Military Review

NK-32-02 engines and the future of long-range aviation

46

Tu-160M ​​"Igor Sikorsky" - the first carrier of serial NK-32-02. Photo of UAC


The program of modernization and resumption of the construction of Tu-160M ​​strategic missile-carrying bombers continues. One of its key components is the project of the upgraded "second series" engine NK-32-02. By now, the engine has been brought up to series, and serial products are tested in the air.

News of the year


This year, optimistic news on the project to resume production of NK-32 turbojet engines. So, in February, during the visit of the delegation of the Ministry of Defense to the production of PJSC Kuznetsov, it was announced that the project was proceeding in accordance with the schedule. At the same time, a search was made for ways to speed up work.

At the Army-2020 forum in August, the United Engine Corporation announced the completion of the manufacture and testing of the first pilot batch of NK-32 engines of the second stage. The products fully comply with the requirements and are accepted by the customer.

By that time, all preparations for serial production had been completed. Moreover, it was launched and the delivery of new NK-32-02 products has already begun. UEC has promised to increase the rate of production of engines to meet the requirements of the Tupolev company and the Ministry of Defense.

Ready-made serial engines arrived at Kazan aviation plant for installation on modernized aircraft. On November 3, the updated Tu-160M ​​"Igor Sikorsky" made its first test flight with NK-32-02 engines. This aircraft has been in flight tests since February, but it has still flown with the old model's power plant.


Test flight February 2, 2020 Photo by KLA

The flight lasted 2 hours 20 minutes. and took place at an altitude of 6 thousand meters. The purpose of the flight was to test general aircraft systems and new types of electronic equipment. In addition, the performance of the new engines was appreciated. The flight proceeded normally, there were no comments on the operation of systems and assemblies.

Past and present


Serial production of the first modification of the NK-32 turbojet engines was launched in 1983 at the sites of the Kuibyshev NPO Trud. It was carried out solely in the interests of building strategic Tu-160 bombers. The assembly of the engines continued until 1993 and essentially stopped with the construction of the aircraft. For 10 years Trud has assembled about 250 engines. Due to this, it was possible to equip more than 30 built aircraft and create a solid warehouse stock of ready-made engines and spare parts.

Over the next decades, the operation of the Tu-160 was ensured through timely maintenance and repair of engines. As the engine resource was depleted, remotorization was carried out. A sharp decrease in the fleet of combat-ready aircraft and a decrease in the intensity of flights after the collapse of the USSR made it possible to somewhat limit the development of a resource and the need for new engines. However, in the future, discussion began on the restoration of their production - now it has given real results.

Technical features


The main goal of the recent work was the restoration of production, which had been stopped in the early nineties. For this, it was necessary to reconstruct production facilities, deploy various lines and master new technologies. New principles of production logistics have been introduced. The modernization of production was carried out with the involvement of specialized institutes.

It was also envisaged to update the design of the NK-32, taking into account the latest achievements of science and technology. In this context, new design solutions and modern production technologies were used. Due to such modifications, it was planned to improve the main characteristics of the engine and thereby increase some parameters of the aircraft.


NK-32-02 at the Kuznetsov plant. Shot from shopping mall "Military acceptance", shopping mall "Zvezda"

According to known data, the modernized NK-32-02 retains all the main features of the architecture and design. It is still a two-circuit, three-shaft engine; the compressor retains high and medium pressure stages, while the turbine has high, medium and low pressure stages. At the same time, some components were updated and a modern control system was used.

The main characteristics remained the same. Afterburner thrust - 25000 kgf. At the same time, due to various modifications, it was possible to reduce fuel consumption by about 10%. It is argued that by increasing the efficiency, the maximum flight range of the Tu-160M ​​will increase by 1000 km or more, depending on the mode. At the same time, there is no need to increase tanks or refuel in flight. Accordingly, the combat potential of the missile carrier is growing.

Project Perspectives


The deliveries of serial NK-32-02 engines began this summer. It is not known how many items the Kazan aircraft plant managed to deliver over the past months. At the same time, it is obvious that at least four engines were supplied to production, i.e. kit for equipping one Tu-160M ​​aircraft. Probably, deliveries continue, and the stock of motors at the plant is growing.

The production of engines is carried out under a 2018 contract, which provides for the delivery of 22 products over the next several years. Its implementation will allow to re-equip five bombers and leave two products in stock.

