Military Review

Combat aircraft. Tirpitz, we were just stronger!

84

Most hated by the Germans


Probably, if someone during the Second World War organized a poll in Germany on the topic "Which plane is the most hated for the Germans", our today's hero would definitely get one of the prizes.



If the Americans flew mainly during the day, then the British pilots bombed both day and night. Statistics show that the Lancaster flew over 1942 sorties between 1945 and 155 and dropped over 000 tons of bombs on the Germans.

The Lancasters were the heavyweights of the RAF Bomber Command. They were the ones who carried all the brainchild of engineer Wallace: the 10-ton Grand Slam deep penetration seismic bombs and their predecessors, the 5,5-ton Tellboy bombs (hello, Tirpitz!), As well as the bouncing bombs to destroy dams ...

Lancaster was used successfully, but more than intensively: of the 7 built bombers, 300 (that is, in fact, half) were lost on combat missions. And the list of Lancaster victories is quite long.

In general, this aircraft can be safely called the most effective bomber of the Royal Air Force. And this despite the fact that, when the war had been going on for three months, the Avro engineers just sat down at the drawing boards for development.


Two owls from two ugly ducklings


In general, Lancaster is a child of some kind of misalliance. Alteration of a very mediocre bomber. But it so happened that two ugly ducklings turned out to be two ... (not a swan, of course) rather an owl.

However, let's go in order.

First there was the case. The case was two twin-engine medium bombers: "Avro-679" and "Handley-Page" HP.56. Perhaps these planes would become new pages in stories British Air Force, but alas. The Rolls-Royce "Vulture" engine nullified all the efforts of the designers. For the engine (to put it mildly) failed. Power in 1 780 hp from. was reduced to zero by the unreliability of the engine. And in the end, in 1940, Rolls Royce refused to continue work on it.

The only aircraft that somehow tried to fly with it was Avro "Manchester", produced in the amount of 209 units.

Combat aircraft. Tirpitz, we were just stronger!

The order "Redo!"


Therefore, the continuation of the story was the word "Remake!"

The company "Handley-Page" immediately decided to take the bull by the horns. And instead of two "Walcher" they decided to put four "Merlin". This is how the Halifax heavy bomber appeared, which we will talk about a little later.

But there were no fools in the Avro either. So they immediately jumped on the idea of ​​replacing the engine. This did not happen immediately. First, the engineers, under the command of Avro chief designer Chadwick, tried to replace Walcher with Napier Saber or Bristol Centauri. But then, in 1939, they came to the same conclusion as the engineers at the Handley Page: four Merlins were just that.

Replacing the power plant turned out to be a simple matter. Fuselage "Manchester" remained unchanged. Both the tail section and the central wing section were left unchanged. Naturally, by remaking the nacelles under the "Merlin". But for the third and fourth engines, new outer parts of the wing were designed. Enlarged and reinforced to carry two more engine nacelles.


The Avro design bureau calculated that the four-engine bomber would be able to carry a bomb load of 5 kg at a distance of 448 km or 1 kg at 610 km at a speed of 3 km / h. At a more economical cruising speed of 632 km / h, the range increased to 2 and 574 km, respectively.

Lancaster I / P1


For 1939 - more than decent numbers. The project turned out to be promising compared to Manchester. Although it required more rework than it seemed at first. There was an idea that the four-engine "Manchester" is still a different plane and requires a different name. In addition, the first batch of "Manchester" at the very least, but was collected by the forces of "Avro" and "Vickers".

So in order to streamline all these alterations, in 1940 a new technical task "Lancaster" I / P1 was formulated. It contained numbers: a cruising speed of 402 km / h at an altitude of 4 m with a load of 575 kg of bombs at a distance of 3 km. The maximum range should be 405 km.

The bomb bay (roomy at the "Manchester") was preserved. And the plane had to carry a variety of loads: from one 1-kg and six 816-kg bombs to six 227-kg mines or six 681-kg, three 908-kg and up to 114 smaller bombs.

The Lancaster prototype was ordered in June 1940. And the plane made its first flight on January 9, 1941. This speed is due precisely to the unification of the two machines. In principle, they were structurally very similar. The Lancaster had a larger wing. Plus, the tail span was slightly increased, up to 10 m.


The defensive armament was completely borrowed from "Manchester": the FN5 turret with two machine guns in the nose, the FN20 with four machine guns in the tail, the lower FN64 with two machine guns and the upper FN50 with two machine guns. The machine guns were from Browning, 7,69 mm.


Tests have shown that Lancaster has excellent performance. Ministry aviation issued an order to stop production of Manchester. In order to accelerate the release of Lancaster, which took its place in all plans.

And the release of "Manchester" was stopped, not even fulfilling the first contracts.

The first production Lancaster flew on October 31, 1941, less than two years after work began. By the end of the year, a dozen more aircraft were ready for flight.

The Avro firm received an official order for Lancaster on June 6, 1941. It included 454 aircraft and replaced the January 450 order for 1940 Manchesters.

And as the aircraft were being assembled, orders began to come in further.

Innovations


Manufacturing Lancaster was not very difficult. And it allowed attracting a large number of factories. Structurally, the aircraft was divided into 36 large units, which could be ordered by subcontractors.

Since the war was going on, they decided not to innovate especially. The only innovation that has been applied in the design is the light-alloy cast units in the chassis retraction mechanisms. The landing gear struts were retracted into the nacelles back with a turn and closed with flaps. They decided not to remove the tail wheel in flight, they considered that the losses in drag were compensated by the lower weight and the absence of hydraulic lines to drive the retractable system.

Combat use was combined with tests. This happened on March 3, 1941, when 4 Lancaster ships laid mines off the Frisian Islands. On March 10, 2 aircraft took part in a bombing raid on German territory. True, exact data on where they flew and with what results have not been preserved.


In total, more than 50 aircraft sorties were made as part of the tests. The losses amounted to one plane crashed during a forced landing due to the destruction of the wingtips.

Modification of the wing


All Lancasters delivered at that time went to the wing revision. And at the same time they began to dismantle from them (fortunately, it was technically provided for) the lower turrets, which were practically not used, but created resistance.

Another revision was made: the restrictive ring for the upper turret, which prevented the raging shooters from turning their aircraft into a sieve. There were precedents. The size of the tanks was also increased, now the fuel supply was 9 792 liters.

The shape of the bomb bay hatches was slightly changed, which made it even larger. And now it was possible to safely hang bombs weighing 3 632 kg and even 5 448 kg into it.

We finally decided on the booking. Part of this noble task was entrusted to the structure itself, increasing the thickness of the partitions and power parts to 8 mm. And, for example, turrets were armored during their production. Armor plates were widely used to protect the crew members in their places.

