Military Review

Dragutin Dmitrievich and his "Black Hand"


Cover of the Paris edition of Le Petit Journal with a portrait of the new King Peter I and a drawing depicting the murder of the former royal couple.

Article "The water in the Drina flows cold, and the blood of the Serbs is hot" was told about the founders of two dynasties of princes and kings of Serbia - "Black George" and Miloš Obrenovic. And about the beginning of the bloody struggle of their descendants for the throne of this country.

We stopped at the report of the murder of Prince Mikhail III Obrenovich by the Radovanovich brothers. It was not possible to return the Karageorgievichs to the throne: the grand-nephew of the murdered prince, Milan, who was then only 14 years old, ascended the throne of Serbia. And therefore, until he came of age, Serbia was ruled by the regent Milivoe Blaznavac.

It was then, by the way, that the first Serbian bank was founded, which later became the "National Bank of Serbia".

Dragutin Dmitrievich and his "Black Hand"
Milive Petroviћ Blaznavac (1824-1873), general, chairman Vlade Srbiјe

Milan Obrenovic - Prince and King of Serbia

Milan Obrenovic initially took a course towards cooperation with Russia.

In 1875, an anti-Ottoman uprising began in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In 1876, Milan demanded that Turkey withdraw its troops from this province. Having received no answer, he declared war on the Ottoman Empire, personally taking over the army. And Serbia almost lost all the fruits of previous achievements and agreements.

Milan fled to Belgrade, transferring command to a Russian volunteer, General M. Chernyaev. But he could not correct the situation either. (More details about the uprising in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Russian volunteers will be discussed in another article.)

Only the victories of Russia in Bulgaria during the next war with Turkey (1877-1878) saved the Serbs. Serbia and Montenegro (as well as Romania) gained independence under the Treaty of San Stefano in 1878. But after the Berlin Congress, Milan Obrenovic decided that Serbia no longer needed Russia. And he began to focus on Austria-Hungary and Germany.

In 1881, he concluded an agreement with Austria-Hungary, according to which the Habsburgs recognized Serbia as a kingdom. And they promised not to hinder the expansion of its southern borders. And Serbia undertook the obligation not to conclude political treaties with foreign states without the consent of Vienna. In 1882, the coronation of Milan Obrenović took place, who thus became the first Serbian king.

Milan Obrenovic, the first king of Serbia.

Around this time (in 1881) the main Serbian parties were formed: Radical (headed by the future Prime Minister Nikola Pasic), Progressive and Liberal.

In 1885, the Austrians, dissatisfied with the strengthening of Bulgaria after the unification of the Bulgarian principality and Eastern Rumelia, provoked a war between Serbia and Bulgaria, in which the Serbs were defeated.

Serbian military camp. 1885 g.

Bulgarian volunteers. 1885 g.

Against the background of general discontent, Milan Obrenovic abdicated the throne in 1889 in favor of his son Alexander, bargaining for himself an annual salary of 300 thousand francs.

King Milan Obrenovic and his son Alexander. Photo of 1888

Alexander was then only 13 years old. Therefore, Jovan Ristic became the regent of the kingdom.

Jovan Ristić

In Serbia, Ristic's activities were highly rated. But Alexander was influenced by his father, who (despite his abdication) continued to interfere in the affairs of the state.

On April 14, 1893, Alexander declared himself an adult and ordered the arrest of the regent and members of the government. And on May 21, 1894, the constitution was abolished in Serbia (a new one was adopted in 1901).

In 1900, Alexander married his mother's maid of honor - Draga. This woman was 15 years older than him, and the reputation of her brothers was extremely dubious. Even the king's father did not give blessings for this marriage. Draga was also not popular among the people.

Alexander Obrenovich and Draga. 1903 g.

Draga was childless. Therefore, Alexander Obrenovic was going to bequeath the Serbian throne to the king of Montenegro. And the Serbian patriots were categorically not happy with this. As a result, it was decided to kill Alexander Obrenovich, once again handing over the crown to the representative of the House of Karageorgievich.

The conspirators were headed by Dragutin Dmitrievich, nicknamed "Apis". In Greek, this word means "bee", and in Egyptian - "bull". Choose the meaning: nicknamed "bull" for strength and tenacity. Or "bee" - for efficiency and active character.

Dragutin Dimitrijevic (1876-1917) - "Apis", stands on the right.

In 1901, the first attempt failed: the king did not appear at the ball, where the conspirators were expecting him. The second attempt was also unsuccessful. The third time, on June 11, 1903, Dmitrievich and his people did better.

