Military Review

Just tiznaos. Homemade armored vehicles of the Spanish Civil War

63

The armored car "tiznaos", so to speak - "a barn on wheels." Apparently, it was built in Barcelona and belonged to the anarchists of Durruti


On the third day of our stay in Alcubierra, rifles arrived. A senior sergeant with a gruff, dark yellow face gave us weapon in the stable. I was desperate to see what had befallen me. It was a German "Mauser" model of 1896, that is, more than forty years ago. The rifle was rusted, the bolt moved with difficulty, the wooden lining of the barrel was split, one glance into the barrel convinced me that it was hopelessly rusted too. Most of the rifles were no better, and some were even worse than mine. No one even thought that better rifles should be given to those who know how to handle them. The best rifle, made just ten years ago, was in the possession of a fifteen-year-old cretin nicknamed maricón ("girl"). The sergeant set aside five minutes for training, explaining how to load the rifle and how to disassemble the bolt. Many of the militias had never held a rifle in their hands before, and very few knew why a front sight was needed. Fifty cartridges were distributed per person. Then we were lined up, and we, throwing our backpacks behind our backs, moved towards the front, which was only five kilometers from us.

(George Orwell "In Memory of Catalonia")

Behind the pages of the civil wars. Perhaps no one better than George Orwell spoke about his personal participation in the Spanish Civil War. However, he either did not see, or did not consider it necessary to tell about the "tiznaos" - homemade republican armored cars. Although it would be very interesting to read his description - Orwell had a keen eye and was attentive to little things: that is, he possessed qualities that are especially necessary for any journalist. And this can only be regretted, because these machines were included in a very special chapter. stories Spanish armored vehicles, first of all, because they were used there, well, just a great many. During the war, in almost every city or even a small village in Spain, they tried to build a certain number of homemade armored vehicles, sometimes of the most exotic type. Even the Spanish historians were beyond the power of Spanish historians to somehow describe all of them, and even more so to systematize, so our today's time cannot be called exhaustive, but this is the maximum that the same Spanish sources give us. There are many photographs of "tiznaos", but today we will not use them, but will replace them with very high-quality illustrations made by A. Sheps. So…


The first Spanish armored cars, delivered from France and had pivot machine-gun mounts, which made it possible to fire from different embrasures

With the beginning of the war, workers in the least equipped Spanish factories and small factories began to "rivet" extremely primitive armored vehicles, often armored with conventional "boiler iron", without towers, with embrasures cut along the sides for firing from personal weapons of the armored car crew.


BA "Nash Quad" were supplied to Spain in the 20s and fought in Spanish Morocco

At large factories and shipyards, where both materials and engineering personnel were available, they tried to create armored vehicles "according to science." There was even a certain "serialization" of production, and they tried to install weapons in the towers. Photographs have come down to us depicting fairly sophisticated armored cars (at least they are at the level of the BA of the First World War!) With dome-shaped armored towers or even with turrets installed on them from our padded tanks T-26 and BT-5. It's just where, by whom and when all these machines were built, alas, is unknown, because after the victory of the nationalists, all the documents by which it was possible to find out at least something about this were simply destroyed. Again, judging from the photographs, some of these BAs belonged to Francoists and took part in the Victory Parade in Seville in 1939.


Here it is this armored car with the identification badge of nationalists, which was shown at the parade in Seville. There is also a photo of him on a dirt road!

The original technical solution to increase the cross-country ability on these BAs were twin wheels, the outer wheels were of a smaller diameter, and the inner ones were larger. When the wheels of a larger diameter sank in all this when driving on loose soil and mud, the wheels of a smaller diameter gave the car an acceptable support. However, it is doubtful that even such BAs were used off-road: the large weight of the armor and turret from the tank, no doubt, greatly increased their pressure on the ground. But some armored cars, manufactured at the factories of Barcelona, ​​were made from tanks cut into parts, while ventilation "mushrooms" in the form of samovar pipes were made for ventilation above the front seats - an original, but outwardly funny solution!


Another BA in the form of a "home on wheels". The arrows fired through the embrasures


There are a lot of such armored vehicles in the photographs of the war period.

