Military Review

Advantages of the IAI Harop loitering ammunition

59

UAV Harop in a launch container. Folded wing and launch tray visible


The Israeli corporation IAI actively supplies unmanned aerial vehicles of various types abroad, incl. loitering ammunition Harop. This technique enjoys a certain popularity among foreign customers, and recently it became known about two new orders for a basic and a modified modification. The observed commercial success of Harop is clear and is based on several factors.

The main features


The IAI Harop loitering ammunition was developed in the first half of the 2005s and by 2006-XNUMX. entered the international market. It was created as a universal reconnaissance and strike weapon capable of detecting and striking enemy targets. A similar concept has previously been implemented in several Israeli projects and has been tested in practice.

The Harop product is built according to the "duck" design; the outer contours are determined taking into account the reduction in radar signature. The device has a rudimentary fuselage, most of which is made integral with the wing. On the nose of the fuselage there is a small sweep plumage. The main planes include a well-developed swept sag and trapezoidal consoles that fold out at the start. The engine nacelle is fixed on top of the fuselage; on either side of it are keels.


Ground start

The UAV is equipped with an optical-electronic unit for reconnaissance and guidance, and also has a two-way communication and control system. The launch of the device from the launcher is carried out using two solid propellant engines. For flight, a piston engine with a two-blade propeller is used.

The length of the ammunition is 2,5 m, the wingspan is 3 m. The take-off weight is 135 kg. The maximum speed is declared at 417 km / h, the flight range is 1000 km. The flight duration is 9 hours. During the flight, Harop can dive to the target and destroy it or return for reuse. Destruction of the target is provided by a 23-kg high-explosive fragmentation warhead. The declared accuracy is no more than 1-2 m.

The Harop UAV is transported and launched using a launcher on a vehicle chassis with several rectangular containers. A similar installation is proposed for mounting on surface platforms. The flight and the search for targets can be carried out autonomously, under the supervision of the operator, or directly by commands. Moreover, in all cases, the decision to attack is made by a person.

Commercial successes


To date, the IAI Harop loitering ammunition has entered service with 6-8 countries from different regions. The initial customer of such equipment was the Israeli army. Export deliveries soon began, in 2005 Turkey ordered an unknown number of complexes. At the end of the 100s, a large order from India appeared - more than 2019 units. In 50, the Indian army decided to acquire more than XNUMX more UAVs. There are also reports of the delivery of Harop systems to Germany.


Israeli major customer drones Azerbaijan became different types, and along with other products, Harop products were massively purchased. It was the Azerbaijani army that was the first to use such ammunition in a real operation. The first strike using Harop was carried out in 2016. In the fall of 2020, such UAVs were actively used during the fighting in Nagorno-Karabakh. In addition, there is fragmentary information about the use of such systems by Israel in Syria.

Just a few days ago, IAI Corporation announced two new contracts, and it is again about expanding the geography of supplies. Two unnamed Asian countries immediately wanted to buy Harop products. One of them will receive land-based complexes with self-propelled launchers, and the second has ordered a system in sea version. It is noteworthy that this is the first order for a shipborne version of the launcher.

Main advantages


The main advantages of the IAI Harop ammunition should be sought at the level of the basic concept. The idea of ​​loitering ammunition proposes the creation of a "kamikaze besplotnik" capable of observing and hitting the found target "at the cost of his own life." Practice has repeatedly shown the potential and prospects of such a technique. A successful and promising concept has been implemented using modern technology and components.


Start from ship installation

Loitering ammunition can become a full-fledged replacement for reconnaissance UAVs with similar flight performance characteristics. In this case, the data from Harop can be used to clarify the situation or to issue target designation to fire weapons. The device can be integrated into modern troop command and control circuits with maximum results.

Unlike reconnaissance drones, loitering ammunition is capable not only of identifying a target, but also independently hitting it. This dramatically reduces the time required to destroy a given object - in contrast to traditional approaches using specialized systems and complexes.

The Harop project provides for the possibility of autonomous flight and study of the terrain or work on the commands of the operator. Autonomous mode reduces the burden on the person, but does not exclude his participation. Thus, the management provides an optimal balance, taking into account the specifics of the calculations and current views on the use of unmanned vehicles.


IAI Harop has a fairly high flight performance. High speed provides quick access to the target area, where long-term patrolling is possible. The manufacturer claims the minimum radar signature, which reduces the likelihood of interception during loitering.

