Military Review

The use of captured German rifles and machine guns in the USSR

68
The use of captured German rifles and machine guns in the USSR

By the time of the attack on the USSR, the actions of the Wehrmacht infantry squad were built around the MG34 machine gun, which was served by three people. Non-commissioned officers could be armed with MP28 or MP38 / 40 submachine guns, and six shooters with K98k rifles.


Magazine rifle K98k


During World War II, the bulk of the German infantrymen were armed with 7,92 mm Mauser 98k rifles, which in German sources were designated Karabiner 98k or K98k. In that weaponsadopted in 1935, the successful solutions of the Standardmodell rifles (Mauser Model 1924/33) and the Karabiner 98b were used, which, in turn, were developed on the basis of the Gewehr 98. Despite the name Karabiner 98k, this weapon was actually a full-fledged rifle and was not much shorter our "Mosinka".

Compared to the original Gewehr 98, which entered service in 1898, the improved K98k rifle had a shorter barrel (600 mm instead of 740 mm). The length of the box was slightly reduced, and a recess appeared in it for the bolt handle bent down. Instead of the "infantry" Gewehr 98 swivels on the K98k, the front swivel is combined into one piece with the rear stock ring, and instead of the rear swivel there is a through slot in the butt. After loading the magazine with cartridges, it began to be ejected when the shutter was closed. A new SG 84/98 bayonet was introduced, significantly shorter and lighter than the bayonets provided for the Mauser 98. The K98k rifle was equipped with a short ramrod. In order to clean the bore, two cleaning rods must be screwed together. The wooden stock has a semi-pistol grip. The steel butt plate is made with a door that closes the compartment for accessory to weapons. In order to reduce the cost of manufacturing, after Germany entered the war, wooden parts were replaced with plywood.


7,92mm K98k rifle

Depending on the version and year of production, the mass of the rifle was 3,8-4 kg. Length - 1110 mm. For firing from the K98k, the 7,92 × 57 mm sS Patrone cartridge was usually used, originally developed for use at long distances, with a heavy pointed bullet weighing 12,8 g. The muzzle velocity of the bullet was 760 m / s. Muzzle energy - 3700 J. An integral two-row box magazine with a capacity of 5 rounds is located inside the box. The magazine is loaded with cartridges with the bolt open through the wide upper window in the receiver from clips for 5 rounds or one cartridge each. Sights consist of a front sight and a sector rear sight, adjustable in firing range from 100 to 1000 meters.

A well-trained shooter is capable of firing 12 aimed shots per minute. The effective firing range with mechanical sights was 500 m. A sniper rifle with a telescopic sight could hit targets at a distance of up to 1000 m. Rifles with the best accuracy of combat were selected to install telescopic sights.


Shooter armed with a K98k rifle with a ZF39 telescopic sight mounted on it

The most commonly used were the fourfold ZF39 sights or the simplified 41X ZF1943. In 43, the ZF132 fourfold telescopic sight was adopted. In total, about 000 sniper rifles were produced for the German armed forces.

During World War II, the Gewehrgranat Geraet 42 rifle grenade launcher was introduced, which was a 30 mm mortar attached to the muzzle of the rifle. The cumulative grenades were fired with a blank cartridge. Sighting range of cumulative anti-tank grenades was 40 m, normal armor penetration - up to 70 mm.


German infantryman loading a rifle grenade

In addition to a mortar for firing grenades, a HUB23 muffler could be attached to the muzzle of the rifle, paired with a special Nahpatrone cartridge. Ammunition with an initial bullet speed of 220 m / s ensured a confident defeat of a growth target at a distance of up to 200 m.

In late 1944, production of a simplified version of the K98k, known as the Kriegsmodell ("military model"), began. This modification had a number of changes aimed at reducing the cost and labor intensity of production with some deterioration in the quality of manufacture and finishing. The resource of the barrel also decreased, and the accuracy of shooting deteriorated. The production of K98k rifles was carried out at ten enterprises in Germany, Austria and the Czech Republic. In total, from 1935 to 1945, more than 14 million rifles were delivered to the customer.

The K98k rifle is one of the finest bolt action magazine rifles. It has high reliability, durability and long service life, simplicity and safety in handling. During World War II, K98k rifles were widely used by all branches of the German armed forces in all theaters of war where German troops took part. However, with all its positive qualities, by the beginning of the 1940s, the K98k rifle as an individual infantryman's weapon no longer fully met the requirements. She did not have the required rate of fire and was a relatively bulky and heavy weapon for warfare in populated areas. The rate of fire was limited by how quickly the shooter could operate the bolt and load a 5-round magazine. However, these shortcomings were common to all magazine rifles without exception. In part, the low combat rate of fire of the K98k was compensated by the fact that the Germans relied not on rifles, but on single machine guns to provide the unit's firepower.

Although, according to weapons experts, the German MG-34/42 were the most successful machine guns of the Second World War, the bet on them as the basis of the squad's firepower was not always justified. For all their advantages, these German machine guns were quite expensive and difficult to manufacture, and therefore there was always a shortage of them at the front. The use of machine guns captured in the occupied countries only partially solved this problem. And the submachine guns had high firepower, but had a short range. Given the saturation of all types of troops with automatic weapons, it was highly desirable to equip the infantry with a rifle superior in rate of fire to the K98k.