The crew consisted of the first pilot-commander, the second pilot, the navigator-observer-bombardier, two gunners-radio operators and two simple gunners. A total of seven people.


An interesting point. "Lancaster" was built in a very decent amount for a heavy bomber (for comparison - the USSR mastered 79 Pe-8). But there were only four serial options. This indicates that everything was originally planned as it should. It is at the development stage. So, the subsequent finishing touches and alterations were simply not needed.

Engines


Of course, the engine was the key. "Merlin" generally became a lifesaver for the aviation of the two countries. The first was "Merlin" of the 20-th series, giving 1280 hp. from. on takeoff with a boost of 0,84 kg / cm 1 and having a maximum power of 480 1 hp. from. at an altitude of 830 m. With these engines, the Lancaster had a maximum speed of 462 km / h at an altitude of 3 m with a take-off weight of 505 tons.

The working ceiling was 7 m and a range of 500 2 km with a bomb load of 670 6 kg. The speed with such parameters decreased to 356 km / h, which (in principle) was not critical during night raids.

Further development - "Merlin" 22nd series. Engine boost was increased to 0,98 kg / sq. cm, which made it possible to increase the engine power to 1 liters. from. It became possible to increase the takeoff weight of the aircraft by about a ton. The maximum speed increased to 560 km / h, while the range was 434 km from 3 kg.

And the last replacement of the engine - "Merlin" 24 series. These motors were installed on the later editions of the "Lancaster", 1945. "Merlin" series 24 had a boost of 1,27 kg / cm 1, takeoff power of 620 liters. sec., takeoff weight 30 872 kg or in overload, for shorter distances, 32 688 kg.

Built throughout Britain


Lancaster was built throughout Britain.

The production company "Lancaster Group" was formed, which was engaged in the production of aircraft.

The bombers were made directly at Avro (in Manchester, Woodford and Yedon), Metropolitan Vickers (Manchester), Vickers-Armstrong (Chester and Castle Bromwich), Armstrong-Whitworth (Coventry and Rigby), Austin Motors ”(Birmingham).

Merlins are not enough for everyone


At one time, British aircraft manufacturers feared that there would not be enough Merlins for everyone. And there was a variant of replacing "Merlin" with "Hercules" from the company "Bristol". The same "Armstrong-Whitworth" in the city of Baginton built these aircraft in a batch of 300 pieces. "Hercules" VI produced 1 ​​liters. with., but the flight characteristics remained the same. Therefore, when the situation with the release of "Merlins" stabilized, the "Hercules" were abandoned.

And thus, from March 1942 until the end of the war, Lancaster became the main heavy bomber of the Royal Air Force. Halifax, which entered service earlier, was gradually losing ground.

And a year later, on March 6, more precisely on the night of the 5th to 6th, the main battle of Lancaster, the Battle of the Ruhr, began. Raids on the cities of the main industrial center of Germany - Essen, Duisburg, Dusseldorf, Dortmund and Bochum. Berlin, Munich, Stuttgart, Nuremberg and Hamburg also got attention.


These were mainly night raids, since the British did not have fighters to accompany the proper range. But as the Luftwaffe lost ground, the British began raids during the day. But no one canceled the night raids, and the inhabitants of Germany were in for a very unpleasant time, when the howl of air defense sirens sounded both day and night.

The Lancaster took part in such operations as the "raids of 1 bombers" on Kiel, Cologne, Hamburg. But since the real benefit of these raids was not enough, the Lancasters were connected to them sporadically and in small numbers.


Lancaster in the sky over Hamburg

Like the propaganda attack of 12 aircraft on the MAN plant in Augsburg, when the Lancasters attacked during the day and in close formation. Not surprisingly, 7 out of 12 cars were shot down. But it was a very significant demonstration of the capabilities of the bomber command, albeit with very little success.

If the operations were planned without regard for the hype, then they usually ended in success. The Lancaster assets have successfully raided weapons Schneider plants in Creusot, France. Only one plane out of 93 was lost. And the factories suffered significant damage.

It was on "Lancaster" at the end of 1943 that the British first used radars for guidance and bombing. With the help of the Н2S radar "Lancaster", having overcome the Alps, they flew to Genoa and Turin. Where they worked on targets with heavy bombs 1 816 kg and 3 632 kg. The radar was placed under a translucent fairing at the bottom of the rear fuselage.

"Dumbasters"


But the most exciting operation in terms of technology and tactics was, of course, the Lancaster attacks on dams in West Germany. Operation Apkeep, carried out on the night of May 16-17, 1943, to destroy the Monet, Eder, Sorpe, Ennepe, Lister and Schwelme dams.

Special weapons were developed, engineer Wallace's jumping bombs, cylindrical bombs 127 cm in diameter, 152 cm long and weighing 4 kg, of which 196 kg were RDX explosives.


Wallace and his bomb

With these bombs, it was planned to destroy the dams that gave energy to the Ruhr enterprises.

The idea was interesting. A cylindrical bomb was unwound before being dropped, dropped, jumped on the surface of the water and, leaning against the dam, sank. And then the hydrostatic fuse was activated at a depth of 9 meters, and an explosion occurred.

The bomb was placed across the plane between two V-shaped frames. The circular discs at the ends of these frames were connected to the annular depressions at the ends of the bomb. One of the disks was driven by a belt drive from a hydraulic motor of the landing gear retraction system, spinning the bomb up to 500 rpm before dropping.

The bomb bay doors were removed because the bomb did not fit into the compartment. Special sights were installed, which made it possible to maintain the height specified for the drop (about 18 meters) and the distance to the target from which the drop was carried out (350ꟷ400 m).

Thus, 23 "Lancaster" was redesigned, which later received the nickname "Dumbasters".


On the night of May 15, 19 planes took off. The targets were Monet, Sorpe, Eder and Ennepe dams. Five planes that dropped bombs on the Monet Dam were successful. The dam was destroyed. The Eder Dam was also destroyed. The two remaining dams survived. And of the 19 planes that took off, 8 did not return to the base.

Bombs "Tellboy"


The Lancasters turned out to be the most convenient carriers of the Tellboy bomb, designed by the same Wallace, weighing 5 kg. The same guys who bombed the dam were at the helm of these planes with an enlarged bomb bay.


The first and immediately successful use of the Tellboy was the attack on the Saumur railway tunnel, through which the Germans drove reinforcements to Normandy. On the night of June 8-9, 1944, the tunnel was successfully blocked.

Kill "Tirpitz"


These same guys from 617 Squadron with the Tellboys chased the battleship Tirpitz for a long time. In general, the British tried to kill Tirpitz throughout the war. Back in April 1942 (having just started combat activities), Lancaster squadrons of 44 and 97 squadrons tried to "get" the battleship 1 kg with bombs. But it didn't work out.