Harop carries a high-explosive fragmentation warhead weighing 23 kg. In terms of weight and power, it corresponds to NATO 155-mm standard projectiles. Also, in these parameters, it can be compared with some air-to-ground missiles. At the same time, loitering ammunition has obvious advantages over both shells and missiles. In particular, it is possible to terminate an attack or retarget while in flight.

Several years ago, a ship-based version of the Harop complex was announced, and now the first contract for its supply has been signed. Thanks to this, the UAV becomes universal not only in terms of tasks, but also in terms of basing methods. Obviously, from the transfer to a boat or ship, the combat qualities of the Harop product do not change. At the same time, some new ways of application are possible, associated with naval specifics.


Promising direction


At the moment, the IAI Harop product is one of the most popular and commercially successful loitering ammunition in the world. In addition, it has proven its capabilities in real conflicts, which is additional advertising and contributes to the emergence of new contracts.

Several years ago, IAI Corporation announced its intention to create a new modification of the Harop drone. It was proposed to reduce the dimensions and weight of the apparatus, as well as to reduce the flight duration to several hours. Other options for improving the original design are also possible, primarily by replacing components and assemblies with modern counterparts in order to improve performance and / or reduce cost. At the same time, Harop is not the only development of its class from IAI. Customers are offered other loitering ammunition.

It is noteworthy that the lucrative contracts of the Israeli corporation IAI and the results of the combat work of the armies draw attention not only to a specific model, but to the entire direction. In other countries, new systems of this class are already being created with different characteristics and capabilities. In the future, they will enter the international market and, possibly, change the situation there. However, right now, the leader of the direction is deservedly the Harop UAV, built from modern components on the basis of a successful concept.
Author:
Photos used:
IAI
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  1. rocket757
    rocket757 5 February 2021 18: 24
    +7
    The situation is such that both countermeasures and similar devices are needed.
    A complex approach.
    1. Aaron Zawi
      Aaron Zawi 5 February 2021 18: 50
      +14
      Quote: rocket757
      The situation is such that both countermeasures and similar devices are needed.
      A complex approach.

      I think this is an outdated system. The Hero line is much more promising.

      1. OgnennyiKotik
        OgnennyiKotik 5 February 2021 18: 56
        +10
        Quote: Aron Zaavi
        I think this is an outdated system. The Hero line is much more promising.

        Obsolete, of course. In fact, Harop is a modernization of the Harpy, which was created in the late 80s. The system is over 40 years old.
        Hero made a whole line, for every taste and task.
        1. Aaron Zawi
          Aaron Zawi 5 February 2021 19: 02
          +12
          Quote: OgnennyiKotik
          Quote: Aron Zaavi
          I think this is an outdated system. The Hero line is much more promising.

          Obsolete, of course. In fact, Harop is a modernization of the Harpy, which was created in the late 80s. The system is over 40 years old.
          Hero made a whole line, for every taste and task.

          Yes, this system seems to me very promising.
          1. OgnennyiKotik
            OgnennyiKotik 5 February 2021 19: 21
            +9
            This video shows the possibilities better. They can be armed from an infantryman to a ship.
            When the platoon has opportunities comparable to the Apache, this is a serious boost. A block of 6-8 HEROs can be put on any chassis, up to a pickup truck. And just take it with you instead of ATGM or RPG.
          2. OgnennyiKotik
            OgnennyiKotik 5 February 2021 19: 43
            +1
            By the way, Kalashnikov has a suspiciously similar Zala system.
          3. paco.soto
            paco.soto 5 February 2021 21: 29
            +1
            Thank you for the video: you saved my time.
        2. stone
          stone 5 February 2021 19: 53
          +8
          Firstly, Harop is a continuation of the practically ancestor of the class of "barrage ammunition", the fact that it is not miniature does not yet say that it is outdated. God forbid his brains! And then the weight of the explosive also matters. We've all seen the Mamlov pshyki.
          1. OgnennyiKotik
            OgnennyiKotik 5 February 2021 19: 54
            +4
            Hero-900 weighs 97 kg, has a warhead of 20 kg, a range of 250 km and the ability to stay in the air for 7 hours.
      2. Mister X
        Mister X 5 February 2021 19: 57
        +4
        hi
        In 2013, the author already wrote about Harop
        The article was titled "Unmanned Detective, or Was There Plagiarism?"
        In it, he mentioned the Russian UAV G-1
        It was allegedly developed by the Moscow firm "2T-Engineering" before Israel Aerospace Industry
        Since then, plagiarism is no longer heard.

