Military Review

Widow Colt's revolvers

58
Widow Colt's revolvers
Naval revolver "Colt" 1861 caliber 9.14-mm (.36), reworked according to the system of Alexander Tuer. From left to right: Tuer's cartridge and device for their independent equipment; a drum with a protruding axis and a “ring” on which two “strikers” are clearly visible: one “firing”, the other extracting. Bullet is the most common


Military affairs at the turn of the eras


In 1862, the famous Samuel Colt died. The funeral was organized at the expense of the state, he left his widow Elizabeth Hart Jarvis with a capital of $ 15 million, but along with business, respect and money, many problems fell on the shoulders of this woman. And the first one was related to ... her husband's lack of perspective vision. Well, not everyone is given to "pierce" the time. Someone is limited by their arrogance, someone has a threshold of their incompetence, above which they can no longer rise. In a word, it often happens that even the most talented people pass by the "gift of fate", and then regret it all their lives. However, Colt himself could no longer regret the consequences of one of his ill-considered decisions. He died!


F. Alexander Thuer's Impts in Revolving Fire Arms. 13 August 1868. Department of the Interior. Patent Office. It clearly shows how the hammer of the hammer is located either against the upper cartridge in the drum, then replaced by the striker of the extractor, the working part of which is at the same time in the lower part of the drum

And it so happened that somewhere in the 1850s, Colt's employee Rollin White developed a mechanism for quickly loading a revolver. Since Samuel Colt showed no interest in White's mechanism, he left his company, but of course, he immediately patented his development. The patent drawing shows a drum drilled through, as opposed to Colt drums, which, as is known, were not drilled through. The patent was issued on April 3, 1855 for 7 years, was renewed once and was valid until April 3, 1869. The management of Smith & Wesson turned out to be more far-sighted, which acquired the rights to manufacture revolvers with White's drum, and already at the end of 1857 the company launched the first revolver for metal rimfire cartridges on the market.


Revolver Smith & Wesson Model 1, type 2. In the photo you see a copy with two patent dates and a box of .22 short cartridges from Winchester.

One of Colt's main competitors, Remington Arms, also launched its Remington New Model Army revolver, as well as a number of models converted to metal cartridges. A conversion kit was offered for owners of Remington percussion revolvers. A patent inscription on the drum dated April 3, 1855 indicates that Remington was licensed for this modification from Smith & Wesson, the owner of Rollin White's patent.

It turned out that all other manufacturers weapons were bound by White's patent hand and foot. Of course, one could wait until April 1869 when his patent would expire. But there was no guarantee that he would not renew the patent for another 10 years, and most importantly, even seven years in the arms business is a whole era.


Tuer's Ring. The corrugated lever is clearly visible, with the help of which it was turned over to the position for discharging the revolver

And it was here that Colt's widow showed herself as a resolute and intelligent woman. In 1867, she convened a board of engineers at her company and invited them to create a revolver chambered for a metal cartridge while bypassing White's patent. And there was such a person - an engineer of the company F. Alexander Tuer, who developed a revolver that shoots metal cartridges, but at the same time did not violate White's patent! Patents for it were obtained on September 15, 1868 and January 4, 1870.

The design turned out to be very interesting. So let's take a closer look at it. So, the barrel of the revolver Alexander Tuer was drilled. But ... not through and through! That is, through and through, of course, how could it be otherwise, but only from the breech, the hole by about one eighth ... was blocked by a "cog" on the axis of rotation of the drum. Therefore, it could not be said that the hole in the drum is through. Further, cartridges with a copper sleeve were inserted into the drum not from the back, but from the front. They had slightly tapered bushings and were pressed into the chambers of the corresponding tapered shape from the front so as to be held tightly enough in it.


Detailed diagram of the Tuer revolver device. As you can see, everything is quite simple. The chucks are inserted from the front and held by friction. You shoot, as usual, but in order to discharge the revolver, you need to turn the ring by the grooved lever and ... pull the trigger six times in a row! To some extent, this accelerated the reloading of such revolvers, which could not but please fans of fast shooting. Before that, how much had they fiddled with reloading?

But the most original was the device that allowed you to shoot from this revolver and simultaneously discharge it. Behind the drum, the designers placed a ring that was put on its axis, inside which there was a spring and two strikers, one of which had a long rocker. One firing pin reached for the primer in the bottom of the cartridge case, the other touched only its bottom. When firing, the trigger hit the striker, which, in turn, hit the primer and fired a shot. But as soon as the ring was pulled back so that the hammer hit the firing pin on the rocker, when the trigger was pressed, he hit the bottom of the spent cartridge case and threw it out through the hole in the drum below.