In 1944, Lancaster squadrons 9 and 617 tried to attack the Tirpitz stationed in the Alten Fjord from Yagodnik airfield near Arkhangelsk. The attack was launched on September 15th. It seems that something got into the battleship. But it didn't do much damage. The Tirptz did not sink.

In October 1944, the Tirpitz went to Tromsø. There he could be attacked by flying out of Britain. "Lancaster" lost its upper turrets, received more powerful motors "Merlin" 24th series, the fuel supply was increased to almost 11 tons. You could fly.

The second raid also failed. In addition to spending 32 Tellboy.

And so (truly, God loves a trinity), on November 12, the Lancasters again dropped 28 Tellboys. And the two bombs finally hit the right place. The Tirpitz capsized and ended the war. And the 9th and 617th squadrons became specialists in the precision bombing of especially large ammunition. These two squadrons dropped 90% (854) of Tellboy bombs during the war.

"Grand Slam"


When the Lancasters equipped the even more destructive 9-kg Grand Slam bomb, it was natural that one of these squadrons would use it.




The first real drop of the Grand Slam from Lancaster took place on March 13, 1944 at a test site.


And the very next day, 14 Lancasters with Tellboy and one with the Grand Slam destroyed the Bielefeld viaduct in the city of the same name in North Rhine-Westphalia. This was the first of 41 Grand Slam, dropped by 617 Squadron before the end of the war. In general, the viaduct had no value, the bypass route was built a long time ago, as soon as the British began to bomb it. So - a political action, nothing more.


Speaking about the changes made to the design, it is worth noting that almost all "Lancaster" by the end of the war lost the lower gun mount, as unused. The rear fuselage mount coped quite well with the defense of the sector. Especially when instead of the FN20 they began to install the FN82 with two Browning 12,7 mm machine guns instead of four 7,69 mm machine guns.

The H2S radar bombsights were on virtually all aircraft.


Since the plane did not just "come in" as a bomber, but "flew in", it was used without being distracted by other specializations. There were cases when the Lancaster was transferred to the Coastal Command for a while, but the aircraft was not actively involved in operations at sea. But after the war, several squadrons on "Lancaster" were used as search and rescue aircraft and for long-range naval reconnaissance, fortunately, all flight characteristics allowed.

Last combat mission


The last combat sortie "Lancaster" made during the day on April 25, 1945. Moreover, it was a very massive flight. At first, about 200 planes bombed Berchtesgaden, where Hitler's refuge was. And at night 119 Lancaster bombed the oil storage depots of the submarine base in Oslofjord.


Further, the "Lancaster" had many sorties, but of a completely different nature. There were 3 flights with food for the cities of Holland, where problems began among the population. The Lancaster ships delivered over 156 tons of food to Dutch cities.

And the last task of the Second World War was the removal of British prisoners of war from German camps. 74 people were transported to Britain. Considering that more than 000 people were not included in the Lancaster's fuselage, it is very easy to calculate how the crews had to work hard. But all British soldiers and officers were taken home.

"Lancaster" naval aviation


And after the war "Lancaster" began to master quite peaceful specialties. Initially, it was decided to use the Lancaster as a search and rescue aircraft in the Pacific Ocean. A drop-down inflatable boat "Uffa-Fox" was specially developed for him. More precisely, the boat of the first model was intended for the Hudson and Warwick, and the second model was for the Lancaster.

Thus, 120 aircraft were converted into ASR modification.

About a hundred more "Lancaster" were converted into scouts GR.Mk.Z, which served in patrol squadrons in the Atlantic and Mediterranean.

The scout could also carry a rescue boat of the Mk.II or Mk.IIa types as an ASR. But the Lancaster GR.Mk.3 had an ASV III search radar in a fairing and did not carry an upper turret. One of these reconnaissance aircraft served at the Naval Intelligence School at St. Mougain until 15 October 1956, becoming the last Lancaster in the British Naval Air Force.


Another post-war variant was the Lancaster PR.Mk.I. It was a full-fledged reconnaissance aircraft, in which cameras were installed in the bomb bay. And it was used, respectively, for aerial photography. It was these aircraft that carried out photographs of the territories of Africa for subsequent mapping from 1946 to 1952.

As a bomber, Lancaster remained in service until March 1950. And then Lincoln was hired instead. But a fairly decent number of Lancasters were adapted for specific operations. These aircraft, the number of which is estimated at more than two hundred, served significantly longer.

The last Lancaster was reportedly fired from the Royal Air Force on April 1, 1964.


After the war, a significant number of aircraft were simply sold to other countries for conversion into transport, search and other modifications. "Lancaster" served in Argentina, Egypt, France, Algeria. For the French, in New Caledonia, one Lancaster served until 1964 as a search and rescue.

"Lancaster" in the Soviet Air Force


Two "Lancaster" managed to serve in the Soviet Air Force.

When Operation Paravan was carried out to capture and destroy Tirpitz, British aircraft were based for a long time at Yagodnik airfield near Arkhangelsk.

38 "Lancasters", 2 transport "Liberators" and one scout "Mosquito" flew to the USSR.

The disgusting weather was the reason that not all flew. 10 Lancasters boarded an emergency landing in Onega, Belomorsk, Kegostrov, Molotov (Severodvinsk) and just in the tundra. One car landed in such an inconvenient place that the parachutist-guide had to be thrown off. He took the crew to the river, where the MBR-2 flying boat was waiting. 7 aircraft were damaged. One of them was repaired by our and British specialists.

On September 15, 27 Lancaster ships, including the refurbished one, bombed the Tirpitz and flew back to Britain. The battleship remained afloat. The British had no losses.

But we still have 6 aircraft in varying degrees of damage. It so happened that two could be restored using the rest as donors. These "Lancaster" were delivered to Kegostrov, where in the workshops of the White Sea military flotilla they were restored to flight condition.

The chief engineer of the flotilla, Kiryanov, supervised the work. All weapons were removed from the bombers. The rear turret was sewn up with duralumin sheets. The color was left British, with only red stars with black borders instead of circles.

The first plane got into the 16th transport squadron, formed on the basis of the 2nd separate air group of I. Mazuruk. The detachment was called transport. But the planes also flew for ice reconnaissance, search for enemy submarines, and patrolling. "Lancaster" under the control of V. Evdokimov (navigator V. Andreev) also flew on combat missions to search for submarines and patrol, although it had no weapons.

But the aircraft brought the greatest benefit precisely in patrolling remote areas of the Northern Sea Route and ice reconnaissance in remote areas.

