12-gauge with a five-round magazine. Shooting was carried out with large-shot hunting cartridges.


A-5. Left view. Barrel length 711 mm. The weight of the shotgun loaded with cartridges is 4,1 kg. Caliber 12 (18,4 mm). Photo by Alain Daubresse

Very soon the British realized that the self-loading rifle was the best weapon for close combat in the jungle. When repelling an ambush attack, the Browning A-5 rifle was good in that five charges from it could be fired in three seconds. At the time, the use of large-caliber rifles (the Remington Model 870R was also used) did not receive much publicity, but many soldiers who served in Malaya during the uprising willingly used the A-5. It was also widely used in Africa during the suppression of the Mau Mau uprising in Kenya. True, the soldiers complained about the excessive, in their opinion, the length of the barrel and that when they shortened it according to their own understanding, the guns began to "be capricious." Browning's rifle was again actively used during the war in Rhodesia against the partisans. In some places, these guns are still used, although the combat modification of the A-5 does not officially exist.


A-5. Right view. Photo by Alain Daubresse

In a word, this "Browning" turned out to be among the most successful developments of Browning and one of the almost massive guns and successful guns not only of its era, but of the XNUMXth century in general! And it is clear that he owes this success first of all to the perfection of his design.

By design, the Auto-5 is a semi-automatic long-recoil smoothbore shotgun. The cartridges are stored in a tubular magazine under the barrel, and another, of course, can always be inserted into the chamber. By the way, it was precisely because of the number of potentially used cartridges that the name of the gun was born: four in the store and the fifth cartridge in the barrel - only five. When fired, the barrel and the bolt move back together a distance exceeding the length of the sleeve and cocking the hammer again. When the barrel returns to its original position, the bolt remains behind, and the spent cartridge case is ejected through the hole on the right side of the receiver. Then the bolt, pushed by a spring in the neck of the butt and in the butt itself, goes forward and feeds the next cartridge from the magazine into the barrel. Such a device was the first of its kind and was patented by John Browning at the turn of the century in 1900.


What a thread on a semi-pistol buttstock ... Simply amazing! Photo by Alain Daubresse

Interestingly, a hole in the bottom of the receiver is used to load cartridges, and not on its side. Most A-5s have removable magazine covers that prevent more than three cartridges from being inserted into the magazine (two in the magazine and one in the chamber) in accordance with US federal migratory waterfowl laws and some state hunting regulations. But with the cap removed, the total capacity is just five rounds. If the chamber is open (the bolt handle is retracted), then the first sleeve inserted into the magazine tube will go straight into the chamber (under the ejection hole there is a manual bolt closing button), then the bolt closes, and all other sleeves that the shooter will insert into the chamber enter the store.


"Lung of the Twelfth" is the marking of the Browning A-5 shotgun. Photo by Alain Daubresse

The A-5 has an ingenious tapered ring system that fits over the barrel and slows down the movement of the barrel backward. Correct fit of these rings is very important for good shotgun performance and long gun life as it provides control over excessive recoil. Friction rings are set depending on the type of charge that is planned to be fired from the gun. Well, how to select different settings for this or that type of cartridge is written in the user's manual.


And this is how this gun was advertised in Russia before the revolution. It was necessary to come up with such a name: "self-loading shotgun"!

By the way, in the USSR, back in the 60s of the last century, an analogue of the A-5 was developed - the MTs-21-12 gun, which was then produced for many years ... As for the Remington M11 model, which turned out to be the first gun of this type in USA, it was produced and sold in the amount of 850 units before its production was phased out in 000. But even now there are firms that produce the A-1947 model under different names.

