Military Review

Ottoman period in the history of Serbia

84

Tripko Tsakovich. "Fight of Serbs with Turks"


In previous articles, it was told about the situation of Armenians, Jews and Greeks in the Ottoman Empire. And also - about the situation of Bulgarians in Turkey and Muslims in socialist Bulgaria. Now we will talk about the Serbs.

Serbia under the rule of the Ottoman Empire


Many believe that Serbia was conquered by the Ottomans in 1389 - after the famous Battle of Kosovo. This is not entirely true, because the Serbs then turned out to be not subjects of the Turkish sultans, but their vassals, retaining their rulers (like the Russian principalities during the Iga period).

Serbian despots (a title received from Byzantium by Stefan Lazarevich, son of a prince who was executed by Bayazid I after the battle on the Kosovo field) proved to be very loyal and useful vassals. It was the attack of the Serbs on the flank of the advancing Hungarian cavalry that brought the Ottomans victory over the crusaders in the battle of Nikopol (1396).

In 1402, the Serbs fought near Ankara in the army of Bayezid I Lightning, surprising Tamerlane with their valor and fortitude. After the defeat, they covered the retreat of Bayazid's eldest son (Suleiman) and actually saved him from death or shameful captivity.

The Serbian despot Georgy Brankovich (father-in-law of Sultan Murad II) avoided participating in the last crusade against the Ottomans and did not participate in the Battle of Varna. Later, according to many researchers, he did not allow the Albanian army of Skanderbeg to pass through his lands, which ultimately could not take part in the Second Battle of the Kosovo Field. And after the defeat of the Christians, George completely captured the retreating Hungarian commander Janos Hunyadi and released him from captivity only after receiving a rich ransom.

For a long time there was a struggle for Belgrade, which the Turks called the "Gate of the Holy War". And finally Serbia was conquered by the Ottomans only in 1459. Like all non-Muslim Ottoman subjects, Serbs paid a poll tax (jizye), land tax (kharaj), and military taxes. Their children were periodically taken away according to the "devshirme" system (the literal translation of this word is "changelings": meaning a change of faith). But at first they could not be called absolutely intolerable.

The religious tolerance that the Ottoman sultans demonstrated at first allowed the Serbs to preserve Orthodoxy, as well as to avoid forcible catholicization. According to a number of historians, the Ottoman conquest helped preserve and expand the Serbian lands, which the neighbors claimed. For example, it is estimated that from 1100 to 1800 Belgrade belonged to Serbia for only 70 years. But Hungary owned this city in the following periods: 1213ꟷ1221, 1246ꟷ1281, 1386ꟷ1403, 1427ꟷ1521. Only after the capture of this city by the Ottomans in 1521 did it become Serbian forever.

Ottoman period in the history of Serbia
This miniature is signed: "Siege of the Hungarian city of Estolnibelgrad by Suleiman I in 1521".

The era of Serbian viziers


The XNUMXth century in Turkey is sometimes called the “century of the Serbian viziers” (and the XNUMXth century is the era of the Albanian viziers, meaning the long reign of the representatives of the Köprülü clan). The most famous Serbian grand vizier was Mehmed Pasha Sokkolu (Sokolovic).

Serbian boy Bayo Nenadic was born in the village of Sokolovichi in Herzegovina in 1505. At the age of about 14, the Ottomans took him under the devshirme system and converted him to Islam, giving him a new name. In the Janissary corps, he fought at the Battle of Mohacs in 1526 and took part in the siege of Vienna in 1529. The career of the young Serb was simply dizzying. In 1541 we see him as the head of the court guard of Suleiman I Qanuni (the Magnificent) - at that time he was 36 years old. In 1546, he succeeded the famous Ottoman admiral Khair ad-Din Barbarossa as kapudan pasha. In 1551, Mehmed was appointed Beylerbey of Rumelia, and successfully fought in Hungary and Transylvania. But the peak of this Serb's career was still ahead. Under three sultans (Suleiman I the Magnificent, Selim II and Murad III) for 14 years, 3 months and 17 days, he served as the grand vizier. Under the son and grandson of Suleiman I, it was Mehmed Pasha Sokkolu who actually ruled the state.

The perseverance and talents of two renegades - the Serb Mehmed Pasha Sokkolu and the Italian Uluja Ali (Ali Kilich Pasha - Giovanni Dionigi Galeni) allowed the Ottoman Empire to quickly restore the fleet after the defeat at Lepanto.


Mehmed Pasha Sokollu Mehmet Paşa


Ali Kılıç Pascha (Kılıç Ali Pascha)

Mehmed then said to Uluju, who was in charge of building new ships:

"Pasha, the strength and might of the Ottoman state are such that if ordered, it will not be difficult to make anchors from silver, cables from silk threads, and sails from satin."