According to known data, the current plans of the Ministry of Defense provide for a deep modernization of 15 Tu-160 combat bombers to the "M" state. Since then, several aircraft have undergone repairs and upgrades, however, only one of them has received serial NK-32-02 engines. As the modernization continues, the next machines will receive such engines. Then remotorization of the previously updated technique is possible.


Compressor of a new engine. Shot from shopping center "Military acceptance", shopping center "Zvezda"

The construction of the new Tu-160M2 series bombers has begun, which will initially be equipped with modern engines. The first of them will take off next year, and nine more will be built in the future.

It is easy to see that the existing contract for the NK-32 engines of the second series is insufficient to fulfill all the plans for the modernization and construction of aircraft. So far, only 22 engines have been ordered, while the needs of the aircraft building program in its current form reach 100 units, not counting the stock. This shows that a new order for engines in large quantities may appear in the near future.

It is curious that the prospects for the NK-32-02 are not limited only to the projects of the Tu-160 family. Earlier it was repeatedly reported that on the basis of this engine a new product would be created for use on the promising PAK DA bomber. It was also proposed to perform on the basis of the NK-32 an engine for the transport An-124.

No weak points


Over the past several decades, programs have been launched to modernize Tu-160 bombers of one kind or another. Several years ago, they decided to resume production of such aircraft. However, all these programs and plans had a weak point - the lack of production of NK-32 engines. When planning the development of long-range aviation, one had to rely only on the available stocks.

The obvious - but very difficult - way out was to restore engine production. The solution to this problem took several years and still led to the desired results. UEC and Kuznetsov not only resumed the production of engines, but also upgraded them to optimize their performance.

As follows from the published data, the production rates of the NK-32-02 engines are still small, but they are sufficient to fulfill the existing plans for the repair and construction of aviation equipment. Thus, the main problem in the context of operating and maintaining the Tu-160 (M) has been successfully resolved, and there is no need to worry about the future of long-range aviation.
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  1. Same lech
    Same lech 6 November 2020 05: 55
    0
    The Italians were left in disbelief after the first flight of the Tu-160 with the new NK-32-02 aircraft engines ... but how is this to be understood?
    https://zen.yandex.ru/media/warpolit/italiancy-ostalis-v-nedoumenii-posle-pervogo-poleta-tu160-s-novymi-aviadvigateliami-nk3202-5fa4298e3a59d851053d4951
    1. NDR-791
      NDR-791 6 November 2020 06: 15
      11
      Zeng, he is zeng. Its impressive characteristics will increase the flight range of the Tu-160M ​​to 1000 km. laughing tongue wassat
      Italians vashsche what's the difference on what engines our fly? It is enough for them to know what will reach them ... if anything. And what is there inside - you want it, but it pricks. At our factory in the 90s, the Americans were like with a commission. climbed over everything and still and photographed everything they could reach. the head of the shop clutched at his heart, and the special worker smiled mysteriously lol On the way out, they were led down the corridor and everything ... the films are exposed.
    2. Bar1
      Bar1 6 November 2020 08: 51
      +1
      Ruslan engines D18, 24 tons thrust, NK32 - 14 tons, the rest of the increase is the afterburner, how can NK replace D18?
      1. Ka-52
        Ka-52 6 November 2020 09: 20
        +4
        Ruslan engines D18, 24 tons thrust, NK32-14

        will change the distribution and get traction. Speed ​​is not as important for Ruslan as traction.
        1. Bar1
          Bar1 6 November 2020 09: 22
          -1
          Quote: Ka-52
          Ruslan engines D18, 24 tons thrust, NK32-14

          will change the distribution and get traction. Speed ​​is not as important for Ruslan as traction.

          what kind of distribution?
          1. Ka-52
            Ka-52 6 November 2020 09: 24
            +2
            what kind of distribution?

            Separating block. Increase the degree of bypass.
            1. Bar1
              Bar1 6 November 2020 09: 27
              +3
              Quote: Ka-52
              what kind of distribution?