To be continued ...
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39 comments
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  1. polpot
    polpot 22 March 2021 18: 05
    +8
    Thank you very much, it was interesting to read.
    1. WHAT IS
      WHAT IS 22 March 2021 18: 13
      +12
      I join, the author's works on weapons are always interesting!
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 22 March 2021 20: 51
        +4
        Today is some kind of holiday! Vyacheslav with guns and Eduard with arrows, although besides the birthday of Ilyich, who is in a month, well, mind "nothing goes"!
        1. The comment was deleted.
  2. Intruder
    Intruder 22 March 2021 18: 45
    +5
    Great article on good product, Browning genius !!!
    It is still in demand in certain circles ... and the cost is quite adequate: $ 830
    1. The leader of the Redskins
      The leader of the Redskins 22 March 2021 19: 08
      +2
      I subscribe to your words. This cycle for Vyacheslav Olegovich is very successful.
      1. Intruder
        Intruder 22 March 2021 19: 16
        +4
        I would take exactly this one to myself ... only if it were not for possible problems with cutting the length of the barrel, I just do not want to run into unstable work:
        refers to a type of semi-automatic long-recoil smoothbore shotguns.
        !!! recourse
        1. Simargl
          Simargl 23 March 2021 01: 16
          +1
          Quote: Intruder
          only if it were not for possible problems, with cutting the length of the barrel,
          Well don't cut the trunk and it will work. If you cut it off, increase the weight of the projectile.
          1. Intruder
            Intruder 23 March 2021 01: 51
            +2
            If you cut it off, increase the weight of the projectile.
            Hmm, this is certainly good, but you can also play with other parameters with a long stroke of the barrel, so today I drove into the store, at lunch and looked at this barrel, and my thoughts began to spin ... I will sell, I think, my "monstrous" DP-12 pump. .. and take this classic !? In short, I'm in agony now ... lol
            PS Plus, and money from the sale of the pump, there will still be all sorts of body kits, sometimes sadness and longing without an extra bar, there are !!! I feel the second number (spouse), she will be surprised that another trunk will appear in the house, and sooner by the weekend ... fellow
            1. Simargl
              Simargl 23 March 2021 02: 03
              0
              Quote: Intruder
              selling, I think my "monstrous" pump DP-12 ... and I'll take this classic !?
              A-5 ?! Yes, he is not small!
              1. Intruder
                Intruder 23 March 2021 02: 55
                +1
                A-5 ?! Yes, he is not small!
                No, this gloomy thing ... and a little not justified the hopes and funds invested ($ 1205), personally, in my opinion, the owner of it:
                1. Simargl
                  Simargl 23 March 2021 13: 24
                  +2
                  Quote: Intruder
                  No, this gloomy thing ...
                  I'm talking about A-5 - it's not small.
                  And about DP-12 - yes you are a maniac!
                  1. Intruder
                    Intruder 23 March 2021 13: 57
                    0
                    And about DP-12 - yes you are a maniac!
                    I just wanted two smooth barrels in one product and 12 gauge to a heap, with the maximum (legal) amount of ammunition - 2x8!
                    But as it turned out for me, this is clearly redundant and not very comfortable / maneuverable system due to its massiveness ... wink Now bullpup, I don't really like it ... angry
                    Rather, I am exactly that endangered species of upright primates, as in one old anecdote (in the most interesting part of it ..):
                    At night on a deserted road, a cop stops a lonely driver, after a question about the presence of weapons in the car, he hears this:
                    - I have a Berreta CX4 Storm in a case, in the trunk;
                    - AR-15 in a cover, in the back seat;
                    - Glock-18 in a case, in the front seat and Baby Browning 25 Auto on the ankle bully
                    laughing wink
      2. Alien From
        Alien From 22 March 2021 22: 01
        +5
        And I join)) really interesting and readable hi
    2. Lynx2000
      Lynx2000 23 March 2021 07: 06
      +3
      what Are you referring to commission sales? Honestly, I haven't seen such offers for sale ...
      Currently, the Browning A5 semiautomatic device is produced in three versions (produced in Portugal), the price tag is over 100 thousand rubles.
      How Auto 5 works:
      1. Intruder
        Intruder 23 March 2021 14: 03
        +1
        Are you referring to commission sales? Honestly, I haven't seen such offers for sale ...
        And where did you look !?
        1. Lynx2000
          Lynx2000 23 March 2021 21: 55
          +1
          In hunting shops in Novosibirsk, Barnaul, Vladivostok and Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, on the websites. I have a single-barrel trigger IZH-17.
          1. Intruder
            Intruder 23 March 2021 22: 38
            0
            In hunting stores in Novosibirsk, Barnaul, Vladivostok and Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky
            Mmm, I looked a little further on this barrel ..., as if without pathos and not offend, honestly .., not in Runet, but in the capital of California, sorry !!!
            1. Lynx2000
              Lynx2000 23 March 2021 23: 50
              0
              laughing There used to be a direct flight Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky - Anchorage. Now I am closer to the Aleutian Islands ...
              1. Intruder
                Intruder 24 March 2021 01: 11
                0
                Now I am closer to the Aleutian Islands ...
                well ... I'm far from them now ... laughing
      2. Decimalegio
        Decimalegio 6 June 2021 18: 56
        0
        but the new Auto5 no longer uses long recoil, and the inertial bolt
  3. Undecim
    Undecim 22 March 2021 19: 58
    +6
    It seems to be already from the First World War, but there are no photographs of American soldiers of that time with this gun. However, this does not mean anything
    Here, apparently, Browning Auto-5 was simply not lucky to get into the lens. But the much less successful Winchester Model 1911, which tried to compete with Browning, was in luck.
  4. Niko
    Niko 22 March 2021 20: 42
    +1
    An interesting and infrequent case when the First is practically the Best (or at least sooooo good)
  5. vladcub
    vladcub 22 March 2021 21: 02
    +8
    V.O., as always firearms at the level ..
    Comrades, I think I am not mistaken in saying, V. OH, HEALTH TO YOU AND LOVE. CREATIVE SUCCESS.
    1. kalibr
      22 March 2021 21: 34
      +8
      Thank you, dear Svyatoslav! It seems that publishing houses are beginning to come to life - pah, tfu, pah, knock, knock, knock - which means that there will be not only articles, but also books. He wrote the second part of materials for the second issue of the UNKNOWN ISTORIA magazine, which will be published by Technique-youth. So the wish is very useful to me.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 22 March 2021 21: 59
        +5
        Vyacheslav, hello and thank you! smile You, as always, are on the level. good