The second restored Lancaster ended up in the 70th separate transport regiment (brigade) of the Northern Fleet Air Force. The commander of this vehicle was I. Dubenets. After the 16th trao was disbanded in 1946, the first aircraft was added to it.
The first plane eventually ended up in Riga as an exhibit at a naval aviation school. And his further fate is unknown. The second plane was destroyed while landing at the Izmailovo airfield in Moscow. They did not restore it.

In general, evaluating the entire project, it should be said that the Lancaster is one of the most successful aircraft of the Second World War.

So no flaws that it is surprising.

LTH Lancaster Mk.III


Wingspan, m: 31,09
Length, m: 20,98
Height, m: 6,19
Wing area, sq.m: 120,80

Weight, kg
- empty aircraft: 16 753
- maximum take-off: 32 688

Engines: 4 x Rolls-Royce "Merlin 24" x 1 640 hp from.
Maximum speed km / h: 462
Cruising speed, km / h: 350
Practical range, km: 4 312
Practical ceiling, m: 7 468

Crew, prs: 7

Armament:
- 2 machine guns 7,69 mm in the nose turret
- 2 machine guns 7,69 mm in the dorsal turret
- 4 machine guns 7,69 mm in the tail installation.

Bomb load:
- up to 6 350 kg bombs or one 9 979 kg bomb.
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  1. mr.ZinGer
    mr.ZinGer 26 November 2020 06: 19
    +17
    Yes, Lancaster theme, this endless theme.
    When the dams in the Ruhr were bombed, the problem of determining the flight altitude of 30 meters, using two searchlights, was originally solved.
    1. Ingvar 72
      Ingvar 72 26 November 2020 06: 37
      +2
      Quote: mr.ZinGer
      using two spotlights.

      And you can read more?
      1. mr.ZinGer
        mr.ZinGer 26 November 2020 06: 46
        +25
        To drop the bomb, it was necessary to clearly maintain a height of 30 meters, radio altimeters were still being designed.
        On the wingtips, they put on a searchlight, the rays of which intersected at a distance of 30 meters. If there was one spot on the water, then the height was maintained.
        1. Proxima
          Proxima 26 November 2020 07: 27
          +9
          With the sinking of the Tirpitz, an irreparable blow was dealt to the prestige of the Luftwaffe. Rather, it's not about prestige, but about their stories about sky-high accounts. The fact is that in this corporation Goering did not like to wash dirty linen in public. And then the Kriegsmarine intervened and sentenced the main culprit Heinrich Erler to be shot! And the sailors were not embarrassed that this was the tenth ace of the Luftwaffe with his inflated 208 victories. The sailors knew the price of these "victories" very well. The military tribunal sentenced him to death, accusing him that he was "too carried away in achieving his 200th victory and did not understand the full gravity of the attack." Such is the unpleasant story for the Germans. crying
          1. Engineer
            Engineer 26 November 2020 11: 46
            +8
            And then the Kriegsmarine intervened and sentenced the main culprit Heinrich Erler to be shot

            Where does all this come from? It seems like not the Kriegsmarine, but the military court - Raiskrigsgericht
            Reichskriegsgericht on 17, 18 and 20 December 1944 under the chair of Generalrichter Dr. Ernst reuter

            And not to death, but to three years in prison
            And the appeal led to the emergence of such an interesting fact that the Kriegsmarine did not notify the Luftwaffe that Tirpitz had changed parking two weeks before the raid.
            Erler was made a scapegoat, especially since he really screwed up.
            1. Proxima
              Proxima 26 November 2020 15: 14
              0
              Quote: Engineer

              Erler was made a scapegoat, especially since he really screwed up.

              Did you understand what you wrote? request Naturally he was tried by the court and sentenced to death... The fact that later this execution was replaced for him is another story. The story is about something else, that the Kriegsmarine tried very hard to ensure that this incident was not released on the brakes, as was always the case in Goering's "department". In addition, there was a great reason for this, after all, they missed belay battleship.
              1. Engineer
                Engineer 26 November 2020 15: 37
                +2
                You should take it easy for a start.
                Replacing the death penalty with a three-year imprisonment after the war is no other story. This happened in the first week of the hearing, even before the appeal.
                All of the battleship was covered - both the Navy and the Air Force.
                It is precisely that Erler himself gave the occasion.
                This does not in any way cancel the desire of the Kriegsmarine to shove your half responsibility for failure in the Air Force
                1. Ivan Hangoverov
                  Ivan Hangoverov 4 February 2021 22: 13
                  0
                  There Euler really got cold feet. The fighters were supposed to defend the battleship, but did not get involved with the evil British. At the end of the war, I wanted to survive and quietly surrender.
                  Therefore, the sausage maker played with a monkey - "I see nothing, I hear nothing." Not fortunate.
                  1. Engineer
                    Engineer 4 February 2021 22: 17
                    0
                    Time for fucking stories. laughing
                    This is despite the fact that in the indictment he was charged with the fact that he, on the contrary, abandoned the command post and control functions and took off in the air in order to quickly win the 200th victory. Somehow strangely chickened out
                    1. Ivan Hangoverov
                      Ivan Hangoverov 6 February 2021 05: 10
                      0
                      Not weird. The British removed 2 turrets with machine guns and the pilots' armor from the planes to add fuel tanks. And there were no support fighters - too far to fly. "Lancaster" in fact turned out to be almost defenseless precisely against the attack of fighters - they only had the rear turret. But! Euler knew none of this. So Lancaster has three turrets. Therefore, he simply "did not find" his own Tirpitz with a show-off - despite the fact that the British found him perfectly. And what he wrote there in the reports - I don’t know 200th or 400th ..
                      For example, after, on the day of his death, he announced a downed bomber + advertised the fact that he was going to ram. The pedantic commander noted the date of death in a journal. However, as it later became known, not a single Allied bomber was lost that day, and of course it is not known about any rams. Unlucky, failed to hang noodles on the last day. But if there was at least one dead bomber, another matter.
                      And then, in order to save the reputation of fakecomet, German journalists, after the war, began to think about what other (sic!) Date the day of his death would be "moved" :))) Well, so that the lies were not so obvious.

                      ps By the way, such a striking coincidence with the relief / disarmament of bombers and non-attack of fighters that makes one think. British intelligence is one of the best in the world. Maybe he was offered money, a passport and a transfer to Argentina? And then, for example, they quietly slaughtered when he had already flown over to them. Here is also an option - it explains everything.
          2. Looking for
            Looking for 26 November 2020 15: 42
            -9
            ah. with what pride you write the words-luftwaffe.krigsmarine..ugh. disgusting.
            1. infantryman2020
              infantryman2020 27 November 2020 08: 46
              +1
              Is everything okay with your psyche?
        2. Macsen_wledig
          Macsen_wledig 26 November 2020 18: 35
          +1
          Quote: mr.ZinGer
          They put a spotlight on the wingtips,

          Under the fuselage.
          1. mr.ZinGer
            mr.ZinGer 26 November 2020 20: 08
            0
            Yes you are right
      2. tlauicol
        tlauicol 26 November 2020 06: 48
        +18
        Quote: Ingvar 72
        Quote: mr.ZinGer
        using two spotlights.

