Military Review

Combat ships. Cruisers. More useful than many who fought

25
Today we are not starting with curses against the Washington Treaty; today we have Versailles as the culprits. In accordance with the articles of this treaty, Germany was deprived of its armed forces and defense industry. Naturally, at that time, the world's second Kaiser fleet, also ordered to live long.



In accordance with article 181 of the said Treaty, Germany was allowed to keep 6 battleships of the "Deutschland" or "Braunschweig" type, 6 light cruisers and 12 destroyers and destroyers each.

The allies in the Entente left the Reichsmarine, as the German navy is now called, as many as 8 cruisers. Six of them were light cruisers of the Gazelle class built in 1898-1903 (Niobe, Nymphe, Medusa, Thetis, Arcona and Amazone) and two cruisers of the Bremen class (Berlin "And" Hamburg "), laid down in 1903.


In general, these ships could be used as training ships and nothing more. All of them had a displacement of 2700-3700 tons, thanks to coal boilers, they developed a speed of no more than 20 knots and were armed with ten 105-mm guns. It is clear that the value of these ships was minimal.

The only advantage of these ships was their service life, which, if funds were available, made it possible to replace them with new ones in the near future.

And as soon as funds appeared, the Germans decided to build a new cruiser. And since the funds were not as much as they wanted, they did not particularly philosophize with the project, taking the most recent project of a light cruiser of the First World War. It was a Cologne-class light cruiser of the second series. And it was slightly modified in the light of the new products that appeared.

"Cologne" with a displacement of 5620 tons was equipped with two steam turbines with a total capacity of 31 hp, which accelerated it to 000 knots and was armed with eight 29-mm guns, three 150-mm anti-aircraft guns and four 88-mm single-tube torpedo tubes.

The new cruiser received a power plant with a capacity of 45 hp, the torpedo tubes were replaced with more modern twin-tube 000-mm, the main battery guns were decided to be installed in double-barreled towers according to a linearly elevated scheme, the number of tubes was reduced to two. As a result, the ship was laid in 533 tons of displacement.


It is clear that the laying of a single modern ship did not change anything at all and was an exclusively political act.

By the way, there were also problems with the construction site. The largest of the former state shipyards was in Danzig, which became a free city and was not part of Germany. The Admiralty in Kiel, renamed Deutsche Werke, was almost completely privatized after the partition, and could not function as a naval shipyard. So at the disposal of the Reichsmarine, only the shipyard in Wilhelmshaven remained, where the cruiser was laid down.


And then the trouble began. The ship was already under construction when the Washington and London treaties were concluded. Germany did not sign these documents, but who began to ask the Germans something there? They were simply confronted with the fact that the ship must comply with the terms of the contract, and that's it.

In general, the Germans measured everything in ordinary metric tons, and in the contracts there were British long (1,016 tons) tons. And the Germans were allowed to recount in new standards. So the displacement of the new cruiser dropped to 5280 tons, which made it possible to use the displacement reserve that fell from the sky in order to improve the ship.

But so that the Germans were not particularly happy, they were forbidden to install paired gun mounts. Say, then the new cruiser will be cooler than the Danai and Caledons of the British fleet, but this is not comme il faut. And in general, the Germans cannot use new weapons system.

So we had to abandon both the new installations and the new weapons.


The ceremonial launching of the new ship took place on January 7, 1925. The name of the ship was given by Jutta von Müller, the widow of Karl von Müller, the commander of the famous raider "Emden" built in 1908. Naturally, the new ship was named "Emden".

Combat ships. Cruisers. More useful than many who fought

The cruiser became the hundredth warship built at Wilhelmshaven for the German fleet.

The main power plant "Emden" consisted of 10 standard naval boilers - 4 coal and 6 oil. Plus 2 Swiss Brown Boveri turbines. As a result, the power of the power plant was 46 hp.

On trials, Emden produced 29,4 knots, which was pretty decent for that time. Estimated cruising range 6 miles at a speed of 750 knots. The fuel stock was 14 tons of coal and 875 tons of oil.


The Emden was the first German ship to have turbo-gear units in its power plant.