        1. OgnennyiKotik
          OgnennyiKotik 5 February 2021 20: 01
          +7
          Harpy first flight 1989. The laws of physics, in particular aerodynamics, are the same for everyone.

          The first aircraft in the world was made according to the Duck design.
          1. Ka-52
            Ka-52 8 February 2021 08: 55
            +1
            Harpy first flight 1989. The laws of physics, in particular aerodynamics, are the same for everyone

            So what's the connection with Brothers Flyer-1? Harpy's aerodynamic layout is not a Duck. Because its horizontal control planes are not located in front of the wing, but are integrated into it.
            1. OgnennyiKotik
              OgnennyiKotik 8 February 2021 09: 25
              -1
              Quote: Ka-52
              its horizontal control planes are not in front of the wing, but are integrated into it.

              Got it, thanks for the info.
        2. The comment was deleted.
      3. rocket757
        rocket757 6 February 2021 15: 28
        0
        It is clear that there will be new models .... countermeasures will also develop.
        The usual situation is that the means of attack are somewhat ahead of the means of counteraction.
  2. Emil mamedoff
    Emil mamedoff 5 February 2021 18: 31
    +11
    Not only a high-explosive fragmentation version, there is also a thermobaric version.
    There was an episode when ours hit a large concert hall in the city of Shusha, back in the middle of the battalion, where enemy armed forces from police units gathered to receive a combat mission, they had some kind of big meeting, after being hit by a Lora rocket - the hall collapsed, into It was the thermobaric Harop that landed there, the soldiers who survived under the rubble burned down.
  3. Shahno
    Shahno 5 February 2021 18: 39
    +3
    Quote: Emil Mamedoff
    Not only a high-explosive fragmentation version, there is also a thermobaric version.
    There was an episode when ours hit a large concert hall in the city of Shusha, back in the middle of the battalion, where enemy armed forces from police units gathered to receive a combat mission, they had some kind of big meeting, after being hit by a Lora rocket - the hall collapsed, into It was the thermobaric Harop that landed there, the soldiers who survived under the rubble burned down.

    Yes, Harop has been transformed a bit ...
    I was not aware of the use of this feature ..
    1. Emil mamedoff
      Emil mamedoff 5 February 2021 18: 42
      +6
      Judging by the fact that they were practicing with the tanks, there are versions with a penetrating part.

      He also knows how to independently fly to the point of radiation of radio waves, that is, to communication vehicles, radar stations, or towers, in a free hunt mode.
      Our coast guard GPS is also equipped with such launchers, to strike at sea targets, such as a patrolling anti-ship missile system.
      1. Avior
        Avior 6 February 2021 05: 21
        +2
        A useful function for covering the area of ​​use of drones against electronic warfare stations. Launched - and for 8-9 hours the area is covered
  4. Alien From
    Alien From 5 February 2021 18: 47
    +12
    Cool stuff. Well done Israelis!
  5. svp67
    svp67 5 February 2021 18: 56
    +4
    And who will now give the answer, is it a pity to spend missiles on such a goal?
    1. OgnennyiKotik
      OgnennyiKotik 5 February 2021 19: 04
      +7
      This is not a question of pity, it's just that the missile defense system will not be enough to intercept everything.
      In one installation, for example Kayot, there are 16 kamikaze drones.


      There are 48 Chinese in general, but what if there are 2?


      Recently, the Turks launched Akinchi into mass production, it can carry 10 kamikaze Alpaga. The MQ-9 is also planned to be equipped with a similar system.
      1. svp67
        svp67 5 February 2021 19: 26
        +1
        Quote: OgnennyiKotik
        This is not a question of pity, it's just that the missile defense system will not be enough to intercept everything.

        There was an article a little earlier about the unification of anti-tank systems and air defense systems. So, the question is enough or not rhetorical.
        1. Vladimir_2U
          Vladimir_2U 5 February 2021 20: 04
          +2
          Quote: svp67
          There was an article a little earlier about the unification of anti-tank systems and air defense systems. So, the question is enough or not rhetorical.
          The question is whether an ATGM, even an advanced one, can intercept such a device. SAM will be able, no doubt.
          1. svp67
            svp67 5 February 2021 20: 12
            +1
            Quote: Vladimir_2U
            The question is whether an ATGM, even an advanced one, can intercept such a device. SAM will be able, no doubt.

            Well, even the modern "Attack" has a chance
  6. Shahno
    Shahno 5 February 2021 19: 02
    0
    Quote: svp67
    And who will now give the answer, is it a pity to spend missiles on such a goal?