              Separating block. Increase the degree of bypass.

              to increase the bypass ratio is to completely remake the engine. A new fan is needed. In short, it is better to make a new engine.
              1. Ka-52
                Ka-52 6 November 2020 09: 34
                +5
                to increase the bypass ratio is to completely remake the engine. A new fan is needed. In short, it is better to make a new engine.

                not so much. When they did the opposite - from the civilian D30 (Tu134) they made the military D30F-6 (MiG31), then 75% of the engine remained the same
                1. Invoce
                  Invoce 6 November 2020 15: 59
                  +3
                  Quote: Ka-52
                  to increase the bypass ratio is to completely remake the engine. A new fan is needed. In short, it is better to make a new engine.

                  not so much. When they did the opposite - from the civilian D30 (Tu134) they made the military D30F-6 (MiG31), then 75% of the engine remains the same
                  belay
                  Where does this information come from? What is the D30F-6 (MiG31) T4? Has the downstream pressure not changed? Well, you give a pancake! request
              2. shonsu
                shonsu 10 November 2020 12: 30
                0
                Well, they made pd-14, and on its basis they want to make a line from 8 to 18. Moreover, they make pd-35, scaling pd-14. So the paths may be different, but the sample is the same.
            2. Invoce
              Invoce 6 November 2020 15: 55
              +2
              Will increase the degree of double-circuit due to what? laughing Reduce input. D compressor? or Will they make a change to the airframe design? Increase drag? As you know, the resistance in gases is directly proportional to the square of the speed! In my opinion, there is something wrong! And what have the Ruslan engines D18, 24 tons of thrust to do with it? Will they fit into Tu-160 nacelles? No.
      2. Cympak
        Cympak 6 November 2020 14: 58
        +3
        They will not replace NK32 with D18. Different engines for different purposes. These are just "wet hooels" ... We are waiting for PD-35 from Perm motors.
    3. Bersaglieri
      Bersaglieri 6 November 2020 12: 29
      0
      Scythezza of some kind. However, this is "zen" :)
  2. Ka-52
    Ka-52 6 November 2020 06: 32
    +1
    The serial production of the first modification of the NK-32 turbojet engines was launched in 1983 at the sites of the Kuibyshev NPO Trud.

    few people know, but on the basis of NK32, an engine was created for our Tu-144, a competitor of the Concorde - NK-321-144. But unfortunately, our supersonic carcass did not fly for a long time (((
    1. NDR-791
      NDR-791 6 November 2020 06: 39
      +2
      on the basis of NK32, an engine was created for our Tu-144, a competitor to the Concorde - NK-321-144
      And he flew for the Americans. For three years he flew under NASA programs, until the 99th. They also almost bought them out later along with secret engines
      1. Ka-52
        Ka-52 6 November 2020 06: 55
        +6
        And he flew for the Americans.

        on the American woman flew 144 not with the NK-321-144, but with the NK-32-1. In fact, there the difference in the number of stages of HPC, HPT and LPT is the same.
        1. NDR-791
          NDR-791 6 November 2020 07: 00
          0
          Maybe so, I'm not special, I just read it sometime
        2. ancient
          ancient 6 November 2020 15: 35
          +3
          Quote: Ka-52
          on an American woman flew 144 not with NK-321-144, but with NK-32-1

          Before becoming LL or as you say "American" aircraft Tu-144D USSR-77114 (changed to RA-77114) (aircraft of the 8th series) was a test vehicle of the Design Bureau and in 1988 NK-32 engines were installed on it -1 (no NK-321-144 exists in nature wink )
          When installing the engines, it was necessary to modernize the engine nacelles, as well as the elements of the wing mechanization.
          Also, the tail of the aircraft was additionally sheathed with stainless steel plates to protect the tail from the jet from more powerful engines. wink
          He became "American" in 1996 wink
    2. Bersaglieri
      Bersaglieri 6 November 2020 12: 29
      0
      This is already for the 144LL and the unborn Tu-244
    3. ancient
      ancient 6 November 2020 15: 16
      +4
      Quote: Ka-52
      few people know, but on the basis of NK32 an engine was created for our Tu-144

      Only everything is exactly the opposite wink - since it was on the basis of the NK-144 a line of powerful turbojet engines for heavy aircraft of the Tupolev Design Bureau was developed: NK-22, NK-23, NK-25 (Tu-22M / M2) and NK-32 wink
      The NK-144 engine was "conceived" in 1963, and already in 1974 there was already a more powerful NK-144V.
      But it was specifically for the Tu-144LL # 77114 that a modification of the NK-32-1 was created.
      The first 5 series of aircraft (Tu-144S) were equipped with NK-144A engines, but from 6 series (Tu-144d) RD-36-51A engines were already installed (developed by OKB-36 under the leadership of P.A.Kolesov) wink
      1. Bad_gr
        Bad_gr 6 November 2020 17: 44
        +2
        Quote: ancient
        The first 5 series of aircraft (Tu-144S) were equipped with NK-144A engines, but from 6 series (Tu-144d) RD-36-51A engines were already installed (developed by OKB-36 under the leadership of P.A.Kolesov)