Since everything was sad in Germany with oil, it was decided not to abandon coal-fired boilers. They were replaced with oil ones much later, during one of the modernizations. In general, it turned out quite economically, the cruising range in comparison with the "Cologne" increased by half, but everything was rather cumbersome.

Reservation


The basis of the booking was a branded German armor belt 50 mm thick, which had a length of about 125 m and a height of 2,9 m, dropping 1,3 m below the constructive waterline. The armor belt covered more than 80% of the hull. Closed the armored belt of traverses 40 mm thick.

Armored deck. It was recruited from 20 mm armor plates, and above the artillery cellars, the number of plates doubled, getting a thickness of 40 mm.

The steering gear in the stern covered an armored box with a thickness of 20 mm.

Conning tower. Traditionally good for all German ships: 100 mm walls, 20 mm roof and floor. A 20-mm communication pipe ran from it to the central post located under the armored deck.

The projectile feed shafts were also 20 mm thick. And the last thing - the shields of the guns were from the same 20-mm armor plates.
In general, not many ships could boast of such booking. Everything was quite impressive for a light cruiser.

The number of the crew is 582 people, including 26 officers and 556 sailors.

Seaworthiness. Everything is not easy here. The Germans naturally praised their ship. The British were criticized mainly for the low, "creeping" silhouettes. However, if you look at the number of miles that Emden traveled during the service, it becomes clear that the ship was quite successful.

weaponry



Main caliber: eight 150 mm guns in single-gun turrets. The guns were located in the same way as on the cruisers of the Kaiser fleet. Two guns (No. 2 elevated above No. 1) in the bow, two in the stern (one on the poop, one on the aft superstructure), two guns on the sides near the bow superstructure are directed towards the bow and two guns near the second pipe are directed towards the stern ...

Thus, the maximum number of guns that could participate in a salvo is six.


Attempts to improve weapons by installing paired gun mounts were made until the beginning of the war, which, in fact, put an end to all plans. The most interesting modernization project in 1940 could be the installation of four twin-gun turrets, which were developed for the Narvik-class destroyers. And the anti-aircraft armament should be reinforced with one 88-mm gun and two 37-mm machine guns. And leave a couple of onboard guns for firing with lighting shells.

However, the outbreak of the war put an end to modernization and until its end, "Emden" served with single-gun installations.

Anti-aircraft armament consisted of three 88-mm Flak L / 45 anti-aircraft guns of the 1913 model.


The guns had a good rate of fire (up to 15 rounds per minute), an altitude reach of 9 m and a firing range of 150 m. The muzzle velocity was 14 m / s. The ammunition load consisted of 100 rounds.

Anti-aircraft guns were located on the superstructure behind the chimneys.

The mine-torpedo armament consisted of two twin-tube 500-mm torpedo tubes with 12 torpedo ammunition. In 1934, the devices were replaced by 533 mm.


The cruiser could take on board 120 min.

Modernization. In general, "Emden" became the most modernized ship of the Kriegsmarine in the entire short history... The upgrades ranged from purely cosmetic to substantial.

In 1933-1934 4 coal boilers were replaced with oil ones. At the same time, the 500-mm torpedo tubes were replaced with 533-mm ones.

In 1937, the anti-aircraft armament was reinforced with 6 20-mm machine guns and two 37-mm machine guns.

In 1940, two quadruple 20-mm assault rifles appeared in experimental installations - prototypes of the famous "firling". They were installed side by side on the superstructure deck in the mainmast area. At the same time, the MES demagnetizer was installed.

In 1941, when transferring to a training ship, all machine guns were removed from Emden, except for four single-barreled 20-mm. But the training ship did not need such protection.

At the end of 1942, all the main guns were replaced with new ones, and two 20-mm firling guns were installed again. FuMO 21 radar installed.

At the beginning of 1943, two more "firlings" and two 20-mm single-barreled assault rifles were installed.

In August 1944, instead of 88-mm guns, they installed three universal 105-mm guns, two 40-mm Bofors assault rifles, 20 20-mm assault rifles (2 x 4 and 6 x 2).

Service history



On October 15, 1925, the flag was solemnly raised on the Emden, and the cruiser entered service. After passing the tests, in 1926, the cruiser, having taken on board about a hundred cadets of the academy, set off on a round-the-world voyage.