It is interesting that the command of the nationalists did not approve of all this improvised armored vehicles, and if it used them during the war, then only the most perfect or of the same type. So, on the chassis of the Ford Times 7V car, the nationalists made an armored car, which was used as a self-propelled mortar. It had an armored vehicle with an 81 mm mortar, an armored cockpit and an engine hood. It was possible to put a machine gun on it, and after removing a mortar from it, use it as an armored personnel carrier and transport soldiers. It is believed that in the units where these BAs were used, they have proven themselves very well.


This "tiznaos" on the tractor chassis was painted long and hard. And you don't need camouflage!

For some reason, all these homemade armored cars of the Republicans called "tiznaos" - "gray". But judging by the photographs, many of them were painted with camouflage, sometimes very whimsical. The whole point, apparently, is that there was an instruction in 1929, according to which the armored vehicles of the Spanish army should be painted in "Artillery gray" (medium gray).


It was definitely not without boiler iron here ...

"Bilbao" - the armored vehicles of the Spanish army were also called "tiznaos", since both they and the home-made BA were painted the same way. The issue with the identification of the Spanish armored vehicles was also originally resolved. According to the same instructions, on the sides of the cars, it was required to have black wooden panels measuring 70 x 35 in order to write on them the army affiliation of a particular vehicle in white letters. For example, "Artillery" or "Infantry", and also the number of this vehicle. It is clear that since the beginning of the war, no one adhered to this rule, but in addition to coloring, the improvised BAs were also completely painted with inscriptions of patriotic content and abbreviated names of those syndicalist organizations (UHP, UGT, CNT, FA1) to which these armored vehicles belonged. Often there were several such designations on the car, which spoke of the "unity" of these organizations at the time of their construction.


Quite modern in terms of the BA design. Well, and the inscriptions, of course, how without them?


And on this BA the tower for some reason stands at the stern so that it is almost impossible to shoot forward from it!

The nationalists apparently did not have any problems with the identification of homemade armored vehicles. As I saw a "barn on wheels", so you can shoot at it! But with tanks it was more difficult. The peculiarity of the civil war required their particularly quick identification on the battlefield in order to exclude destruction by "friendly fire". But the problem was compounded by the fact that both sides had the same tanks. Because of this, the identification marks on the tanks of the Spanish Civil War were very clearly visible.


Probably the most original Republican BA. Chains around the perimeter of the case attract attention - why are they? It is believed that they protected the wheels from shrapnel and did not make it possible to throw a grenade under the body of the car ...

At the towers of the republican tanks T-26, BT-5 and BA-Z, the cannon mask and the protruding stern part were often painted in large stripes in the colors of the national flag (red-yellow-violet). Also stripes, but already red-yellow-red, painted their tanks and nationalists. It also happened that such stripes were drawn along the entire tower. From the air, the tanks of the nationalists could be distinguished from the republican ones by the hatches (or the entire roof of the tower!), Painted white, and a black oblique cross drawn on them - a characteristic nationalist emblem. The tanks arriving from the USSR had only tactical numbers and no red stars. Italian and German tanks and armored cars had a striped red-yellow-red flag on the front and rear armor as an identification mark, as well as a very characteristic white emblem - crossed halberds and a crossbow.


German "Negrilos". Back view

Just tiznaos. Homemade armored vehicles of the Spanish Civil War
The same "Negrilos" in camouflage
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63 comments
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  1. Plastmaster
    Plastmaster 21 December 2020 18: 24
    +6
    Interesting. I would also like to know what chassis it was made on.
    1. kalibr
      21 December 2020 18: 53
      +9
      The photos of the appearance have been preserved and ... that's all. Often it is not even known where it was, and even who and even more so. And what kind of car is not visible under the armor!
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 21 December 2020 19: 38
        +7
        As far as I remember, the chassis of Chevrolet and ZIS trucks were used for small-scale armored cars.
        1. volodimer
          volodimer 22 December 2020 15: 06
          +3
          https://www.popmech.ru/weapon/13477-bronevik-po-ispanski-samopal/ Кому интересно. Там есть и фотки и описание некоторых броневиков. Дополнит прочитанное.
  2. Catfish
    Catfish 21 December 2020 18: 53
    +11
    Hello again, good evening everyone. hi