Self-loading and automatic rifles


At the end of 1941, self-loading rifles of two types entered the active army for military trials: G41 (W) and G41 (M), which were very similar in appearance. The first was developed by Carl Walther Waffenfabrik, the second by Waffenfabrik Mauser AG. The rifle automation worked by removing part of the powder gases. The self-loading rifles used the same ammunition as the K98k magazine rifle. Both rifles failed tests and were sent for revision.


Self-loading rifle G41 (M)

Rifles G41 (W) and G41 (M) proved to be dust sensitive. Their moving parts had to be heavily greased. As a result of powder soot, the sliding parts were stuck together, which made disassembly difficult. Burning of the flame arrester was often noted. There were complaints about overweight and poor shooting accuracy.

In 1942, after military trials, the G41 (W) rifle entered service. It was produced at the Walther plant in Zella-Melis and at the Berlin-Lübecker Maschinenfabrik plant in Lübeck. More than 100 copies were made according to American data.


Self-loading rifle G41 (W)

The weight of the rifle without cartridges was 4,98 kg. Length - 1138 mm. Barrel length - 564 mm. Bullet muzzle velocity - 746 m / s. Combat rate of fire - 20 rounds / min. Food was supplied from an integral 10-round magazine. Effective firing range - 450 m, maximum - 1200 m.

But, despite the adoption and launch into mass production, many of the shortcomings of the G41 (W) were never eliminated, and in 1943 the production of the modernized G43 rifle began. In 1944, it was renamed the Karabiner 43 carbine (K43). On the G43, the unsuccessful gas vent assembly was replaced with a design borrowed from the Soviet SVT-40 rifle. Compared to the G41 (W), the G43 has improved reliability and also reduced weight. A significant part of the parts were made by casting and stamping, the outer surface was very rough.


Self-loading rifle G43 with telescopic sight

The weight of the G43 rifle without cartridges is 4,33 kg. Length - 1117 mm. Food - from a detachable magazine for 10 rounds, which could be replenished with clips for 5 rounds without removing it from the weapon. Some of the rifles had a 25-round box magazine from the MG13 light machine gun. Thanks to the use of detachable magazines, the combat rate of fire increased to 30 rounds / min.


Self-loading rifle G43 with a magazine from the MG13 light machine gun

The production of G43 rifles was established at the enterprises that previously produced the G41 (W). By March 1945, a little more than 402 self-loading rifles were delivered. According to the plans of the German command, each grenadier (infantry) company of the Wehrmacht was supposed to have 000 self-loading rifles. However, this has not been achieved in practice.

Approximately 10% of the G43s had telescopic sights, but the G43 sniper rifles were significantly inferior in firing accuracy to the K98k rifles. However, in street battles, where the firing range in most cases was not great, the G43 with sniper sights performed well.

A very unusual German automatic rifle is the FG42 (German: Fallschirmjägergewehr 42 - paratrooper's rifle, model 1942). This weapon, created for the Luftwaffe paratroopers, also entered service with mountain rifle units. Single copies of the FG42 were at the disposal of the most experienced soldiers of the Wehrmacht and the SS troops.

The FG42 rifle automatics works by diverting a part of the powder gases through a transverse hole in the barrel wall. The barrel bore was locked by turning the bolt, which occurs as a result of the interaction of the curvilinear groove on the bolt and the beveled planes on the bolt carrier when the latter moves. Two lugs are located symmetrically in front of the bolt. The stock contains a buffer that reduces the impact of recoil on the shooter. When firing, cartridges are fed from a box magazine with a capacity of 20 cartridges with a two-row arrangement, mounted on the left side of the rifle. The striker-type trigger mechanism allows single and automatic fire.


Automatic rifles FG42 / 1 and FG42 / 2

The first modification FG42 / 1 had many disadvantages: low strength, low reliability, and insufficient resource. Shooters complained about the high probability of hitting spent cartridges in the face, uncomfortable holding of the weapon and poor stability when firing. Taking into account the identified comments, a more reliable, safe and convenient automatic rifle FG42 / 2 was developed. However, the cost of making the rifle was very high. In order to optimize the production process and save scarce materials, it was planned to switch to the use of stamping from steel sheet. It was necessary to reduce production costs, since, for example, the laborious milled receiver was made of very expensive high-alloy steel. Due to delays caused by the need to eliminate deficiencies, the Krieghoff company began to manufacture a batch of 2000 rifles only at the end of 1943. During series production, improvements were made to the FG42 design to reduce costs, improve usability and reliability. The last serial modification was the FG42 / 3 (Type G) with a stamped receiver.

Although the FG42 / 3 rifle remained expensive and difficult to manufacture, it had very high performance and was quite reliable. The barrel and butt were on the same line, due to which there was practically no recoil shoulder, which minimized the throwing of the weapon when firing. To a large extent, the recoil was reduced by a massive compensator-flash suppressor, attached to the muzzle of the barrel. The sights consisted of a front sight fixed to the barrel and an adjustable rear sight placed on the receiver. Most of the serial rifles were equipped with optical sights. For close combat, the rifle is equipped with an integral quadrangular needle bayonet, which in the stowed position leans back and is located parallel to the barrel. FG42 was equipped with folding light stamped bipods.