To the Venetian ambassador, Barbaro Mehmed Pasha said:

“Having taken Cyprus away from you, we cut off your hand. You, having destroyed our fleet, only shaved off our beard. Remember, a cut arm will not grow back, and a cut beard usually grows back with renewed vigor. "

A year later, new Ottoman squadrons went to sea. And the Venetians were forced to ask for peace, agreeing to pay 300 thousand gold florins.

Mehmed Pasha was married to Esmekhan-Sultan, the daughter of Selim II and Nurbanu, the granddaughter of Suleiman the Magnificent and Roksolana. Their son Hasan Pasha held the posts of beylerbey of Erzurum, Belgrade and all of Rumelia. The granddaughter was married to the Grand Vizier Jafer. Mustafa's nephew was appointed governor of Buda. Another nephew, Ibrahim Pechevi, became an Ottoman historian.


Ibrahim Pecevi. Monument in the town of Pecs. Hungary

In 1459, Mehmed Fatih (Conqueror) closed the Patriarchate in Pecs, subordinating the Serbian Church to the Bulgarian patriarchs. But in 1567 the Grand Vizier Mehmed Pasha Sokollu achieved the restoration of the Pec Patriarchate, which was headed by his brother Macarius, later canonized by the Serbian Orthodox Church.


Mehmed Pasha and Patriarch Macarius. Monument in Andrichgrad

After the death of Macarius, the Serbian patriarchs in turn were his nephews - Antim and Gerasim.

And in Constantinople the former Janissary built the so-called "Sokollu Mehmed Pasha Mosque" - one of the most beautiful in this city.


Sokollu Mehmed Pasha Mosque. Istanbul

This engraving, now kept in Augsburg, depicts the assassination of Sokkol Mehmed Pasha by an unknown dervish in 1579.


Paul Ricot. Sokollu Assassination (Rycaut Paul. Sokollu Assassination)

Hayduks and Yunaki


After the death of Mehmed Pasha, the Ottoman Empire began to suffer setbacks in the Balkans. The last major success of the Ottomans in the Balkans was the capture of the city of Bihac in 1592 (currently located in Bosnia and Herzegovina). In 1593, the so-called "Long War" began between Turkey and Austria, which ended in 1606, during which some Croatian territories were recaptured from the Ottomans.

The position of the Serbs in the Ottoman Empire deteriorated sharply after the end of the "Holy League War" (in which the rebellious Serbs supported the opponents of the Ottomans) and the conclusion of the Karlovytsky Peace Treaty, which was disadvantageous to Turkey, in 1699, according to which Serbia still remained part of the Ottoman Empire. And now the sultan's wrath fell on these lands.

Some Serbs even earlier (in response to oppression) went to the forests and mountains, becoming Yunaks or Haiduk. Now the number of these "partisans" has increased significantly.


Weapon Serbian Hajduks. Belgrade War Museum

Old Novak (Baba Novak) was one of the first known hayduks, who is considered to be their national hero by both Serbs and Romanians.


Baba Novac. 1882 engraving

He was born in 1530 in Central Serbia. He spoke three languages ​​fluently - Serbian, Romanian and Greek. He received the nickname "Old" in his youth - after the Turks knocked out all his teeth in prison (which sharply "aged" his face).

He gained the greatest fame in 1595-1600, when, at the head of 2 thousand haiduks, he very successfully fought against the Ottomans on the side of Mihai the Brave, who ruled at that time Transylvania, Wallachia and Moldavia. Took part in the liberation of Bucharest, Giurgi, Targovishte, Ploiesti, Ploevna, Vratsi, Vidin and other cities. But in 1601, Giorgio Basta (an Italian general in the service of the Habsburgs) accused Novak of treason: together with his two captains, he was sentenced to be burned at the stake. This execution took place on 21 February. At the same time, to make death more painful, their bodies were periodically doused with water. And on August 9 of the same year, Giorgio Basta ordered the execution of Novak's ally, Mihai the Brave.

Another famous hayduk was Stanislav ("Stanko") Sochivitsa, who lived in the middle of the 1715th century (1777-XNUMX).


Stanislav Sochivitsa. Engraving by an unknown author. 1779 g.

Together with two brothers, he operated in Dalmatia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina. This hayduk was cruel - quite in the spirit of that time. However, folk songs and legends claim that he never killed or robbed Christians.


In this engraving by an unknown author, the Yunaki Sochivitsa fry captured Turks.

Two years before his death, the already elderly Sochivica retired and moved to the territory of Austria-Hungary. By that time, his fame was so high that even Emperor Joseph II wished to meet with him, who after a conversation appointed him commander of a detachment of Austrian pandurs (light infantrymen guarding the border of the empire).


Austrian pandur from 1760

The founders of the dynasties of the Serbian kings - Kara-Georgy and Obrenovic - were the commanders of the Yunak detachments.

There were Serbs among the Dalmatian Uskoks, but we will talk about these pirates of the Adriatic in another article.

