Military Review

Warplanes: Box of Irregular Pencils

27
Warplanes: Box of Irregular Pencils

The idea of ​​some kind of high-speed bomber, capable of easily getting away from a fighter, excited the designers from the very beginning of the 30s of the last century. Airplanes flew faster and faster, passenger monoplanes appeared, which easily gave out speeds higher than that of biplane fighters.


And it turned out that the idea is something vital: to remake a streamlined, with retractable landing gear, not disfigured by turrets and turrets, a passenger plane into a fast bomber. Who especially weapon and it is not necessary, so, one machine gun for shooting backwards, just in case.

In general, it worked out in the end. I'm talking about the Mosquito, which initially had no weapons at all. Only bombs. Let's just say, the top of the development of a high-speed bomber.


But before "Mosquito" there were still years, and years of peace, when aviation developed, let's say, calmly.

Our hero appeared when the Dornier firm screwed up a little. Lufthansa has ordered a high-speed mail plane with a passenger compartment for six seats from Dornier. The team headed by Claude Dornier was already world-famous, since the flying boats from "Dornier" confidently conquered the whole world.

But it wasn't a boat that was needed. A mail plane was needed.

Let's note right away that it didn't work out. No boat, no postman. And, despite the fact that the plane was very advanced, it did not fit the Lutfganza.


Two motors from BMW with 750 hp each. accelerated the aircraft to 330 km / h (this is 1934, if anything), the tests were successful, no shortcomings were identified. Nearly. In general, there was only one drawback: the inability to use the aircraft as a passenger. It is unlikely that in the world then it would be possible to find an aircraft less suited for civilian work. Two tiny salons (for 2 and 4 people), small doors for boarding and loading, everything is cramped and uncomfortable ...

Lufthansa performed several test flights and refused. Fairly, by the way. And that's it, in 1935 история Do.17 could have ended, but ... the gentlemen came from the Reichsluftfahrt-ministerium - RLM and said: "We take it!"

Under the terms of the Versailles Treaty, Germany could not build bombers. Absolutely. Therefore, every passenger plane was considered a potential bomb carrier. So it was with He.111, for example.

Do.17 was taken into development. The firm had to modify the car a little. The tail unit has become a spaced two-fin to improve the stability required by the bomber. The landing gear struts were moved to eliminate nodding during takeoff from bad airfields. It is not difficult, but Dornier gave an order for a series of 11 aircraft.

In October 1935, the Do.17 was shown at an exhibition, where the car was immediately nicknamed "Flying Pencil". The plane was indeed ... extravagant in appearance.


But the view is not the main thing. The main thing is how the plane flies. And for 1936, the Do.17 flew just perfect. On the Do.17, in the process of searching for the best result, Hispano-Suiza 12 Ykrs engines were installed. They developed a power of 775 hp. above sea level and 860 hp. at an altitude of 4000 meters.

With these engines, the aircraft's maximum speed reached 391 km / h. More than worthy, considering that peer fighters in countries - potential opponents flew about the same. The Dewuatin D.510 developed the same 390 km / h, and the Hawker Fury - 360 km / h.

Having received such results, they decided not to bother with defensive weapons and to do with one 7,92-mm machine gun for defense back-up from the radio operator, who now also became a shooter. And instead of the passenger compartment No. 2, a bomb bay was equipped.

The first production copies were assembled in the winter of 1936-37. They received the designation Do.17E-1 - bomber and Do.17F-1 - long-range reconnaissance aircraft. The latter was distinguished by the fact that it did not have a bomb sight, and instead of a bomb release mechanism in the bomb bay, an additional fuel tank and Rb 10/18, Rb 20/30 or Rb 50/30 cameras were installed. Both Do.17 modifications were powered by BMW VT 7,3 engines.

