Military Review

"In the blue cold of bayonets ..."

100

"Patriotic Spaniards Attack French Bandits." With such drawings during the Napoleonic wars, publishers tried to raise the morale of the people. On the banner in the distance is the inscription: "Long live King Ferdinand!" In the battle, as you can see, everyone is involved. Foreground shows effective bayonet operation.


Turned the muzzle
In the blue cold of bayonets
And the star looked at us
From behind the smoky clouds.

(In intelligence. M. Svetlov)

History weapons. It was not expected in any way, although there were thoughts about this that it would be necessary to write so soon not only about firearms, but also about bayonets. I must say that materials about them have already appeared on VO. One not so long ago, but too short. And as many as four devoted to the interesting question of why the Russian "three-line" was fired at with a bayonet.

However, insultingly little was said about the bayonets themselves.

Although, of course, there is, say, a book about them published by Atlant Publishing House "Bayonets of the World" (AN Kulinsky, VV Voronov, DV Voronov). But here it is already different - there is a book, but the topic is painfully narrow, although there is no dispute - an interesting one. This means that it is necessary to write about the bayonets in sufficient detail, but in such a way that it does not burden anyone with this unnecessary knowledge. Well, and, again, give a good "visual range", so that there would also be something to see!

Well, after that - we proceed to presenting the "history of the bayonets."

The term “bayonet” itself, which was originally called “bayonet”, dates back to the second half of the XNUMXth century. Although it is unclear if the bayonets at the time were special knives that could be attached to the barrels of firearms, or if it was just a variation of them.

For example, in Cotgrave's Dictionary of 1611, the bayonet is described as

"A kind of small flat pocket dagger fitted with a scabbard, or a large knife that can be hung on a belt."

Likewise, Pierre Borel wrote in 1655 that

in Bayonne, a kind of long knife called "bayonet" was made,

but does not provide any further description of it.

"In the blue cold of bayonets ..."
Chinese treatise page

Interestingly, the first, so to speak, registered sample of the bayonet itself was found in the Chinese military treatise Binglu, published back in 1606. It was a musket, into the barrel of which a 57,6 cm blade was inserted, which ultimately gave a total length of 1,92 m.

In Chinese characters, this weapon was referred to as "blade gun" (Traditional Chinese: 銃 刀; Simplified Chinese: 铳 刀), and the bayonet was described as

"A short sword that can be inserted into the barrel and secured by turning it slightly",

and what to use it should

"When gunpowder and bullets run out in battle, as well as in a battle with bandits, in hand-to-hand combat or when they are ambushed",

and yet

if a warrior "cannot load a gun in the time required to traverse two bu (3,2 meters) of ground, then he must insert a blade into the barrel and hold the gun like a spear."

That is, here, too, we must give the Chinese the palm in the invention of the bayonet as a weapon of war.

But ... was it really so? We certainly don't know for sure.


English bayonet 1671-1699 Royal arsenal. Leeds

But we know for sure that the first bayonets in Europe were the so-called "plug bayonets" - bayonet bayonets inserted with handles into the barrel.

The first known mention of the use of such bayonets in European war we find in the memoirs of Jacques de Chastening, Viscount de Puisegur.

He wrote that the French used rough 30 cm bayonets during the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648). However, it was not until 1671 that General Jean Martinet armed a regiment of French fusiliers with "plug bayonets". They were also issued to the soldiers of the English Dragoon Regiment, formed in 1672, and the Royal Fusiliers Regiment in 1685.


English bayonet 1685-1688 Length 41,9 cm. Weight 238,1 g. Pay attention to his blade: "shine, water, snake" - subconscious "idols of the cave" that increase the fear of a person in front of a wavy blade. Metropolitan Museum. New York

The disadvantage of such a bayonet was obvious. Having inserted it into the barrel, it was no longer possible to shoot from the gun. The defeat of government forces at the Battle of Killikrank in 1689 was, by the way, associated (among other reasons) with the use of a bayonet bayonet.

Then the Highlanders Jacobites, supporters of the exiled king James VII of Scots (James II of England), took up positions opposite the government army on the hillside. They approached the soldiers at 50 meters, fired a volley, then threw their muskets and, using axes and swords, crushed the loyalist troops before they could mount their bayonets on them.

After that, their defeated commander Hugh McKay presented a version of the bayonet of his own invention. His blade was attached to a tube that was put on the barrel of the musket, and was at a certain distance from it, which made it possible to shoot and reload the musket, even with a bayonet attached to it.