The mass of the weapon of the late modification without cartridges was 4,9 kg. Length - 975 mm. Barrel length - 500 mm. Bullet muzzle velocity - 740 m / s. Effective range with a mechanical sight - 500 m. Rate of fire - 750 rounds / min.

For a number of reasons in Germany, it was not possible to establish the mass production of the FG42. In total, about 14 copies were made. The FG000 automatic rifle began to enter the troops too late in order to fully demonstrate its combat qualities and advantages. Nevertheless, the FG42 is an interesting and unique automatic rifle and one of the most interesting weapons designed and produced in the Third Reich.

Intermediate automatic assault rifles


Even before the start of the Second World War, it became clear to designers and the military in different countries that rifle cartridges were too powerful to solve most of the tasks inherent in individual infantry weapons. In 1940, the designers of Polte Armaturen-und-Maschinenfabrik AG, on their own initiative, created a cartridge with a dimension of 7,92 × 33 mm, which after being put into service received the designation 7,9 mm Kurzpatrone 43 (7,9 mm Kurz). This ammunition in terms of energy occupied an intermediate position between the 9 mm Parabellum pistol cartridge and the 7,92 mm Mauser rifle cartridge.


Cartridges 7,92 × 57 mm and 7,92 × 33 mm

The steel sleeve 33 mm long was bottle-shaped and varnished to prevent corrosion. Serial ammunition 7,9 mm Kurz SmE weighed 17,05 g. Bullet weight - 8,1 g. Muzzle energy - 1900 J.

Under the 7,9 mm Kurz cartridge, a number of assault rifles (assault rifles) were developed in the Third Reich, some of which were brought to the stage of mass production. In July 1942, an official demonstration of assault rifles for the intermediate cartridge Maschinenkarabiner 42 (H) (MKb 42 (H)) and Machinenkarabiner 42 (W) (MKb42 (W)) took place. The first was developed by CG Haenel, the second by Carl Walther Waffenfabrik. The automation of both samples was based on the principle of removing part of the powder gases.


Experienced submachine gun MKb42 (W)

The winner of the competition was revealed by military trials on the Eastern Front. According to their results, subject to the elimination of a number of shortcomings and the introduction of certain changes in the design, the MKb42 (H) was recommended for adoption. As changes were made to the design of the bolt, firing mechanism and gas outlet assembly, the MP43 / 1 and MP43 / 2 “submachine guns” were born. In June 1943, serial production of the MP 43/1 began. Until December 1943, when this model was replaced by a more advanced modification at production facilities, more than 12 copies of the MP 000/43 were produced. Even at the design stage of the weapon, much attention was paid to its manufacturability and cost reduction, for which stamping was used in the manufacture of the receiver and a number of other parts.


Experienced machine gun MKb42 (H)

Mass use of the MP43 on the Eastern Front began in the fall of 1943. At the same time, it was found that the new machine gun combines the positive qualities of submachine guns and rifles, which makes it possible to increase the firepower of infantry units and reduces the need for light machine guns.

After receiving a positive opinion from the army in the field, an official decision was made to adopt a new machine gun into service. In April 1944, the name MP43 was changed to MP44, and in October 1944 the weapon received the final name - StG 44 (German Sturmgewehr 44 - "Assault rifle 44").


Assault rifle StG 44

The mass of the unloaded weapon was 4,6 kg, with an attached magazine for 30 rounds - 5,2 kg. Length - 940 mm. Barrel length - 419 mm. Bullet muzzle velocity - 685 m / s. The effective range for single shots is up to 600 m. The rate of fire is 550-600 rounds / min.

In general, the StG 44 assault rifle was a very good weapon by the standards of the Second World War. It was superior to submachine guns in accuracy and range, bullet penetration and tactical versatility. At the same time, the StG 44 was quite heavy, the shooters complained about an inconvenient sight, the lack of a forend, and sensitivity to moisture and dirt. Various sources do not agree on the number of MP43 / MP44 / StG 44 produced, but it can be confidently stated that during the Second World War, the Germans produced more than 400 automatic machines for an intermediate cartridge.

The use of German rifles and machine guns in the Red Army


The captured K98k magazine rifles were used by the Red Army from the first days of the war. They were present in noticeable quantities in the units leaving the encirclement in battle, and among the partisans. The first units purposefully armed with German rifles were the people's militia divisions, the formation of which began in late autumn 1941. In addition to rifles of Austrian, French and Japanese production, a significant part of the fighters were armed with the German Gewehr 1888, Gewehr 98 and Karabiner 98k. Most of these rifles, used by militia fighters, were captured during the First World War, or purchased by the tsarist government from the allies. In early 1942, several regular units were armed with K98k magazine rifles, captured in noticeable numbers during the counteroffensive near Moscow and in other sectors of the front. So, the soldiers of the 116th separate naval rifle brigade, formed in September 1942 in Kaluga from the sailors of the Pacific Ocean, were armed with German rifles. fleet.


Subsequently, after saturation of the rifle units of the Red Army with weapons of domestic production, captured rifles until the end of the war remained in service with rear units that were not directly involved in hostilities, as well as with signalmen, anti-aircraft gunners, artillerymen and training units.