Immediately it was necessary to strengthen the defensive armament. Initially, it was clear that one machine gun was not enough. So it was decided to install two more MG.15s. The first was placed at the disposal of the radio operator so that he could shoot back and down through a specially made hatch in the cockpit floor, and the second machine gun was installed in the right half of the cockpit windshield. Both the pilot and the navigator could use this machine gun. The pilot used this MG.15 as a stationary course, and the navigator could remove the machine gun from the stoppers and have a small angle of fire at targets.


The bomb load was quite average for that time: 500 kg.

The set of bombs was very diverse and allowed to solve different tasks: 10 x 50 kg [SC.50), 4 x 100 kg (SD.100) or 2 x 250 kg (SD.250). It was possible to increase the bomb load to 800 kg (8 x SC.100) due to the fuel supply, that is, when using the aircraft as a close-range bomber for direct support of troops.

In 1937, the aircraft was demonstrated at an exhibition in Switzerland, where it made a splash. The Do.17 showed an official speed of 457 km / h, which was on a par with the best fighters, and the good ones simply remained behind the tail.

But here the Germans cheated a little and put up an experimental model equipped with DV.600 motors for measurement. And the usual Do.17M with engines from BMW at the same exhibition flew at a speed of 360 km / h.

But it became clear to everyone on this example that the Germans had a new fast plane, and even with a clear potential for further development.

And the Do.17 went to the combat units of the Luftwaffe. And at first the preference was given to the Do.17F-1, a reconnaissance modification, since the frankly outdated Heinkel No.70 had to be changed ten years ago.

Naturally, at the beginning of the Spanish Civil War, the Germans could not resist the temptation of checking the aircraft in action. General Franco, among others, was sent 4 Do.17E-1 as part of the Condor Legion. In the summer of 1937, the Do.17 took part in the bombing of the infamous Guernica and Durango, in northern Spain.

In addition to them, the Francoists received 15 Do.17F-1 scouts.

The first Do.17 in Spain was shot down over Bilbao on 18 April 1937. That is, almost immediately upon arrival. It was shot down by Republican Felippe del Riovi in ​​an I-15 fighter. However, you should not immediately draw conclusions, here Felipe was rather very lucky, because the Do.17 walked away from the biplane fighters very calmly, and the weapons made it possible at least to fend off the opponents.

It got worse when the Republicans got at their disposal I-16 monoplanes, which were not inferior in speed to the Do.17. It cannot be said that the advantage had dissipated, but the very presence of the Chatos constrained the Pencils, since there was no longer any confidence in their superiority.

The Spanish Francoists gave the Do.17 their nickname - "Bacalaos": "Cod".


It is worth noting separately that the Do.17 was a little off track. Still, speed is a very good help. It is not surprising that in the attack on Valencia, the Francoists lost only 2 Do.17 aircraft, both from anti-aircraft fire.

The Spanish Civil War exposed all the strengths and weaknesses of the Do.17. The very first experience of its combat use showed that the aircraft's speed capabilities are not high enough. The Do.17 confidently broke away only from the outdated biplane fighters produced in the first half of the 30s. But in the air fleets a change of generations has already begun in different countries, and instead of biplanes, monoplanes with very high speed characteristics began to enter service. The British Hurricane of the first series had a speed almost 100 km / h higher than the Do.17.

There was an option to modernize the aircraft by installing the already proven engines from Daimler-Benz DB.600. But alas, these motors were needed for the Messerschmitt fighters, which also went into series.

Therefore, the Dornier designers had to look for other engines for the new aircraft modification. We stopped at the brainchild of a BMW air-cooled Bramo 323 A-1 "Fafnir" with a capacity of 900 hp. takeoff and 1000 hp at an altitude of 3100 m.

A new engine was also chosen for the scout: BMW 132 N. This engine developed only 865 hp. on takeoff and 665 hp. at an altitude of 4500 m, but it was lighter and more economical, which is more useful for a scout.

So at the beginning of 1938, the new Do.17M bombers and Do.17P reconnaissance aircraft went into production.