Standard British bayonet 1687. Royal Arsenal. Leeds

Bayonets, and unsuccessfully, were also used in the Battle of Fleurus in 1690 in the presence of King Louis XIV, who refused to accept them into service with his army, as he noticed that they fell out of the barrels.

Soon after the Riswick Peace (1697), the British and Germans stopped using the pike, and introduced bayonet bayonets. A British bayonet of this type had a wide triangular blade with two cross hairs. But he did not have a lock to fix the bayonet handle in the barrel, and it was documented that such bayonets were often lost by soldiers in the heat of battle. Therefore, they were in service for a few years.

Already in 1700, bayonets with a split sleeve and an L-shaped groove appeared in England, which made it possible to firmly fix them on the barrel. Interestingly, the bushing itself was cut lengthwise so that it could be easily adjusted to the diameter of any barrel if necessary. The blade itself was still flat and rather wide, and even with a shell-shaped guard in the place where it was attached to the sleeve.

However, the use of new samples, which made it possible to both stab and shoot at the same time, still proceeded slowly. So, in 1703, the French infantry adopted a spring-loaded locking system for the handle, which prevented accidental separation of the bayonet from the musket. In particular, the device with a spring-loaded plate on the handle had a Swedish bayonet-bayonet model of 1692.

Only around 1715, a thrusting trihedral blade appeared on the continent on the curved neck of a bayonet retracted from the barrel, which immediately proved to be very effective.


English socket bayonet 1700–1799 Royal arsenal. Leeds

But in England in 1720 a triangular socketed bayonet was adopted to the Brown Bess musket, which served unchanged until 1840. The bayonet was carried in a hard leather sheath with brass details and was attached to the gun on command.


English blade bayonet with "shell" 1771-1799 Royal Arsenal, Leeds

For some time, all the efforts of the inventors were devoted to improving the design of the sleeve for attaching the bayonet to the barrel.

The first type - a slotted sleeve with an L-shaped slot has already been mentioned here.

It turned out that the slot weakens the sleeve, because of which it looses and does not provide a strong connection with the barrel. Therefore, a simplified bushing appeared, used with the Brown Bess muskets with one L-shaped slot.


"Smells of Gunpowder for the First Time" from Johnny Newcome's War Adventures, 1815 Thomas Rowlandson. The tactics of the British infantry during the Napoleonic wars are very clearly shown. Metropolitan Museum. New York

In 1696 in Sweden they came up with the idea of ​​fastening the bayonet with a clamping screw, but the need to cut screws and threads for them did not cause mass imitation.


Bayonets were even attached to pistols at that time. A pair of English flintlock pistols with bayonets 1782–1783 Birmingham. Flintlock pistols with brass barrels equipped with spring-loaded bayonets were common in England in the last quarter of the 38,3th century. Dimensions: length 22,7 cm; barrel length 0,64 cm; caliber 17 inches (2 mm); weight 5 lb 1048,9 oz (XNUMX g). Metropolitan Museum. New York

The British army in India, serving the interests of the East India Company, received bayonets with a leaf spring-latch that overlapped part of the L-shaped slot. Only by lifting it, it was possible to pass the pin on the barrel inside it, which made the bayonet completely unremovable. However, such a device took a little longer to put the bayonet on the barrel.


Union War, 1862 Bayonet Attack (from Harper's Weekly, Volume VII) 12 July 1862 Winslow Homer (Boston, Massachusetts, 1836–1910, Pruts Neck, Maine) woodcut. Metropolitan Museum. New York

In the summer of 1862, the Army of the Potomac attacked Richmond, Virginia, but was repulsed. This dramatic event was portrayed by Homer Winslow, an artist for Harper's Weekly, who described the fighting in Fair Oaks on May 31, when Union forces were rescued by last-minute reinforcements. We see the soldiers of the Southerners and the Northerners in hand-to-hand combat, taken to extremes.

The accompanying text emphasizes:

“Soldiers rarely cross bayonets with each other in battle. Before the attacking regiment reaches its enemy, the latter usually flees. All the strength and all the bravery of the world will not protect a person from being hit with a bayonet on the body if he stops while he approaches him ...

At Fireaxe, the rebels almost always broke and fled before our bayonets reached them. However, in one or two cases hand-to-hand fights took place "...

One of them is shown in our picture above.

