Military Review

What is known about the Burevestnik anti-satellite complex?

71

Experienced MiG-31 with the layout of the rocket "293", 2018 Photo Vpk.name


According to various sources, now in our country a number of promising complexes are being developed and tested to combat enemy spacecraft. Interceptor missiles, spacecraft and combat lasers are offered. One such development is aviation rocket complex "Burevestnik". There is no official information about him yet, but the available unofficial data are of great interest.

Privacy mode


About 10 years ago, the Russian Air Force command announced the resumption of work on the anti-satellite complex based on the MiG-31 interceptor aircraft. However, no details were provided. In the future, as far as is known, some work was carried out, but official reports did not appear. Probably, such a secrecy regime is associated with the special priority of projects.

In 2018, a MiG-31 fighter in the configuration of a flying laboratory with an unknown rocket under the fuselage was first seen at the Ramenskoye airfield. Quite quickly, this product was associated with the project of an anti-satellite complex with the code "Burevestnik" and the index 14K168. Later it became known about the involvement of the second car in the tests. At the same time, the details of the work were not reported again.

It is curious that the bulk of the information and versions about the Burevestnik project and other works in this direction comes from foreign sources. Specialists and intelligence are studying the few available reports, information on contracts and procurement of defense industry organizations, etc. This kind of "open source intelligence" is yielding results. In foreign publications there are quite complete publications on the topic of "Petrel" and other Russian systems.

It is not entirely clear to what extent this information corresponds to the real state of affairs. At the same time, it shows what results Russian science and technology have achieved - and how our country has become world leaders in a promising direction.

According to open data ...


It is reported that the first contracts for work on the "Petrel" theme appeared in 2008. Subsequently, new orders appeared for the creation of individual components of the complex and other work. In addition, various enterprises and organizations were involved in it throughout the program.

The first contract in 2008 was signed between the Ministry of Defense and the Research Institute of Precision Instruments (part of the Russian Space Systems). Later, the Central Research Institute of Chemistry and Mechanics named after V.I. Mendeleev, Kolomna Machine Building Design Bureau, RSK MiG and other enterprises.


The rocket and the means of suspension close-up. Photo Jetphotos.com

To implement all the plans, it was necessary to develop a lot of new components and assemblies. There is information about the creation and testing of new rocket engines, modern control equipment, etc. In addition, it was necessary to create a spacecraft of an unusual appearance with special capabilities. Apparently, the Burevestnik program is quite capable of entering the list of the most complex projects of our time.

Apparently, in the first half of the tenth years, the general appearance of the complex was formed, after which the development of its individual components began. In 2018, MiG-31 flights began in the configuration of a flying laboratory with a mock interceptor missile under the fuselage. According to the assumptions of foreign sources, full flight tests of the rocket may begin as early as 2021.

Estimated appearance


The Burevestnik anti-satellite complex includes several products for different purposes. The exact architecture of the complex and its characteristics remain unknown, but the most daring assessments take place. In particular, they talk about the fundamental possibility of creating an ammunition capable of hitting satellites not only in low, but also in geostationary orbits.

The largest and most visible component of the system is the MiG-31 carrier aircraft. He must have new electronics to interact with the headquarters and control the new weapons... In addition, it is reported about the development of an original suspension device for transporting large and heavy missiles.

The missile of the complex is known under the designations "product 293" and 14A045. This product is at least 9 m long. It is assumed to use a two-stage scheme, which allows delivering a payload into an orbit with an altitude of at least 450-500 km. The rocket has a control system that provides launch from different regions with the subsequent output of the load to the required trajectory.

An interesting feature of the Burevestnik project may be its combat load. To intercept enemy spacecraft, not a traditional warhead is used, but a special maneuvering satellite of a small size. This product, called "Burevestnik-M" or "Burevestnik-KA-M", using the 14A045 rocket should maneuver between orbits, approach the target and hit it. The principle of defeat is unknown: foreign sources mention the possibility of kinetic interception or the presence of a high-explosive or nuclear warhead.

The flight performance and combat characteristics of the MiG-31 are well known and hardly change fundamentally when a large and heavy rocket "293" is suspended. At the same time, different foreign publications contain different assessments of the characteristics of the rocket itself, the interceptor satellite and the complex as a whole. The possibility of using the satellite against targets in different orbits, up to geostationary ones, is assumed. An interceptor can remain in space for a long time, and the interception range is virtually unlimited and is determined only by its maneuverability.