New engines have brought changes. The speed increased, the Do.17M reached 415 km / h at an altitude of 4700 m, and the Do.17P - 410 km / h at an altitude of 4000 m. The new engines made it possible to increase the bomb load of the Do.17M to 1000 kg. On some aircraft from the latest series, the fourth MG.15 machine gun appeared, which passed through the nasal glazing of the navigator's cockpit and served to protect against front-bottom attacks.

With the outbreak of World War II, aircraft of all modifications took part in it. At the time of the outbreak of hostilities, the Luftwaffe had more than 300 bombers and 180 Do.17 reconnaissance aircraft. In fact, a third of the total.

The fighting in Poland and France provided Dornier with import orders. The planes wanted (and acquired) Bulgaria.

The experience of hostilities in Spain led the German leadership to the conclusion that it was necessary to strengthen the defensive armament of bombers, as well as the concentration of these weapons and the entire crew of the aircraft in one place.

This is how the concept "Waffenkopf" - "Battle Head" appeared, which defined the appearance of all German bombers until the end of the war.


The idea was quite good: the gunners and the pilot, being in the same cockpit, can better coordinate their actions, and secondly, all crew members can psychologically support each other and directly help in battle.

On most bombers of that time, the arrows were in the tail of the aircraft, after the bomb bay. That is, outside the cockpit. Like the British Whitley or Soviet SB or DB-3.

As soon as one shooter in his cell was disabled, the plane was defenseless. The German strategy proposed a trench instead of a trench, that is, defensive fire continued in any direction as long as at least one of the crew was combat-ready.

The Germans believed that this was how the resistance of the aircraft could be increased. The fact that the Americans did about the same in their "fortresses" later only confirms the correctness of their calculations.

In accordance with the new concept, the Dornier designers have developed a new cab. The visibility of all crew members was significantly improved, even somewhat to the detriment of aerodynamics. Instead of a door in the side of the fuselage, which the aircraft inherited from a passenger ancestor, a hatch was made in the bottom, which made it easier to leave the aircraft. The crew of the aircraft with the new cockpit increased to four people: a pilot, a navigator-bombardier, a radio operator and a lower gunner.


There was a plane with a crew of five, a special Do.17U-1 with DB.600A engines. These aircraft were used for reconnaissance and guidance, the fifth person was another radio operator, who was responsible specifically for contact with submarines or surface ships.

In general, despite the fact that both pilots and technical staff liked the plane, clouds began to gather over the Do.17.

The fact is that the Do.17 was very much inferior in the number of bomb loads of the He.111. And in terms of accuracy, the diving Ju.88 was more preferable. And in speed the brainchild of "Junkers" was better. So it is not surprising that the Luftwaffe ordered the termination of the production of Dornier in favor of Junkers and Heinkel. Pure competition and nothing personal. The strongest usually wins.

Meanwhile, long before the start of Operation Sea Lion or the Battle of Britain, it was the Do.17 crews who set up unpleasant moments for British ships and ships in the English Channel, calmly flying into British territory and striking infrastructure facilities.

About 300 bombers or scouts Do.17 and Do.215 took part in the "Battle of Britain".

By the end of August 1941, it became clear that the British Air Force had failed to suppress. It turned out that the Luftwaffe did not have sufficient forces and means for this, and from October 1941 the Luftwaffe command decided to abandon daytime raids, switching to night raids in small groups. First of all, Do 17 bombers were transferred to the category of "night lights".

While the Do.17 had small chances to escape or fight off the Hurricane during the day, the Spitfire did not give such chances at all. Well, the bomb load ceased to suit the Luftwaffe leadership. A thousand kilograms over such distances seemed insignificant in comparison with the losses suffered by the Luftwaffe.

The units began replacing the Do.17Z with the Junkers Ju.88. The remaining in the ranks "Dornier" were transferred to clearly secondary directions such as Crete and the Balkans.

On April 6, 1941, German aircraft bombed Belgrade. German troops invaded Yugoslavia and Greece. In the Balkan operation, the 4th German air fleet was involved, which included all the remaining Do.17 in the ranks.