The massive use of captured rifles in combat was hampered by the irregular supply of 7,92 mm cartridges. After the Red Army seized the initiative from the enemy, the Germans, for sabotage purposes, when retreating, began to leave rifle cartridges equipped with high explosives. When an attempt was made to fire such a cartridge, an explosion occurred, and the weapon became unusable for further use, and the shooter could be injured or even die. After such incidents became regular, an order was issued prohibiting the use of unverified cartridges picked up on the battlefield.


The Red Army soldiers lost a significant part of the captured small arms in battles. Given the fact that rifles captured from the enemy were often not documented for anyone, they were not treated as carefully as regular weapons. Even with minor malfunctions, the Red Army soldiers easily parted with German rifles. The memoir literature describes cases when our soldiers on the offensive, unable to transfer the small arms thrown by the Germans to the trophyers, crushed them tanks or detonated along with the ammunition to be destroyed.

According to archival data, in the post-war period, more than 3 million German rifles suitable for further use were found in Soviet warehouses. In fact, many more were captured, but not all rifles were taken into account and handed over to trophy brigades, officially formed in early 1943.


After the K98k rifles arrived at the collection points for captured weapons, they were sent to the rear to the enterprises engaged in troubleshooting and repair. If necessary, trophy rifles suitable for further use were repaired, after which they were taken into account and preserved. In addition to rifles, our troops captured about 2 billion 7,92-mm rifle cartridges, and the German K98k, transferred to storage bases, became a reserve in case of a new war.

Shortly after the end of World War II, the Soviet Union handed over some of the captured German weapons to the Eastern European allies. A large batch of captured K98k was sent to the Communist People's Liberation Army of China, which is waging an armed struggle with the National Revolutionary Army of the Kuomintang. Taking into account the fact that in China since the 1930s, the licensed production of German 7,92-mm rifles and cartridges has been carried out, there were no difficulties with the development of the K98k delivered from the USSR. A significant number of K98k rifles during the Korean War were in the DPRK armed forces and at the disposal of Chinese volunteers. The next major armed conflict, where captured German K98k were spotted, was the Vietnam War. In the early 1960s, the USSR and the PRC donated tens of thousands of K98k rifles and the required number of cartridges to the authorities of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. In addition, rifles that belonged to the Wehrmacht in the past were supplied to Arab countries and were used in wars with Israel.

Even taking into account the fact that the Soviet Union very generously supplied its allies with captured German rifles on a gratuitous basis, a lot of them remained in warehouses after the collapse of the USSR. Some of the rifles were sent for recycling, and some were put up for sale as a hunting weapon.


Hunting carbine KO-98M1

A hunting carbine chambered for the original 7,92 × 57 mm Mauser cartridge - known as KO-98M1. KO-98 is a carbine re-barrel chambered for .308 Win (7,62 × 51 mm). VPO-115 - carbine chambered for .30-06 Springfield (7,62 × 63 mm). For shooting from the VPO-116M carbine, the .243 Winchester cartridge (6,2 × 52 mm) is used.

In addition to the store K98k, in the second half of the war, the Red Army captured G41 (W) / G43 self-loading rifles and FG42 automatic rifles. However, when preparing this publication, I was unable to find information about their use in the Red Army. Apparently, if automatic and self-loading German rifles were used by our fighters against their former owners, then it was irregular and for a short time. With a much higher probability, semiautomatic devices could be found among partisans or in service with reconnaissance and sabotage groups thrown into the German rear. What can we say about the rather capricious German semi-automatic and automatic rifles, when even our self-loading SVT-40 were not popular among the troops. This was due to the fact that, in comparison with store rifles, semi-automatic rifles required more careful maintenance and competent operation. But oddly enough, German automatic rifles were used during the war in Southeast Asia. Several FG42s were repulsed by the Americans from the Viet Cong.


American soldier with an FG42 automatic rifle

Although the StG 44 was not the height of perfection, for its time this machine was a fairly effective weapon. Despite the fact that the StG 44 was often criticized for the insufficient strength of stamped parts and a complex design compared to submachine guns, German machine guns for an intermediate cartridge were popular with our fighters.


There are many photos on the network, dated from the second half of 1944 - early 1945, in which Soviet soldiers are armed with StG 44.


After the end of World War II, StG 44 assault rifles were in service in a number of countries of the socialist bloc. So, machine guns produced in the Third Reich were used by the armies of Hungary and Czechoslovakia until the late 1950s, and by the People's Police of the GDR until the early 1970s. The first major armed conflict involving the StG 44 was the Korean War. A number of German assault rifles were used by the Viet Cong.


StG 44 captured by the French in Algeria

In the early 1960s, French troops fighting insurgents in Algeria captured dozens of StG 44s and their cartridges bearing the mark of the Czechoslovakian ammunition manufacturer Sellier & Bellot.


StG 44 assault rifles were also supplied to the national liberation movements of "black" Africa. In the photographs taken in the 1970-1980s, one can see militants of various armed groups with StG 44. Cases of the use of StG 44 by Syrian militants have been recorded. Apparently, these assault rifles in storage were seized in 2012 along with other obsolete weapons.

To be continued ...