Tuer revolvers were produced in different sizes: .49 Pocket, .51 Navy and .44 Army, and they were all six-shooters. Previously issued capsule revolvers were also occasionally altered. However, what was there to redo? The drum changed and the ring was added. And that's it!

And, nevertheless, Tuer's system was quite complex and expensive. In addition, it turned out that the cartridges were not always firmly held in the drum due to vibration caused by the shooting. Therefore, from 1868 to 1871, no more than 5000 copies of Tuer revolvers of all sizes and calibers were produced.

Interestingly, immediately after 1869, Colt launched a cartridge revolver chambered for the Colt House 1871 (4000 pieces), the Open Top Pocket in .22 caliber (3000 pieces) and the Colt Open Top in .44 Henry. Engineers Charles B. Richards (US Patent No. 117461, July 25, 1871) and William Mason developed modifications of percussion revolvers for rimfire and centerfire cartridges. And they were all much simpler in design than Tuer's revolvers.


Conversion of the Colt 1860 Army B. Richards revolver. Left view

A model 1860 army revolver with an eight-inch barrel was prepared for the US Army. He fired Martin's .44 centerfire cartridges, which were in use by the army at the time, which was understandably considered a positive fact by the tight-fisted military.

In the 1860 Army Charles B. Richards, the rear of the drum was shortened and open holes were drilled into the caliber of the cartridge. A plate was screwed onto the frame behind the drum. In it, on the right, there was a loading opening with a flap that hinged downward, above which a visor was attached. The original loader under the barrel is replaced by a tube on the right with an ejector rod inside.


Conversion of the Colt 1860 Army B. Richards revolver. Right view

In the later Richards-Mason conversion, the drum was also replaced, and the firing pin was placed directly on the trigger. The Navy decided to use the Mason system for its Navy Mod. 1851 and 1861 revolvers in caliber 0,36 for metal cartridges of the same caliber .38 (0,36 replaced by a new caliber designation).


William Mason conversion: Navy Mod. 1861

For years, Colt had parts from the Pocket Model 1849 percussion revolvers and their successors Model 1862 Police and Pocket Navy in .31 and .36 calibers. The company modified them to match the William Mason system and sold all of these five-shot .36 caliber revolvers at reasonable prices. It was announced that private owners of old percussion revolvers could rebuild them at Colt for little money.


Very nice gift set of Tuer revolver. On the left, you can clearly see the drum and how exactly it was drilled "not completely"
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  1. polpot
    polpot 9 November 2020 18: 08
    +8
    Thank you, very interesting and wonderful photos.
    1. Lexus
      Lexus 9 November 2020 18: 27
      15
      Yes, indeed, Colt's widow turned out to be "a woman - not a miss." Taking this opportunity, I want to remind Vyacheslav Olegovich of my old request - to write an article about revolving loading boosters. For sources on this topic are extremely scarce and difficult to retrieve.
      1. kalibr
        9 November 2020 18: 52
        10
        Quote: lexus
        about revolving loading boosters.

        Do you mean special plates with cartridges that allow you to load six cartridges at once? I'm afraid you won't get a lot out of this topic ...
        1. Lexus
          Lexus 9 November 2020 19: 01
          +9
          Vyacheslav Olegovich hi ,
          start to reap and be surprised by the uncovered "work front".
          1. kalibr
            9 November 2020 19: 04
            11
            It's a little hard for me to "press" now. I have to get down to work easier ...
            1. Lexus
              Lexus 9 November 2020 19: 07
              +8
              I know five principles of how such devices work. If not you, then who? wink
              1. kalibr
                9 November 2020 19: 16
                10
                Thank you for rating me so highly. Usually I do not suffer from modesty, but now is just the case when I can say that your opinion about my person is too flattering ...
                1. Lexus
                  Lexus 9 November 2020 19: 21
                  10
                  This is not flattery at all, but a motivation for research. winked
                  1. kalibr
                    9 November 2020 19: 31
                    +9
                    Quote: lexus
                    This is not flattery at all, but a motivation for research.

                    Well, yes, perhaps!
        2. Catfish
          Catfish 9 November 2020 19: 40
          12
          Vyacheslav, good evening! hi
          I am sincerely glad to meet again on the air, you were sorely lacking here (here and talk about the role of personality in "history") smile but now I hope everything will be okay. drinks
          Alexey is referring to the Revolver Speedloader.