And if in "Battle of Britain" Do.17 looked weak, then the armies of Greece and Yugoslavia did not differ in the presence of a large number of aircraft of new types, and therefore in the skies over the Balkans Do.17 felt more than confident.


On April 17, 1941, Yugoslavia capitulated. Then in April Do.17 bombed the British from Greece, which also surrendered. The last stronghold remained - the island of Crete. During the fighting in Yugoslavia and Greece, the Luftwaffe lost twenty-nine Do.17.

The British fleet dominated the Mediterranean, but the Luftwaffe decided to prove that air was more important, and the Germans did it.

The Do.17 took part in all operations in the region, striking British ships and providing reconnaissance.

Crete was eventually taken in an unprecedented airborne operation, and the Do.17s were noted in May by effectively saving a German landing convoy from defeat, inflicting serious damage on the British light cruisers Naiad and Carlisle that attacked the convoy.


And, of course, Colonel Rovel's Do.17 special unit provided the Wehrmacht with the most detailed aerial photographs of the Soviet border areas in 1941. In general, according to the documents, the first Do.17 flights over the territory of the USSR began in 1940, in the fall.

Despite the merits of the Rovel group, Do.17's career was drawing to a close. On the Eastern Front, the last groups were withdrawn for rearmament at the end of 1941. The new Do.217E and Ju.88 finally replaced the Do.17.

The replacements, however, did not concern the Do.17P and Do.17Z-3 scouts, which remained the eyes of the ground forces.

In addition to the German Luftwaffe, the Do.17 was also used by the Allies. A squadron of Croatian Do.17 bombers operated on the Eastern Front.


Croats fought until 1943, when they also went to rearmament.

According to reports, during the entire campaign on the Eastern Front, the Croats flew 1247 combat missions, destroyed 245 tanks, 581 trucks, 307 artillery pieces and a large number of enemy manpower. Own losses amounted to 5 Do.17Z bombers and 20 crew members.

Of the figures presented by Rudel's Croatian students, the first is believed. Well, in the last two. With regard to everything in between - sorry, not really.

The Do.17 fought with the Finnish Air Force. In November 1941, Goering donated 15 aircraft and 300 tons of bombs to the Finns.

Only 5 cars survived the war. The rest were shot down by Soviet and Finnish anti-aircraft gunners, Soviet fighters and destroyed by their own crews. The Finns also had successful operations, but since the number of aircraft was small, they did not have a particular impact on the situation in general.


But one of the Finnish survivors of the war, Do.17, turned out to be a long-liver. The Do.17Z-3, numbered DN-58, was used for aerial photography after the war and made its last flight on 13 September 1948.

During the war, several interesting modifications of the aircraft were created.

Do.17Z-5, a rescue aircraft, it was supposed to be used to search and rescue aircraft or ships shot down over the sea. Carried on board a load of inflatable rafts.

Do.17Z-6 and 10, night fighters. The modification was designed to combat British bombers. The aforementioned modest dimensions of the cockpit did not allow installation inside the radar, so the aircraft was equipped with infrared search equipment for enemy aircraft and a hanging container with two 20-mm MG-FF cannons and four 7,92-mm machine guns.

A total of 2 Do.139 aircraft of all modifications were manufactured.



LTH Do.17z-2:

Wingspan, m: 18,00.
Length, m: 15,80.
Height, m: 4,50.
Wing area m: 53,30.

Weight, kg:
- empty aircraft: 5 200;
- normal take-off: 8;
- maximum take-off: 8 850.

Engines: 2 х BMW Bramo-З2ЗР "Fafnir" х 1 hp

Maximum speed km / h:
- near the ground: 342;
- at height: 410.
Cruising speed, km / h:
- near the ground: 270;
- at height: 300.
Practical range, km: 1150.
Rate of climb, m / min: 330.
Practical ceiling, m: 8 200.

Crew, person: 4.