Articles from this series:
Use of captured German pistols in the USSR
The use of German captured submachine guns in the USSR
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68 comments
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  1. polpot
    polpot 29 December 2020 18: 09
    +15
    Thanks, quite sane use, handing over to allies for their intended use, until completely obsolete.
  2. svp67
    svp67 29 December 2020 18: 21
    +27
    During our offensive on the Dnieper, due to the fact that the supply was not regular, the advanced units were specially re-equipped with German weapons, the "supply" came at the expense of trophies.
    cases of StG 44 use by Syrian militants recorded
    Still, Czechoslovakia supplied them in commercial quantities to the SAR army ...
    And another interesting fact, the film "The Tale of the Kibalchish Boy" was filmed at the Odessa film studio, and so the bourgeoisie quite themselves with "Sturmgevers" were advancing wink
    1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 29 December 2020 19: 09
      +6
      In 'Pirates of the Twentieth Century', emnip, a semblance of m16 was blinded from a stormgower.
    2. Avior
      Avior 30 December 2020 02: 12
      +8
      the film "The Tale of the Kibalchish Boy" was shot at the Odessa Film Studio

      good children's film
      You are bad - the Leader of the Redskins.
      And the bourgeoisie goes into a psychic attack under a gramophone with unloaded stormgears - you can see it in the photo. smile
      And the director is wonderful, Evgeny Sherstobitov, his films were remembered from childhood.
      Jung from the schooner Columbus, Aqualungs at the bottom, Andromeda Nebula, Rebellious Orion, Tachanka from the south, later Project Alpha ..
      only you were slightly mistaken - filmed at Dovzhenko's studio, not Odessa
      hi
      1. Captain45
        Captain45 8 January 2021 11: 40
        +1
        Quote: Avior
        good children's film
        You are bad - the Leader of the Redskins.

        The most interesting thing is that the actor who played Malchish-Kibalchish later, when he grew up, emigrated to the United States, and who played Badisha, after serving in the SA, worked as a mechanic in a factory and died under the influence of a tram drunk. These are the fate of the heroes.
    3. The comment was deleted.
    4. Vladimir_2U
      Vladimir_2U 30 December 2020 04: 34
      +10
      Continuing the theme of German trophies in cinema:
      1. ecolog
        ecolog 3 January 2021 19: 47
        0
        and also shoots single.
  3. A. Privalov
    A. Privalov 29 December 2020 18: 29
    +12
    In the early 1960s, the USSR and the PRC donated several tens of thousands of K98k rifles and the required number of cartridges to the authorities of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. In addition, rifles that belonged to the Wehrmacht in the past were supplied to Arab countries and were used in wars with Israel.

    The Syrians in the 60s and even in the 70s still had a lot of such weapons sent by the USSR, the GDR and Czechoslovakia. Then, it got from the Syrian warehouses to the bandits.
  4. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 29 December 2020 18: 36
    +12
    Sergey thanks for the article!
    The truth is you need to correct a little.
    Mauser 98k, which in German sources had the designation Karabiner 98k or K98k. This weapon, adopted in 1935, used the successful solutions of the Standardmodell rifles (Mauser Model 1924/33) and the Karabiner 98b, which, in turn, were developed on the basis of the Gewehr 98. Despite the name Karabiner 98k, this weapon was actually a full-fledged rifle and was not much shorter than our Mosinka.

    Traditional misconception. By World War II, Germany and the USSR abandoned traditional (long) rifles. The Wehrmacht was armed with a Mauser carbine, and the Red Army men had a dragoon version of Mosinka.
    Therefore, their length is comparable.
    TTX Mosinka
    Length, mm. with / without bayonet 1738/1306 (infantry), 1500/1232 (dragoon and arr. 1891/30), - / 1020 (carbine). Barrel length, mm. 800 (infantry), 729 (dragoon)
    Regards, Vlad!
    1. mat-vey
      mat-vey 30 December 2020 16: 40
      +2
      Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
      The Wehrmacht was armed with the Mauser carbine

      Well, the last "k" is "kurz" - short.
    2. hohol95
      hohol95 2 January 2021 19: 08
      +1
      A simple German "zamutka" - to slightly shorten the infantry rifle and declare it a carbine.
      Carbine model 1907 and model 1907/10 - Weapon length, mm,
      without bayonet (bayonet not provided) - 1020mm.
      Carbine sample 1938 - 1020mm.
      Carbine model 1944 (integral folding bayonet) - 1020 / 1330mm.
      The Dragoon and Cossack models had a length without a bayonet - 1240 (1238) mm.
  5. Mister X
    Mister X 29 December 2020 18: 42
    +13
    Shooter armed with a K98k rifle with a telescopic sight mounted on it ZF39
    Author: Linnik Sergey

    Let me correct: the photo shows a 4x Zeiss ZF42 scope
    Voronezh, June-July 1942
    Source: German Federal Archive
  6. Undecim
    Undecim 29 December 2020 19: 11
    +9
    In order to reduce the cost of manufacturing, after Germany entered the war, wooden parts were replaced with plywood.
    The Karabiner 98k was equipped with lined stocks in 1937. But this is not plywood.
  7. Alf
    Alf 29 December 2020 19: 11
    +8
    In the early 1960s, the USSR and the PRC donated several tens of thousands of K98k rifles to the authorities of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam

    The brave Zoldaty from NVA DDR said to this gesture - What a familiar design ..
    when even our self-loading SVT-40 were not popular among the troops.