        As far as I understand, the NK-144A was temporary for this aircraft, since the aircraft with it went into supersonic mode in afterburner mode, and this mode was not for a long flight, which is the main one for a passenger (unlike a military) aircraft. But the RD-36 did not have an afterburner at all and the flight of the aircraft at a speed of 2300 km / h was normal for it (cruise mode).
  3. Doccor18
    Doccor18 6 November 2020 08: 42
    +4
    It is very gratifying that Russia's long-range aviation is gaining its former strength again.
    ... you don't have to worry about the future of long-range aviation.

    AUTHOR:

    There is no concern for the future.
    The only concern is the quantitative component: 15M and 10M2 = only 25 strategists. Not enough for SUCH country ...?
    1. Sergej1972
      Sergej1972 6 November 2020 12: 02
      +1
      So there is also the Tu-95MS.
  4. Eug
    Eug 6 November 2020 10: 18
    0
    Maybe it makes sense to install NK-22-3 on the modernized Tu-32M02M? The increase in series leads to a decrease in cost, not to mention other benefits.
    1. ZEMCH
      ZEMCH 7 November 2020 03: 41
      +1
      Quote: Eug
      Maybe it makes sense to install NK-22-3 on the modernized Tu-32M02M? The increase in series leads to a decrease in cost, not to mention other benefits.

      On the Tu-22M3M, it is the NK-32-2 that will be installed, and according to the avionics, unification with the Tu-160M
      1. ancient
        ancient 7 November 2020 12: 39
        -1
        Quote: ZEMCH
        On Tu-22M3M, just NK-32-2

        No, they won't ... it's already .. "wet dreams" crying
        1. ZEMCH
          ZEMCH 7 November 2020 13: 18
          +3
          Quote: ancient
          Quote: ZEMCH
          On Tu-22M3M, just NK-32-2

          No, they won't ... it's already .. "wet dreams" crying

          Let us recall that the Tupolev Design Bureau is working on the complete modernization of the Tu-22M3 bomber-missile carrier to the level of Tu-22M3M. The upgraded aircraft made its first flight at the end of December last year. As previously reported, in the course of modernization, the Tu-22M3M bomber receives new digital on-board radio electronics on the Russian element base, new navigation and sighting equipment, communications and electronic warfare. A new engine and fuel automatic control system is installed on the aircraft. The engines are being replaced with new NK-32-02 engines from the Samara PJSC Kuznetsov. The ergonomics of the cab have been significantly improved. Many aircraft systems are unified with the Tu-160M.

          Content source: https://naukatehnika.com/modernizaciya-raketonosca-tu-22m3.html
          naukatehnika.com
          1. ancient
            ancient 7 November 2020 13: 23
            0
            Quote: ZEMCH
            Content source: https://naukatehnika.com/modernizaciya-raketonosca-tu-22m3.html
            naukatehnika.com

            laughing wink
          2. ancient
            ancient 7 November 2020 13: 32
            +2
            Quote: ZEMCH
            The ergonomics of the cab have been significantly improved.

            And there are no words about .. "this" wassat ... when the late Alexei Arkhipovich Leonov was given a demonstrative excursion to the Tu-22M3 .... he was shocked ....... "you have instruments, toggle switches and switches ... more than we have on" Salute "and" World ... how do you manage to know all this belay and simultaneously see belay request "..... wink
            1. ZEMCH
              ZEMCH 7 November 2020 13: 39
              0
              Have you been to KNAPO for a long time? 3 weeks ago, I just sent you the first link that I found, nobody filmed TTZ from Tupolev on the remotorization of Tu-22M3M)))
              1. ancient
                ancient 7 November 2020 13: 46
                +1
                Quote: ZEMCH
                I just sent you the first link that I found, nobody filmed TTZ from Tupolev for the remotorization of Tu-22M3M

                And I officially declare to you that in the ROC "Modernized long-range missile carrier-bomber Tu-22M3M" there is not a word about the replacement of the NK-25 with the NK-32, series 2 wink
                Quote: ZEMCH
                Have you been to KNAPO for a long time?