The assassination of the last king of the Obrenovic dynasty

This was a very harsh force action. Not a quiet palace coup, but a real assault, in which the entrance to the royal apartments was blown up with dynamite. The rebels, in search of the king, went from room to room, shooting on the way everything that could serve as a shelter for the monarch: cabinets, sofas. And all this went on for two hours. Many conspirators received bullet wounds, including Drago Dmitrievich, who was wounded three times. Some died. But the goal was achieved - Alexander Obrenovich was killed.

Such a romanticized (and not entirely correct) description of these events is contained in V. Pikul's novel "I Have the Honor!" (the author's sympathies are completely on the side of the Karageorgievichs and Dragutin-Apis):

“We broke into the lobby where the guards showered us with bullets. Everyone (myself included) diligently emptied the drums of their revolvers ... I swear, I have never had such fun as in these moments ...
In total darkness we climbed the stairs, stumbling over corpses.
The second-floor doors leading into the royal chambers were securely locked. Someone nervously struck matches, and in the flames I saw how the old general was beaten:
- Where are the keys to these doors? Give me the keys!
It was the court general Lazar Petrovich who was beaten.
“I swear,” he yelled, “I resigned yesterday ...
The door fell, blown up by dynamite. Naumovich collapsed next to me, struck to death by the force of the explosion. Gasping in the acrid fumes of gunpowder smoke, I heard the screams of the wounded.
The brutal beating of General Petrovich continued:
- Where is the king? Where is Draga? Where did they go?
Apis stepped on Petrovich's face with a heavy boot:
- Or you tell me where the hidden door is, or ...
- Here she is! - showed the general.
And he was shot. A hidden door led into a dressing room, but it was closed from the inside. A pack of dynamite was tucked under it.
- Bend down ... I set fire! - shouted Mashin.
An explosion - and the door was blown away like a light stove damper.
Moonlight fell through a wide window, illuminating two figures in the dressing room, and beside them stood a mannequin, all dressed in white, like a ghost ... The king, holding the revolver, did not even move.
Draga, half-naked, went straight to Apis:
- Kill me! Just don't touch the unfortunate ...
A saber flashed in Machine's hand, and the blade sliced ​​through the woman's face, chopping off her chin. She didn't fall. And she courageously accepted death, with her own body covering the last of the Obrenovich dynasty ... The king stood in the shadow of a white mannequin, sparkling with glasses, outwardly indifferent to everything.
“I only wanted love,” he said suddenly.
- Hit! - there was a cry, and revolvers clattered at once!
- Serbia is free! - announced Kostich. "

In fact, this was not entirely true. The king and queen were found in the ironing room. The first adjutant of the king, Lazar Petrovich, at the point of a revolver asked him to open the door:

"It's me, Laza, open the door for your officers!"

The king asked him:

"Can I trust my officers?"

Hearing an affirmative answer, he opened the door. And he was shot at close range along with the queen. Lazar Petrovich also drew a pistol (the conspirators did not even search him!) And tried to come to the aid of the king, but was killed in a shootout.

Russian journalist V. Teplov, who was in Serbia, wrote about what happened next:

“After Alexander and Draga fell, the assassins continued to shoot at them and chop their corpses with sabers: they struck the king with six shots from a revolver and 40 blows of a saber, and the queen with 63 blows of a saber and two revolver bullets. The queen was almost completely chopped up, her chest was cut off, her stomach was opened, her cheeks and arms were also cut, especially large cuts between her fingers ... In addition, her body was covered with numerous bruises from the blows of the heels of the officers who trampled on her. About other abuse of Draghi's corpse ... I prefer not to talk, to such an extent they are monstrous and disgusting. "

The bodies of the royal couple, thrown out of the windows of the palace, lay on the ground for several days.

Alexander Obrenovich and his wife Draga are thrown out of the window of a konak. Drawing from the French magazine "Petit Parisien".

On that night, two of the queen's brothers were also killed, Prime Minister Tsintsar-Markovic and Defense Minister Milovan Pavlovic. Interior Minister Belimir Teodorovich was badly wounded, but survived.

Two days earlier, in Istanbul, two disguised Serbian officers tried to kill Georgiy Jesseev, the illegitimate son of Milan Obrenovic, but were detained by the Turkish police. Two more unsuccessful attempts on his life were organized in 1907.

George Milan Jesseev, illegitimate son of Milan Obrenovich.

"The king is dead, long live the king!"

Peter I Karageorgievich, a graduate of the French military school Saint-Cyr, who had previously served in the Foreign Legion and a volunteer in the Russian-Turkish war of 1877-1878, in 1879, was sentenced in absentia in Serbia to hanging on suspicion of trying to organize a state coup.

Cover of the Austrian magazine "Wiener Bilder" dated July 1, 1903. Coronation of Pyotr Karageorgievich.