    But our marines respected SVETKA very much ..
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 29 December 2020 19: 49
      +15
      Hi Vasily. smile
      So in the USSR (and in tsarist Russia) the most literate people were called up to the navy, that's why they appreciated the SVT and they themselves understood that such a "technique" requires a special attitude.
      1. Alf
        Alf 29 December 2020 19: 55
        +4
        Quote: Sea Cat
        Hi Vasily

        Greetings comrade! soldier
      2. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 30 December 2020 11: 14
        +5
        Quote: Sea Cat
        So in the USSR (and in tsarist Russia) the most literate people were called up to the navy, that's why they appreciated the SVT and they themselves understood that such a "technique" requires a special attitude.

        Perhaps the best characteristic of the weapon handling skills of the Soviet pre-war infantry:
        In parts of 97 SD rifles manufactured in 1940. , which were on hand for no more than 4 months, up to 29% are reduced to a state of rust in the barrel, machine guns "DP" manufactured in 1939 to 14% also have a deterioration of the barrel channels.
        © The KOVO weapons verification act for the 1940th year.
        Moreover, according to the results of 1940:
        The headquarters of the division was rated as the most advanced in the Red Army and was awarded the challenge prize of the General Staff. For the organization of combat and political training and the training of troops, the division commander, Major General I. Sherstyuk, was awarded the Order of the Red Banner.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 30 December 2020 11: 19
          +3
          ... Major General I. G. Sherstyuk was awarded the Order of the Red Banner.

          If they were given an order for the absence of rust in gun barrels, then the results of the battles of 41 are clear, alas. request
          1. Alexey RA
            Alexey RA 30 December 2020 11: 25
            +8
            Quote: Sea Cat
            If they were given an order for the absence of rust in gun barrels, then the results of the battles of 41 are clear, alas.

            The order was given just in the presence of rust. smile
            And about the results of the battles of 1941 - here it is better to look at the Report on the results of the preparation of the ZOVO for the winter period of the 40/41 academic year.
            ... operational training of senior command personnel significantly increased and is evaluated mediocre.

            ... units and formations of the district, fulfilling your demand for the coordination of companies and battalions completely ready for simple combat missions.

            Preparation of mortar units and subunits mediocre, with the exception of 24 ombas, the preparation of which is poor. The preparation of the 45th and 76th regiment of artillery is mediocre.
            ...
            The conducted artillery firing and viewing exercises showed that the division’s artillery of the District was prepared for combat missions in the main types of combat mediocre.
            ...
            Training regiments ARGK mediocre, with the exception of 311 dads and 318 gp RGK, whose training bad.

            There were three months left before the war ...
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 30 December 2020 11: 51
              +4
              Hmmm ... The picture is bleak. Thanks for the information. hi
              Happy New Year, health and all the best! drinks
              1. Alexey RA
                Alexey RA 30 December 2020 12: 01
                +7
                Quote: Sea Cat
                Hmmm ... The picture is bleak. Thanks for the information.

                Duc ... after reading the documents of the pre-war period, I personally have a question "how the great and mighty Red Army could so merge in 1941"changed to"YOKLMN, how with all this we still managed to stop the Wehrmacht ?!"
                Quote: Sea Cat
                Happy New Year, health and all the best! drinks

                And you too! drinks
                1. kytx
                  kytx 30 December 2020 18: 57
                  0
                  Yeah
                  the country is a mess
                  1. Alexey RA
                    Alexey RA 31 December 2020 09: 12
                    +3
                    Quote: kytx
                    Yeah
                    the country is a mess

                    Yeah ... There is no Stalin on them! © smile
                  2. Captain45
                    Captain45 8 January 2021 11: 44
                    0
                    Quote: kytx
                    Yeah
                    the country is a mess

                    And when did it end in Russia? This is our primordially native constant state - a Russian mess, until a roasted rooster bites.
            2. 89268170588
              89268170588 11 February 2021 23: 03
              0
              In 1975, in the Putilov camps, I received an AKM from storage for a company of students of the 1st medical institute. On one third of the machines, the gates did not open, the gas pistons rusted. Opened with the butt of an ax. For several AKMs, he did not open the locks and handed them over to the workshop. It turned out that these machine guns were used to arm the partisans at the training camp in winter.
      3. Zug
        Zug 7 January 2021 14: 50
        -1
        It's just that the Marine Corps did not fight there for a long time, and therefore appreciated it.
  8. Dimide
    Dimide 29 December 2020 19: 12
    +5
    I discovered the 7,9 Kurz cartridge.
    Live and learn, you will still die a fool wassat
    Sergey, respect!
  9. Catfish
    Catfish 29 December 2020 19: 42
    +24
    Sergey, good evening. smile I am glad to meet with you again and to have an interesting, well-done article.