"Great Migration of Serbs"


In 1578, on the borders of the Austrian Empire, the Military Border was organized (otherwise it is called the Military Krajina) - a strip of land from the Adriatic Sea to Transylvania, which was under the direct control of Vienna. Currently, the territory of the Voennoy Krajina is divided between Croatia, Serbia and Romania.

Christians who left the Ottoman Empire began to settle here, at least half of whom were Orthodox Serbs - this is how the famous Borichars appeared. Some historians point to the similarity of the border with the Russian Cossacks of the Caucasian line.


Serbian border


Military Krajina in 1750

Two waves of Orthodox refugees, called the "Great Migration of Serbs", stand out in particular.

The first (1690) was associated with the defeat of the rebels during the "Holy League War" in which the Serbs supported the "Holy Alliance" (united Austria, Venice and Poland) in its war with the Ottoman Empire. With the help of Austrian troops, the rebels then managed to liberate almost the entire territory of Serbia and Macedonia from the Turks. Nis, Skopje, Belgrade, Prizren and many other cities were in the hands of the rebels. But then there was a defeat at Kachanik and a difficult retreat. The advancing Ottomans severely punished the population of the abandoned cities and villages. About 37 thousand people left Kosovo and Metohija for the territory of Austria.


Pavle (Payia) Jovanovich. "Serbian Exodus in the 1690s."

The second wave of the “Great Migration” took place in 1740 after the Russo-Austro-Turkish War of 1737ꟷ1739. This time the Serbs moved not only to Austria, but also to Russia. Later they were joined by refugees from Moldova and Bulgaria. All together, in 1753, they were settled in the territories that received the name Slavic Serbia and New Serbia.


Slavic Serbia and New Serbia on the map of modern Ukraine

Attempts to Islamize Serbs


As we have already said, since the war with the "Holy League" and the Karlovytsky Peace, the Ottomans did not trust the Serbs, who in their eyes had ceased to be reliable subjects. The Turks have now begun to encourage the resettlement of Muslim Albanians to Serbian lands and to pursue a policy of Islamizing the Serbs. The Serbs who converted to Islam were called arnautas by the Serbs (they should not be confused with the Albanian arnauts, which we will talk about in another article). It was the descendants of the Arnautas who made up a significant part of the modern Kosovar "Albanians" And some of the Arnautash eventually began to identify themselves as Turks.

Since the influence of Orthodox patriarchs was traditionally strong in Serbia, the Ottomans in 1767 again abolished the Orthodox Patriarchate of Pech, transferring these lands to the jurisdiction of the Patriarchate of Constantinople. Serbian bishops were gradually replaced by Greek ones.

In the next article, the title of which became the lines of a folk song "The water in the Drina flows cold, and the blood of the Serbs is hot", we will continue our story about Serbia.


Pavle (Paya) Jovanovitch. "Fencing"

In it we will talk about the struggle of the Serbs for the independence of their country, about Kara-Georgy and his rival Milos Obrenovic.
Author:
84 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. Catfish
    Catfish 2 December 2020 05: 36
    +11
    Good morning everyone! hi smile
    Well, the porridge was in the Balkans, and even now there is somehow no better.
    Hardly pushed his way through the jungle of Serbo-Turkish and Muslim-Christian relations,
    however, I learned that there were also some arnautashi. What a compote!
    Thank you Valery! smile
    1. depressant
      depressant 2 December 2020 17: 01
      +2
      An acquaintance was in Abkhazia by the name of Arnaut - a big, bear-like and even awkward, not in a local good-natured uncle. Outwardly - not a Slav, but not a Caucasian either. However - Abkhaz. However, the Abkhaz are still a hodgepodge. Small people, the possibility of degeneration. Well, that's me, along the way)))
    2. vladcub
      vladcub 2 December 2020 21: 21
      0
      Kostya, good evening. Now, for the sake of interest, to determine when the events take place: the top picture "battle of Serbs with Turks"? Judging by the revolver - 40-50 years of the 19th century.
      True, the drawing is not the best, but what is your opinion?
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 2 December 2020 21: 53
        +1
        Hello, Glory!
        You can't even say what it is, you need to rummage around, look for it, but obviously not a capsule or hairpin, but a central battle, as far as you can see in the figure, the revolver has an "Abadi door", when tilted, a unitary cartridge was inserted into the drum , but I'm not sure that this is not a "flight of free imagination" of the artist, although an attempt to detail the weapon is clearly present there.

        I tried to mark the "door" on it with a red circle, but something turned out pale.
      2. Catfish
        Catfish 3 December 2020 10: 06
        0
        Slava, our Alexei Lexus has unearthed what kind of gun this is, I quote him:

        "... the painting depicts the assassination of Voivode Tripko Dzhakovich in 1875. Therefore, under the revolver in his hand it is best suited externally to the version of Shamelo-Delvin with a long barrel, produced since 1873. The artist overdid it a little with a drum. Gasser's revolvers of that time, but I have not heard that they did something for them in other countries, except for Austria-Hungary. Theoretically, the military leader could afford to buy any "gun." So the artist smeared the "barrel" to make it look more formidable, in order to emphasize the tragedy of the depicted moment. "(c)
        But the revolver itself, only with a short barrel, with a long one, could not be found.