        And you can read more?


        bomber at the desired height. the bomber on the right is too high to be dropped (the bomb will dive). if both the rays and the light spots do not intersect, it is too low (the bomb will bounce into the plane). the distance was determined by the towers on the dam and marks on the glass (like the drivers at the Parade)
        1. Avior
          Avior 27 November 2020 00: 11
          -1
          How did they define higher or lower?
          In any case, there will be two light spots on the water - which is higher, which is lower.
          1. tlauicol
            tlauicol 27 November 2020 05: 27
            +1
            Quote: Avior
            How did they define higher or lower?
            In any case, there will be two light spots on the water - which is higher, which is lower.

            most likely, spots were observed even at the time of decrease before their convergence, maybe a different shade was used
            1. Arthur 85
              Arthur 85 3 December 2020 15: 10
              0
              Why such difficulties? A bomb with positive buoyancy is dropped 100 meters before the dam. We find the speed of the current in the reference book. When it, the bomb, reaches the dam (in reality, it will be faster, due to the inertia of the drop, but it doesn't matter) the timer goes off, the "light body" is partially destroyed, the bomb sinks. Then, either by the second timer, or by the pressure sensor, an explosion occurs. Bingo.
              1. tlauicol
                tlauicol 3 December 2020 19: 08
                0
                Anti-torpedo nets and booms. That's what the bouncing bomb was for
                1. Arthur 85
                  Arthur 85 3 December 2020 21: 14
                  0
                  Wow! Close the entire reservoir with anti-torpedo nets. By the way, were they not sucked into the turbines? But okay. We drop the bomb for the same hundred meters. She gets entangled in networks. On the nose we attach a shaped charge of a cord-type - for interrupting sheets of metal, etc. The paravan will thus be broken through, and there are hardly two of them - the bomb calmly floats on its course.
                  1. tlauicol
                    tlauicol 4 December 2020 04: 32
                    0
                    not only closed, but also in several rows. what surprises you? the gulf of Finland was blocked
                    and instead of your cybernetics, torpedoes were enough, if not for the network
      3. serg.shishkov2015
        serg.shishkov2015 26 November 2020 08: 30
        +1
        And these were Wallace's rotating bombs, for which 19 * Lancaster * were remade, after that operation the squadron received the nickname * Dambaster * - * Dam Breakers *
    2. zenion
      zenion 2 December 2020 15: 44
      -2
      Here we can just conclude that the USSR was not preparing for war. There were no strategic bombers. Everything was built with protection in mind.
  2. Reviews
    Reviews 26 November 2020 08: 09
    +3
    Tellboy ... belay
  3. serg.shishkov2015
    serg.shishkov2015 26 November 2020 08: 28
    +5
    The notorious Ataras in the Big Black Encyclopedia claims that * Tirpitz * finished off the four-engine * Mosquito8 with 3,5 ton bombs! I laughed for a long time! For reference, there was a * Specialbomber * modification * Mossy *, which in the bomb bay carried a shortened special bomb of 1816 kg, this is the maximum that he was capable of,
  4. bandabas
    bandabas 26 November 2020 09: 06
    -13%
    You should have fought like that in the field.
    1. bandabas
      bandabas 26 November 2020 11: 03
      -10%
      G-yes "minusoids". Your reasons.
      1. Cherry Nine
        Cherry Nine 26 November 2020 11: 16
        +17
        Not a minus, but there is no need for arguments. Britain fought a war of attrition based on technical, economic and resource superiority. To do this, climb as one on German machine guns unnecessarily, the last time they were already raised.

        But the night strategic bomber came in handy.
        1. bandabas
          bandabas 26 November 2020 13: 12
          0
          I agree with you.
    2. Alf
      Alf 26 November 2020 19: 07
      -5
      Quote: bandabas
      You should have fought like that in the field.

      So Britain has never been famous for a strong army. Fleet-Yes, Aviation-Yes, but on earth Britain was "famous" for pulling chestnuts out of the fire with someone else's hands, Polish, Australian, Canadian, Indian ...
  5. BAI
    BAI 26 November 2020 11: 07
    0
    1. For some reason, the photographs are duplicated in the article.
    2.
    14 Lancasters with Tellboy and one with Grand Slam destroyed the Bielefeld Viaduct

    I counted 38 funnels. At the same time, it is obvious that about the same number did not enter the frame and are located below the viaduct (closer to the photographer). Apparently, there was more than one bombing.
  6. sivuch
    sivuch 26 November 2020 11: 14
    +7
    Perhaps it should have been clarified that the British and American concepts of heavy bombers were very different. American, above all. The fortress was faster, better armed and armored, and the British were just bomb carriers - take more, carry on. Therefore, the division into day and night operations.
    1. Cherry Nine
      Cherry Nine 26 November 2020 11: 31
      +8
      Yes, you are right, the British made bomb dump trucks, and the Americans their vaunted survivability was worth the load penalty. At first, Grand Slam did not even fit into the B-29, then it was modified.

      In terms of speed, Fortress did not differ from Lancaster, cruising even lower. The Liberator is a little faster.
      1. Alf
        Alf 26 November 2020 19: 09
        +3
        Quote: Cherry Nine
        In terms of speed, Fortress did not differ from Lancaster, cruising even lower. The Liberator is a little faster.