Prospects for Directions


Foreign "intelligence" about a promising Russian project looks very interesting and even becomes a reason for pride in our science and technology. From open sources, it becomes known about the availability of advanced technologies and developments that can ensure the solution of specific combat missions in a modern conflict.


The second prototype aircraft with a sheathed missile, 2019 Shot from the report of the First Channel

The Burevestnik project deals with an anti-space system with aviation, missile and satellite components. Developments of this kind were previously absent in world practice. At the same time, the Russian industry already has all the necessary technologies and developments to create a full-fledged combat complex.

The carrier in the form of a modified MiG-31 interceptor has been tested for more than two years. The start of testing of the experimental missiles "293" is expected. It is not known whether the Burevestnik-M satellite is ready. However, according to known data, there are technologies for creating such a product. Over the past few years, foreign media have regularly reported on the strange maneuvers of Russian satellites and the rapprochement with foreign spacecraft. Such maneuvers can be used not only for inspection, but also during a real attack.

The timing of the deployment of the "Burevestnik" complex on combat duty is unknown. At the same time, Russian officials remain silent, and various forecasts appear in foreign publications, incl. very bold. So, the beginning of flight tests of the complex with a full-fledged rocket 14A045 is attributed to the next year. At the same time, some publications suggest adoption for service as early as 2022.

As part of the system


The modern army needs a developed space grouping, including vehicles for various purposes. In this regard, to combat a developed enemy, anti-space defense means are required, capable of striking reconnaissance and communications satellites. The Russian command takes these aspects of the hypothetical war into account and takes action. So far, we are talking only about development work, but over the next few years, the first samples of the new class will take up combat duty.

It is important that several projects are under development at once. In parallel with the Burevestnik, other systems with different characteristics are being created. In particular, the Russian project of the Nudol anti-missile system, which is believed to be able to fight not only ballistic, but also orbital targets, is very “popular” in the foreign press. The well-known fears are caused by Russian satellites-inspectors capable of maneuvering and observing alien space technology.

Thus, with an eye to the distant future, a layered anti-space defense system with high performance and wide capabilities is being created in our country. It is quite possible that it will become a new means of non-nuclear deterrence: the risk of losing satellites and part of the army's combat capabilities will force the enemy to abandon aggressive intentions. However, new models of weapons are not yet ready for transfer to the army, and they are trying to keep the work on them secret.
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  1. Pavel57
    Pavel57 29 December 2020 18: 10
    +16
    The Burevestnik project deals with an anti-space system with aviation, missile and satellite components. Developments of this kind were previously absent in world practice.

    There were such developments in the USA and the USSR. The States even carried out launches from the F-15.
    1. Evil Booth
      Evil Booth 29 December 2020 18: 28
      -17%
      in the usa, they made a strategic missile defense based on the withdrawal of missile defense missiles already on a standard f16, this is to the question of whether the 31st can drag something so that it reaches space and deep .. how, again, the dagger c31go overclocked to Mach 2+ flies like that a couple of thousand km and here for the atmosphere, where it is even easier for him and the warhead is not half a ton ...
      1. Temples
        Temples 29 December 2020 19: 23
        0
        There is a similar project in the works in the USA.
        The first launch is planned at 21.

        Drone Ravn X
      2. Vladimir_2U
        Vladimir_2U 30 December 2020 04: 41
        +4
        Quote: Evil Booth
        Missile defense already on standard f16

        Garbage, on the F-15 something like ASAT did and calmed down, and the rest is debatable!
        1. izGOI
          izGOI 30 December 2020 15: 04
          +3
          Only here about ASAT "Foreign Military Review" wrote already in the first half of the 80s of the last century. A LOT of water has flowed under the bridge since then.
    2. Bormanxnumx
      Bormanxnumx 29 December 2020 18: 31
      +5
      ASM 135 ASAT
      1. Machito
        Machito 29 December 2020 21: 48
        +3
        Between the clouds and the sea
        The Petrel is flying menacingly .... (C)
    3. Andre___86
      Andre___86 29 December 2020 22: 06
      -8
      There were, moreover, for the moment31 and was developed. If so on, the next moment 31 will be overgrown with tasks, we will get a full zilch. There are few planes, and their resource is not eternal ... No need for a moment. 41 is still not completely finished (engine).
    4. Pravodel
      Pravodel 30 December 2020 14: 39
      0
      The Burevestnik project deals with an anti-space system with aviation, missile and satellite components. Developments of this kind were previously absent in world practice.