          1. kalibr
            9 November 2020 19: 50
            10
            I know the question is how to make 8000 signs with pictures from this!
            1. Lexus
              Lexus 9 November 2020 20: 16
              +9
              There, not all patent holders and manufacturers of these devices are widely known to the public. I am more than sure that in the process of writing this article, many interesting facts will be revealed. Regarding pictures - in the implementation of each principle of operation of such "gadgets" there are always nuances that deserve special attention.
            2. Catfish
              Catfish 9 November 2020 21: 02
              +8
              Well, not for me to advise you, but the topic is interesting. smile
              Yes, I sent you a personal letter about the virus, if you can, answer today. drinks
              1. kalibr
                9 November 2020 22: 16
                +6
                Already answered! Look ...
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 9 November 2020 22: 19
                  +5
                  Already read it, thanks a lot! drinks
          2. Lexus
            Lexus 9 November 2020 19: 59
            10
            Konstantin, welcome! hi
            They are including. The authorship of these inventions is of particular interest. It is this information that is extremely scarce on the Internet. There will be something to discuss with our esteemed colleagues in a warm, friendly atmosphere. That's why he asked.
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 9 November 2020 21: 02
              +7
              Well, right, the topic is good.
  2. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 9 November 2020 18: 13
    +8
    You won't believe it! Just today I thought:
    - Something's gone for a long time "five o'clock Charlie" ... And now, how to order! Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich, I learned a lot.
    1. kalibr
      9 November 2020 18: 50
      12
      Your "Charlie" crawled on all fours to please you!
      1. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 9 November 2020 18: 52
        +6
        Do not frighten, Vyacheslav Olegovich! I hope my health is all right. And on all fours because of the night dances)))
    2. Lexus
      Lexus 9 November 2020 18: 59
      +8
      Colleague hi,
      I naturally know the origin of the expression "Uncle Sam", that it is not related to the Colt, but given his merits and the unshakability of the Second Amendment in the concept of Americans, I believe that he would be better suited for this role compared to the official interpretation. Especially with this "Aunt Elizabeth". Then the well-known image on the recruiting poster would have a completely different look and more substantive content. By the way, in the USA, for 328 million people, there are somewhere about 500 million "trunks". It means something.
  3. tlauicol
    tlauicol 9 November 2020 18: 29
    +9
    Interesting details, hmm, wow .. good
  4. Undecim
    Undecim 9 November 2020 18: 45
    15
    In the 1860 Army Charles B. Richards, the rear of the drum was shortened and the open holes were drilled into the. A plate was screwed onto the frame behind the drum. In it, on the right, there was a loading opening with a flap hinged downward, above which a visor was attached. The original under-barrel loader is replaced by a tube on the right with an ejector rod inside.
    Let me, Vyacheslav Olegovich, expound in more detail, since the idea is really interesting.

    The photo clearly shows the difference between the drum before "conversion" and after. The part of the drum with the cable tubes has been removed, which allows charging with a cartridge with a metal flanged sleeve. The cartridge was specially designed for the diameter of the chamber of the 1860 Army revolver. That is, the drum was not re-drilled, but a new cartridge was made for the diameter of the chambers.
    A shutter plate with a striker and a loading window was installed on the trimmed frame of the revolver frame.

    This photo clearly shows the spring-loaded drummer and rear sight on the breech plate. It is clearly visible, also, the cut off the trigger.
    1. kalibr
      9 November 2020 18: 53
      +9
      Thanks for the nice addition!
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 9 November 2020 18: 57
        15
        By the way, the idea is still alive and today kits for the "Richards conversion" are produced for owners of primer revolvers.
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 9 November 2020 19: 00
          11
          Moreover, Kirst Cartridge Konverter ™ is available for almost all capsule revolver models.
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 9 November 2020 22: 13
            +6
            Almost missed!
            Thank you Vyacheslav Olegovich !!!
  5. Alien From
    Alien From 9 November 2020 19: 13
    +7
    Thanks to the author, an amazing series of articles) the photos are excellent!
    1. kalibr
      9 November 2020 19: 18
      11
      Glad you like it. More articles on this topic are being prepared. One is already on moderation!
      1. Alien From
        Alien From 9 November 2020 19: 29
        +5
        Great, thanks, waiting!
  6. Tank jacket
    Tank jacket 9 November 2020 21: 28
    +6
    Thanks for the article, I read it with pleasure ... Weapon magic ...
    The other day I reviewed two westerns "The Hateful Eight" and "The Fast But Dead".
  7. Catfish
    Catfish 9 November 2020 22: 09
    +9
    Elizabeth Jarvis Colt (née Elizabeth Hart Jarvis; October 5, 1826 - August 23, 1905)


    Elizabeth Hart Jarvis Colt with her son Caldwell, 1865
  8. o Fortuna
    o Fortuna 9 November 2020 22: 23
    +5
    Thanks! Well written, you should write books!
    1. kalibr
      10 November 2020 07: 39
      +5
      If this is you for me, then ... 34 printed books and 6 electronic novels ... how much more? By the way, go to the site author. today - all of them are there, and yesterday a book for children was added.
      1. Phil77
        Phil77 10 November 2020 20: 41
        +2
        Quote: kalibr
        If this is you for me, then ...