On March 15, 1927, the ship arrived at the North Killing Island (Cocos Islands), to the place where the TOT "Emden" was sunk.

In 1928, the Emden made a second round the world voyage. And in total, the cruiser as a training ship made ten long voyages, of which 6 became around the world.


The start of the Second World War, the oldest of the German cruisers (by that time), met, oddly enough, very cheerfully. Simultaneously with the transfer of the ship from the jurisdiction of the Training Inspectorate to the Reconnaissance Forces, an order came to take on board mines and lay minefields.

On 3 September, Emden was hit by the Royal Air Force. 4 Blenheims bombed. The bombs went so-so, but one British plane, led by flying lieutenant Emden (irony of fate!) Was shot down and crashed into the side of the cruiser.

The damage was not very serious, and after a week of repairs, the cruiser continued its service.

The second military operation was the Weserubung, that is, the occupation of Norway. "Emden" acted in the same detachment with "Luttsov" and "Blucher". As a result, the Norwegians sank the Blucher, damaged the Lyuttsov, but the Emden, thanks to the skillful actions of its crew, did not receive any damage.


The landing force was landed, even if it failed to complete the task of capturing Oslo, the airborne assault coped with it.


After the capture of Oslo, the Emden was again transferred to training ships.

The next combat use is participation in the "Baltic Fleet" under the command of Vice Admiral Tsiliaks. The "Southern Group" consisting of the cruiser "Emden" and three destroyers (T-7, T-8 and T-11) supported the German forces seizing the island of Ezel.


"Emden" and "Leipzig" in the Baltic

"Emden" entered the fight against Soviet batteries of 180-mm (No. 315) and 130-mm (No. 25a) guns. The Soviet artillerymen drove away the destroyers farther from the sea with precise fire, and 4 G-5 torpedo boats were thrown at the Emden.

One boat (TKA-83) was destroyed by the fire of German ships, torpedoes passed by. Then there was a sea anecdote on the topic "Who will lie the coolest."

The Germans reported on the sinking of two boats, as the gunners of the Emden and Leipzig claimed to sink the TKA-83. The number of shells consumed by the German cruisers (Leipzig - 153, Emden - 178) per torpedo boat was an overkill.

But our boatmen calmly reported about the sinking of two destroyers and damage to the cruiser and destroyer!

True, the sunk and damaged ships continued shelling the Soviet positions the next day until the ammunition was completely used up. After that, "Emden" went to Gotenhafen and on this the war with the USSR ended for the cruiser.

Again at the "Emden" began service as a training ship, but at the end of 1942 it was again decided to involve the ship in combat operations (the Germans were actively losing ships), but the defeat of the Kriegsmarine in the "New Year's battle" abruptly changed all plans.

Although the Emden was not dismantled for metal (according to the original plan), the upgrades were canceled and the cruiser remained a training ship.


"Emden" and "Konigsberg" in the Baltic

Until September 1944, "Emden" was a training ship, but due to the deterioration of the situation, it was again transferred to the ships of the first line. The cruiser was again given responsibility for laying mines in the Skagerrak. "Emden" displayed over 300 minutes.

Further, the cruiser was transferred to the north, where he accompanied the convoys in the Oslofjord and provided air defense.

Then the cruiser again found herself in the Baltic, in Konigsberg. On repair. The repair, however, was not completed, because Soviet troops approached Konigsberg. With the vehicles in a semi-disassembled state, on one turbine, with dismantled weapons, the cruiser was able to leave for Gotenhafen (Gdynia), where the turbine was assembled, and the artillery was put back in place.

Many different cargoes were taken on board the Emden, including the coffins of the President of Weimar Germany, Field Marshal P. Hindenburg and his wife. In addition, about a thousand refugees boarded on board.


Guard at the coffins of Hindenburg and his wife

On February 1, 1945, the Emden crawled out of Konigsberg at a speed of 10 knots and made the transition to Kiel, at the Deutsche Werke shipyard, where it got up for repairs. However, the ship was not destined to return to service from repair.