    Well, you understand ... We will not attack your position areas, you will not attack our lines. Otherwise ...
    PS. And of course, Harop is quite himself, the same single air defense system can quite capitalize .. That has been shown more than once.
  7. The comment was deleted.
    1. The comment was deleted.
  8. justas4l
    justas4l 5 February 2021 19: 41
    +3
    Another product of the Turkish military-industrial complex, the drone-kamikaze ALPAGU
    1. OgnennyiKotik
      OgnennyiKotik 5 February 2021 19: 44
      +2
      They have different kamikaze drones.


      There are armed with small arms
  9. Emil mamedoff
    Emil mamedoff 5 February 2021 19: 44
    +5
    Comparing Hero with Harop is completely incorrect.
    One of the features of Harop is that it spreads panic with its sound throughout the area, and this is not a joke. There are many videos filmed by Armenians, where hearing the sound of Harop they immediately fall into panic, and everyone can see the fear of confusion, and sowing panic in the opposite direction is one of the important moments of the war. By the loud sound, it is impossible to understand on whose head it will fall, but on someone it will fall, everyone is confused, fear is in everyone's eyes.
    Secondly, this is a huge range of application, it is incorrect to compare them.
    And also the function of emitting interference, the electronic warfare function of the Harop, which is not in the Hero.
    The weight and variety of these same warheads are worth something.
    So, replacing Harop with these Hero Uvision is like trying to replace a Mercedes Maybach, Hyundai Genesis.) All the same, the capabilities and functionality are not comparable.
    1. OgnennyiKotik
      OgnennyiKotik 5 February 2021 19: 52
      0
      Quote: Emil Mamedoff
      Comparing Hero with Harop is completely incorrect.

      It should be compared with older Hero-900 models. Their capabilities are comparable to or superior to Harop. The payload can also be set to various OF, cumulative, thermobolic, anti-radar, etc.

      Hero-250 has a weight of 25 kg, a warhead weighing 5 kg and a range of 150 km with the possibility of being in the air for 3 hours. Hero-400 has a weight of 40 kg, a warhead of 8 kg, a range of 150 km and the ability to stay in the air for 4 hours. The largest drone of this series, the Hero-900, weighs 97 kg, has a warhead of 20 kg, a range of 250 km and the ability to stay in the air for 7 hours.
      1. Emil mamedoff
        Emil mamedoff 5 February 2021 20: 30
        +3
        Is 250km and 1000km "comparable"? And all of Harop's other cherries simply cannot be physically crammed into Hero. It is impossible to equip Hero with the same electronics and devices as in Harop.
        Harop has listed other priorities above.
        1. Emil mamedoff
          Emil mamedoff 5 February 2021 20: 45
          +4
          And even the flight speed of 417 km / h versus 120 km / h is a huge difference. And the goal may not wait.
        2. OgnennyiKotik
          OgnennyiKotik 5 February 2021 20: 45
          +1
          You are comparing range (communication) and flight range. The range of action for Harop is 200 km, for Hero-900 is 250 km. Their flight range will be comparable.

          Range (LOS): 250 km
          https://uvisionuav.com/portfolio-view/hero-900/
          Communication Range: 200 km (120 mi)
          https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/IAI_Harop
  10. mark1
    mark1 5 February 2021 19: 55
    0
    A range of 1000 km + a nuclear charge - so you don't need the first strike, neither the Pershing nor the Minuteman with the Trident ... All of the above are already the second - the main strike.
  11. paco.soto
    paco.soto 5 February 2021 21: 35
    +6
    Thanks to all the commentators for the links! It is a rare case when I read the forum under the article with interest and without unnecessary irritation!
  12. paco.soto
    paco.soto 5 February 2021 22: 16
    +2
    Thank you! and other commentators!
  13. tralflot1832
    tralflot1832 5 February 2021 23: 04
    -3
    Once the United States withdrew from the RSD treaty. So we need to return our drones with a range of up to 5 km and a power of up to 000 M gt. And the issue will be closed until we develop our UAVs. What is the question, there is political will. We are studying the defense doctrine of Russia. . If we strike at the center of decision-making. In any case, it is still Washington.
  14. The comment was deleted.
  15. The comment was deleted.
  16. justas4l
    justas4l 6 February 2021 00: 34
    +5
    Quote: tralflot1832
    Once the United States withdrew from the RSD treaty. So we need to return our drones with a range of up to 5 km and a power of up to 000 M gt. And the issue will be closed until we develop our UAVs. What is the question, there is political will. We are studying the defense doctrine of Russia. . If we strike at the center of decision-making. In any case, it is still Washington.