    About the German "Sturmgever" I was once told a story by an acquaintance of mine who was the commander of the penal battalion at the end of the war. Somewhere near Königsberg, they drove the Germans from one skyscraper, then the Germans drove them out, but one of the soldiers took a trophy machine gun with them. The battalion commander reported to the headquarters about the appearance of an unfamiliar weapon from the enemy (there was such an order for the army) and, literally an hour later, three nkaveshniks arrived at their position on the Emka, and the headquarters received an order to attack the skyscraper again and take away everything that they found on this topic. Well, the battalion had to go on the attack again, but tanks were still sent to support them. The special officers, by the way, went on the attack together with everyone. The height was taken and captured by a few more "stormgears". The Germans were completely morose from this and began shelling their former positions from everything they had in stock. The special officers gathered all the new weapons and gathered back, my friend persuaded them to wait out the shelling in the bunker, said that the Germans would soon run out of steam, but the special officers refused and crawled under the shelling, went back and, like, everyone crawled. Here's a story from a front-line officer, his name was Peter Dmitrievich Zotov and he ended the war as a lieutenant colonel.
    1. Alf
      Alf 29 December 2020 19: 57
      +6
      Quote: Sea Cat
      Here's a story from a front-line officer,

      Why not ? They always strived to learn something new, especially from the enemy and in the war.
    2. DimanC
      DimanC 30 December 2020 10: 31
      +12
      Some wrong specials - instead of shooting all the penalties in the back, they went on the attack with them. It happens ... belay
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 30 December 2020 10: 38
        +2
        The world is full of the unknown and all kinds of miracles. smile
        Happy New Year, colleague! drinks
    3. Disorder
      Disorder 30 December 2020 13: 21
      +2
      In vain they put the people. "Sturmgever" has been known since its first version of the MKB42 and subsequent MP43 and MP44.
    4. Alexey Polyutkin
      Alexey Polyutkin 31 December 2020 21: 33
      0
      Interesting story!
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 31 December 2020 21: 36
        0
        We would have listened to his whole story live, because before that we had a good drink, and he also warned that he had given a subscription, this is when else.
  10. bubalik
    bubalik 29 December 2020 20: 02
    +5
    Automatic rifle FG42
    ,,,ancestor
    American M60 machine gun?
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 29 December 2020 20: 21
      +11
      Aha, M60 is a child of a respectable parent. laughing
      Hello Sergey, Happy New Year! drinks
    2. cat Rusich
      cat Rusich 29 December 2020 21: 44
      +6
      Quote: bubalik
      Automatic rifle FG42
      ,,,ancestor
      American M60 machine gun?
      M60 "child" = "mother" FG-42 (automatic reloading with a gas engine) + "father" MG 42 (tape drive).
      MG 42
      MG 42
      M60
      M60
      soldier
  11. Undecim
    Undecim 29 December 2020 20: 41
    +12

    These are not the trophies of the Red Army, but of the allies. Pictured is an arms depot at Sola airfield, Norway. 1945 year.
  12. Region-25.rus
    Region-25.rus 29 December 2020 21: 29
    +2
    applied to the K98k .... to be sure - a handy thing !!! And the sights are also better than Mosinka (had some experience of operation)
    1. alpamys
      alpamys 29 December 2020 22: 33
      +2
      Quote: Region-25.rus
      applied to the K98k .... to be sure - a handy thing !!! And the sights are also better than Mosinka (had some experience of operation)

      I wonder what? laughing they are like eggs are the same
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 30 December 2020 01: 02
        +6
        The eggs are all the same, but the trunks are of different calibers. laughing drinks
        1. kytx
          kytx 30 December 2020 19: 05
          +1
          I agree about the patron
          But the Mauser has better ergonomics and balance.
          Mosinka generally tinplate especially a carbine
        2. 89268170588
          89268170588 11 February 2021 23: 10
          -1
          Dear Si Cat. By the way, the calibers are the same, 7,92, just in the west, the caliber is measured by rifling, in our country by the fields, but the cases are different. Mauser is shorter than Mosinka and more ergonomic.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 11 February 2021 23: 24
            +1
            Is Mosinka 7,92 mm? Oh well. Do you know such devices as a micrometer or a caliper? If you know, then take it and measure it, I mean the diameter of the bullet. And along the way, explain how the sleeves have to do with the rifling.
      2. megavolt823
        megavolt823 30 December 2020 03: 10
        +4
        You can add the Italian carcano Mannlicher to this list. The meaning is the same. But the execution is different. Like Lada penny, and fiat.
        1. alpamys
          alpamys 30 December 2020 09: 11
          -1
          Quote: megavolt823
          You can add the Italian carcano Mannlicher to this list. The meaning is the same. But the execution is different

          Well, yes .. but it's not clear how Mannlicher (Austrian) stuck to this?
          1. megavolt823
            megavolt823 1 January 2021 17: 13
            0
            Probably drunk ?! request
  13. alpamys
    alpamys 29 December 2020 22: 37
    +1
    in FG42, the barrel is locked by turning the bolt, but Rogozin somehow blurted out that this was an invention of Kalashnikov laughing here is a stupid person.
    1. alpamys
      alpamys 29 December 2020 22: 57
      +4
      judging by the lack of oscillation when fired, the weapon deserves a closer look.
      1. Alexfly
        Alexfly 30 December 2020 12: 36
        +1
        some company in the states produces a replica of the latest model, the price is impressive $ 7500
      2. Maki Avellevich
        Maki Avellevich 1 January 2021 12: 31
        0
        Quote: alpamys
        judging by the lack of oscillation when fired, the weapon deserves a closer look.