        Yes, but the Americans had Colt Browning stuck out in all directions.
    2. Engineer
      Engineer 26 November 2020 11: 49
      +2
      American Norden to the heap for more accurate daytime bombing, an analogue of which the British had only in 1944.
      1. Cherry Nine
        Cherry Nine 26 November 2020 12: 36
        +3
        Many songs have been sung about the Nordens by amateurs. There is an opinion that in theory this is very cool, but in practice they were actually used by enthusiasts of the same level of dumb-bombers. The rest were dropped on the leader.
        1. Engineer
          Engineer 26 November 2020 13: 21
          +2
          There is such an opinion
          https://warfarehistorynetwork.com/2016/07/21/the-norden-bombsight-was-it-truly-accurate-beyond-belief/
          the truth is, there are mainly other problems indicated.
          In practice, even if the host dropped bombs on Norden, this is still progress.
          British counterparts - SABS went from the very beginning to Pathfinders, on the markers of which the bombing was carried out
          1. Cherry Nine
            Cherry Nine 26 November 2020 13: 27
            +2
            Quote: Engineer
            There is such an opinion

            Yes, I saw it in ZhZhtray, now it's not easy to look for it. But the point is that a dive bomber was a high-precision weapon in the 40s, but not a strategist, alas.
            1. Engineer
              Engineer 26 November 2020 13: 31
              +2
              In general, the Americans bombed more precisely than the British. Either the day is to blame, or Norden, or both
              1. Cherry Nine
                Cherry Nine 26 November 2020 14: 20
                +5
                Another concept of bombing is to blame. The Americans did the right thing initially, and in and of itself, and especially with the escort in mind, the Battlebox was a collective air fortress tactically, not just kilotons of load. During the storming of these collective fortresses, the Reich's air defense fell. + We worked on an economic program, without Harris's pure cannibalism. As for accuracy, it changed over time, the British also grew above themselves. They carried out the bases of the fleet quite accurately. Bridges, tunnels, there were many interesting things. When we set the task for accuracy, there was accuracy.
                1. Engineer
                  Engineer 26 November 2020 14: 56
                  0
                  I do not think so. Escort and battlebox have an indirect effect on accuracy. But the day-night and the quality of the sights are straight.
                  The raid on Schweinfurt and Regensburg showed good accuracy of American bombers when working on specific enterprises. For the middle of 1943, this is an unthinkable achievement for the British, and the result was made by quite average air groups, and not a hodgepodge of leaders.
                  1. Cherry Nine
                    Cherry Nine 26 November 2020 15: 15
                    -1
                    Quote: Engineer
                    Escort and battlebox have an indirect effect on accuracy. But the day-night and the quality of the sights are straight.

                    I missed an item. Battlebox -> day -> relative accuracy. High vulnerability -> night -> GPS bombardment from 43rd year -> dehausing as the only acceptable task.
                    1. Engineer
                      Engineer 26 November 2020 16: 15
                      0
                      This is common knowledge.
                      Not quite a topic, but got the impression that the backlashes against Yaroslavl and Nizhny at night also acted better than the Britons. And without dehausing.
                      In British tradition, they acted against Stalingrad.
                      1. Cherry Nine
                        Cherry Nine 26 November 2020 16: 21
                        +1
                        Quote: Engineer
                        at night against Yaroslavl and Nizhny they also acted better than the Britons. And without dehausing.

                        Well, firstly, it is quite an expensive pleasure, not everyone can afford it. Secondly, yes, the British are unique in this respect. And it's hard to be proud of this uniqueness.
                      2. Engineer
                        Engineer 26 November 2020 16: 26
                        0
                        Heh
                        To comprehend history, it is always useful to keep in mind "who is mother's durachok"
                2. Alf
                  Alf 26 November 2020 19: 15
                  0
                  Quote: Engineer
                  Escort and battlebox have an indirect effect on accuracy.

                  Well, I don’t know .. I have always believed that if you are given the opportunity to work in ideal conditions, then the result will be excellent, especially if all sorts of "experts" do not interfere.
                  1. Engineer
                    Engineer 26 November 2020 19: 30
                    0
                    Undoubtedly,
                    But the key is that a four-engined bomber directly over the target is intercepted very, very rarely, this is not a dive bomber. Just because the approach to the target itself and the bomb release takes several minutes. Even a straggler bomber can try his luck outside the formation and bomb out using the fact that little attention is paid to single planes.
                    But the road to the goal and back takes hours, and that's where the experts usually keep watch. Therefore, I believe that the escort and battlebox in the matter of accuracy (but not survivability and overall efficiency) are secondary. Even visibility above the target plays a much larger role.
                    1. Alf
                      Alf 26 November 2020 19: 46
                      0
                      Quote: Engineer
                      Undoubtedly,
                      But the key is that a four-engined bomber directly over the target is intercepted very, very rarely, this is not a dive bomber. Just because the approach to the target itself and the bomb release takes several minutes. Even a straggler bomber can try his luck outside the formation and bomb out using the fact that little attention is paid to single planes.
                      But the road to the goal and back takes hours, and that's where the experts usually keep watch. Therefore, I believe that the escort and battlebox in the matter of accuracy (but not survivability and overall efficiency) are secondary. Even visibility above the target plays a much larger role.

                      In something you are right.
                      Quote: Engineer
                      Even a straggler bomber can try his luck outside the formation and bomb out using the fact that little attention is paid to single planes.

                      That is unlikely. German anti-aircraft gunners will say at the sight of a loner Gut and aim EVERYTHING at him. Here it is from a loner and will fly where the rivets, where the spare parts ...
                    2. Engineer
                      Engineer 26 November 2020 20: 04
                      0
                      Neither boxing nor an escort will help against antiaircraft guns. Boxing is even much more convenient to shoot and the probability of hitting is higher, especially for large calibers.
                      Have you read Gibson for a long time?
                      He, breaking away from the formation, simply DECREASED to maximize the angular movement relative to the antiaircraft guns. And always with success. Moreover, due to its low height, it was noticed only in a narrow strip. And above the industrial districts, there were clouds and smog at his service.
                    3. Alf
                      Alf 26 November 2020 20: 10
                      0
                      Quote: Engineer
                      Boxing is even much more convenient to shoot and the probability of hitting is higher, especially for large calibers.

                      The probability of hitting even one battery on the plane in the box and individually is somewhat different, there is no need to smear the barrels all over the box.
                      Quote: Engineer
                      Have you read Gibson for a long time?

                      Honestly, I haven't read it. And who is it ? request
                      Quote: Engineer
                      He, breaking away from the formation, simply DECREASED to maximize the angular movement relative to the anti-aircraft guns.

                      How low is it? Entering the slot machine?
                    4. Engineer
                      Engineer 26 November 2020 20: 18
                      +2
                      The probability of hitting even one battery on the plane in the box and individually is somewhat different, there is no need to smear the barrels all over the box.

                      For an individual aircraft, the chances of not being shot down in the boxing increases. For anti-aircraft gunners, the chances of knocking someone down are also For remote tubes of large-caliber shells, boxing is the most it.
                      Such is the dualism. ))

                      Feel like we are shifting from interference with bombing to survivability ?.

                      And who is it ?

                      The first commander of the same 617 squadron of Lancaster))
                      How low is it? Entering the slot machine?

                      Yes. He assured that his tail gunner fired at anti-aircraft gunners and broke a searchlight with them a couple of times. Even if the last from the area "seemed", he entered the zone of automatic machines.
                    5. Alf
                      Alf 26 November 2020 20: 44
                      +1
                      Quote: Engineer
                      Feel like we are shifting from interference with bombing to survivability ?.