      Nice car. An excellent answer to adversaries and our various bosom friends.
      But one thing is not clear. Tests of the MiG-31 with the Burevestnik missile are carried out on the territory of Russia, where the spies of the adversaries certainly do not fly, then where are so many pictures and information about the tests come from ?! Shpienov, you see, divorced in Russia. We urgently need to cleanse the Motherland of them ...
    5. akarfoxhound
      akarfoxhound 2 January 2021 19: 23
      +3
      And the states did, and we did in an alliance on the basis of the same MiG-31 with an anti-satellite missile. And they let her in, and the board even before the 2000s in Vladimirovka (Akhtuba) was covered, with Gorbat, before the collapse of the alliance, everything stopped, he signed an agreement, the Americans stopped using the F-15, we MiGar. It was called in our abbreviation MiG-31A, why A - no idea.
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  3. svp67
    svp67 29 December 2020 18: 30
    +8
    This is the real work for the MiG-31, so for the "Daggers" we urgently need to look for other carriers, the same Tu-22M3 or Su-34
  4. grandfather_Kostya
    grandfather_Kostya 29 December 2020 18: 46
    -3
    The principle of defeat is unknown: foreign sources mention the possibility of kinetic interception or the presence of a high-explosive or nuclear warhead.

    This is overkill, it is enough to pierce the satellite's hull with a small bullet with a dry incendiary mixture. The entire satellite will turn into space debris.
    1. Klingon
      Klingon 30 December 2020 02: 01
      +1
      it is enough to knock the satellite out of orbit and that's all "ara, come on bye" wassat because it does not have enough fuel for correction. what warhead is not needed
      1. grandfather_Kostya
        grandfather_Kostya 27 February 2021 11: 00
        +1
        It happened to the Americans: the third stage did not launch the satellite into the calculated orbit. The satellite owners, after scratching their turnips, brought their geostationary to a designated point on the internal fuel reserves with a correcting engine (slowly). The result is that a satellite weighing more than 4 tons (of which more than a ton of fuel) has been working in orbit for 8 years instead of 15.
      2. Maikcg
        Maikcg 22 March 2021 13: 33
        0
        The interceptor should be made in the form of a slingshot, because it also needs kerosene to "push" it, and there is also a difference in weight, the same keyhol-11 weighs something of the order of 13 tons, so you will push it. Putting a grenade with a manipulator under, ahem, nozzles, somehow looks easier.
    2. Passing
      Passing 27 February 2021 09: 22
      0
      Modern satellite electronics do not need thermal stabilization, so modern satellites are not hermetically sealed, electronics work in a vacuum, so such a bullet will be no more dangerous than any other fragment - it will either hit an important node or not.
  5. bk316
    bk316 29 December 2020 18: 55
    +8
    The designer did make a wonderful plane. Decades go by and he is not just on alert, but solves all new tasks. It turns out that being "ahead of time" can be very good.
  6. bar
    bar 29 December 2020 19: 01
    -4
    In particular, they talk about the fundamental possibility of creating an ammunition capable of hitting satellites not only in low, but also in geostationary orbits.

    So that a rocket of the dimensions shown in the picture, even when launched at a high altitude and with a supersonic initial speed, would bring at least 30.000 grams of payload to an altitude of 50 km ??? Well, don't tell me. lol
    1. Cosm22
      Cosm22 29 December 2020 20: 20
      -4
      Even that is not funny. Not mentioning the GSO.
      The whole pathos of the article is ridiculous.
      What are going to shoot down the MiG-31? Let's say, on LEO?
      Bourgeois satellites? Can anyone imagine their number? And he knows how many of these same MiGs will be needed in order to designate even the slightest threat to these satellites?
      It is clear that at the time of the development of this concept, no one had even heard of any Mask. But now times are different.
      Now you can easily find out from the media that SpaceX has already received a contract with the US Department of Defense for the creation of missile attack warning satellites. Those. Musk has already launched a Starlink-based networked system of extremely low-cost, small, conveyor mass-produced vehicles. Plus, Musk has an almost unlimited potential of reusable launch vehicles, which are also on stream, under this whole horde of satellites. There is no doubt that Musk will in record time put on LEO many such satellites, in number well over a thousand. How to bring down this whole swarm? MiGami? Or the S-500? Does anyone have any idea how many will be needed?
      But in order to neutralize such a network, it must be destroyed entirely. For each satellite can be equipped with infrared sensors that detect the launch of an enemy carrier, make the satellite itself completely autonomous, capable of individual communication and communication.
      Moreover, how to distinguish such satellites from also far from one thousand Starlink satellites, which will soon also be released to LEO?
      Shooting a cannon at sparrows is nonsense.
      1. Cool but not Igor
        Cool but not Igor 29 December 2020 22: 07
        +7
        I think that the swarm is not capable of something serious, but really important satellites over a certain area can be shot down!
        1. Virus-free crown
          Virus-free crown 29 December 2020 23: 12
          -7
          Quote: Cool but not Igor
          I think that the swarm is not capable of something serious, and really important satellites over a certain area can be shot down!