In Denmark, in 1794, a locking plate (spring) with a square hole for a pin was proposed and then used for 50 years. It was possible to remove the bayonet with such a "lock" on the coupling only by lifting it by the special "wings".

For some reason, the Austrians made the groove on the clutch oblique and, following the French, introduced a rotary ring locking it on it. But in Hanover, a thickened rim was made on the bushing, and a spring in the form of a hook was fixed on the barrel itself. And now it was possible to remove the bayonet from the Hanoverian rifle only by bending it back. This invention was called the "Hanover latch".

In 1873, the Americans for their bayonet-shovel invented, firstly, a very large sleeve, which served as a "shovel" handle, and secondly, made it a composite of two halves. First, it was put on the front sight with a slot, and then the rear half of the sleeve turned and tightly locked the slot.


American Shovel Bayonet 1873 National U.S. Military History Site

Already during the Second World War, the British, on their No. 4 bayonet for the Enfield rifle, used the bushing fastening between the "ears" of the front sight guard. But such a bayonet could only be put on this rifle.

It is interesting that in England in 1840 a special bayonet for police also appeared, which differed from army bayonets only by the presence of a special spring latch near the bayonet neck itself. It was invented so that the bayonet could not be snatched from the scabbard by any outsider. After all, a policeman is not a soldier. He could well find himself in a crowd of prisoners or revolting citizens who might try to take possession of his weapon.

But the cunning latch did not leave them the slightest chance to arm themselves in this way for their malicious purposes.

To be continued ...
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100 comments
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  1. Crowe
    Crowe 22 January 2021 18: 17
    +15
    ... One not so long ago, but too short. However, about the bayonets themselves was said to hurtful little.
    Well, that's quite another matter! Thank you!
    1. kalibr
      22 January 2021 18: 21
      +21
      This is only the first material, it is assumed at least five.
      1. ANB
        ANB 22 January 2021 18: 35
        +6
        Cheers cheers. We are waiting for the continuation.
      2. Crowe
        Crowe 22 January 2021 18: 35
        +11
        The topic is really extensive (it would seem, well, a bayonet ... and what ... a small piece of iron and that's it, but no!) And interesting, and I have no doubt even that it will be presented in good faith and interestingly, and not "shut yourself off" like some, I will not point a finger at whom. This is what it means to have a different approach to work for different people. Thanks again, we are waiting for the continuation of the cycle!
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 22 January 2021 19: 00
          +10
          Gorgeous! Five materials to come !!! Better!
          Thank you Vyacheslav Olegovich, respectfully Vlad!
        2. vladcub
          vladcub 22 January 2021 20: 32
          +6
          "Like some people, I will not point a finger." I think I'm guessing who it is.
          "different approach to work for different people." Diligence cannot be taken away from V.O. To pick up just illustrations how long it takes.
      3. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 23 January 2021 00: 16
        +1
        Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich. Join the above words. Your colleague has taken the material too lightly and has only spoiled it with his condensed opus.
    2. Proxima
      Proxima 22 January 2021 18: 53
      +3
      The famous dictum of Suvorov: "A bullet is a fool, a bayonet is great!" In fact, the bullet is a symbol of trench warfare, and the bayonet symbolized mobile warfare, which the great commander loved very much.
      1. kalibr
        22 January 2021 19: 08
        +10
        Well, he said a lot. For example: "The lights reveal victory."
    3. Bar1
      Bar1 23 January 2021 08: 44
      -1
      -the bayonet is tyk, it is quite Russian.

      and the musket was first invented by the Muscovites, i.e. the Russians

  2. polpot
    polpot 22 January 2021 18: 26
    +11
    Great illustrations and text, thanks for your work.
  3. vladcub
    vladcub 22 January 2021 18: 43
    +4
    "But such a bayonet could only be put on this rifle" let's say, the bayonet from the "light" will not go to Simonov, and Mauser will not be put on Walter
  4. Cowbra
    Cowbra 22 January 2021 18: 46
    +9
    In-from. It was said correctly, there is a lot of curious things about bayonets
  5. hohol95
    hohol95 22 January 2021 18: 49
    +6
    There is no information at all about the bayonet sheath! I personally believed that the scabbard was not produced for the "Mosin" bayonets! And he turned out to be wrong.
    But this scabbard was in short supply!
    Here the Germans and Austro-Hungarians for the trophy "mosinki" these scabbards produced more than in the Republic of Ingushetia!
    1. kalibr
      22 January 2021 19: 03
      +11
      Alexey, where there are bayonets with scabbards in the photo, there are no problems. And if there is no scabbard in the photo? Where to get information? If the gun is as old as the "Egyptian pyramid"? It is not that simple...
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 22 January 2021 19: 28
        +4
        I don’t demand everything. According to domestic full "ales kaput". At least, something, at least, somewhere ...
        1. kalibr
          22 January 2021 19: 30
          +7
          Quote: hohol95
          I don’t demand everything. According to domestic full "ales kaput". At least, something, at least, somewhere ...