On March 2, 1945, 4 bombs hit the Emden. The bombs were of small caliber, up to 100 kg, so the defense withstood, but a fire broke out. On April 3, a 227 kg bomb hit the ship, which pierced the deck and exploded in the boiler room, smashing everything there.

On the night of April 9-10, British heavy bombers dropped 2 tons of bombs on Kiel. "Admiral Scheer" rolled over and sank, "Admiral Hipper" turned into a heap of scrap metal. The Emden's stern was turned.

After inspection, the ship was taken to Heikendorf Bay, where it was run aground, after having laid explosive charges in the engine and boiler rooms. On May 3, 1945, the charges were put into action, putting the final point in the fate of the ship.

The remains of the ship were dismantled for metal after the war, in 1949-1950.


An interesting fate. The first large ship of new Germany lived significantly longer than those built after it. Yes, its construction proceeded in difficult conditions, the construction was watched by the victorious allies, who did not allow the ship to be built in accordance with modern capabilities.

Because "Emden" is not only outdated at the shipyard, it was already laid down out of date. And therefore the best role for him in the navy is the role of a training ship.

Nevertheless, the contribution of "Emden" to the development of the fleet was enormous. A new ship of this class is the confidence that the German shipbuilding industry is alive. They found the money, thus saving the personnel, both in design and production. Well, the number of sailors that Emden trained in its campaigns - it made it possible to staff other ships of the Kriegsmarine with trained personnel.

Of course, the ship was archaic by the start of World War II. It was not for nothing that it was called “the last German cruiser of the First World War”. Fair enough. Yes, the artillery was at that level.

But nevertheless, despite the fact that in 1927 the Emden was an outdated ship, its safety margin ensured long-term operation, which entailed a long service as a training ship.


You can criticize the Germans who rushed to build a ship without forming a naval doctrine, without analyzing the results of the First World War. But they had such a time. And the Emden has become a kind of symbol of the revival of the German navy.

And, by the way, against the background of the old troughs that served then, it looked quite decent. And having prepared so many officers for the Kriegsmarine, it is safe to say that the Emden fully worked out every pfennig spent on its construction.

And he became an interesting example when a ship in peacetime proved to be much more useful than in battle.
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  1. Comrade
    Comrade 10 January 2021 06: 23
    +15
    Of course, the ship was archaic by the start of World War II.
    Because "Emden" is not only outdated at the shipyard, it was already laid down out of date. And therefore the best role for him in the navy is the role of a training ship.

    The Americans disagree with the Japanese. Outdated does not mean not fit for combat.
    There are no less (if not more) of them archaic cruisers of the "Omaha" type, which entered service in 1923-1925.

    and of the "Nagara" type, which entered service in 1922-1925.

    fought with might and main in the second world war.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 10 January 2021 08: 16
      +17
      Well, our light cruisers from the backlog of the Svetlana series (Krasny Kavkaz, Krasny Krym and Chervona Ukraine) were quite archaic.


      However, the displacement decides a lot, so four 180mm guns were installed in the Red Caucasus.
      1. Macsen_wledig
        Macsen_wledig 10 January 2021 15: 23
        +2
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        However, the displacement decides a lot, so four 180mm guns were installed in the Red Caucasus.

        To do this, the ship had to be cut a little less than completely ...
    2. unknown
      unknown 10 January 2021 08: 30
      +12
      I would add here the British with their light cruisers of types "C", "D" and "E".
      The Dutch, with their Java-class light cruisers.
      USSR, with light cruisers like "Svetlana".
      In that war, everything fought that could float and fire.
      And only the Germans, the most seaworthy of their light cruisers, were used as training cruisers.
      However, they have always been strange.
      For example, their armored cruisers of the "Friedrich Karl" type, due to their weak armament (4 * 210mm, 10 * 150mm) and a speed of 20 knots, they immediately after their commissioning (12.12.1903 and 12.1.1904 g) enrolled in the training.
      And the Japanese, on their "underdogs" (armored cruisers of the "Asama" and "Garibaldi" types), with similar weapons, and a real long speed of 15 to 17 knots, fought.
      1. Rurikovich
        Rurikovich 10 January 2021 09: 53
        +11
        Drawing a line on a number of comments, we can state the truth of the saying that "it is not ships, but people who are fighting." Therefore, if used correctly, even outdated hardware can fight and win .. repeat
        A trained crew, an intelligent captain and, most importantly, that the assigned tasks correspond to the capabilities of the ship.
    3. Civil
      Civil 10 January 2021 14: 44
      +3
      Order always beats class.
    4. antivirus
      antivirus 10 January 2021 18: 27
      0
      And he became an interesting example when a ship in peacetime proved to be much more useful than in battle.