          Explore matcha pliz, drinks before you write such nonsense and heresy !!! laughing
          1. Cool but not Igor
            Cool but not Igor 29 December 2020 23: 36
            +9
            Are heavy satellites flying with serious heavy equipment that consume a lot, have serious characteristics, is all this powered by large solar panels and will be replaced by light satellites? It seems to me that this is the same as saying that the UAV flies, carries bombs, it means it will replace a full-fledged aircraft. Where am I wrong in my reasoning?
            1. Virus-free crown
              Virus-free crown 29 December 2020 23: 45
              -13%
              Quote: Cool but not Igor
              Are heavy satellites flying with serious heavy equipment that consume a lot, have serious characteristics, is all this powered by large solar panels and will be replaced by light satellites? It seems to me that this is the same as saying that the UAV flies, carries bombs, it means it will replace a full-fledged aircraft. Where am I wrong in my reasoning?

              well, if you don’t know - google with yandex will help you - fig already knows how long ago there are programs that any private investor (if you have money) can launch your nano or microsatellite with any filling, even schoolchildren have already put their satellites into space) ))

              Well, what will such a satellite do there is another question ... and try to shoot down such satellites ... "you will get tired of swallowing dust" (c) from the times of the USSR)))))))))

              an example about an uav and an airplane is not correct))) using the technologies of a model constructor from the mid-80s of the last century and with modern control (and not what we did with transistors kt315 and mp40) - yes, for the cost of one plane, I think so in the equivalent price of today's thousands, so this is 100-200 (and maybe 300) - and if each of them drops only one f-1 - the area of ​​10 by 10 km will be completely covered))))))))))) ))))))) to the state of "scorched desert"
              1. Cool but not Igor
                Cool but not Igor 30 December 2020 04: 19
                +7
                Okay, with the technology of the 80s .. well, you have a satellite with the dimensions and weight of a camera with a good lens. Well, is it possible to build in such a size so serious equipment that you could see something in the infrared, optical, electromagnetic and other ranges from a minimum LEO height of 193 km? Well, let any strategist fly at an altitude of 20 km, but still 170 km is not too much? Maybe I'm wrong, but it seems to me that these satellites have very weak characteristics due to their small size for serious reconnaissance functions.
                1. Virus-free crown
                  Virus-free crown 30 December 2020 04: 31
                  -6
                  Quote: Cool but not Igor
                  Okay, with the technology of the 80s .. well, you have a satellite with the dimensions and weight of a camera with a good lens. Well, is it possible to build in such a size so serious equipment that you could see something in the infrared, optical, electromagnetic and other ranges from a minimum LEO height of 193 km? Well, let any strategist fly at an altitude of 20 km, but still 170 km is not too much? Maybe I'm wrong, but it seems to me that these satellites have very weak characteristics due to their small size for serious reconnaissance functions.