          Will be on domestic. At least good photos of rifles with bayonets. I have just received permission from the Hermitage to publish these photographs.
        2. kalibr
          22 January 2021 19: 31
          +5
          There is a publishing house ATLANT. They have a two-volume book on bayonets. EVERYTHING is there, and it seems that it is still on sale ...
      2. Cowbra
        Cowbra 22 January 2021 19: 51
        +5
        Well, the Mosin scabbard is not a trick to find:
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 22 January 2021 19: 56
          +3
          Is it domestic or Austro-German?
          1. Cowbra
            Cowbra 22 January 2021 19: 56
            +4
            I am not a historian, but they were sold as Russian, a photo from Avito. At all. the scabbard for Mosinsky is a fair amount of nonsense. The bayonet does not interfere with the vintar. and on the belt - how
            1. hohol95
              hohol95 22 January 2021 20: 18
              +4
              Why then Fedorov described that with prolonged wearing of the bayonet pushed to the rifle, he began to dangle and had to re-compress the bayonet sleeve.
              1. Cowbra
                Cowbra 22 January 2021 20: 36
                +1
                So what? He put it on a snag, pressed the needle with his foot - and knocked the butt off from above - all the trouble. But in general, KMK, this is only if you always wear a vintar in the "bayonet position" and always cling to everything. And so - he turned the needle towards him - and wear it to your health, he will not loosen from shaking, there is no roofing sheet at all
                1. hohol95
                  hohol95 22 January 2021 20: 54
                  +3
                  Did you serve in the PMV in the repair department?
                  1. Cowbra
                    Cowbra 22 January 2021 20: 55
                    +3
                    Yes, no one called me so gracefully old man laughing I just held a mosink with a bayonet in my hands repeatedly
                    1. hohol95
                      hohol95 22 January 2021 21: 16
                      +4
                      Hold and use in combat are two different things!
                      I myself am a non-combatant.
                      That's why I'm interested - suddenly a zombie apocalypse, and I can't tell a bayonet from a shovel!
                      1. kalibr
                        23 January 2021 11: 46
                        +3
                        Quote: hohol95
                        That's why I'm interested - suddenly a zombie apocalypse

                        Sign up for a hunting community, buy a 12-gauge double-barreled overshoot and be calm about everything. And the cartridges with wolf buckshot
    2. saygon66
      saygon66 22 January 2021 23: 49
      +5
      - They did exactly! Kuprin's "Junkers" describes the moment of transition from the sword bayonet mod. 1834 to the needle bayonet of the Berdan rifle No. 2.
  6. Undecim
    Undecim 22 January 2021 19: 01
    +15
    "Patriotic Spaniards Attack French Bandits." With such drawings during the Napoleonic wars, publishers tried to raise the morale of the people.
    This is not just a drawing. This is a caricature of the famous British cartoonist and printmaker James Gillray, in which he depicted the Battle of Baylen, where the French were defeated, and their position in Spain was very shaken as a result.
    1. kalibr
      22 January 2021 19: 07
      +11
      You don't have a price, Viktor Nikolaevich!
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 22 January 2021 20: 17
        +5
        Q. Oh, oh, how bad it is: they "pioneered" my thought. Now we will have to formulate differently: comments by VN "site decoration".
        For me good stuff is very good, but how much additional stuff in the comments!
  7. mr.ZinGer
    mr.ZinGer 22 January 2021 19: 22
    +3
    May day, name day of the heart ...
  8. Undecim
    Undecim 22 January 2021 19: 49
    +6
    For example, in Cotgrave's Dictionary of 1611, the bayonet is described as
    "A kind of small flat pocket dagger fitted with a scabbard, or a large knife that can be hung on a belt."

    Likewise, Pierre Borel wrote in 1655 that
    in Bayonne, a kind of long knife called "bayonet" was made,
    but does not provide any further description of it.