      When will the aircraft carrier "MSGorbachev-Man and the President of the USSR" be laid down and put into operation?
      that would be a matter of reviving the fleet!
      for now it's all about ropes instead of ropes ...
  2. Takashi
    Takashi 10 January 2021 09: 02
    +1
    and I confused him with another Emden at first. I read, I read, and I think when his Australian will meet. Heavy thoughts after NG.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 10 January 2021 09: 29
      +5
      Quote: Takashi
      and I confused him with another Emden at first. I read, I read, and I think when his Australian will meet. Heavy thoughts after NG.

      Wasn't Sydney there by chance?
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 10 January 2021 15: 56
        +3
        He is. Hello, Vlad. hi
  3. Potter
    Potter 10 January 2021 09: 55
    +3
    Still, Svetlana is a different story. Bookmark 1913 Svetlana's readiness in 1917 was about 85%, almost completely the hull and machines with boilers. Emden was laid down in another era, could have been a more modern ship, if not for the restrictions. Just Roman focuses on this.
    1. Macsen_wledig
      Macsen_wledig 10 January 2021 15: 31
      +1
      Quote: Potter
      Emden was laid down in a different era, could have been a more modern ship, if not for the restrictions.

      If it weren't for Versailles, there would be Washington: we would see the I / 10 project, which was essentially a "hipper", but on the element base of the 20s.
    2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 10 January 2021 16: 17
      +2
      Quote: Potter
      And since the funds were not as much as they wanted, they did not particularly philosophize with the project, taking the freshest project of a light cruiser of the First World War. It was a Cologne-class light cruiser of the second series.

      No, you're wrong!
      From the text of the article
      And since the funds were not as much as they wanted, they did not particularly philosophize with the project, taking the freshest project of a light cruiser of the First World War. It was a Cologne-class light cruiser of the second series.

      In fact, the same age as Svetlana's project.
      The readiness of Svetlan also varied from 50 to 85 percent. We decided to experiment only with the "Caucasus".
  4. Thrifty
    Thrifty 10 January 2021 10: 05
    +4
    It reminds us of jumping from side to side of our creators of the modern Russian fleet, when there is money, desire, opportunities, at least some. But, at the exit we get the ship of yesterday, because a lot of what we have done in a foreign country, or in a piece!
  5. Undecim
    Undecim 10 January 2021 11: 07
    +10
    cruisers of the Bremen class (Berlin and Hamburg), laid down in 1903.
    Laid down in 1902, in 1903 - launched.
    thanks to coal boilers, they developed a speed of no more than 20 knots
    Coal boilers have nothing to do with it. It's about the engine - the steam engine.
  6. bubalik
    bubalik 10 January 2021 12: 29
    +4
    But our boatmen calmly reported about the sinking of two destroyers and damage to the cruiser and destroyer!
    ,,, and someone even received the GSS for it.
  7. Biodred
    Biodred 10 January 2021 14: 24
    +3
    "thanks to coal boilers, the speed of no more than 20 knots was developed" - not a very good statement. It's not about boilers, but about triple expansion steam engines.
  8. Constanty
    Constanty 10 January 2021 14: 28
    +4
    Description of photos from the chapter "Service history"
    1.) Emden in the port of Yokohama 1931,
    2) Emden, Honolulu, 8 February 1936
    3) Emden in Lisbon May 1935
    1. Constanty
      Constanty 10 January 2021 14: 41
      +3
      fix - 1.) Emden in Yokohama port on May 6, 1931,
  9. Macsen_wledig
    Macsen_wledig 10 January 2021 15: 21
    +6
    And then the trouble began. The ship was already under construction when the Washington and London treaties were concluded. Germany did not sign these documents, but who began to ask the Germans something there? They were simply confronted with the fact that the ship must comply with the terms of the contract, and that's it.