Armament:
- two fixed 7,69 mm MG-15 machine guns forward;
- two MG-15 in the side windows;
- two MG-15s firing back above and below the fuselage.

Bomb load: 1000 kg in a combination of 20 bombs of 50 kg or 4 bombs of 250 kg.

A good aircraft with excellent flight characteristics for its time, but completely outdated for war. Reliability and ease of maintenance and piloting were negated by clearly weak weapons and excessive versatility.
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  1. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 21 October 2020 06: 29
    +6
    Not a bad plane, but too "early" ... It began to become obsolete before the need for such aircraft arose seriously. And the modernization potential was exhausted at the very beginning of WWII.
  2. nnm
    nnm 21 October 2020 07: 07
    +2
    The rest were shot down by Soviet and Finnish anti-aircraft gunners.

    I don't quite understand ... friendly fire, or why did the Finns shoot down allies?


    By the end of August 1941, it became clear that the British Air Force had failed to suppress.

    In one of the historical programs (not of our production) I heard that the British Air Force lost up to 80% of the pilots, but German intelligence did not know these numbers. How reliable do you think these data are?
    1. Viktor Sergeev
      Viktor Sergeev 21 October 2020 09: 20
      +2
      In 1944 the Finns started a war with Germany, and here's the shooting down of Dornier. And about the pilots and the loss of 80% is nonsense, considering that when shot down, an English pilot jumped into his territory. Rather, the Germans should have lost 80%, but this did not happen either. It should be borne in mind that England received a large number of pilots from France, the United States, etc.
    2. faiver
      faiver 21 October 2020 09: 25
      +4
      why did the Finns shoot down their allies?
      - you probably forgot that the Finns changed their shoes in '44 and began to knock the Germans out of their territory.
      1. nnm
        nnm 21 October 2020 09: 28
        +5
        Exactly! Thanks. I just forgot that you can "change shoes" so instantly.
        1. faiver
          faiver 21 October 2020 09: 30
          +3
          well, they had no options, they could instantly lose their fragile statehood and again become part of the empire
    3. svp67
      svp67 21 October 2020 11: 26
      +3
      Quote: nnm
      I don't quite understand ... friendly fire, or why did the Finns shoot down allies?

      In 1944, the Finns, according to the agreement concluded with Moscow, were forced to fight against their former allies
    4. Alf
      Alf 21 October 2020 12: 46
      +6
      Quote: nnm
      In one of the historical programs (not of our production) I heard that the British Air Force lost up to 80% of the pilots, but German intelligence did not know these numbers. How reliable do you think these data are?

      Hardly. The fact is that, firstly, there are very big questions to the quality of the translation, since the translation is very often automatic, and, secondly, in such programs, nonsense is so pretentious, it is enough to recall the textbook figures about 14 shot down MIGs in one Saber.
      Moreover, such a moment. The downed British pilot, as a rule, landed on British territory, but the German was guaranteed to be captured. So whose loss of pilots is higher is still to be found out. No wonder Goering, worried about the losses of the pilots, issued an order that there should be no more than one officer in the crews of strike aircraft operating in England.
      But the fact that in the RAF at one moment there was a sharp shortage of aircraft, they simply did not have time to repair and the factories were bombed mentally, British historians try to bypass.
      1. nnm
        nnm 21 October 2020 13: 06
        +3
        It was either Viasat History or something similar, so there were definitely no problems with the translation. But you suggested the right idea, perhaps it was about airplanes, not pilots. I tried to find this program on the Internet today, but there was not enough time.
        1. Alf
          Alf 21 October 2020 13: 18
          +6
          Quote: nnm
          It was either Viasat History or something similar, so there were definitely no problems with the translation.