                  You know about the structure of vision of the common fly? what is faceted vision? wink know that the common fly has a 360-degree view of its vision? )))

                  so vooot ... these nano and micro satellites - consider the eyes of our "fly" smile
                  1. Cool but not Igor
                    Cool but not Igor 30 December 2020 08: 09
                    +6
                    Let's move on to real instruments. The tanks are equipped with different image intensifiers for what range? At night, no more than 2 km .. They brought me a foreign infrared device to work, it costs something $ 30 thousand so it doesn't even feel for 1 km, but weighs 3 kg! Of course, there are other devices, but not at 190 km they receive a signal
                    1. Sanichsan
                      Sanichsan 5 January 2021 02: 28
                      -1
                      Quote: Cool but not Igor
                      Of course, there are other devices, but not at 190 km they receive a signal

                      Well, over there, the aviators claim that their optical-electronic means of detection can see at 120 ... those that are for export, that is, castrated. maybe they see at 190 wink and so that last year ROFAR successfully passed tests and declares a range of 400 km, but this is understandable not yet in the series. probably wassat
                  2. Alexander Lysenko
                    Alexander Lysenko 7 January 2021 22: 40
                    -1
                    Nda ... Fly and satellite. The very comparison
                    1. Virus-free crown
                      Virus-free crown 8 January 2021 00: 02
                      0
                      Quote: Alexander Lysenko
                      Nda ... Fly and satellite. The very comparison

                      not a fly - but the structure of a fly's eyes))) it has been scientifically proven that when a fly's eyes are damaged up to 75 percent, it retains its almost 360-degree view laughing now figure out what its "margin of safety"))) and with a network of nano and micro satellites
          2. A009
            A009 30 December 2020 11: 14
            +3
            As I understand it, you are well versed in the material of satellites, especially a potential enemy? Then tell me, what satellites are used for, for example, target designation during combat use? and how many of them are mini, micro and nano? And how many tons with the most complicated equipment? Which I think are very well tracked by the videoconferencing.
      2. ZAV69
        ZAV69 29 December 2020 23: 50
        +1
        Just what can these satellites do? Maybe they won't see anything so serious
      3. Local from the Volga
        Local from the Volga 30 December 2020 00: 07
        0
        You've read the "popular mechanics"!
      4. KCA
        KCA 30 December 2020 03: 54
        +3
        Why do you think that this system is being developed against communication satellites? The likelihood of the US launching weapons into space is not just great, it is obvious, but satellites with weapons, it doesn't matter if they are TN bombs, missiles, or tungsten crowbars according to one of the projects, there will be few, not thousands of thousands, and their size will be absolutely not suitable for the definition of "micro", and no one will lift them into geostationary orbit, it makes no sense
    2. Maikcg
      Maikcg 22 March 2021 13: 51
      0
      The satellite shot down with the SM-3, remember? The SM-3 weighs 1,5 tons, is 6,5 meters long and starts from the ground. And on the MiG-31, something up to 9 meters long and weighing up to 5 tons (this is its combat load) is installed, it starts in the air and already with 2-3 swings of speed. And you confuse "reach an altitude of 30000" (and then fall to Earth if you miss) and "enter a stable orbit at an altitude of 30000" (and stay there), there is a significant difference in fuel costs.
  7. rocket757
    rocket757 29 December 2020 19: 42
    +2
    According to various sources, now in our country a number of promising complexes are being developed and tested to combat enemy spacecraft.