    In fact, everything was not so ... from the word at all.
    Ersatz Niobe was already on the slipway when the Washington Conference took place, which gave rise to a number of restrictions on military shipbuilding and requirements for new ships. Among them, in particular, the concept of "standard displacement" was introduced, which meant the displacement of a ship suitable for navigation and fully equipped with all supplies, including ammunition and provisions, but excluding fuel and boiler water. This differed significantly from the method of calculating the so-called “constructive” displacement, which included 40% of all reserves, adopted in German shipbuilding. In addition, the Germans used metric tons, while the Washington Treaty prescribed the use of "English" or "long" tons of 1016 kg to determine the standard displacement.
    Although Germany was not one of the countries that signed the treaty, the Allied Control Commission (NIACC) - the body for monitoring the observance of the Versailles restrictions by the Germans - allowed them to interpret the standard displacement of their ships as the maximum permissible displacement of their ships, defined, as it should be, in "long" tons ... As a result, the declared displacement of the cruiser under construction "sank" even more - to 5280 tons, which was only 88% of the permitted. The project was refined to use the saved stock. It was proposed to place artillery of the main caliber in four paired semi-enclosed installations with light armor in pairs in the bow and stern (which made it possible to have all eight guns in an onboard salvo, and not six, as in the approved project), install two more two-tube torpedo tubes, transfer the boilers to oil heating and replace direct drive turbines with more economical turbo gear units. The Allied Control Commission did not object to changes in the power plant, but strongly opposed the strengthening of weapons. Thus, "Erzats" Niobe "retained the archaic side artillery placement, limiting the number of barrels in the side salvo.


    So we had to abandon both the new installations and the new weapons.

    Taking into account the fact that as of the 23rd year there were no installations even on paper, and no one was involved in the development of new weapons at all, the author is somewhat disingenuous.


    Armored deck. It was recruited from 20 mm armor plates, and above the artillery cellars, the number of plates doubled, getting a thickness of 40 mm.

    For some reason, the author kept silent about the bevels, but this is in the order of things.

    Main caliber: eight 150 mm guns in single-gun turrets.

    I would like to know from the author, since when did the MPL C / 16 installation on the center pin become a turret? :)

    but the Emden, thanks to the skillful actions of its crew, did not receive any damage.

    In order to put everything in its place, it should be noted that the "skillful actions of the crew" are a turn to the opposite course at 0535 and a departure to the south to Soon, where the cruiser defended until the evening of April 9 ...

    You could still dig, but if the autol is lazy, then why can't I? :)
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 11 January 2021 11: 32
      0
      Quote: Macsen_Wledig
      I would like to know from the author, since when did the MPL C / 16 installation on the center pin become a turret? :)

      Probably since the 3.7 cm / 83 SK C / 30 became an assault rifle. smile
      In 1937, the anti-aircraft armament was reinforced with 6 20-mm machine guns and two machine guns 37 mm.
  10. dgonni
    dgonni 10 January 2021 16: 06
    -2
    Respect! Skomorokhov is growing right before our eyes!
    1. Mooh
      Mooh 10 January 2021 21: 19
      +1
      Why minus that? Really quite a decent article. The novel almost didn’t misinterpret anything, didn’t suck conclusions sensational for historical science, there are almost no typos. It happened in his practice much worse. If you can better, so write, check it out.
      1. Macsen_wledig
        Macsen_wledig 10 January 2021 22: 02
        +3
        Quote: MooH
        did not suck from a finger the conclusions sensational for historical science,

        How is it not sensational?
        And the fact that Germany forced in 1922-23 to fulfill the conditions not only of the Washington, but also of the London treaties on the limitation of naval arms?
        This is a sensation of sensations ...
        1. Mooh
          Mooh 11 January 2021 17: 45
          +1
          I re-read this passage, as it is there absolutely everything is written delusionally. They also reduced the displacement, from which there was a supply of it, and the gun mounts were banned so that the Germans would not rejoice. Apparently from a decrease in displacement. I have to agree, the unique style of the distinguished author is evident. But, already less :) at the first reading, the article went perfectly.