        And Lyokha is now in the bath and without the right to correspond, such things. He sent me a message through Nikolai. For which both of them and thanks. smile
        1. vladcub
          vladcub 3 December 2020 12: 43
          +1
          Yes, it will be so. And I didn’t see "Abadi" and in appearance, I thought that imitation of Colt
  2. Korsar4
    Korsar4 2 December 2020 07: 45
    +15
    How bizarre things sometimes develop: one brother is the Grand Vizier. The other is the Patriarch. And there is no contradiction in this.

    Like the Empire, probably, it cannot but be multinational.
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Sergey Oreshin
      Sergey Oreshin 2 December 2020 10: 52
      +5
      But very soon, by historical standards, the multi-ethnic Ottoman Empire slipped into nationalism, chauvinism and a new massacre on ethnic and religious grounds.
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 2 December 2020 12: 08
        +4
        And this is already a question of maintaining balance and progress.
  3. Daniil Konovalenko
    Daniil Konovalenko 2 December 2020 08: 17
    -5
    Serbs fought for independence, Bulgarians were waiting for liberation.
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. pytar
      pytar 2 December 2020 10: 05
      +10
      Serbs fought for independence, Bulgarians were waiting for liberation.

      Where are such conclusions from"???
      "Ignorance breeds confidence in people! (Dunning-Kruger effect)"
      1. Daniil Konovalenko
        Daniil Konovalenko 2 December 2020 10: 08
        +8
        Yes, from the author's articles. I would be glad if you publish a series of articles about the struggle for the independence of the Bulgarian people during the 500-year Ottoman yoke, you can publish one and tell everything briefly, for the ignorant. The keyboard is in your hands.
        1. pytar
          pytar 2 December 2020 12: 42
          +8
          Yes, from the author's articles.

          Dear D. Konovalenko, this is a story about the struggle of the Serbian people against Ottoman slavery! Not about the Bulgarians! How do you, on the basis of a static not related to the Bulgarians, make a conclusion about them ??? request
          I would be glad if you publish a series of articles about the struggle for the independence of the Bulgarian people during the 500-year Ottoman yoke, you can publish one and tell everything briefly, for the ignorant. The keyboard is in your hands.

          The acute lack of free time does not allow me to take the keyboard in my hands. Although information on the topic is already abundant. Yes, and I write in Russian with a mistake, I need a corrector to help.
          1. Daniil Konovalenko
            Daniil Konovalenko 2 December 2020 12: 46
            +3
            The author previously wrote about Bulgaria. And he did not mention there about the uprisings in Bulgaria during the Ottoman rule. It is a pity that you cannot. Give links then. Enlighten. By the way, you have read these articles about Bulgaria. Yes, you can not give references about the Bulgarian uprising of 1876.
            1. pytar
              pytar 2 December 2020 13: 34
              +6
              The author had previously written about Bulgaria and did not mention the uprisings in Bulgaria during the Ottoman rule.

              The author wrote, but as I understand it, he had a different idea. He did not set himself the goal of covering the struggle of the Bulgarians against the Ottoman yoke, since this topic is really huge. hi
              1. Daniil Konovalenko
                Daniil Konovalenko 2 December 2020 13: 39
                +2
                But he mentioned the Serbs ... hi
              2. vladcub
                vladcub 2 December 2020 17: 19
                +1
                Boyan, here you have to thank the Turks. They poorly tried to "create you happiness"
              3. VLR
                2 December 2020 17: 22
                +5
                "I did not set myself the goal of covering the struggle of the Bulgarians against the Ottoman yoke, since this topic is really huge":