In Europe, news of a bloody palace coup in Serbia caused shock. After the news of the murder of the Obrenovich royal couple, Nicholas II declared mourning for 24 days at court. A funeral Liturgy and a requiem were served in the Kazan Cathedral of St. Petersburg. However, according to the newspaper “News days ”, none of the Serbian officers who were then in the Russian capital came to her.

In Sofia, Serbian Ambassador Pavle greeted the guests who came to him with the expression of condolences with a glass of champagne, offering to drink "to the health of the new king."

The People's Assembly of Serbia declared Drago Dmitrievich "the savior of the fatherland." And the court sycophants called the new monarch Peter I the Liberator.

After the murder of Aleksandr Obrenovich, Dragutin Dmitrievich demonstratively refused all official posts. But his influence on the royal family, army and intelligence agencies was enormous. He then agreed to become a tactics teacher at the country's Military Academy. In 1905 he was an officer of the General Staff, trained in Germany and Russia.

For a long time he did not sit in his general staff office, having gone as the commander of one of the partisan detachments (they were called chets) to Macedonia, where he fought against the same detachments of the Internal Macedonian-Odrin revolutionary organization (we will talk about it in another article). In 1908, Apis returned to Serbia, becoming assistant chief of staff of the Drina division. He took part in the Balkan Wars.

"Orthodox Croats" and "Serbs spoiled by Catholicism"

Dragutin Dmitrievich went further than Ilia Garashanin, who considered Croats and Slovenes to be an equal part of the Serbian people. In the eyes of Apis, they were "defective Serbs, corrupted by Catholicism."

But even in Croatia, some have long looked down on the Serbs. In 1860, the Party of Law appeared here, whose members ("right-wing") propagated the idea that Serbs were Orthodox Croats.

The most radical ideologues of the “right-handers” (for example, Eugen Quaternik, who raised an anti-Austrian uprising in the city of Rakovica in 1871) even stated that the Serbs were an Asian people with whom it was simply impossible for Europeans-Croats to live in one state.

A certain Ante Starchevich published the book "The name of the Serb", in which he claimed that this word comes from the Latin servus, that is, "slave".

"Black Hand"

In May 1911, Colonel Dragutin Dmitrievich (at that time - the head of the information department (counterintelligence) of the General Staff of the Serbian Army) created an underground organization "Unification or Death" (Ujedinjenje ili Smrt), better known as "Black Hand" ("Crna Hand" ).

Sign of the secret organization "Black Hand"

The second clause of the Black Hand's charter directly read:

"This organization prefers terrorist activity to ideological propaganda."

At this point, I recall the lines of E. Yevtushenko from the poem "Kazan University":

"You appeared in a blue beret,
A folk wolf with a clean childish forehead,
With an oblique plait, with a noble posture,
Not the daughter of a cynical hydrogen bomb
And the daughter of naive terrorist bombs ”.

After all, there were patriarchal times: what is on the mind is on the tongue. Not that now, when they think one thing, they say another, but do the third.

In reality, nothing changes in the world. The Soviet Union and the United States gave money and weapon African dictators (and even cannibals) for the fact that some of them knew the word "Marxism", and others - the word "democracy". "Fighters for the independence of Algeria" cut the throats of hundreds of thousands of harki and their families, and in France, former collaborators, on the orders of de Gaulle, tortured members of the OAS - heroes of the Second World War and the Resistance. In Odessa, on May 2, 2014, the Nazis burned several dozen people, and they got nothing for it. And the "fighters for freedom and democracy" mocked Gaddafi for 3 hours, raping him with a bayonet before killing him.

Branches of the Black Hand were established in Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Macedonia. In Serbia, members of this organization held key positions in government agencies, the military department and counterintelligence agencies. Many historians believe that this organization included the crown prince of Montenegro Mirko and the youngest son of the Serbian king Peter - Alexander, who at that time was already the heir to the royal throne of Serbia.

Prince Alexander Petrovich.

The fact is that his elder brother George inherited the worst traits of the character of the founder of this dynasty - "Black George". He had mental problems and simply could not control his behavior, contrived to turn both Vienna and St. Petersburg against himself: he publicly burned the flag of Austria-Hungary, in the presence of Austrian ambassadors called Emperor Franz Joseph a "thief", and Nicholas II a liar. Finally, George beat a servant to death in 1909, which was the reason for depriving him of the title of heir to the throne.

At the head of the "Black Hand" were 11 people of the Supreme Central Council, who had the right to sign with their own names. All other members were known only by serial numbers.

Black Hand leaders. Dragutin Dmitrievich lies on the left.

The "Board" decided that for the good of the Serbian people the Bulgarian Tsar Ferdinand, the King of Greece Constantine and the King of Montenegro Nikolai should be killed.