    And otvetki will fly back in the form of militias with tridents only already in all decision-making centers in Russia and it will no longer be necessary to develop UAVs, who needs it Yes
    1. DWG1905
      DWG1905 6 February 2021 04: 11
      -2
      They will overfill the militias with tridents at a time (half will come to surrender themselves), the National Guard, including for this, was invented, their function is to protect the rear from saboteurs. Zapadentsev can be seen a mile away both by their face and dialect, while the rest are not fighters in Ukraine (in principle, fighters are not for the purpose). It seems that he sat down across Russia and went to take the Kremlin, naive. And about the need not, wait, the time will come not all at once, although I think we will do without nuclear weapons. You think we wiped it off and forgot.
      1. Avior
        Avior 6 February 2021 05: 33
        +5

        I'm afraid that the militiamen with tridents in question are unlikely to be overfished by the National Guard
        And otvetki will fly back in the form of militias with tridents only already in all decision-making centers in Russia
    2. Disant
      Disant 6 February 2021 18: 51
      0
      tralflot1832
      We study the defense doctrine of Russia. If we strike at the center of decision-making. In any case, this is Washington for now.

      .
      yustas4l (alex justas)
      And otvetki will fly back in the form of militias with tridents

      .
      yustas4l, but how do you think? wait for a couple of thousand axes to fly in our direction, it is not clear with what charges, to request them quickly (while everything is in the air) - what do you have there - ordinary ones? aaa, well then, it's clear, ordinary
      and answer with calibers at the launch sites?
  17. FrankyStein
    FrankyStein 6 February 2021 04: 57
    +2
    Healthy fool. Against this crap, only automated systems can fight effectively. Man is only a hindrance.
  18. high
    high 6 February 2021 21: 10
    +1
    Quote: Mister X
    hi
    In 2013, the author already wrote about Harop
    The article was titled "Unmanned Detective, or Was There Plagiarism?"
    In it, he mentioned the Russian UAV G-1
    It was allegedly developed by the Moscow firm "2T-Engineering" before Israel Aerospace Industry
    Since then, plagiarism is no longer heard.


    There was a refutation, so the topic became irrelevant ..
  19. Azimuth
    Azimuth 7 February 2021 14: 16
    +1
    In my humble opinion, the main advantage of the Harop UAV is autonomy, the absence of dependence on airfields. As well as the type and design of the launcher, which can be installed and disguised on any commercial truck of the corresponding payload. A division - a battery of such trucks constantly mixing in the border areas at the time of the emergence of threats, during their transition into a real attack, can, if not disrupt, then significantly slow down the advance of enemy forces by striking the systems and command and control centers, knocking out the military air defense systems , senior officers, etc. And all this provided that the enemy inflicted strikes on airfields and alternate runways, sections of motorways suitable for use as runways.

    A similar concept was implemented by the well-known buyer Harop, ex-Soviet Azerbaijan. Few people pay attention to the fact that Harop is in service with his border troops, and not the Defense Ministry, based to the north (we) and to the south (Iran).

    We constantly forget that, like any other neighboring countries, we are also viewed by our CIS neighbors as a likely threat. For example, it is enough to recall the purchase of the French anti-ship missiles Exocet by Kazakhstan, the latter clearly needs them not against the Iranian Navy.
    Therefore, I propose to think about and evaluate the issue of the effectiveness of such attack UAVs against our armed forces. For example, drawing an analogy with the entry and deployment of troops on 08.08.08. The special forces entered and acted before the start of the movement of the main grouping of troops, in such a situation, the Harop UAV complexes should also become one of its tasks, otherwise it is possible, in fact, to disrupt the crossing of the border.
    1. OgnennyiKotik
      OgnennyiKotik 7 February 2021 14: 40
      0
      Quite right. This is how the HERO-400 can be installed on a pickup truck. A couple of these machines and you have the capabilities of an attack helicopter.
  20. Kostadinov
    Kostadinov 19 March 2021 17: 17
    0
    The main opposition is to create such ammunition cheaper and more and destroy the Haropes on the launcher. This is not so difficult as Western technology is always very expensive.
    For interception of non-destruction on the ground, the Haropes are the best means of hunters on aircraft like the Korean War and active protection like tanks.
    Finally, no one canceled camouflage, suppression and field fortifications.