          There are no problems ??? If you hear phrases from time to time on 17-caliber machine guns (this is about MG-17) and so on. But in some ways you are right, THEY are driving their propaganda, because there is no other way to name these programs, but the quality of our translation of these programs makes you want to take a translator and subject 10 Egyptian executions. And slowly.
      2. Engineer
        Engineer 21 October 2020 16: 19
        +2
        You have to look at the time period. The percentage of losses varied from year to year. But in general, it was the British who flew over occupied Europe and were captured. The Germans over England did this for only half of 1940.
        The losses of the Bomber Command were enormous
        55,573 killed out of a total of 125,000 aircrew (a 44.4 percent death rate), a further 8,403 were wounded in action and 9,838 became prisoners of war.

        If you look at the statistics on rounds of 30 sorties, then only 27 of them survived. But this figure was also achieved due to a sharp decrease in losses in the second half of 44. By 43, only one in 6 pilots completed the first round and one in 40 in the second.
        For comparison, the 8th US Air Force, which actually ground the Luftwaffe in 1944, together with a significant part of the key enterprises, lost 26 thousand dead. Captives 23 thousand
        1. Engineer
          Engineer 21 October 2020 16: 37
          +1
          If you look at the statistics on rounds of 30 departures, then only 27 survived them

          27 of 100
  3. aleks neym_2
    aleks neym_2 21 October 2020 10: 54
    +1
    Once leaked information that Saab produced "pencils" and they were in service until the mid-50s. maybe I'm wrong. but about the cockpit, where the entire crew is located, the commander keeps everyone under control! "the conclusion of the sofa expert!" (what if the shooter leaves the plane at the most crucial moment?)
  4. svp67
    svp67 21 October 2020 11: 29
    +2
    It was shot down by the Republican Felippe del Riovi in ​​an I-15 fighter. However, you should not immediately draw conclusions, here Felipe was rather very lucky, because the Do.17 walked away from the biplane fighters very calmly, and the weapons made it possible, at the very least, to fight off the opponents.
    It got worse when the Republicans got at their disposal I-16 monoplanes, which were not inferior in speed to the Do.17. It cannot be said that the advantage had dissipated, but the very presence of the Chatos constrained the Pencils, since there was no longer any confidence in their superiority.

    Somehow I did not understand what is written here. From the I-15, which the Spaniards called "Snub-nosed" - "Chatos", this plane could easily leave, problems arose with the appearance of the I-16 "Mukha" - "Moskas", but fettered the I-15, how?
    1. Mooh
      Mooh 21 October 2020 13: 03
      +5
      Don't find fault. It's just that Roman mixed something up as usual.
      There are 2 main versions:
      - writes a lot, does not have time to finalize articles before publication
      -does it on purpose so that we write more comments here, which increases the popularity of the article
      1. svp67
        svp67 21 October 2020 13: 19
        0
        Quote: MooH
        There are 2 main versions:

        Not that nothing else
        Quote: MooH
        Do not quibble.

        I'm just trying to understand what is written.
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. Serg koma
      Serg koma 29 October 2020 15: 36
      0
      Quote: svp67
      From the I-15, which the Spaniards nicknamed "Snub-nosed" - "Chatos", this plane could easily leave
      Unfortunately, I did not find any other details, except for the further fate of the pilots -
      On April 22, Lieutenant Radush, Feldwebel Helmauer and Hauptmann Jenson opened their combat account, shooting down one I-15. One of the I-15 pilots was a republican ace Felipe del Rio, who at that time, with seven victories, was the most successful Republican pilot on the Northern Front. A few days earlier, on April 18, del Rio shot down a Do 17 of the Condor Legion. Two crew members were killed in the air before they could deploy their parachutes. The pilot, Hans Sobotka, fell with the plane. The pilot was in Spain for only 13 days.