    And in 1678, the Frenchman Louis de Gaya of Tréville, captain of an infantry regiment in the army of Louis XIV, publishes the book Traité Des Armes des Machines de Guerre, Des Feux ďArtifice, Des Enseignes & des Instrumens Militaries Anciens & Modernes; avec la maniere dont on śen sert presentement dans les Armées, tant Francoises qúEtrangeres "(Treatise on Weapons and War Machines), in which we find a description and drawing from which we can find out what the first European bayonet looked like.

    “The length of the bayonet is approximately equal to the length of the dagger. It has no guard, only a wooden handle that is eight to nine inches long. The blade is sharp and sharp, one foot long and a good inch wide. The bayonet is very useful for dragoons, marksmen and soldiers ... when they shoot and they have no ammunition, they insert the handle into the muzzles of their guns and defend themselves just like with a spear. "
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 22 January 2021 21: 24
      +3
      The main thing is that the blade is sharp and rarer!
      And about modern bayonet knives - a stupid eel ...
      One foot length - approx. 30,5 cm.
      A good foot wide - thumb wide.
      Modern 2,54 cm.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 22 January 2021 21: 32
        +5
        Modern 2,54 cm.
        Or maybe the author measured in French inches?
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 22 January 2021 22: 03
          +1
          Perhaps the fingers of French men were thicker - 2,7 cm. But in our country the British inch is widespread.
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 22 January 2021 22: 10
            +7
            And French too. All printers use the Didot system, which is based on the French inch, to measure the printing point.
            1. hohol95
              hohol95 22 January 2021 22: 12
              +2
              There is no French inch in plumbing. I did not work in printing houses.
              1. Undecim
                Undecim 22 January 2021 22: 24
                +5
                I did not work in printing houses.
                You never know, suddenly it will be necessary, in life everything happens.
                1. hohol95
                  hohol95 22 January 2021 22: 29
                  +2
                  Alas. Not my profile. I can still retrain as a plumber, but not as a printing house worker. And in our town, printing houses are not particularly rich places. Not bread at all.
          2. Bormanxnumx
            Bormanxnumx 22 January 2021 23: 43
            +2
            Quote: hohol95
            Perhaps the fingers of French men were thicker - 2,7 cm. But in our country the British inch is widespread.

            By the way, our shoe sizeslaughing rooted in the French measurement system.
  9. Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 22 January 2021 19: 54
    +5
    I wish you all good health. Vyacheslav Olegovich, today I specially went to: "Armament": I was looking for you. You and Valery know how to tell about ANY story vividly.
    Even women can be interested, but we are finicky
    1. kalibr
      22 January 2021 20: 05
      +5
      Now I have 6 articles on moderation. There are 4 more in the archive. Tomorrow I will start writing a special material to please you!
      1. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 22 January 2021 20: 39
        +3
        Vyacheslav Olegovich, you are lovely.
        1. kalibr
          22 January 2021 21: 16
          +3
          Say it when the material is ready!
  10. Undecim
    Undecim 22 January 2021 20: 06
    +8
    Bayonets, and unsuccessfully, were also used in the Battle of Fleurus in 1690 in the presence of King Louis XIV, who refused to accept them into service with his army, as he noticed that they fell out of the barrels.
    Here the source, to put it mildly, confused something, since it was Louis XIV who introduced the bayonet into service with the army in 1671, which is documented by the official royal historiographer Fr. Gabriel Daniel.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 22 January 2021 20: 22
      +5
      In continuation of the previous commentary, Voltaire said that Louis XIV introduced the bayonet in France.
    2. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 25 January 2021 10: 42
      +1
      Here the source, to put it mildly, confused something, since it was Louis XIV who introduced the bayonet into service with the army in 1671

      At least the French infantry textbook of 1696 says that there were bayonets in their army.
      I am very pleased with the article. Moreover, remembering your cycle, Viktor Nikolaevich, about a bayonet for a three-ruler.
      One could also mention the combined pole arms - for example, in the Artillery Museum we have a protazan with pistol barrels, but Vyacheslav Olegovich, judging by the comment below, will publish an article about this. drinks
  11. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 22 January 2021 20: 08
    +7
    Of course ... the story of how the infantry got rid of the pikemen as a "class" with the help of bayonets and faceted bayonets is very interesting! But this did not happen right away! Something they tried to "figure out" even before the bayonets, trying, for example, to turn the mount for a musket, at the same time into a weapon! ! For example, in Russia, musketeer archers used a reed as a weapon and a stand!

    In Europe, the "Swedish pen" was used for the same purpose ...