                Yes, right. And so on Bulgaria three articles turned out, also distracted by Cyprus, although the plans were not included. If I started to write about the "national liberation struggle", I would get stuck in this topic. Therefore, I left it "out of brackets".
            2. Senior seaman
              Senior seaman 2 December 2020 19: 27
              +7
              Apart from guiding ...
              1404-1417 The uprising of Constantine and Frunzhin.
              1598 First Tarnovo uprising.
              1686 Second Tarnovo uprising.
              1688 Chiprovsky uprising
              1689 Karpos revolt.
              1737 Revolt in Western Bulgaria.
              Well, in principle, any Russian-Turkish war was accompanied by one or another performance. That under Suvorov, that under Dibich, that under Kutuzov.
              Everything was fine there.
            3. vladcub
              vladcub 2 December 2020 20: 52
              -2
              Konovalenko, I suggest: Colonel Valery, to reprimand him that he did not speak about the Bulgarian riots.
    3. Daniil Konovalenko
      Daniil Konovalenko 2 December 2020 11: 49
      +3
      Someone from the minusers would highlight my ignorance. laughing I know about the April 1876 uprising in Bulgaria. By the way, during the Crimean War of 1853-1856, at the very beginning, when the Russian troops crossed the Danube, the Russian command hoped for an uprising of the Bulgarians, as in 1829. If I am mistaken, develop the delusion.
      1. The comment was deleted.
        1. Daniil Konovalenko
          Daniil Konovalenko 2 December 2020 13: 13
          +6
          Thank you very much. I will get acquainted.
        2. vladcub
          vladcub 2 December 2020 13: 26
          +7
          Boyan, good afternoon. I am glad that they "dropped in" to us. You from the Balkans know better what kind of porridge you are cooking, but it is more difficult for us to understand
          1. pytar
            pytar 2 December 2020 13: 39
            +10
            Good day, Svyatoslav! hi Balkan because of its geographic location, are the crossroads of interests. Local peoples have been living here in more or less isolated lands, for at least 10-12 centuries. Outside forces cook porridge, many times they have drawn borders right across ethnic lands, cutting off live meat from one or another people. And the case with decree, forced creation "Macedonian nation" from the Bulgarians in Macedonia, in the middle of the previous century, is generally unique in its absurdity! Unless, you can compare it with the emergence "great ukrah".
      2. Bagatur
        Bagatur 2 December 2020 23: 33
        +1
        Yes! Vostanie has to prepare in advance ... It doesn't hit that easily. The Russians will come as many times and then they will leave and the Bulgarians will remain on their own against the Ottomans ...
    4. Vincenzo
      Vincenzo 3 December 2020 22: 57
      +1
      Konovalenko .............. you are pathetic and illiterate !!!
  4. Boris55
    Boris55 2 December 2020 09: 14
    -2
    Second picture from bottom:

    Quote: Ryzhov V.A.
    Slavic Serbia and New Serbia on the map of modern Ukraine

    Crimea cannot be on the globe of modern Ukraine!
  5. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
    Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 2 December 2020 10: 49
    +7
    Thanks to the author. The cycle is excellent (showing thumb)
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 2 December 2020 13: 21
      +4
      Not between the index and middle fingers. Just kidding
  6. Undecim
    Undecim 2 December 2020 10: 54
    +6
    The Serbs who converted to Islam were called Arnautas
    The Serbs did not call their fellow tribesmen that way at that time. This term was coined already in the XNUMXth century by Serbian historians, possibly by Jovan Tsviich, who distinguished the "arbanized Serbs" from the real Arbanas (Albanians).
  7. stoqn477
    stoqn477 2 December 2020 11: 09
    +8
    Quote: Daniil Konovalenko
    Serbs fought for independence, Bulgarians were waiting for liberation.

    It is not a bad idea to check this "waiting for release" after how many uprisings and bloodsheds have occurred. Not to mention the fact that the Bulgarian volunteers took part in the uprisings of the Serbs and Greeks.
    1. Daniil Konovalenko
      Daniil Konovalenko 2 December 2020 11: 52
      +3
      There is no need to tell about the volunteers of the Bulgarians. Better tell us about the liberation movements of the Bulgarians for 500 years .. Or give clues, I'll look ...
  8. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 2 December 2020 11: 17
    +9
    Valery, thank you, it was interesting and informative. For example, I did not know about the Sokolovich brothers.
    At school, these events were taught to us completely indistinctly (which, in general, is understandable), but my personal impression of the events in the Balkan region, based on the materials of school textbooks, was somewhat distorted. What knowledge about the history of Serbia have I learned from school, for example?
    Kosovo field, and then an extremely irreconcilable and continuous struggle for independence until the end of the XIX century. Perhaps that's all. Then I managed to broaden my horizons by learning about Stefan Dusan, but in general, this region eluded my attention.
    Well, thanks to you, interest has awakened. Finally, I wanted to deal with all these Rashki, Zetas and other Paganiyas. There, for sure, there are also many interesting things. smile
    All is decided. I finish reading Elena Brown and start looking for something about Nemanichs. smile
    1. Astra wild2
      Astra wild2 2 December 2020 18: 13
      0
      Mikhail, I know less than yours, and therefore Valery is especially important to me ..
      Then Vladkub said that most of these events do not know anything.
      This was probably not always the case. At the end of the 19th century, people knew more: the participants in these events or the stories of their parents were alive.
      Serbs and Bulgarians are well aware of those events - they are concerned, and for us this is already "giving deep old age" (c)
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 2 December 2020 19: 55
        +3
        Quote: Astra wild2
        At the end of the 19th century.