    Thank you, Vyacheslav, all day long toiled with melancholy and at least in the evening made me happy. Honestly, I didn't think that there would be a continuation according to the Spanish technique, all the more pleasant was the surprise.
    Reading about how the people contrived in their attempts to somehow arm themselves, for some reason I immediately remembered the phrase from the immortal bestseller "Peculiarities of the National Hunt" - If you want to live and you will not be so rash! The cars, of course, are ridiculous and, in my opinion, it is absolutely impossible to fight on them, it is not for nothing that we called such a technique NI - "To Fear", and that was the only thing they took. True, the tanks of that time were similar to them, albeit factory-made.
    Thanks to the artist, the drawings are more than high quality. good drinks
    1. kalibr
      21 December 2020 19: 42
      +6
      Quote: Sea Cat
      Thanks to the artist, the drawings are more than high quality

      Yes, Sheps perfectly draws tanks and ships ... and planes! He has a wonderfully designed book, Aircraft of the First World War.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 21 December 2020 19: 49
        +6
        It is a pity that the shooter does not draw, now there are a lot of new samples and their various clones, he could continue the work of the Beetle in his own style. Everyone would be grateful and me first. smile
        1. kalibr
          21 December 2020 20: 23
          +6
          Quote: Sea Cat
          It is a pity that the shooter does not draw, now there are a lot of new samples and their various clones, he could continue the work of the Beetle in his own style. Everyone would be grateful and me first

          Draws, and in color. Soon there will be an article with his drawings of the shooter ... But no one will publish a book with drawings now. Only with photos, only with copyright, only "public domain" and only free!
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 21 December 2020 20: 24
            +7
            Great, I'll prepare a new folder in advance.
            1. kalibr
              21 December 2020 21: 12
              +4
              I will promise you a lot!
        2. Fat
          Fat 21 December 2020 20: 26
          +7
          Draws an arrow. Found on Yandex an illustration "the weapon of the Crimean war". I will not quote here without permission. Aron Solomonovich is sensitive.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 21 December 2020 20: 28
            +8
            Come on, Vyacheslav will always stand up for his sidekick, and they banquet together. drinks
            1. Fat
              Fat 21 December 2020 20: 47
              +7
              Quote: Sea Cat
              they bunch together

              "In my house ... I ask you not to express yourself!" (from) wassat
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 22 December 2020 00: 20
                +7
                I'll go to Shpakovsky. laughing
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 22 December 2020 10: 46
                  +3
                  I'll go to Shpakovsky.

                  ..And he's already covered, go. wink
                  The same "Negrilos" in camouflage

                  Somehow politically incorrect! request Nowadays it is customary to say - "Afro-American"! laughing
                  I was very pleased with the article. Drawings - separately. I, in principle, expected something like that ... that our Vyacheslav Olegovich would write about it ... drinks
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 22 December 2020 10: 58
                    +1
                    ... And he's already covered, go.


                    No, I'm waiting for Maryuta from Ryazan, we'll handle it ourselves. drinks And you, all kagal, march to the vote. smile Or have they shot already?
                    1. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 22 December 2020 11: 12
                      +2
                      Or have they shot already?

                      I have already done everything, and I advise others. drinks
                  2. Fat
                    Fat 23 December 2020 20: 41
                    +1
                    Panet, Rights and Words are particulars. And, actually, not in the jealousy of A.S. Sheps's case. For example, I understand the tough position of A.S. Sh. The man devoted half his life to his beloved work. And then there are some cadres, his work at the cost of half his life is relegated to strike.
                    These are not pictures, but serious, painstaking work. Most of the reading people do not know what an artist does when preparing an illustration ...
                    Well, however, hack - the sea. A.S. Sheps is not a hack, except for everything, a person who is keen on this business. hi drinks wassat
          2. kalibr
            21 December 2020 21: 11
            +4
            Quote: Thick
            I will not quote here without permission.

            And you will do the right thing. The law is a fool, but a fool est!
    2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 21 December 2020 19: 50
      +9
      Quote: Sea Cat
      The cars, of course, are ridiculous and, in my opinion, it is absolutely impossible to fight on them, it is not for nothing that we called such a technique NI - "To Fear", and that was the only thing they took. True, the tanks of that time were similar to them, albeit factory-made.

      I could not resist, I will add a photograph of a Spanish tank.

      Turbia Naval, by the way, the Spaniards indicate that it was serial.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 21 December 2020 20: 02
        +6
        Well, it's a walking nightmare, and after three years - "Thirty-four", you can't get up to die, when our car began service, these people were still "pulling the strap." Some kind of sur.
      2. kalibr
        21 December 2020 21: 43
        +4
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        was serial.