                      Let's replace this topic, I agree.
                      Quote: Engineer
                      entered the zone of machines.

                      So he really was an ace. On a 4-engine bomber, spin this near the ground ...
                    6. kytx
                      kytx 7 December 2020 01: 25
                      0
                      the dude obviously knew his stuff
      2. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 26 November 2020 16: 23
        +1
        Quote: Cherry Nine
        As for accuracy, it changed over time, the British also grew above themselves. They carried out the bases of the fleet quite accurately. Bridges, tunnels, there were many interesting things. When we set the task for accuracy, there was accuracy.

        When the RAF set the task for accuracy (covering a submarine, tunnel, bunker, launcher of the KR), then specialists were involved in its solution - the same 617. And most of the crews dumped bombs somewhere in the target area. However, given the number of machines involved, this was usually enough.
  • mr.ZinGer
    mr.ZinGer 26 November 2020 13: 39
    0
    I thought the British had it too, Norden, a very expensive thing. I read the second project after Manhattan at the cost.
    1. Engineer
      Engineer 26 November 2020 13: 48
      +1
      As far as I could figure out, the British had a Mk1942 since 14 with automated input of the course of altitude and speed. Before that, there was a complete crap, rising to the samples of the 1st World War.
      A more or less full-fledged analogue of Norden was SABS - in part it went at the end of 1943.
      I read the cost of the second project after Manhattan.

      Including overhead costs and total secrecy that became unnecessary already in 1938 - the documentation was stolen by the Germans - but remained until 1944. Even the transfer of the sight from plane to plane was carried out with an armed escort
      1. mr.ZinGer
        mr.ZinGer 26 November 2020 14: 28
        +1
        Zinovy ​​Pearl, in his book "Tales of Warships", has a detailed description of its principle of operation. For me, when I read this as a schoolboy, it was a revelation.
  • Gregory Charnota
    Gregory Charnota 26 November 2020 12: 00
    0
    and these Lancasters destroyed a barge with concentration camp prisoners
  • iouris
    iouris 26 November 2020 12: 06
    -16%
    The British School of Engineering, of course, was at its best. But the publication is written so enthusiastically that the question arises that the author knows who exactly broke the back of Nazism and made a decisive contribution to the Victory?
    1. Cherry Nine
      Cherry Nine 26 November 2020 12: 39
      +3
      Quote: iouris
      broke the back of Nazism and made a decisive contribution to the Victory?

      Who is the question to?
      Quote: iouris
      The British School of Engineering, of course, was at its best.

      There was already an article about the Pe-8.
    2. kig
      kig 26 November 2020 14: 01
      +7
      Quote: iouris
      the author knows who exactly broke the spine

      It seems that soon in all articles it will be necessary to insert this quote.
      1. iouris
        iouris 26 November 2020 17: 25
        -5
        Soon the "authors" will write articles on the topic: "How badly the Germans acted, because they demolished all the monuments to Russian soldiers."
  • Undecim
    Undecim 26 November 2020 12: 19
    +6
    Tellboy bombs
    In English, "a" (hey) before the double consonant "l" (el), is pronounced like "o" (o). Therefore, the Tallboy bomb - in Russian - Tollboy.
  • Kostadinov
    Kostadinov 26 November 2020 18: 06
    0
    I still do not understand what this unprecedented plane did? Tirpitz in 1944 is already only a battery of coastal artillery, a good trophy could only hit in six months. The dam and viaduct are absolutely senseless destruction and unnecessary losses. Night bombings over the squares are even more unnecessary losses without any benefit in the war. The plane itself, production, repairs, pilot training, ammunition, fuel and so on have eaten up a lot of resources and the benefits are less than from Po-2 or Suordfish.
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 26 November 2020 19: 02
      +6
      Quote: Kostadinov
      Tirpitz in 1944 is already only a coastal artillery battery, a good trophy could only hit in six months.

      This is an ever-hanging threat in the heads of high officials from the Admiralty (Well, how will you get out of the base?), distracting forces and means.
      Quote: Kostadinov
      The dam and viaduct are absolutely senseless destruction and unnecessary losses.

      The Ruhr, which had previously been tested by fire, is now hit by water. At 50 miles from Meun and 50 miles from Eder, coal mines were flooded and factories destroyed. Fritzlar, one of Hitler's largest military airfields, was submerged. Airplanes, airfield, hangars, barracks, bomb storage - everything was gone. Highways, railways, bridges disappeared. Kassel's industrial suburb of Unternostadt, 40 miles from Eder, has sunk. The stream continued for several miles through the Fulda Valley. The banks of the canals were eroded, power plants were demolished, the Ruhr blast furnaces were without water and could not produce steel. Dozens of river structures were destroyed in Gelsenkirchen, Dortmund, Hamm and Bochum. The transport system that ensured the flow of raw materials into the Ruhr and the export of finished products was destroyed. Some factories were not demolished, but could not work as they lost electricity or water.
      In the small town of Neheim, 2000 people were involved in the repair, including 1250 soldiers. Another 2000 people tried to repair the dam. But many months later, during the Battle of the Ruhr, there was not enough water even to put out the fires.
      The official German report gives a "grim picture of devastation." By the fall, it will become clear how much production has suffered, but it is estimated that this was equal to the loss of 100000 workers over several months.
      125 factories and factories were either destroyed or heavily damaged. Approximately 3000 hectares of arable land were devastated. Destroyed 25 bridges, 21 damaged. 6500 head of livestock were killed.
      © Barker R. Flood Germany!
      Plus, the Tollboys carriers did a good job on the infrastructure of the Reich, destroying tunnels, canals, submarine shelters, bunkers, etc.
  • Alf
    Alf 26 November 2020 19: 03
    0
    So no flaws that it is surprising.

    The ceiling was too small for a strategist, only 7,5 km.
  • Aag
    Aag 26 November 2020 20: 08
    0
    Thank you for the article!
    By the way, I didn't guess the author.
    Regardless of this, there are some wishes ...
    To the author. Interesting, Even, somewhere intriguing ... But, you see, for connoisseurs, fans of the aircraft of the 2nd world, hardly anything from your article was a discovery. As for those interested (like me), no explanations (chewing, links) .Kind of warmed up interest, -and okay ...
    It seems that the author is capable of more ... Even, seemingly in a topic not peculiar to him.
    I hope for interesting comments from specialists.
    hi
    1. kig
      kig 27 November 2020 05: 01
      0
      In principle, almost everything that the author writes about airplanes strongly echoes similar articles on airwar.ru. For links and all sorts of additions, you can go there.
      1. Aag
        Aag 27 November 2020 08: 10
        0
        Quote: kig
        In principle, almost everything that the author writes about airplanes strongly echoes similar articles on airwar.ru. For links and all sorts of additions, you can go there.