        At this time, only those who were born at its beginning were alive. smile But as for the fact that
        Quote: Astra wild2
        Serbs and Bulgarians are well aware of those events

        It's right. And, in general, not surprising. They live in their small compact countries, whose history is rich in its own way, but limited to one people, one region - you can and should focus on the subtleties, nuances, because there is nothing else. In Russia, especially in the USSR, the scales are completely different, therefore, we simply have no time and nowhere to study the campaigns of, for example, Izyaslav Mstislavich - we have, on the one hand, Khan Batu, Tokhtamysh and Devlet-Girey, on the other, Stefan Batory, Charles XII and Napoleon, God forbid to remember them, and we have scores with the Germans, and with the French, and with the Poles, and with the British, and with the Kazakhs, as well as with the Tajiks, Uzbeks, Georgians, Armenians, Turks, Japanese, Chinese ... Therefore, if we start to reckon with them - Bulgarians, Serbs, Macedonians or other peoples offenses - they will count us once or twice. For them, we are an essential part of their history, they are of little significance to us.
        Due to the fact that they cook for a long time in their regional cauldron, they accumulate grievances against each other, keep everything in memory, because of this they constantly breed new grievances and claims ... And this is necessary for them, this is a support for them self. Each nation has its own destiny, and I don't want to offend anyone, I just say it as it is.
        1. Astra wild2
          Astra wild2 2 December 2020 20: 38
          +2
          Mikhail, in general, I agree with you, but you also agree that in the 19th century in Russia
          they knew much better about the Balkans. It is one thing to read in history and another when you could see participants in the Russian-Turkish war of 1877; 78 years or earlier wars.
          I somehow, right after the wedding ,. was in the archives, on family matters, and managed to look through some newspaper for 1882, there they told so vividly about the last war and listed the people who participated in those events from: some prince to soldiers of various regiments. Naturally, people could then better imagine
  9. Bersaglieri
    Bersaglieri 2 December 2020 13: 16
    +5
    Great stuff!
  10. vladcub
    vladcub 2 December 2020 13: 17
    +8
    Most of us DO NOT KNOW ABOUT these events, and therefore Valery's materials, like hot cakes, go to Hurray.
  11. MA3UTA
    MA3UTA 2 December 2020 13: 19
    +1
    He spoke three languages ​​fluently - Serbian, Romanian and Greek. Nickname "Old"


    He could hardly speak Romanian.
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 2 December 2020 17: 03
      +1
      Why doubt?
  12. MA3UTA
    MA3UTA 2 December 2020 13: 56
    +2
    Bulgarians have always treated the Ottomans with special feelings.

    Looking ahead a couple hundred years


    “Shipka” is the oldest of the Chisinau memorial complexes, named after the Bulgarian city.
    “Here, on the Skakovye Pole, on April 12/24, 1877, a manifesto was announced about the beginning of the war with Turkey. In this regard, a parade of Russian troops took place and formed in Chisinau, the first three squads of the Bulgarian militia, which became the basis of the Bulgarian national army.

    The chapel was built in 1882 in memory of the campaign of the Russian army in 1877-1878. and the liberation of Bulgaria, Serbia and Montenegro from the Turkish yoke "..



    details from local historians
    http://oldchisinau.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=7&t=465&start=60
  13. stoqn477
    stoqn477 2 December 2020 15: 28
    +9
    Quote: Daniil Konovalenko
    There is no need to tell about the volunteers of the Bulgarians. Better tell us about the liberation movements of the Bulgarians for 500 years .. Or give clues, I'll look ...

    The uprising of Constantine and Fruzhin 1408
    The first Tarnovo uprising of 1598
    Second Tarnovo uprising in 1686
    Chiprovskoe uprising of 1688
    Karposhov Uprising of 1689
    Uprising in Western Bulgaria in 1737
    Uprising in Thrace 1828-29
    The uprising in the Negotinsky region in 1833.
    Revolt of 16 villages in West Stara Planina in 1835.
    The first pirot 1835
    Manchu Uprising of 1836
    Verban Uprising of 1837
    The second Pirotov uprising 1838
    Niš uprising of 1841
    Vidin / Belogradchik uprising of 1850
    April Uprising of 1876
    It is possible that some unknown and other uprisings are taking place here and there. These are the most famous. During the period of Ottoman rule, the Gaidut movement existed in different parts of the country.
  14. Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 2 December 2020 16: 57
    0
    I wish you all good health.
    Alas, only now I found time to write, but at work it was darkness.
    Valery, I was torn apart and now harmful, do not be angry.
    In my opinion, it would be correct to explain who he is: Yunak and Hayduk?
    Perhaps I am mistaken, but a young man is a soldier, and a haiduk is an armed servant, an analogue of our servants? In some textbook there was a footnote ": armed guard." "But here, something does not agree: Gaiduk is a rebel?)
    Need an explanation
    1. VLR
      2 December 2020 17: 11
      +3
      In this case, the meaning of the words "haiduk" and "yunak" is the same - half a robber, half a rebel. One did not interfere with the other. Yunak - "young man", haiduk, most likely originally a "shepherd". There were also royal hayduks in Hungary - similar to the registered Cossacks of the Commonwealth. And haiduks like armed servants of some tycoon. But these values ​​appeared later. In another article I will talk about this again - when I write about the Dalmatian mountains and the hayduks of other countries.
      1. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 2 December 2020 19: 34
        +2
        Valery, I tried not to criticize you, but today: why, when they talked about Bulgaria, did they not mention, at least briefly, about the anti-Turkish uprisings? About Serbia, albeit briefly, but there. And the illustrations were beautiful (there are even brutal ones).
        Do not be angry, I warned that the mood is nasty
    2. Korsar4
      Korsar4 2 December 2020 17: 32
      +1
      Yunak is a young man. Maybe beardless. And the hayduk is tall. And with a mustache. Anyhow, you can't put someone on the heels.