                May I not answer? wink (the question is too ... "provocative" wassat ) bully
    2. ancient
      ancient 7 November 2020 12: 38
      0
      Quote: Eug
      Maybe it makes sense to install NK-22-3 on the modernized Tu-32M02M?

      There is no point, as it is very, very expensive and time consuming.
  5. Undecim
    Undecim 6 November 2020 10: 35
    +3
    It is still a two-circuit, three-shaft engine; the compressor retains high and medium pressure stages, while the turbine has high, medium and low pressure stages.
    The author from Wikipedia even rewrote the errors - high and medium pressure stages saved in the compressor
    The compressor of a by-pass turbojet engine consists of low and high pressure stages.
    1. Genry
      Genry 6 November 2020 12: 16
      +1
      Quote: Undecim
      The author from Wikipedia even rewrote the errors - high and medium pressure stages saved in the compressor
      The compressor of a by-pass turbojet engine consists of low and high pressure stages.

      What if the NK-32 has three stages of compressors and turbines? The engine is three-shaft.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 6 November 2020 12: 32
        +3
        There are three cascade turbines and two compressors.
        The third "stage" of the turbine rotates the fan. But the fan belongs to the CPV.
        1. Lozovik
          Lozovik 6 November 2020 21: 43
          +1
          Quote: Undecim
          There are three cascade turbines and two compressors.

          Learn:

          1. Undecim
            Undecim 6 November 2020 23: 41
            -3
            Learn:
            Drop down the comment below, "teacher."
    2. Bad_gr
      Bad_gr 6 November 2020 12: 30
      +1
      Quote: Undecim
      The author from Wikipedia even rewrote the errors - the high and medium pressure stages are saved in the compressor
      The compressor of a by-pass turbojet engine consists of low and high pressure stages.

      This engine has 3 shafts. Each of the three turbines turns a different part of the compressor. As I understand it: one compressor - external circuit and partially internal, and two compressors per internal (where the combustion chambers are). And what should you call them?
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 6 November 2020 13: 38
        +3
        And what should you call them?
        I have to admit my mistake. NK-32 has a three-stage compressor - fan, KSD and KVD.
        So my criticism is wrong.
        1. Bar1
          Bar1 7 November 2020 10: 20
          -1
          Quote: Undecim
          And what should you call them?
          I have to admit my mistake. NK-32 has a three-stage compressor - fan, KSD and KVD.
          So my criticism is wrong.

          mm, you're just ignorant.
  6. Bersaglieri
    Bersaglieri 6 November 2020 12: 27
    -1
    Correct name. Celebrated the memory of the designer of the world's first "strategist"
  7. Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 6 November 2020 12: 51
    +1
    If you want to have large military aircraft, then you need to have engines for them ...

    that on the basis of this engine a new product will be created for use on the promising PAK DA bomber. It was also proposed to make an engine for transport An-32 on the basis of the NK-124.

    Something like: remove the afterburner and increase the bypass of the turbojet engine? In theory, the operating modes for PAK DA and An124 should be very similar. For a citizen, the resource should be larger.
  8. tech3030
    tech3030 6 November 2020 19: 54
    +3
    Why was it called "Igor Sikorsky"? For a Russian surname? A person worked for the good of the state of another (direct enemy), what is it! Let's remember Vlasov, he defeated the Nazis near Moscow !?
    1. Elturisto
      Elturisto 6 November 2020 20: 18
      +1
      Very correct remark, - licked whoever needs it ...
    2. Bar1
      Bar1 7 November 2020 10: 16
      +2
      Quote: tech3030
      Why was it called "Igor Sikorsky"? For a Russian surname? A person worked for the good of the state of another (direct enemy), what is it! Let's remember Vlasov, he defeated the Nazis near Moscow !?

      what to say? His fatherland rejected him, because such people came to whom progress was alien. Of course, Sikorsky could simply die, but he chose to live and work for the United States. The United States was not an enemy of the Republic of Ingushetia in WW1. During the military communism, the United States intervened.
      By the way, Sikorsky said that the helicopter is a Russian invention, so here he is a patriot.
  9. Lozovik
    Lozovik 6 November 2020 21: 45
    +3
    NK-32-02 at the Kuznetsov plant. Shot from shopping mall "Military acceptance", shopping mall "Zvezda"

    This is NK-25.