In the spring of 1914, Serbian Prime Minister N. Pasic, alarmed by the growing influence of Dmitrievich and his organization, asked King Peter to dissolve the "Black Hand", which was already operating almost openly, becoming a prestigious "club" that included the top leaders of the army and intelligence. Dragutin Dmitrievich (in turn) demanded that the Pasic government be dismissed. Pyotr Karageorgievich did not dare to do either one or the other.

And Prince Alexander became a member of another secret organization - "White Hand", created on May 17, 1912 (as opposed to "Black") by royalist-minded officers led by Petar Zhivkovic (who, by the way, was one of the participants in the storming of the royal palace and the murder of the Obrenovich in 1903).

General Petar Zivkovic. Photo from 1928

It is believed that one of the goals of the organization "Unification or Death" was the preparation of the assassination of the emperor of Austria-Hungary Franz Joseph. The Black Hand failed to liquidate the Austrian emperor.

However, his heir was still shot in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914 by terrorists of the Mlada Bosny, created in 1912. Most of the researchers are sure that their curators were people from the Serbian counterintelligence who collaborated with the Black Hand. One of the participants in this assassination attempt (Mukhamed Mehmedbashich) was a member of the Black Hand. It is not for nothing that Serbia, having agreed to 9 out of 10 points of the July ultimatum to Austria-Hungary, rejected the 6th - the most harmless one, which provided for the participation of the Austrians in the investigation of the circumstances of this terrorist attack. Regent Alexander was not sure that the traces would not lead to the offices of the highest leaders of the Serbian army and intelligence.

During the First World War, Apis became the chief of the intelligence service of Serbia. Then the chief of staff of the Uzhitskaya (later Timochskaya) division. Finally, assistant chief of staff of the III Army.

Dragutin Dmitrievich stands on the right in a photograph from the First World War.

The collapse of the "Black Hand" and the death of Apis

Drago was then imbued with republican feelings. He had the idea of ​​creating a Yugoslav Federation. He began to look askance both at the monarch he had brought to power and at his youngest son Alexander, regent of the kingdom since June 24, 1914.

Alexander Karageorgievich (a former member of the Black Hand), after being shot at in September 1916 by someone during an inspection trip to the Thessaloniki front, finally stopped trusting Dmitrievich. Out of harm's way, in March 1917 he ordered the arrest of Dragutin on charges of anti-state activities and preparation of an attempt on his life (beloved). And then shoot them.

Instead of the Democratic Federation, a kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes emerged. (Created in 1918. Since 1929 - Yugoslavia).

The already mentioned leader of the White Hand, the head of the Prince Regent Alexander's personal guard, Petar Zhivkovich, promised Dmitrievich a pardon in exchange for recognition in preparing the assassination attempt on Franz Ferdinand, explaining that this was necessary to start separate negotiations for peace with Austria-Hungary. Apis agreed to this deal - and was shot.

The last minutes of Dragutin-Apis were epic, like his whole life. Looking at the grave dug for him, he calmly said that it was too small for him. After that, Dragutin refused the bandage, which, according to the law, had to cover his eyes, declaring that he wanted to see the sun. Before firing, he shouted:

“Long live Great Serbia! Long live Yugoslavia! "

apparently deciding that this is what his last words should be. It was not so: after the first volley, he remained on his feet. And after the second, falling to his knees, he shouted:

"Serbs, you've forgotten how to shoot!"

This phrase became his last.

According to one version, they had to finish him off with bayonets. After that, according to some sources, a swarm of bees flew out from somewhere. Let me remind you that the word "Apis" in translation from Greek means "bee". I cannot say that this is not a legend invented by fans of Drago Dmitrievich.

Together with him, other leaders of the “Black Hand” were also shot - Lubomir Vulovic and Rade Mladobabic.

In 1953, Dmitrievich-Apis and his comrades were rehabilitated after a second trial of this case by the court of socialist Yugoslavia.