      (Although, of course, this is only the second meaning of the word).
      1. Bagatur
        Bagatur 2 December 2020 23: 27
        +3
        Yunak (well done, hero).
        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 2 December 2020 23: 30
          +1
          Sure. But many words have more than one meaning.
  15. vladcub
    vladcub 2 December 2020 17: 11
    0
    Quote: Daniil Konovalenko
    There is no need to tell about the volunteers of the Bulgarians. Better tell us about the liberation movements of the Bulgarians for 500 years .. Or give clues, I'll look ...

    Read about "Princess Raina", (Futekova) she was actually saved from death by the Russian ambassador. This episode is in the Soviet-Bulgarian film, "The Way to Sofia".
    PS. Comrades, who will be able to explain to the Chukchee: how to use the Rutriker? It seems to me that they installed it, and then how?
  16. Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 2 December 2020 17: 41
    +1
    Colleagues Bulgarians, please translate the inscription: "your brother of linen kako world and brother of myega did not hit you"
    I know that you have the same alphabet and the language is very similar. I was told that the Russian will stay in Bulgaria for a couple of days will be able to name the newspapers, understand the speech a little.If we ', outsiders, can understand, but the locals are not a problem
  17. Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 2 December 2020 18: 21
    +1
    "Yunaki Sochivetsy, fry captured Turks" brrr. It's scary to imagine that.
    Now I thought, if they did this to the Turks, but what about their traitors ?!
    Alas, traitors are everywhere
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 2 December 2020 19: 30
      +2
      Are you interested in methods of execution and torture?
      Then - a direct road to the East.

      The first thing that comes to mind is the use of bamboo sprouting through the person being executed.

      And where everyone has a pain threshold and the transition to oblivion - the details.
      1. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 2 December 2020 19: 38
        +2
        No, God forbid. I'm incredibly happy that such fanaticism, somewhere far in the past
        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 2 December 2020 19: 49
          +2
          Think Guantanamo is the past?
          1. Astra wild2
            Astra wild2 2 December 2020 20: 48
            0
            Tell me is this the future?
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 2 December 2020 20: 56
              +2
              I don’t know about the future.
              Sometimes I wonder: are people becoming less tough?
              There is no answer to this question.
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 2 December 2020 21: 19
                +2
                ... are people becoming less tough?


                Why?
                1. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 2 December 2020 21: 21
                  +2
                  Less raw meat is eaten as version.
                  What they read in the books. What they heard at school.
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 2 December 2020 21: 57
                    +1
                    What they read in the books. What they heard at school.

                    I'm not sure if in the Near and Middle East the majority of the population knows what the word "book" means.
                    1. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 2 December 2020 22: 17
                      +2
                      There are graduates of our universities. Any engineer is familiar with the book.
                      1. Catfish
                        Catfish 2 December 2020 22: 38
                        +2
                        After all, I didn't mean this category, but just the majority of the population, and how many of them remained, graduates of our universities and schools.
                      2. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 2 December 2020 23: 11
                        +2
                        The same vision is that population growth has greatly changed the proportions in society.
  18. Catfish
    Catfish 2 December 2020 21: 18
    +2
    And why is the rest of the "enlightened" Europe better? Hundreds of people were burned.
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 2 December 2020 21: 22
      +2
      Nothing. The question is in the details. But, again, for delights - to the East.
    2. pytar
      pytar 2 December 2020 23: 35
      0
      And why is the rest of the "enlightened" Europe better? Hundreds of people were burned.

      Dark times, illuminated from the treasures ... By the way, Russia was not an exception either. In the interest of the truth, "burning witches" in Russia was also widespread. Ivan the Terrible was especially distinguished.