        I do not remember whether I have already inserted these verses or not, they do not belong to Browning Auto-5, just as a tribute to the memory of the ingenious designer. soldier

        "He groaned and fell on his face
        With a small hole above the temple.
        Browning, browning ...
        The toy is small and cute in appearance,
        But he lies lifeless on the floor.
        Browning, browning ...
        From a small hole at the end of the trunk
        Death appears, small and sweet.
        Browning, Browning ... "(c)
        Poems about this "toy".))
        1. kalibr
          23 March 2021 07: 35
          +3
          What wonderful poems! They are worth attributing an article to them ...
      2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 22 March 2021 22: 01
        +5
        I subscribe to the words of the Namesake!
        There was nothing to read this morning, except for a sluggish discussion on Sunday's article on Austerlitz. In the evening the party came. This rarely happens, especially recently.
      3. Alien From
        Alien From 22 March 2021 22: 03
        +5
        As they say: no fluff, no feather! Good luck!
  6. vladcub
    vladcub 22 March 2021 21: 09
    +3
    "T. Bennett, convinced of his experience, considered Browning's development unpromising" what it was like for him later, when Browning left Winchester.
  7. Freeman
    Freeman 22 March 2021 21: 27
    +5
    The shotgun has gained popularity among hunters, and then they began to use it even in the army. It seems to be from the First World War, but there are no photographs of American soldiers of this time with this gun.


    I haven't found the Americans yet, but there are French.
    Here is a post from shotgunworld.com
    Hello.
    I searched the Internet for information about aircraft in the First War and came across a documentary that explains that at the beginning of the conflict, the aircraft was used for reconnaissance and was not equipped with a machine gun that could fire through a propeller. Therefore, if you want to stop your enemies to observe your position, you send planes with armed crews.