    There were other "perversions" with a musket stand ... for example, "3 in 1 stand": 1. stand; 2. the beak; 3.sword (epee) ...

    You can add a spear-gun for the "total score"! ...

    And finally ... there were shotguns with an integral (!) Lance stand! (a stand with a pointed end "leaned" against the barrel, like a ramrod ... a ring was put on top, fastening the stand-pike to the barrel ... the pike was longer than the barrel ... Unfortunately, the book with the image of such a device remained in another city, and I can't show it now ...) So ... the "gun with a bayonet" existed even before the bayonet! And here is my "favorite" mount!
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 22 January 2021 20: 22
      +2
      Only at first it was required to throw the musket in order to use such stands.
      1. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 22 January 2021 20: 42
        +4
        Quote: hohol95
        Only at first it was required to throw the musket in order to use such stands

        Well, everything happened! Firstly, a spear gun and a gun with an integral lance stand did not have to be "thrown"! Secondly, it happened so ... a musket (arquebus) was "thrown" behind the back on a belt and took a berdysh (Swedish feather) ...
        By the way, I also read this version of the appearance of the bayonet ... not only knives were inserted into the barrel of a gun. but also the "wreckage" peak ...
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 22 January 2021 21: 11
          +3
          Show in the above pictures the belts on the musket and squeak?
          1. Nikolaevich I
            Nikolaevich I 22 January 2021 21: 36
            +3
            Quote: hohol95
            Show...

            Wow, how curious you are! I have neither affirmed nor affirmed. that all muskets (arquebusses) were supplied with so-called rifle belts ... but some of the weapons had belts!

            1. hohol95
              hohol95 22 January 2021 21: 52
              +2
              I was born like that. Tedious to the point of disgrace. hi
      2. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 22 January 2021 20: 54
        +3
        Alexey, if need forces you to do something else, it’s a matter of minutes to use the “pen”. He fired and dropped the musket, and with your right hand you grab the shaft of the "feather". An experienced soldier will do it all automatically
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 22 January 2021 21: 12
          +4
          The main thing is not to drop the musket on your foot!
          1. Astra wild2
            Astra wild2 22 January 2021 21: 48
            +4
            This will not be desirable. It seems that the first guns were up to 8 kg in weight.
            When I took the PM for the first time, it seemed to me weighty, but if its weight is multiplied 10 times and the length is 100 times?
            1. hohol95
              hohol95 22 January 2021 21: 55
              +4
              I dropped a piece of parquet board on my bare foot - did it land at an angle on my thumbnail? Nail in half, blood ... And in the morning I limped to the clinic. It was done with a broken nail.
              1. Nikolaevich I
                Nikolaevich I 22 January 2021 22: 06
                +4
                Quote: hohol95
                I dropped a piece of parquet board on my bare foot

                Well, you see how you managed to be born in time! And what if during the "musket time" they dropped an 8-kg musket on their feet? what Just don't ask me "proof of effect"! You can go to the sports store, and there are 8 kg kettlebells ...
                1. hohol95
                  hohol95 22 January 2021 22: 08
                  +2
                  I had 4 kg dumbbells ... And you, dear, did not drop anything on your feet?
                  1. Nikolaevich I
                    Nikolaevich I 22 January 2021 22: 35
                    +2
                    Quote: hohol95
                    I had 4 kg dumbbells ... And you, dear, did not drop anything on your feet?

                    "Wow, how curious you are-2"! I'd better not answer your question, because I suppose that this may cause the next "stream of questions" ... even indecent ones! request
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. vladcub
      vladcub 22 January 2021 21: 18
      +2
      Nikolayevich, how many "digging". I only knew the "feather"
      1. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 22 January 2021 21: 51
        +2
        Quote: vladcub
        how much "digging"

        Yes, it somehow happened by itself! By the way, in the 18th century, in my opinion, under Paul I, halberds were introduced for non-combatants ... so in some cases, halberds were used as supports for hand mortars (hand "grenade launchers" of that time ...)! Somewhere I saw such an illustration ...
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 22 January 2021 22: 10
          +2
          And in fact - these mortars were required to rest against the ground with the butt.
          1. Nikolaevich I
            Nikolaevich I 22 January 2021 22: 18
            +3
            Quote: hohol95
            in fact - these mortars had to be pressed against the ground with the butt

            The infantry hand mortar had a conventional rifle (musket, fusay) butt with a barrel length of no more than 10 cm and a caliber of 2 pounds (5 cm in diameter), fired from it from the shoulder, and the shooter had a special leather pillow to extinguish strong recoil. Supports were often used. Cavalry mortars had a long butt and a square cutout at the end of the butt, they had an infantry caliber, when firing they rested the butt against the saddle and thus fired. The Navy used heavy hand mortars with a caliber of 3 pounds and a barrel length of 6 calibers, they also had a cutout on the butt and rested against the deck of the ship before firing.
        2. kalibr
          23 January 2021 07: 42
          +2
          Quote: Nikolaevich I
          Somewhere I saw such an illustration ...