        We wanted to do it like this, but it didn't work!
  3. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 21 December 2020 19: 13
    +9
    At home, on the shelf, there is a book about the history of armored vehicles. There is also a section on Spanish homemade products. But he is clearly "poorer" than this article, especially in terms of pictures.
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
    1. kalibr
      21 December 2020 19: 40
      +8
      Oh, Nazarius! Everything turned out funny. The daughter graduated from the teacher training school. Scientific adviser - professor-Germanist historiographer. And so that "no one fiddled with the subject," I took the topic "English-language historiography of the Greek War in Spain" (I have it "Englishwoman" in language). So I had to write to England to the Council of Veterans of the Spanish War and the Spanish Ministry of Defense. And materials came ... and an excellent diploma came out, but the interest remained. And there are more and more materials ... Well, the book "Armored Vehicles of the Civil War in Spain" was published. But there is so much of everything that there are enough materials + drawings for articles. Well, in general, I love Spain ... A friend of mine bought a house there, and she's not overjoyed.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 21 December 2020 19: 51
        +6
        Somehow everyone is drawn there, our friend also bought a "hut" there.
        1. kalibr
          21 December 2020 20: 18
          +5
          And the Spaniards are good people. There is a lot of trouble with Italians - you have to understand them, and the Spaniards try to understand you. It's warm there, but not hot, the sea is nearby, there is a constant demand for Russian-speaking guides, delicious bread, cheese, homemade sausage. I rested there twice and didn't want to leave ...
        2. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 21 December 2020 20: 53
          +7
          Quote: Sea Cat
          Somehow everyone is drawn there, our friend also bought a "hut" there.

          For a pension, this is:
          Reasonable prices for Europe, good climate, high-quality medicine and children with grandchildren are always ready to come to you on vacation)).
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 22 December 2020 00: 21
            +6
            I'm more comfortable under my native aspens, if anyone sends, then at least you know where. fellow
            1. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 22 December 2020 02: 25
              +4
              And you won't get lost between the three aspens))
  4. mr.ZinGer
    mr.ZinGer 21 December 2020 19: 17
    +4
    I think the specificity of the soil in Spain also allowed the wider use of all sorts of surrogate armored vehicles.
  5. Undecim
    Undecim 21 December 2020 19: 22
    +9
    Quote: Plastmaster
    Interesting. I would also like to know what chassis it was made on.

    Then you need to write one more article, and more than one, since almost any chassis was used.
    Such a nice truck HISPANO SUIZA T69



    turned into such a monster

    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 21 December 2020 19: 54
      +8
      I wonder where they bent the armor? The Australians at one time, dropped their hands and used corrugated iron.
      But most importantly, the brand's emblem was left in its place. Aesthetes !!!
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 21 December 2020 20: 00
        +8
        So after all, the company HISPANO SUIZA itself reworked its cars. Therefore, there was something to bend, and the stork was in place.
    2. Undecim
      Undecim 21 December 2020 19: 55
      +9
      By the way, the Spaniards, let's say, got their hands on such alterations at the beginning of the century.

      This is the French Schneder P2-4000 bus.


      And this is a Spanish armored car based on it. Double decker.

      1. Catfish
        Catfish 21 December 2020 20: 30
        +7
        Looking at the armored car I decided right away, better on foot, "on foot along the tank." soldier
    3. Catfish
      Catfish 21 December 2020 19: 58
      +8
      Good evening, Vic. hi
      Almost from childhood I knew that Hispana-Suiza produced luxury cars, but this is the first time I see a truck of this company. Yes ... she also made luxury trucks, the true taste is impossible to drink, even with their excellent wine.
      Not cars, but works of art, you can't take your eyes off!

      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 21 December 2020 20: 08
        +8
        Do you like beautiful cars Constantine? Then catch it.




        Exhibits of the automobile museum in Verkhnyaya Pyshma.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 21 December 2020 20: 15
          +8
          Vlad, why suddenly on "you", offend comrade colonel, it was not me who stole the neighbor's car. I just sold it. laughing
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 21 December 2020 20: 25
            +9
            Quote: Sea Cat
            Vlad, why suddenly on "you", offend comrade colonel, it was not me who stole the neighbor's car. I just sold it. laughing

            Uncle Kostya what are you doing? Few! I'll add more!