        Excellent advice! Would you think, eh? Vyacheslav Olegovich? With your wife, really, consult. And for the cause ... laughing
  9. Abram Ivanovich
    Abram Ivanovich 9 November 2020 23: 47
    +7
    Percussion revolver
    Percussion
    Revolver
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 10 November 2020 04: 33
      +5

      Yes, even a machine gun, and here we are well fed! laughing
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 10 November 2020 10: 12
        +6
        Yes, even a machine gun, and here we are well fed!

        And in general we are good! wink
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 10 November 2020 10: 36
          +6
          Personal battery for a well-deserved Cat!
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 10 November 2020 10: 38
            +6
            Personal battery for a well-deserved Cat!

            I serve as a battery at night! laughing comes, leans on the side, and sleeps like a dead man. Doesn't even push it away if something goes wrong.
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 10 November 2020 10: 46
              +6
              Not mine comes for an asshole, guesses half an hour before the alarm clock and demands attention !!!
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 10 November 2020 10: 50
                +6
                Not mine comes for an asshole, guesses half an hour before the alarm clock and demands attention !!!

                Mine requires "grub", basically. Although the attention too, of course. Sometimes he can talk in every way. But he doesn't like itching! request but his hair is a sea ...
            2. Catfish
              Catfish 10 November 2020 11: 05
              +6
              Similarly, we sleep nose-to-nose. smile
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 10 November 2020 11: 28
                +5
                Similarly, we sleep nose-to-nose.

                My battery is my favorite place. And the windowsill. By the way, in July fell out of the window. Fortunately, I live on the second floor. From below they yell: "Your cat fell!" Then for a couple of days I walked dumbfounded ... laughing
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 10 November 2020 11: 30
                  +6
                  Sphinx on the nightstand.
                  1. Pane Kohanku
                    Pane Kohanku 10 November 2020 11: 49
                    +6
                    Sphinx on the nightstand.

                    Uncle Kostya, after the cats, we forgot something about a reason to improve our health ... wink Colleagues, everyone who is involved in the service in the police - Happy Holidays! Will live! drinks
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 10 November 2020 12: 03
                      +5
                      I agree, we will live and we will be alive! drinks
                      And I already congratulated someone. drinks
                      1. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 10 November 2020 12: 07
                        +6
                        And I already congratulated someone.

                        Yes, me too. drinks
                    2. Phil77
                      Phil77 10 November 2020 18: 49
                      +3
                      Quote: Pane Kohanku
                      about a reason to improve your health ...

                      So, Nikolai! I dare to remind you that before retirement, as before China, in an interesting position. What reason to * improve your health * can we talk about on Tuesday?!?! laughing am laughing
                      And the citizens of militia with their professional holiday!
                  2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                    Kote Pan Kokhanka 10 November 2020 18: 10
                    +5


                    We always sit neatly, under the supervision of the Pope!
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 10 November 2020 18: 50
                      +4
                      Adorable pussy. smile
                    2. Phil77
                      Phil77 10 November 2020 20: 34
                      +2
                      Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
                      We always sit neatly

                      No words !!!!!! good good good good good

                      I am in admiration of this bright representative of the fluffy, tailed people!
                    3. kalibr
                      10 November 2020 21: 29
                      +3
                      What a cute pussy! Such a touching muzzle !!!
  10. Korsar4
    Korsar4 10 November 2020 04: 27
    +7
    A quick guide on how to get around patents.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 10 November 2020 09: 55
      +6
      To the author - double the payment!
      Hello, Sergey. hi
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 10 November 2020 11: 01
        +6
        The main thing is that the basis is substantial.

        Hi Constantine!
    2. John22
      John22 10 November 2020 14: 05
      +3
      The allowance is always good. The main thing is that patent law was respected then, at least in the USA!
  11. Icelord
    Icelord 14 November 2020 11: 17
    0
    Vyacheslav Olegovich. I do not always write on time with the specifics of my travels. But thank you from the bottom of my heart