        Thank you. Sometimes I drop by ...
  • LastPS
    LastPS 26 November 2020 22: 06
    -1
    An interesting point. "Lancaster" was built in a very decent amount for a heavy bomber (for comparison - the USSR mastered 79 Pe-8)

    What's this for? Britashka was one of the richest and most technically advanced powers of those years, and the damage that the Germans inflicted on them in general cannot be compared with the scale of the losses of the union. I would have seen how much they riveted Lancasters in similar conditions, and not chilli on a quiet island with a lot of money and industrial power, which they do not nightmare with round-the-clock raids. So the moment is never interesting, but quite expected. Just like that, the "hairpins" are useless.
    1. infantryman2020
      infantryman2020 27 November 2020 09: 02
      0
      Well, Duc, we, too, in the strategic depth are not nightmartles. From the word "almost completely" ...
      1. LastPS
        LastPS 29 November 2020 08: 43
        0
        Yes, only production had to be moved to this strategic depth, which, to put it mildly, did not contribute much to the production potential either. And the comparison is also incorrect, because the union did not rely on long-range bombers, like the British or Americans, who used this "long arm" as the main instrument of pressure on Nazi Germany. Well, the industrial potential of the union was incomparable. For example, the first 109 flew with the British Rolls-Royce Kestrel engine, and copies of the 6-ton Vickers were sold around the world. The Union tried to catch up with the developed powers for 20 years and a lot was done, even the very appearance of the Pe-8 was a miracle, because at that time such aircraft were fierce high-tech, but they did manage. To reproach him with the fact that he could not establish mass production is simply dishonorable, because anyone who is familiar with Soviet aviation will understand that there were plenty of reasons why this was impossible and it is not at all a fact that someone succeeded would be better in such conditions.
  • Zuiss
    Zuiss 26 November 2020 23: 56
    -2
    Nice plane. You can't think of a better way to eliminate dams and other structures, since single-engine and twin-engine ones could not take so many bombs, the hull allows the installation of a Tallboy bomb
    It was thanks to these aircraft that the Ruhr dams were destroyed.

    B-17 would hardly have coped, Liberator 50/50, our Pe-8 with FAB-5000 is even better than the Scarlet Rose bomber (Lancaster Flower), but, unfortunately, there were few of them

    But overall, Avro Lancaster is much better than their American counterparts B-17 and B-24
    1. infantryman2020
      infantryman2020 27 November 2020 15: 44
      0
      Why is he better scared?
      If only more charismatic, and then, vryatli, Americans have their own charisma.
      At least altitude and defensive weapons.
  • Kostadinov
    Kostadinov 27 November 2020 01: 49
    -2
    This is an ever-hanging threat in the heads of high-ranking officials from the Admiralty (well, how will they get out of the base?), Diverting forces and resources to themselves.

    By November 44, a real threat did not hit Tirpitz in the heads of the admiralty. In addition, there was no guarantee that from the bombing he would turn over, on the contrary, he had to hit the bottom and the coastal battery would remain.
    The official German report gives a "grim picture of devastation." By the fall, it will become clear how much production has suffered, but it is estimated that this was equal to the loss of 100000 workers over several months.
    125 factories and factories were either destroyed or heavily damaged. Approximately 3000 hectares of arable land were devastated. Destroyed 25 bridges, 21 damaged. 6500 head of livestock were killed.

    The loss of arable land and livestock is touching, but a noticeable loss of coal production or something else has not been observed.
    If the bombing was so destructive then the British could continue to destroy dams, bridges and livestock and achieve a quick surrender of Germany.
  • infantryman2020
    infantryman2020 27 November 2020 09: 08
    0
    It seems, not quite a teapot in the history of aviation, but it is not clear where the "flying dog buried itself".
    On the B-17 and B-24, the lower tower was in demand and even became legendary. And on "Lancaster" it was removed for lack of demand. What is the reason?
    They not only bombed at night, if that.
    1. mr.ZinGer
      mr.ZinGer 27 November 2020 10: 09
      0
      My understanding is that removing the lower turret improved aerodynamics, resulting in speed and range. And the daytime raids, it was a non-systemic activity, the work of "tolboi and grenslems" in relation to the total number of sorties is minuscule.
      1. infantryman2020
        infantryman2020 27 November 2020 12: 03
        0
        Hmm. Well, it also ate aerodynamics on the Americans as well.
        And, what, at night for the fight against "wrong music" the lower tower, in general, or what, has no value?
        1. mr.ZinGer
          mr.ZinGer 27 November 2020 13: 24
          0
          There is a question of different tactics, the Americans initially counted on the firepower of the formations, and the British on secrecy.
          And the value of defensive fire is very low.
          1. infantryman2020
            infantryman2020 27 November 2020 15: 40
            0
            Well, maybe.
            Both made a decision on a combination of factors.
            Perhaps the Americans' decisive argument for the lower turret was its more or less high efficiency, thanks to the 50 caliber.
            1. mr.ZinGer
              mr.ZinGer 27 November 2020 15: 54
              0
              Yes, in my understanding this is so, the losses of night fighters from flight accidents were higher than from gunners' fire.
  • Amborlakatay
    Amborlakatay 27 November 2020 21: 02
    0
    Interesting. I haven't come across such a good article on Lancaster. In general, the Britons had a stake on aviation, not the fleet, so the appropriate resources were allocated, and this turned out to be justified.It's funny that many countries built huge battleships (the same Yamato from the Yap) -funny money, huge resources and the fear of using them, and all these huge pelvis were drowned, not having time to justify their purpose.
  • thrust
    thrust 4 December 2020 22: 14
    0
    I read at Pikul's that Tirpitz (who was hiding with a bent shaft in the fjords after the torpedo attack of our submarine) was overturned by "blockbusters" not by a bomb, but simply by a five-ton bunch of dynamite with a fuse. hit by two.
  • Narak-zempo
    Narak-zempo 13 January 2021 14: 32
    0
    Why, by the way, did Harris and Churchill not sit down in the dock next to Goering?
    After all, there is a real, and not invented by Jews, Holocaust - the burning of hundreds of thousands of civilians in Germany during the raids.
    Moreover, it was the British who were the authors of the idea of ​​carpet bombing and "firestorms" (because they did not know how to work aimingly), they developed it scientifically and consistently put it into practice. The Americans turned out to be only capable students, and then they did not dare to run such techniques on white people.