    We are doing against their systems, they are against ours ... the race, who does not have time, he may regret, in the end.
  8. Connor MacLeod
    Connor MacLeod 29 December 2020 20: 12
    -1
    Star Wars. Episode V - The Empire Strikes Back ...
  9. Avior
    Avior 29 December 2020 20: 41
    -3
    The Americans have several LV models on the way that are capable of launching about a ton into low orbits, respectively less
    By and large, it is enough to place the last stage of the missile about cm-3 as a load - and a ready-made anti-satellite weapon
    1. Blackmokona
      Blackmokona 30 December 2020 00: 06
      -4
      SM-3 and so remarkably shoot down satellites, why does it need a launch vehicle?
      1. Intruder
        Intruder 30 December 2020 00: 58
        +4
        SM-3 is already great at shooting down satellites
        only in LEO, it has a speed of up to 3,5 km / s., and this is a suborbital flight, it will not reach geosynchronous (any high) orbits and it cannot stay in orbit, the ballistic trajectory is so :) and plus maneuvering, also limited ...
        1. Blackmokona
          Blackmokona 30 December 2020 08: 37
          -3
          For a long time gone and twist
          Missile speed: Block IA / B 2,7 km / s Block IIA 4,5-5,0 km / s
          1. Intruder
            Intruder 30 December 2020 11: 27
            +3
            Even at 5 km / s, at maximum speed, this is a suborbital, up to a high orbit there is no more speed margin, plus speed maneuvering must be ensured, that's why I wrote about LEO !!!
            1. Blackmokona
              Blackmokona 30 December 2020 11: 36
              -5
              And in order to bring down a satellite into orbit, it is absolutely not necessary to go out.
              1. Intruder
                Intruder 30 December 2020 12: 59
                +3
                but how does he get to the high (geosynchronous, geostationary?) without going to the intermediate one, plus maneuvering with a change in speed on the flight path and other necessary actions in the field of celestial mechanics? :)
                1. Blackmokona
                  Blackmokona 30 December 2020 13: 20
                  -3
                  The orbit is our apparatus flies around the earth at a sufficient speed that its fall to the earth never ends. If we fly to shoot down someone, then we absolutely do not care about orbits. We just fly to the intersection. We absolutely cannot fly around the Earth.
                  1. Intruder
                    Intruder 30 December 2020 14: 04
                    +1
                    If we fly to shoot down someone, then we absolutely do not care about orbits. We just fly to the intersection.
                    if you do not make a revolution, but transfer to a higher orbit, how to do it without a speed reserve, or change the trajectory and other maneuvers !?
                    1. Blackmokona
                      Blackmokona 30 December 2020 14: 39
                      -4
                      Imagine just a plane, somewhere above the flight line of the satellite. Your target will simply climb up to the desired height so that your trajectory intersects at the right moment with the trajectory of the target. All. Spinning around the earth, changing orbits, and other orbital mechanics don't bother you at all. You just need to climb to the right height at the right time. Can be done at an angle if the satellite is not directly above you. Anyway, your trajectory is a straight line
                      1. Intruder
                        Intruder 30 December 2020 15: 29
                        +3
                        Imagine just a plane, somewhere above the flight line of the satellite.
                        can be more accurate: The location of the satellite in space can be set by 6 values: three coordinates and three directions of speed. But for technical reasons (it is easier and more reliable to make calculations), other 6 quantities are chosen, which are called orbital parameters. Here they are in order.
                        The semi-major axis of the orbit (denoted by a)
                        Orbital eccentricity (denoted by e)
                        Orbit inclination (denoted by i)
                        Ascending node longitude (denoted by Ω)
                        Pericenter argument (denoted by ω)
                        True anomaly (denoted by ʋ)
                        Anyway, your trajectory is a straight line
                        however, monsieur is a curve, not a straight line, this is space - my friend :) and you think in terms of an inhabitant of the surface, Happy New Year, all the best and Health :) from the heart !!!
                      2. Blackmokona
                        Blackmokona 30 December 2020 16: 12
                        -4
                        1.The XYZ coordinate with a time reference is enough for us to aim the rocket. We don't care about its orbital parameters
                        2.For a rocket it is straight, I will repeat it once again, there is absolutely no need for it to go into orbit.
                        Well, with the coming you too.
                      3. Sanichsan
                        Sanichsan 5 January 2021 02: 33
                        -1
                        Quote: BlackMokona
                        1.The XYZ coordinate with a time reference is enough for us to aim the rocket. We don't care about its orbital parameters

                        read how many times you missed the moon trying to send a rocket along the shortest trajectory wink
                      4. Blackmokona
                        Blackmokona 5 January 2021 09: 48
                        -2
                        Not at all, ballistics was discovered long before the 20th century. The flight paths to the Moon were calculated long before V-2.
                      5. Sanichsan
                        Sanichsan 7 January 2021 19: 35
                        -2
                        Quote: BlackMokona
                        The flight paths to the Moon were calculated long before V-2.

                        do you have in sight Jules Verne and his novel "From the Cannon to the Moon"? wassat
                        in the 50s, while preparing the lunar program, the USSR made attempts to send a rocket to the moon along the shortest path. about 5 times. but missed.
                      6. Blackmokona
                        Blackmokona 7 January 2021 19: 51
                        -2
                        There is no need to consider the guys from the Soviet program as idiots.
                        Each failure of the launch to the Moon had nothing to do with the wrong trajectory.
                        For example Luna-1
                        For the purpose of the flight, the task was set to reach the surface of the moon. The hit did not occur, as an error crept into the flight sequence: when issuing the command to cut off the third stage engine (block "E"), which was issued from the Earth, the (already quite significant) time of signal passage from the command post to the station was not taken into account. The carrier and all onboard equipment of the station worked correctly. The indicated ground error did not affect the performance of onboard experiments. Among the outstanding scientific results obtained during the flight of "Luna-1" are the following:

                        Ie, for example, programmers forgot about the speed of light.
                      7. Sanichsan
                        Sanichsan 7 January 2021 20: 00
                        -2
                        Quote: BlackMokona
                        For example Luna-1

                        this is an attempt to deliver a satellite wink already the second stage of the program. about launching unguided rockets along the shortest trajectory there is nothing in tyrnet. I was looking for. I learned about them in the Museum of Cosmonautics at the corresponding stand.
                        in short, it is elementary physics. or rather, even mathematics. an uncontrollable object is affected by a lot of external factors. the greater the distance, the more factors and it is practically impossible to get an unguided rocket into an object like the Moon. only if by chance.
                      8. Blackmokona
                        Blackmokona 7 January 2021 20: 44
                        -2
                        Luna 1 was intended to simply crash into the moon.
                      9. Sanichsan
                        Sanichsan 7 January 2021 21: 56
                        -2
                        Moon-1

                        it is a satellite.
                        before him there were attempts to simply hit with a rocket. without a satellite. unsuccessful.
                        is it clear? hi
                      10. Blackmokona
                        Blackmokona 7 January 2021 22: 39
                        -2
                        This is not how things are done in space. Nobody shoots missiles anywhere without a load
                      11. Sanichsan
                        Sanichsan 8 January 2021 02: 15
                        -2
                        Quote: BlackMokona
                        This is not how things are done in space. Nobody shoots missiles anywhere without a load

                        yeah you exactly? belay and Musk recently launched a gutted Tesla into outer space wassat very payload worthy of a heavy falcon! wassat

                        The USSR was a developed industrial power and allowed itself certain excesses. when they studied the use of lasers as a tank weapon, the laser was pumped up by an explosion and the installation was carried along with a ruby ​​the size of an egg. We made sure that 100mm of armor was perforating at 200m, but not cost-effective, and the program was curtailed. IMHO an unguided rocket cheaper than a ruby ​​will be ...
                      12. Blackmokona
                        Blackmokona 8 January 2021 08: 19
                        -2
                        At the first launches of space rockets, they put mass-dimensional models; they are just a cube made of steel, titanium or something else.
                        This is done because the chance of an accident during the first launches is very high and no one wants to risk valuable vehicles.
                        For example, a second heavy hangar recently flew away and also carried a model. There have already been three launches of the Angara, one light and two heavy, and all have put the cubes into orbit.
                        Musk decided not to pollute the orbit with another gray and nafig cube of no interest to anyone and put on a show.
                        The second launch of Heavy has already gone with the payload for the client.
      2. Maikcg
        Maikcg 22 March 2021 14: 00
        +1
        We missed, because it was necessary to first get up in the orbit of the moon, and if they shot at the center, they would hit on the first try.
  • Avior
    Avior 30 December 2020 01: 06
    0
    up to a certain height.
    above - now there is a whole series of very cheap LV for low loads from private companies.
    in fact, they only need a homing head, which is already there.
    1. Intruder
      Intruder 30 December 2020 21: 22
      +2
      up to a certain height.
      above - now there are a number of developed very cheap launch vehicles for low loads from private owners
      Bingo, straight from the tongue was removed :) I already thought that until NG, no one would guess !!! Light launch vehicles, such as: "Electron", with a target load: a small kinetic interceptor with a booster (by the way, you can use something, such as: an ablative impulse AIPRD) and a seeker, with an RTG (ohm) and you get an "evil thing" which can hang and watch for months in low orbit .., as, for example, the possibilities of modern advances in the field: small spacecraft ... well, this is so, for example ... :)
  • evgen1221
    evgen1221 29 December 2020 20: 52
    -2
    And what if you make a balloon raftform (s) stuffed with such things, and put it around the perimeter, a bit in the distance. Don't you need to fly the plane several times?
    1. Arthur 85
      Arthur 85 30 December 2020 05: 56
      -1
      And we are not looking for easy ways.
  • zenion
    zenion 29 December 2020 21: 59
    0
    A petrel hovers proudly over the gray plain of the sea. (In Yiddish, brownstone).
  • Cool but not Igor
    Cool but not Igor 29 December 2020 22: 03
    -1
    By the way about the birds! Back in June 2019, the director of MiG said that the appearance of the promising MiG 41 aircraft will be formed by the end of the year, and 2020 has come to an end
  • Old26
    Old26 29 December 2020 22: 25
    +5
    Quote: Evil Booth
    in the us they made a strategic missile defense based on the withdrawal of missile defense missiles already on a standard f16