            1. Catfish
              Catfish 21 December 2020 20: 35
              +7
              I rode the XNUMXth ZIS as a child, but I liked the Horch more.
        2. Undecim
          Undecim 21 December 2020 20: 17
          +10
          You know, with all due respect to Verkhnyaya Pyshma, in terms of classic cars, it is not visible even under a strong microscope. There are more abrupt places.
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 21 December 2020 20: 27
            +6
            Viktor Nikolaevich, I share what is available to me.
            The photo you have provided is definitely not 100 km away from you !!!
            1. Undecim
              Undecim 21 December 2020 20: 41
              +8
              I didn't know there was a 100 km limit!

              This is our "Phaeton". 15 km from me.
              1. Undecim
                Undecim 21 December 2020 20: 50
                +5
                There are curious specimens.
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 22 December 2020 00: 37
                  +5
                  I remember there was such a film - "The Fate of a Soldier in America", so there all the gangster gang of bootleggers drove around in such "Fords", they had a taxi fleet, and this car is like an accelerating car. "Ford T", if I'm not mistaken.
                2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                  Kote Pan Kokhanka 22 December 2020 03: 36
                  +4



                  Well, if Ford! First photo.
                  The rest is for a smile.

                  I did not expect that Viktor Nikolaevich would touch you with V. Pyshma, but for the sake of objectivity there is no collection equal in number of copies in Ukraine.
                  A similar situation with armored vehicles.
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 22 December 2020 04: 41
                    +4
                    Good morning Vlad! And a good day. smile
                    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                      Kote Pan Kokhanka 22 December 2020 04: 46
                      +5
                      Quote: Sea Cat
                      Good morning Vlad! And a good day. smile

                      Thank you, Uncle Kostya. Can not sleep?
                      1. Catfish
                        Catfish 22 December 2020 04: 52
                        +5
                        As always, she's damn insomnia, and for some unknown reason. And to hell with her! wink
                  2. Undecim
                    Undecim 22 December 2020 07: 47
                    +4
                    Why did you decide that you hurt me? I just supported the "100 km theme".
      2. Undecim
        Undecim 21 December 2020 20: 09
        +7
        Yes, this is a "classic". There were several such firms in Europe and America in the thirties. The Great Depression ravaged them all. Rolls-Royce is the only one left. And what were the cars.

        Duesenberg Model J. 1932.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 21 December 2020 20: 22
          +9
          And the Frenchwoman Delahaye is also aerobatics in the automotive industry.
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 21 December 2020 20: 30
            +7
            Yes, they have a peculiar style.
            1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
              Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 21 December 2020 22: 34
              +4
              Quote: Undecim
              Yes, they have a peculiar style.

              offended for the "cord" a little)). I like.
    4. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 21 December 2020 21: 07
      +7
      “Please don't call my Spanish suiza a 'monster'. Even with this body kit on.
      I'll shoot ... "
    5. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 21 December 2020 21: 26
      +5
      Why the T69 truck?
      I would prefer T56-T60
      :

  6. Fat
    Fat 21 December 2020 20: 14
    +6
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, artist A. Sheps - Aron Solomonovich Sheps?
    1. kalibr
      21 December 2020 20: 21
      +5
      Yes, it is he!
  7. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
    Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 21 December 2020 20: 28
    +12
    Fine. I love, as a sinful thing, this incomprehensible war.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 21 December 2020 20: 31
      +7
      Hello, did you photoshop yourself? Impressive. smile
    2. kalibr
      21 December 2020 21: 08
      +4
      There will be some interesting sequels!
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 21 December 2020 21: 15
        +7
        There will be some interesting sequels!
        By Photoshop?
        1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 21 December 2020 22: 14
          +8
          Quote: Undecim
          There will be some interesting sequels!
          By Photoshop?

          well, it will be, it will be for you, cameraman)
          I'd rather spend my time on Shpakovsky's essays than on the dirty stuff of Samsonov with his idiocy "why didn't Gitl pabed Russia?" ... It seems to me that at the same time, the collective with the nickname "Samsonov" has an index finger stuck in the second phalanx in the left nostril.
          Although (IMHO!) - tizanos are not good in pencils by Aron Solomonovich Sheps (for all my ... and so on), but in utilitarian b / w, her mother, photographs ...