        the open bolt compensates for some of the recoil.
    2. Catfish
      Catfish 30 December 2020 01: 03
      +5
      Do you want to be a dilettante? laughing
    3. Alexfly
      Alexfly 30 December 2020 12: 33
      -5
      Duc Kalashnikov himself admitted that he looked after the rotary shutter at Garand ... Well, it is clear, of course, why Rogozin is up to some kind of spillikin, he's busy with space. A mountain of intelligence, for sure ...
      1. alpamys
        alpamys 30 December 2020 12: 41
        -10%
        Quote: AlexFly
        Duc Kalashnikov himself admitted that he looked after the rotary shutter at Garand ... Well, it is clear, of course, why Rogozin is up to some kind of spillikin, he's busy with space. A mountain of intelligence, for sure ...

        in one of the last programs Kalashnikov admitted that Hugo Schmeisser helped him, in principle this can be seen from the AK46, which, in my opinion, is a transitional model to the AK47 from the STG.
        ps .. there were a lot of rotary barrel closures at that time, FG42, Mannlicher, Lewis, etc.
        1. mat-vey
          mat-vey 30 December 2020 16: 34
          +1
          Quote: alpamys
          in one of the last programs Kalashnikov admitted that Hugo Schmeisser helped him,

          Did you run across the front line?
          Quote: alpamys
          in principle, this can be seen from the AK46 which, in my opinion, is a transitional model to the AK47 from the STG.

          In principle, you can see that about the AK-46, let's say - you have a very verbal idea.
        2. sibiryouk
          sibiryouk 31 December 2020 10: 08
          +2
          Kalashnikov and Schmeisser talked over the phone, from Kovrov to Izhevsk! Why, then, did our experts conclude that Schmeisser as a designer does not represent anything of value!
          1. alpamys
            alpamys 31 December 2020 11: 09
            -4
            Quote: sibiryouk
            Kalashnikov and Schmeisser talked over the phone, from Kovrov to Izhevsk! Why, then, did our experts conclude that Schmeisser as a designer does not represent anything of value!

            a gunsmith recognized by the Germans, not appreciated by the Russians .. pichalka, and M Kalashnikov did not gush with his new ideas after the "creation" of the AK.
            1. mat-vey
              mat-vey 31 December 2020 15: 50
              0
              Quote: alpamys
              and M Kalashnikov did not gush with his new ideas after the "creation" of the AK.

              And why such conclusions?
            2. bk0010
              bk0010 31 December 2020 20: 59
              +2
              Quote: alpamys
              a gunsmith recognized by the Germans, not appreciated by the Russians.
              His dad was the gunsmith, and his son was a manager. Therefore, he was expelled from captivity, there were enough of their own.
            3. Weaponmaster
              Weaponmaster 22 March 2021 15: 08
              0
              Kalashnikov machine gun, Kalashnikov light machine gun, tank Kalashnikov machine gun, AK, AKM, ak-74, aks-74u, ak-101, ak-103 - is that not enough?
        3. Alexfly
          Alexfly 5 January 2021 13: 54
          +1
          BUT, but Kalashnikov himself admitted to using Garand's ideas in a self-loading rifle that preceded the AK, where he used his own development of Garand's ideas .. FG42, Mannlicher, Lewis have excellent types of locks.
      2. mat-vey
        mat-vey 30 December 2020 16: 35
        +3
        Quote: AlexFly
        Duc Kalashnikov himself admitted that he looked after the rotary shutter at Garand ..

        Not a bolt, but an idea. Compare the Kalashnikov bolt - the first practical implementation of the Kalashnikov carbine of 1944-45, and the Garand bolt.
  14. The eye of the crying
    The eye of the crying 29 December 2020 23: 07
    0
    All these Stg44s around the world are part of 400 thousand copies once released in Germany?
    1. Stas1973
      Stas1973 29 December 2020 23: 27
      +6
      After WWII, Czechoslovakia released them. And Yugoslavia. In the latter, they were in service until the 60s.
      1. mat-vey
        mat-vey 30 December 2020 16: 32
        +1
        Quote: Stas1973
        After WWII, Czechoslovakia released them. And Yugoslavia. In the latter, they were in service until the 60s.

        So at Yuga StG-44, parachute units were armed and therefore set up the production of cartridges (in my opinion, the USSR threw equipment from the Germans to them).
  15. Michael
    Michael 30 December 2020 02: 06
    +6
    This is how you approach a girl and get to know her, and she is short if! And my friends will finish off with butts.
  16. Oprichnik
    Oprichnik 30 December 2020 14: 51
    +5
    My father, a military surveyor, from the fall of 1941 to September 1949. served in Central Asia, mapping the Tianshan and Pamirs as part of the study and preparation of the theater. His team of 5-6 soldiers was armed with German captured rifles. My uncle, a tanker, captured an FG-1944 in 42 and drove it with his tank turret attached to the roof. used it against the enemy four times when they knocked out his tank
  17. John22
    John22 30 December 2020 18: 23
    0
    Pushing the clip out of the grooves of the receiver with an ejector when sending the first cartridge from the magazine into the barrel, Mauser appeared in 1896 in the "Swedish Mauser", not to mention the G98. Maybe this is news for the author, but you need to know the materiel!