    Firing from an open cockpit required a lot of nerves and skill. It looks like the team had to practice shooting at a moving target before sending it into the sky. What could be better than shooting clay pigeons from Browning auto-5.

    In this original video on 6 minutes 43 seconds you can see how the crews of the planes from the First World War do it.

    https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=jBsCenclNhQ


    And this is a screenshot from this video.

  8. vladcub
    vladcub 22 March 2021 21: 31
    +4
    Q. Oh, and "self-burnt shotguns", generally the previous Browning models, were in demand in RI?
  9. vladcub
    vladcub 22 March 2021 21: 39
    +3
    "in 2016" Oh, maybe a little shaman, something new, and repeat your first firearms?
    Unfortunately, there are no materials through the "profile" before 2015. I wanted to update the "three-line" and your first firearms
    1. kalibr
      23 March 2021 07: 41
      +1
      Quote: vladcub
      Unfortunately, there are no materials through the "profile" before 2015. I wanted to update the "three-line" and your first firearms

      Old materials are deleted from the site's memory, otherwise they take up a lot of space. I already thought from this. I just rewrote one of my own articles from VO for another site with 100% novelty. Double checked, no ... a hundred. Well, that means OK, although 92% would be more than enough. So you can try.
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 24 March 2021 18: 38
        0
        Good luck to you and us
  10. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 22 March 2021 22: 14
    +4
    By the way, quite recently I posted a note about the military (combat) use of the Browning A-5 in one of my comments ... there I mentioned the use of Auto-5 in Rhodesia ... a feature of the "Rhodesian" Browning was loading shotguns with more than 5 rounds , and 7-8 ... He also mentioned the use of shotguns in Russia in the civil war by partisans. Also, in WW1, on the basis of the Browning rifle, a "simulator" was made for training aviators-machine gunners ... As a result of the combat use of a shotgun by the British in Malaya, is production of 12-gauge cartridges in a plastic sleeve to replace "cardboard" sleeves! An article even stated that 12-gauge cartridges in plastic sleeves were first made specifically for the Browning! (Alas, I did not check it!) I posted pictures of the "simulator" for WW1 aviators and the "Rhodesian" Browning loaded with 7-8 rounds in the same comment ...
  11. Sergey Gennadievich
    Sergey Gennadievich 27 March 2021 15: 38
    0
    Everything is fine, except for an unsuccessful attempt to state the process of loading a gun in your own words. "If the chamber is open (the bolt handle is retracted), then the first sleeve inserted into the magazine tube will go straight into the chamber (there is a manual bolt closing button under the ejection hole), then the bolt closes, and all other sleeves that the shooter will insert into chamber, enter the store. " It would be necessary to rewrite from Bitkov's catalog without changes. And then do they load guns with cartridges?
  12. Sergey Gennadievich
    Sergey Gennadievich 27 March 2021 16: 18
    0
    Another fly in the ointment. The article says: "Interestingly, a hole in the bottom of the receiver is used to load cartridges, and not on its side." I doubt it is a receiver. According to GOST 28653-2018 Small arms. Terms and definitions the receiver, in contrast to the bolt, among other things, also interlocks the barrel with the bolt. In this gun, the box only directs the movement of the barrel and bolt, both individually and in a coupled state. Therefore, the box is bolted here. For example, in a Mosin rifle, the box is undoubtedly a receiver. In front, the barrel is screwed into it, and on the other hand, it directs the movement of the bolt and the lugs of the bolt faces go into its cutouts, engaging the barrel with the bolt. Without any doubts. In Auto-5, I would call the receiver the part I highlighted in red in this picture.
    receiver
    1. The comment was deleted.
  13. Sergey Gennadievich
    Sergey Gennadievich 27 March 2021 16: 38
    0
    The picture in the last comment came out crooked. I try to repeat it.
  14. Decimalegio
    Decimalegio 6 June 2021 19: 08
    0
    Apart from the Cosmi, I do not know of any other long recoil rifles currently in production. Do you know any factory that has them in the directory
    https://cosmi.net/semiautomatico-liscio-acciaio/