    The USA has never made a system on a standard F-16. No need to invent. The ASAT system was made on the basis of the F-15 fighter

    Quote: svp67
    This is the real work for the MiG-31, so for the "Daggers" we urgently need to look for other carriers, the same Tu-22M3 or Su-34

    So far, Sergei, this is not an existing system yet. It is not known when it will be brought to working condition. Not a single test of the 14A045 rocket DID NOT HAVE... And only tests can give an unambiguous answer:WORKABLE system or NO

    Quote: grandfather_Kostya
    This is overkill, it is enough to pierce the satellite's hull with a small bullet with a dry incendiary mixture. The entire satellite will turn into space debris.

    So the "bullet" still has to hit. Here, there is no guarantee of defeat by the warhead of the missile yet. And the "bullet" is from the region unscientific fiction

    Quote: bar
    In particular, they talk about the fundamental possibility of creating an ammunition capable of hitting satellites not only in low, but also in geostationary orbits.

    So that a rocket of the dimensions shown in the picture, even when launched at a high altitude and with a supersonic initial speed, would bring at least 30.000 grams of payload to an altitude of 50 km ??? Well, don't tell me. lol

    That's for sure. and if we consider that you, comrade, were a little mistaken and the geostationary orbit is another 6000 km more, then there can be no talk of even grams. Not that about 50 g. Besides, RBs usually "throw" their "payload" on GEOs within a few days, if not weeks. Who needs an anti-satellite missile with such a time interval for delivering a combat load? For journalists only

    Quote: Cosm22
    And he knows how many of these same MiGs will be needed in order to designate even the slightest threat to these satellites?

    Approximately as many as MIG-31s ​​are now, including those in storage (this is by the most conservative estimates)

    Quote: Cosm22
    For each satellite can be equipped with infrared sensors that detect the launch of an enemy carrier, make the satellite itself completely autonomous, capable of individual communication and communication.

    They will be with infrared sensors. And in addition to the "board-to-ground" communication, the "board-to-board" communication will be implemented, which will allow using other satellites of the network as repeaters.
    1. Intruder
      Intruder 30 December 2020 01: 01
      +1
      So the "bullet" still has to hit. Here, there is no guarantee of defeat by the warhead of the missile yet.
      Yep, exactly! And at the "bullet" systems of orientation and remote control correction are still growing to provide the necessary parameters of the orbit and changes in the characteristic speed, and it turns into an elegant warhead with individual guidance and radar to a heap, with a telescope !!!
  • Gunther
    Gunther 30 December 2020 15: 15
    +2
    Quote: Crown without virus
    ... Do you know about the structure of the common fly's vision? what is faceted vision? wink know that the common fly has a 360-degree view of its vision? )))

    so vooot ... these nano and micro satellites - consider the eyes of our "fly" smile

    lol
    feed flies separately from real surveillance devices laughing
    above it was correctly said about the performance characteristics of real devices, their weight and resolution - it is unrealistic to shove them into "nano" satellites, but to mention the ingenious, in my opinion, scoundrel Ilon mask, which was created as a project for the privatization of NASA followed by it, NASA sawing (patents, budget), not serious. It is enough to hammer "mask debts, unfulfilled promises" into the search engine and everything with this Persian will become clear.
    1. Evil Booth
      Evil Booth 8 January 2021 18: 04
      0
      the dimension of the lens for a large frame from a long range with high clarity with instant recording may be small, although such a film on a Soviet satellite, although it was enough for a square of 5000 * 5000 km, was several kilometers long and everything took months ... not without reason from satellites filming the army of the russian federation innaizukraine made so clear pictures that I did not understand there in which direction the convoy was going, let alone what was going there. you can process a frame by painting on a flag on cardboard tanks, transmitting a real potm with a tricky signal through the online interference ... but especially in compg.
  • nikolai55soot
    nikolai55soot 1 January 2021 20: 43
    0
    Combat lasers will decide everything ...
    1. Evil Booth
      Evil Booth 8 January 2021 18: 00
      0
      but let's say not the day after tomorrow