      Russian Inquisition: how our ancestors fought witches
      https://www.factroom.ru/rossiya/russkaya-inkviziciya-kak-nashi-predki-borolis-s-vedmami

      How Ivan the Terrible drove witches: the history of the fight against witchcraft in Russia

      https://ftimes.ru/339889-kak-ivan-groznyj-vedm-gonyal-istoriya-borby-s-koldovstvom-v-rossii.html

      Were witches burned in Russia?
      https://yandex.ru/q/question/szhigali_li_vedm_na_rusi_ac356300/?utm_source=yandex&utm_medium=wizard&answer_id=51678028-5d09-4a62-b1cf-f195d039625d#51678028-5d09-4a62-b1cf-f195d039625d
      1. The comment was deleted.
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 2 December 2020 20: 45
    +1
    It is curious: how did Mehmet Pasha treat his compatriots, i.e. the Serbs? I think that it is loyal if there is a monument to him.
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 2 December 2020 21: 02
    +1
    The engraving by Stanislav Sochevitsa inspired an analogy with "The Last of the Mohicans": they ate the same way, cut their uniforms and the time was similar.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 2 December 2020 22: 02
      +1
      Vera, the Chingachgooks did not have uniforms, they ran with their bare bottoms. smile Or did you mean the British?
  • vladcub
    vladcub 2 December 2020 21: 08
    +2
    "As with their traitors" they played nice with us.
    Astra, then neither Serbs nor Turks, did not bother about the Gaga Convention. We acted as we liked.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 2 December 2020 21: 59
      +1
      Slava, some kind of misogynist Vera instructed the minuses, correct the person's karma. smile
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 3 December 2020 08: 21
        +2
        Kostya, I'm not at war with Astra. She will quickly "sew" the article or the PSM will grab it. I have not seen anyone other than Makar.
        All jokes aside, she is generally well done, but a little emotion plays
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 3 December 2020 08: 26
          +1
          ... or PSM will grab.

          "Evil tongues are worse than a pistol." (C)
          1. vladcub
            vladcub 3 December 2020 08: 27
            +2
            It seems, Pushkin?
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 3 December 2020 08: 30
              +1
              It seems he. Who knows better than him - he died from a pistol. request
              1. vladcub
                vladcub 3 December 2020 08: 34
                +2
                In fact, there were many of them. Therefore, I will name Lermontov
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 3 December 2020 08: 36
                  +2
                  But Heinrich Böll remained alive, although he passed the Kursk Bulge on his tank. It is up to whom to decide how to bring it.
                  1. vladcub
                    vladcub 3 December 2020 08: 38
                    +1
                    That's right. All the will of God
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 3 December 2020 08: 42
                      0
                      "God grant, God grant, God grant good luck!
                      Give each one a cent, and we have a pound of change! "(C) wink
              2. VLR
                3 December 2020 09: 03
                +2
                "Evil tongues are worse than a pistol."
                These are the words of Famusov in "Woe from Wit" (Griboyedov) smile
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 3 December 2020 09: 17
                  0
                  All my life I thought that it was Chatsky who blurted out. laughing
  • Bagatur
    Bagatur 2 December 2020 23: 25
    +1
    In 1459 Mehmed Fatih (the Conqueror) closed the Patriarchate in Pecs, subordinating the Serbian Church to the Bulgarian patriarchs. But in 1567, the grand vizier This is very different! After the seizure of Tarnovo, the Turkish Patriarchate was subdued by the Turks and the Bulgarian Church subdued the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.
  • Walking
    Walking 3 December 2020 07: 19
    +1
    As a child, I remember watching the film Mihai the Brave several times. In the film, Mihai is killed by sent assassins. Yes, and in Vick it is indicated that Mihai was killed as a result of a conspiracy, and not executed.
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 3 December 2020 07: 44
    +1
    Quote: Sea Cat
    Vera, the Chingachgooks did not have uniforms, they ran with their bare bottoms. smile Or did you mean the British?

    Their most
  • kamakama
    kamakama 3 December 2020 12: 26
    0
    I was pleased with the very subtle parallel between Serbia as part of the Ottoman Empire and Russia as part of the Horde, especially after Uzbek, who converted to Islam.
    1) The conquerors did not interfere (at least at first) in the internal affairs (religious too) of the subordinate peoples
    2) It is quite possible to draw a parallel in terms of the level of ethnic formation and the depth of political ties between Kievan Rus and the Balkan principalities - then modern Serbs, Croats and Bosnians differed from each other no more than Novgorodians, Tverichi, Vladimirs and Galicians
    3) In both cases, the system of relationships was built in such a way that trustworthy vassal relations were rewarded, both collectively (granting privileges) and personally (there, even the first minister could become)
    4) Some of the Slavic peoples who did not fall under the rule of Islam were converted to Catholicism (Croats) or eked out a very miserable existence at the level of heretics, without any rights (now Western Belarus, Western Ukraine) without special prospects for anything

    A very interesting fact follows from this - without Muslim intervention, the existence of Orthodoxy in its modern form would be highly doubtful. It would seem that it was the Muslims who ousted the Byzantines from history, but in fact, Rome did not care which infidels or heretics were to take Jerusalem and trade with the East from. Constantinople would still be taken by the crusaders, and Orthodoxy was destroyed or brought to the level of an underground sect