In the next article "The fall of the Karageorgievichs: the last kings of Serbia and Yugoslavia" we will finish the story about Serbia.
Articles from this series:
"The water in the Drina flows cold, and the blood of the Serbs is hot"
Ottoman period in the history of Serbia
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  1. Korsar4
    Korsar4 8 December 2020 06: 41
    Kings do not have a quiet life. Especially freshly baked. Especially in the Balkans.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 8 December 2020 06: 52
      Uh-huh. They are "not even allowed to milk for harm" (C)
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 8 December 2020 07: 14
        Exactly. Georges Miloslavsky is completely to blame.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 8 December 2020 07: 27
          By the way, the next Karageorgievich was also killed.
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 8 December 2020 07: 31
            Rare "Caps of Monomakh" do without blood.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 8 December 2020 07: 34
              So are the "Al Capone hats".
              But the Serbs have even surpassed the Turks in this matter.
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 8 December 2020 08: 15
                The Spilled Blood Index is not easy to calculate.
          2. Astra wild2
            Astra wild2 8 December 2020 17: 24
            My poet, if I'm not mistaken, he was killed to remove any obstacles on the fascist road
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 8 December 2020 17: 44
              In 1934 year?
              1. Astra wild2
                Astra wild2 8 December 2020 18: 43
                It would be more accurate to say: they removed the bright anti-fascists, including Alexander. This is how I remember from school
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 8 December 2020 19: 45
                  My Fair Stranger, Alexander Karageorgievich, was killed by local "patriots", together with Bulgarian "revosyuners", due to the fact that he began to build a "vertical of power" in the image of Mussolini.
                  1. Astra wild2
                    Astra wild2 8 December 2020 19: 48
                    And what would you do in his place: destroy it? I doubt
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 8 December 2020 20: 12
                      ABOUT! Have you suddenly moved to another camp? Oddly enough it may seem, but nationalistic tendencies always run up against idealistic ideals.
                      1. Astra wild2
                        Astra wild2 8 December 2020 20: 48
                        I'm not going to idialize the king. He and socialism are incompatible things
      2. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 8 December 2020 12: 33
        I remembered it myself
    2. Cowbra
      Cowbra 8 December 2020 07: 56
      Quote: Korsar4
      Especially in the Balkans.

      How is Lazarchuk doing?
      And I did not attach any importance to the crisis in the Balkans - when was there no crisis?
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 8 December 2020 08: 03
        Is it from "All That Can Carry" or "Look The Monsters In The Eyes"?
        1. Cowbra
          Cowbra 8 December 2020 08: 07
          Hyperborean plague, when they got to revolutionary Russia. "The steamer is sailing, the wave is in rings, we will feed the fish with volunteers. And they play music in response - the steamer is sailing straight to the pier, we will feed the fish with the communists. Everybody dance!"
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 8 December 2020 08: 10
            Yeah, I read it too, but a long time ago.
            Thank you, reminded! good
        2. Korsar4
          Korsar4 8 December 2020 08: 16
          I read only the second. And Gumilyov's poem sparkled with new colors.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 8 December 2020 08: 21
            I have read practically everything published before 2010.
  2. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 8 December 2020 06: 59
    But after the Berlin Congress, Milan Obrenovic decided that Serbia no longer needed Russia. And he began to focus on Austria-Hungary and Germany.
    No wonder, because, in fact, having won the war, the Republic of Ingushetia signed for powerlessness in the diplomatic field.
    Thank you, Valery!
  3. Marine engineer
    Marine engineer 8 December 2020 07: 00
    "..Called Emperor Franz Joseph" a thief ", and Nicholas II - a liar."

    But it was so.
    1. Sergey Oreshin
      Sergey Oreshin 8 December 2020 10: 51
      Of course, but political correctness, wherever it is ... The crown prince of little Serbia could not speak so publicly about the leaders of the great powers of Europe
      1. Marine engineer
        Marine engineer 8 December 2020 20: 23
        Why could not, could. The prince said what he thought and thought what he said.
        1. Fat
          Fat 8 December 2020 20: 55
          Quote: Marine engineer
          Why could not, could. The prince said what he thought and thought what he said.

          I would say so, said the March Hare. - You should always say what you think. - That's what I do, - Alice hastened to explain. - At least.. . At least I always think what I say ... and this is one and the same ... "Not the same at all," said the Hatter. -So you still say something good, as if `` I see what I eat '' and `` I eat what I see '' are one and the same! ...
          1. Marine engineer
            Marine engineer 8 December 2020 21: 05
            Georgy was a real Karageorgievich.
            No, not like that, Georgy was the last real Karageorgievich.
            1. VLR
              8 December 2020 21: 25
              King Peter said that George is his son, and Alexander (the future monarch) is the grandson of the Montenegrin king Nikola. Precisely in the sense that Georgy had a "family" character, while Alexander was more flexible, cunning, and calculating.
              1. Marine engineer
                Marine engineer 8 December 2020 22: 35
                People who were closely acquainted with both princes preferred the honest and "absurd" - straightforward George.
                The heir was popular among the people.
                A brave officer.
                Such betrayals are not forgiven, but if they become your friend, then forever.
        2. Sergey Oreshin
          Sergey Oreshin 8 December 2020 21: 47
          He could, of course, but it ended up for him that the path to the throne was blocked.
          1. Marine engineer
            Marine engineer 8 December 2020 22: 16
            The story with the servant is "muddy". Most of all, for the victim, the Austro-Hungarian press "suffered", which seems to be hinting ...
            It looked like George was "hunting" and there were enough "hunters" both in Serbia and beyond the cordon.
            1. Sergey Oreshin
              Sergey Oreshin 8 December 2020 23: 40
              Therefore, he had to keep his mouth shut until he became king. And so he opened, as they say, his cards at once - and burned
    2. Marine engineer
      Marine engineer 8 December 2020 20: 28
      "To the monarchist-minus" - thank you for being there!
  4. Marine engineer
    Marine engineer 8 December 2020 07: 12
    “In 1900, Alexander married his mother's maid of honor - Draga. This woman was 15 years older than him ... "