          This is in Viskovatovo. But she's wrong. You can't keep it that way. There is a return of half a ton!
    4. kalibr
      22 January 2021 21: 21
      +4
      And I like this one better:
      1. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 22 January 2021 21: 55
        +3
        But still this is "foolishness"! I appreciate strict lines in melee weapons! hi
        1. kalibr
          23 January 2021 07: 41
          +4
          Psychologists say - this one is more effective. Holds the gaze longer. Three subconscious threats, but usually only one. He hesitated for a split second ... Then you're done!
          1. Nikolaevich I
            Nikolaevich I 23 January 2021 08: 07
            +2
            Perhaps ... I do not argue ... just express my opinion! And what about psychologists? I wonder if they would claim ... would they even be able to "assert" when any blade from the illustrations on this page would "aim" at them ?! wink
            1. kalibr
              23 January 2021 08: 47
              +6
              I also do not argue with you, dear Vladimir, but simply report what I read. And psychologists are generally strange people. Everyone I knew ... a little ... of that!
              1. Nikolaevich I
                Nikolaevich I 23 January 2021 10: 24
                +2
                Quote: kalibr
                psychologists are generally strange people.

                Totally agree with you ! I once had a medical institution with a "psychiatric" bias on maintenance ... of course, I had to communicate with the doctors of this institution. My impressions turned out to be very similar ...: "strange people ... as if they themselves are a little" that "!" yes
              2. Konnick
                Konnick 23 January 2021 13: 47
                +3
                With whom you will lead, from that you will gain ... wassat
  12. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 22 January 2021 20: 09
    +4
    The bayonet is the last argument of the desperate.
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 22 January 2021 20: 23
      +5
      The last argument of the desperate is a herd of goats with burning horns driven at night to the enemy camp. Or geese instead of outposts.
  13. vladcub
    vladcub 22 January 2021 20: 11
    +3
    V.O., by analogy with the "bayonet pistol" I remembered: a hatchet on the barrel of a pistol. Once in the Hermitage I saw, it seems, the English 18 (?) Century
    1. cat Rusich
      cat Rusich 23 January 2021 00: 34
      +3
      Quote: vladcub
      "I remembered: a hatchet on the barrel of a pistol. Once in the Hermitage I saw, it seems, the English 18 (?) century
      ax pistol
      Ax pistol - with flint and wheel locks.
      ax pistol
      Ax Pistol Ax blade on the pistol grip.
      gun-ax
      A rifle-ax - into the forest for firewood ... you can also fight off a bear ...
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 23 January 2021 08: 15
        +1
        I don't remember with the blade on the handle. An ax gun for tourists or geologists is the most suitable suitable
      2. kalibr
        23 January 2021 08: 49
        +1
        There will be a dedicated article on combined weapons. There was already my material about the ring pistol, but for a long time ...
      3. bk0010
        bk0010 23 January 2021 19: 19
        0
        Damn it ... Have they attached a bayonet or an ax to the "Maxim" yet?
        1. cat Rusich
          cat Rusich 23 January 2021 19: 49
          +3
          Quote: bk0010
          Damn it ... Have they attached a bayonet or an ax to the "Maxim" yet?
          Type 99
          Type 96, 99 - Japanese machine gun with a bayonet, length 1181mm, weight 9,8kg. hi
          pp ultrasound
          Uzi with a bayonet.
          1. cat Rusich
            cat Rusich 23 January 2021 19: 52
            +2
            madsen 1920
            Madsen 1920 The Japanese made the Type 36 in 1936.
          2. bk0010
            bk0010 23 January 2021 20: 46
            +1
            "Brilliant"! Thank you
  14. Undecim
    Undecim 22 January 2021 20: 27
    +5
    English socket bayonet 1700–1799 Royal arsenal. Leeds
    Sorry, Vyacheslav Olegovich, but the bayonet is Spanish.
  15. Undecim
    Undecim 22 January 2021 20: 35
    +6
    Only around 1715, a thrusting trihedral blade appeared on the continent on the curved neck of a bayonet retracted from the barrel, which immediately proved to be very effective.
    Judging by the book Art de la Guerre mentioned in the article Jacques-François de Chastenet, marquis de Puységur, this happened ten years earlier. Just the only bayonet of the type mentioned above that is known today dates from 1715.
  16. Saxahorse
    Saxahorse 22 January 2021 21: 22
    +1
    Great stuff. Many thanks to the author!