    Freud could probably explain what the king was thinking about marrying a barren woman 2 years younger than his mother, but certainly not about the continuation of the dynasty.
    1. Sergey Oreshin
      Sergey Oreshin 8 December 2020 10: 52
      Love is evil ...
      1. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 8 December 2020 17: 19
        Quote: Sergey Oreshin
        Love is evil ...

        Love the goat too
    2. vladcub
      vladcub 8 December 2020 15: 12
      Recently I came across information that the Supreme Court of Serbia recognized some brothers as heirs of the Obrenovic family
  5. Daniil Konovalenko
    Daniil Konovalenko 8 December 2020 07: 52
    Instead of the Democratic Federation, a kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes emerged. (Created in 1918. Since 1929 - Yugoslavia).

    When Croatia and Slovenia, after the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, turned to the "European community" represented by France, about the recognition of these states as independent, France replied that it sees the lands of Slovenia and Croatia only as part of the kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
  6. Olgovich
    Olgovich 8 December 2020 08: 56
    Only Russian victories in Bulgaria during another war with Turkey (1877-1878) saved the Serbs.

    No, not like that: the Serbo-Turkish war ended half a year before the start of the Russian-Turkish war, so RTR has nothing to do with it.

    But Serbia was really saved by Russia: October 31 1876 The Russian ambassador to Turkey, on behalf of Alexander II, presented an ultimatum to the Ottoman Empire, according to which Turkey was to conclude a peace treaty with Serbia and Montenegro within 48 hours. If Turkey refuses to comply with the terms of the ultimatum, the Russian army of 200 soldiers stationed in Bessarabia will cross the border of the Ottoman Empire. The next day, Turkey accepted the ultimatum (s)

    At the same time, during the RTR, Serbia did not behave in an allied manner: it in every possible way delayed its entry into the war: EIGHT times only Russia officially turned to it with a proposal to start hostilities, and in response only excuses and demands for money, money and money = 1 MILLION at a time and plus monthly subsidies.

    And they were given it! And all the same, she entered the war only after the capture of Plevna.

    The most interesting thing is that Russia practically did not need military assistance to Serbia: it was weak and its protection was an additional hassle for Russia.

    But Russia thought about the FUTURE namely Serbia: as a participant in the war, she received the right to expand its territory to the south at the expense of Turkey - this is what Russia was trying to achieve by forcing the Serbs!
  7. Sergey Oreshin
    Sergey Oreshin 8 December 2020 10: 54
    In fact, even at the beginning of the 20th century, the level of political culture of the Serbs remained at the level of the beginning of the 19th, with a bloody massacre between "field commanders" (Kara-Georgiy, Obrenovic and their associates), who were claiming power.
    That is, you can put on a royal crown, you can proclaim your country a kingdom, but as they were devilish, they remained so.
    1. VLR
      8 December 2020 11: 22
      Dmitrievich-Apis is a simple man, he said, "the profession of kings is too profitable, but they are obliged to pay high taxes to the peoples with their blood."
      Then this phrase was repeated somewhere after him by Mussolini, who began as a socialist.
      1. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 8 December 2020 12: 50
        Valery, Mussolini was more an anarchist than a socialist, but these are different things
        1. VLR
          8 December 2020 13: 03
          He was at one time a socialist: he joined the socialist party in 1900 (at the age of 17).
          1. vladcub
            vladcub 8 December 2020 15: 03
            Valery, Astra doesn't want Mussolini to be involved with the socialists.
            Actually, socialists and socialism are two different things
  8. Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 8 December 2020 12: 47
    Valery, your material is terrifying and very interesting.
    Now they read with the girls and were indignant: they killed Draga, and okay, but why mock a dead woman?
    And this was done by the officers, and what a fig were yelling about noble honor? How are they better than primitive savages or new savages that mocked Gaddafi?
    1. VLR
      8 December 2020 13: 16
      According to Pikul, a Russian officer who is very similar to a real person whose memoirs ("Two Lives") Pikul apparently used, took part in the storming of the royal palace and the murder of the royal couple. This is Alexander Samoilo, here he is:

      Many biographical facts coincide. In 1903, he made a reconnaissance trip to Austria-Hungary, but there is no reason to believe that he was in Belgrade during the overthrow of the Obrenoviches.
      After the revolution - a very good career in the Red Army (already commander of the Eastern Front in May 1919), no repression.
      6 state awards from Imperial Russia, 11 - from the USSR (including two Orders of Lenin, 4 Orders of the Red Banner, Order of the Patriotic War of the 1st degree).
      And also the Order of the Legion of Honor, the Order of the Italian Crown, and several Romanian orders.
      Maoir General of the Imperial Army, Lieutenant General of the Red.
      1. Okolotochny
        Okolotochny 8 December 2020 13: 45
        Yes, as now I remember several sayings from the novel: "May Russia be exalted, may our names disappear."
      2. Icelord
        Icelord 8 December 2020 14: 14
        Such people are needed by any government
      3. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 8 December 2020 16: 43
        I have not read "the honor" in full, but I read the chapters. I don't remember exactly, it seems that the main character had the profile of Napoleon, died in Yugoslavia, repelling an attack by German tanks, on a partisan airfield.
      4. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 8 December 2020 17: 14
        "that he was in Belgrade during the overthrow of the Obrenoviches" this can be explained: agree that from the point of view of power, the act, to put it mildly, is not entirely ethical either from the point of view of a monarchist or international law. When he wrote his memoirs, he could, for other reasons, ethical for example, bypass this "piquant" detail of his biography, and biographers, for various reasons, could bypass this detail.
        But there is no claim that he headed the conspiracy and shot everyone. Therefore, let everyone decide for himself
      5. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 8 December 2020 17: 21
        Thank you again for Samoilo, Valery, you reminded me. smile hi
        I read "the honor" for a long time, but I remember that, like many others, I tried to establish the hero's surname, put forward my own versions ... smile I ought to re-read ... No, perhaps it is better not even Pikul, but Samoilo himself - at first (and at second) glance, nothing but the deepest respect for his personality does not cause me to.
    2. Okolotochny
      Okolotochny 8 December 2020 13: 48
      Vera, if you haven't read it, I recommend "I have the honor!" I remember on the internet a bunch of forums climbed up to find out the name of the protagonist, it came up to a virtual tour of the Volkovo cemetery and Literatorskie mostkov. I didn't want to believe that the image was collective.
    3. The comment was deleted.
  9. Graz
    Graz 8 December 2020 13: 34
    For me, immediately after the recognition of independence, it was necessary to make a republic, there would have been less trouble initially for the Serbs themselves, you see, Russia too, in fact Apis provoked World War 1 with his actions, Obrenovich betrayed the hand extended by Russia, and Karageorgievich was mind and also looked more at Fratsia.
    Although, of course, the murder of the Obrenovich couple is a very big compromise of all the good thoughts of the patriots, they just had to be sent as they did with Prince Ferdinand in Bulgaria
    1. Icelord
      Icelord 8 December 2020 14: 25
      Nobody would have allowed the republic. Neither Russia nor Austria
  10. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 8 December 2020 14: 26
    Valery, thanks for the next material, albeit a little sinister and bloody. smile
    Yes, the struggle for power sometimes takes some completely bizarre, perverted forms, and, perhaps, no other occupation is capable of so changing, distorting human nature.
    People talk and write about love, they say, what strong emotions, what passion, overcomes everything, everything wins ... Nonsense.
    The desire to possess a person is just a petty passion compared to the desire to wield power. No woman has ever been sought as much as power is sought, and even more so, having achieved, they do not make so much effort to keep. It's just that those who are fighting for love have time to write about it, and those who are fighting for the power of time have no more time left for anything, therefore we have poems and songs about love in abundance, and poems and songs about the authorities are absent, they are, in any case, unknown to me.
    And only historians try to write about the struggle for power. But their creations are like a history in a psychiatric patient's chart - no romance. I wonder if there will ever be such an author to write poems, hymns, and poems about the terrible political meat grinders and skins. You know, so that with style (I beg your pardon and Pushkin):
    I remember a wonderful moment
    I gave my first order
    There was a seething in my blood
    There was a delicious ecstasy ...
    Oh power, joy to my soul
    What else can I say?
    I want to command my whole life
    I am this human herd ...

    The Serbian affairs described in the article, like nothing else, are conducive to such creativity:
    I will kill the rotten rival
    Tear and tear to dust
    His wife, children severely
    With my teeth in the dark
    And I will scoff for a long time
    But their bodies under the window
    Spit and jump and stomp
    Stab with a bayonet, cut with a knife ...

    It's a pity I'm not a poet ... request
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 8 December 2020 20: 08

      I remember a wonderful moment
      I gave my first order
      There was a seething in my blood
      There was a delicious ecstasy ...
      Oh power, joy to my soul
      What else can I say?
      I want to command my whole life
      I am this human herd ...