    True, there are doubts that the bayonet should be considered a full-fledged bayonet. They meant a painfully big difference in tactics. The bayonet, like other funny stands from a reed to a musketeer fork, is an additional tool that requires additional time to use. The bayonet is a complete part of the weapon, ready for use, always and immediately.
  17. vladcub
    vladcub 22 January 2021 21: 24
    +3
    Quote: Nikolaevich I
    Quote: hohol95
    Only at first it was required to throw the musket in order to use such stands

    Well, everything happened! Firstly, a spear gun and a gun with an integral lance stand did not have to be "thrown"! Secondly, it happened so ... a musket (arquebus) was "thrown" behind the back on a belt and took a berdysh (Swedish feather) ...
    By the way, I also read this version of the appearance of the bayonet ... not only knives were inserted into the barrel of a gun. but also the "wreckage" peak ...

    They could well have done this. I even admit a version: first, fragments of a peak were stuck into the barrel of a gun, and then gunsmiths from Bayon thought of a knife. It is quite possible that it was so
    1. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I 22 January 2021 22: 29
      +2
      Quote: vladcub
      first, the fragments of the peak were stuck into the barrel of the gun, and then the gunsmiths from Bayon thought of a knife

      Your version has the right to be ... Perhaps the first cases were with the wreckage of the peak, and when some "farmers" who were attacked by robbers decided to fight them back, they knew this use of the peak, but in the absence of them, they decided to use knives! Still, a long hunting knife and a piece of a pike might have similar associations ... winked
  18. Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 22 January 2021 21: 37
    +4
    "a registered sample of the bayonet itself was found in a Chinese military treatise" in this case, China gave a lot for the army.
    What I know: 1) gunpowder, 2) the prototype of combat missiles, 3) the compass, but in the army we don't bypass the compass. Our "dad" demanded that every officer had a compass at all times. Now add a bayonet here
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 22 January 2021 21: 59
      +2
      Or the whistle is not working or the shark is deaf drinks
      1. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 23 January 2021 09: 03
        +3
        Aleksey, isn't gunpowder in China, but I watched about Chinese missiles on the channel: "365".
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 23 January 2021 13: 39
          +1
          In China. This is me about the whistle to what your "dad" demanded ...
  19. Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 23 January 2021 09: 18
    +3
    Quote: hohol95
    I dropped a piece of parquet board on my bare foot - did it land at an angle on my thumbnail? Nail in half, blood ... And in the morning I limped to the clinic. It was done with a broken nail.

    "Sandwich Law"?
    I didn’t understand the parquet board, but I did understand the hot frying pan, and you know the cast-iron pan?
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 23 January 2021 13: 41
      +2
      Eh ... The main thing is that I did not put the electric lift on my foot. And I would be one-legged now.
      1. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 23 January 2021 16: 42
        +2
        Ugh, ugh, what would it carry
      2. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 25 January 2021 14: 42
        +1
        And I would be one-legged now.

        ... and the nickname could be changed to "Long John Silver" ... what Well, that cost a nail, Alexey! drinks otherwise I would have to start a swearing parrot! request "Some were afraid of Pew .. others - Billy Bons .. And me - Flint himself was afraid!" bully
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 25 January 2021 19: 17
          +1
          Plagiarize! am
          The film "DMB"
          "If he tears off his leg - in the social security they will give a wooden one, a swearing parrot and a black mark."
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 26 January 2021 09: 57
            +1
            a swearing parrot and a black mark. "

            No, I don't remember this expression, but I remember about a swearing parrot from someone's words. laughing
  20. Konnick
    Konnick 23 January 2021 13: 49
    +2
    Quote: kalibr
    And I like this one better:

    A half-meter corkscrew would catch more tremors on enemies am
    1. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I 25 January 2021 14: 06
      +2
      Quote: Konnick
      A half-meter corkscrew would catch more tremors on enemies

      Well ... the corkscrews were actually ...