      Misha, hello! And who is the author, not you? Anyway, I applaud! ))
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 8 December 2020 22: 51
        I, Uncle Kostya, repent ... recourse
        It is written clumsily, but I tried to convey the idea, and not flaunt the syllable, this can excuse me to some extent. I have already asked Alexander Sergeevich for forgiveness. hi
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 8 December 2020 23: 24
          And I really liked it. good Can I quote you if something happens? smile
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 9 December 2020 11: 27
            These are just words that stand for nothing. No thought, no image - nothing. Parody.
            To quote - please, from what I am writing here - anything, anytime, in any volume, without reference to the source. laughing
  11. Icelord
    Icelord 8 December 2020 14: 29
    Quote: Astra wild2
    Valery, your material is terrifying and very interesting.
    Now they read with the girls and were indignant: they killed Draga, and okay, but why mock a dead woman?
    And this was done by the officers, and what a fig were yelling about noble honor? How are they better than primitive savages or new savages that mocked Gaddafi?

    They were drunk, that's all, but also wild ones, do you remember the rifle rebellion?
  12. Sergey Oreshin
    Sergey Oreshin 8 December 2020 14: 50
    Quote: Astra wild2
    officers, and what a fig yelled about noble honor?

    What kind of nobles are there in Serbia? All the noblemen were decided by the Turks in the Middle Ages, but who themselves converted to Islam.
    The entire elite of independent Serbia, incl. the military of the 19th century emerged from the peasants - mainly the "field commanders" of the times of the wars of independence, their descendants, etc.
    With a very specific mentality.
    This is not a refined Petersburg society with Andrei Bolkonsky and Pierre Bezukhov.
    1. deddem
      deddem 8 December 2020 16: 36
      This is not a refined Petersburg society with Andrei Bolkonsky and Pierre Bezukhov.

      Bezukhov, by the way, was a bastard in the book.
      And Tolstoy was not too lazy to insert such a touch as the fairly illiterate French letters written by Pierre.
      1. Sergey Oreshin
        Sergey Oreshin 8 December 2020 18: 33
        Yes, but Pierre was a very intelligent, even modest man, where did he care about the Serbian "field commanders")))
  13. vladcub
    vladcub 8 December 2020 14: 56
    "The main Serbian parties have been formed," curiously, but do they still exist?
    1. Sergey Oreshin
      Sergey Oreshin 8 December 2020 15: 13
      No, of course, in the same place in 1945 the Communist Party of Yugoslavia came to power and the entire multi-party system of that-s)))
      But a certain continuity in ideas can be traced
  14. Sergey Oreshin
    Sergey Oreshin 8 December 2020 15: 11
    Quote: Graz
    it was necessary to make a republic

    Which republic? Their political culture did not reach a normal, stable monarchy by the beginning of the 20th century, what can we say about the republic
  15. vladcub
    vladcub 8 December 2020 15: 54
    Regarding Drago Dmitrievich and the "black hand", in 1986 or 87, I read such a version that the Entente actually passed the death sentence on Drago Dmitrievich. Allegedly, after the execution, everything was done so that not a trace of his grave was preserved.
    Whether it is true or not, I do not know, but I have a feeling that, in addition to the "black hand", Walter Nikolai, the head of German intelligence, was behind Gavrila Princip, they needed a reason to start a war with the Family and Russia.
    And another curious detail: Gavrilo Princip was generally healthy until April 1918, on the eve of the imminent surrender of Austria-Hungary, fell ill and died of tuberculosis. Perhaps this is so, perhaps otherwise. There is a lot of mud here
    1. VLR
      8 December 2020 16: 04
      Yes, there are many oddities and fogs. Karl Radek, for example, suddenly announced during the trial that he knew part of the mystery of the murder in Sarajevo and the beginning of the world war. The judges were not interested: they said, let's get to the point, talk about what we are asking. What did he want to say? One can only guess.
      1. Sergey Oreshin
        Sergey Oreshin 8 December 2020 18: 35
        I don’t remember what kind of book it was, some West German historian, he tried to prove there that the left radical part of the leadership of the Second International was behind the Sarajevo assassination, which thereby sought to provoke a World War in order to bring the World Revolution closer.
        And almost Trotsky and Radek oversaw this case
  16. Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 8 December 2020 20: 09
    "by handing over the crown to the representative of the House of Karageogivich" it seems that the Obrenovichi "violated" Fethi or they did not know him.
    Joking aside, the paradox turns out: under the Obrenovich's noses their sworn "friends" Karageogivichi are sitting, after all, there are two bears in a den !!
  17. Ryaruav
    Ryaruav 8 December 2020 20: 26
    it was because of such supporters of great Serbia that Russia entered the first, but of course I wanted straits
  18. Cure72
    Cure72 9 December 2020 18: 34
    An excellent continuation of the cycle. Thanks !!!