      But I found material about the Spanish pilots in the ranks of the Red Army!
      Pascual-Jose Santa Maria born in 1916
      Rank: Lieutenant
      in the Red Army since 1937
      Place of call: arrived from Spain
      Place of service: 788 IAP 102 Avd YuVF
      Feat date: 01.08.1942/31.08.1942/XNUMX - XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX
      The order of Lenin
      But soon Bashkirov's plane caught fire, which managed to escape by parachute. Covering the host, Pascual attacked the five "Messers". According to the recollections of the squadron veterans, Jose managed to shoot down three, but he himself died. For this feat (and Bashkirov was also a regiment commissar), the Spanish pilot was posthumously awarded the Order of Lenin.
      https://proza.ru/2018/02/27/1105
  5. Fitter65
    Fitter65 21 October 2020 12: 36
    +5
    The author has his own vision of the history of the aircraft.
    Lufthansa has ordered a high-speed mail plane with a passenger compartment for six seats from Dornier.
    Do-17 design began in Weimar Germany. The Bureau of Armaments of the Reich Ministry of Defense has developed a performance specification for a high-speed twin-engine passenger aircraft that could be converted for military purposes. As you can see, "Lufhansa" and RLM have not yet lit up. After the model was built, at the beginning of 1933, in March it was examined by representatives of the air transport commissariat and it was decided to build two versions - "K" passenger-postal and "SO" - this is how the bomber was disguised. The official basis for the order was the Lufthansa competition announced in 1933 "On May 3, 1933, the Dornier firm received a letter from E. Milch, prescribing the construction of the most unified civilian and military prototypes. to obtain a high-speed high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft that could be used as a bomber The first was built a military version of the Do-1934s (W.Nr. 17 registered D-AJUN), was adopted by the technical commission on 256 In February, the order of designation of experimental aircraft and Do-20.11.1934s was changed became Dо-17V17, and only on May 1, 18, the civil prototype of Dо-1935а, which became Dо-17V17 (W.Nr. 2 D-AHAK), was released for testing. Both first copies were transferred to Rechlin (Luftwaffe test center) The second copy of which, Do-257V17, from 2 810 to 1935/7.11.1935/XNUMX passed trial operation in Lufthansa, after which it was returned to Rechlin again. That is, as we see, the main customer was the German Air Force Anii, and Lufhansa is a simple cover
    .Two engines from BMW with 750 hp each accelerated the plane to 330 km / h (this is 1934, if anything),
    During the flight from the factory to Rechlin, the car showed an average speed of 326 km / h. If anything, then this is already 1935 and this is the average speed with which the plane covered the distance of 680 km in 2 hours and 3 minutes.
  6. Fitter65
    Fitter65 21 October 2020 12: 57
    +3
    Lufthansa performed several test flights and refused. Fairly, by the way. And that's all, in 1935 the history of Do.17 could have ended, but ... the gentlemen came from the Reichsluftfahrt-ministerium - RLM and said: "We take it!"
    Again, not that. Based on the test results, RLM decided to order 11 pre-production aircraft, which received the Dо-17V4-V14 indexes. Initially, it was decided that 8 of them would be used in the civilian version, but by this time Lufthansa realized the complete unsuitability of the aircraft for its needs, and as a result, all pre-production aircraft were built in the military version. So Lufhansa's refusal did not affect the fate of the aircraft, already at the end of 1936 the serial production of machines was launched, and in parallel they began to produce two modifications, the Do-17E-1 bomber and the Do-17F-1 reconnaissance plane ... As you can see, the gentlemen from RLM did not come with an exclamation - "TAKE", and stood at the origins of the creation of this aircraft, controlled all the moments of its birth and formation, these are the gentlemen from "Lufthansa" so they passed by and passed ...
  7. Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 21 October 2020 13: 48
    +4
    The tail unit has become a spaced two fin to improve stabilityrequired by the bomber.

    Was he also swimming? laughing
    What can you not learn from Skomorokhov's articles ...
  8. aristok
    aristok 21 October 2020 14: 43
    +5
    The iconic aircraft Do.17.
    This killed him:
    - to determine the type of future high-speed bombers, you need to appear strongly in advance.
    And, accordingly, quickly become obsolete, despite the conceptual correctness.
  9. Fitter65
    Fitter65 21 October 2020 17: 25
    +4
    In 1937, the aircraft was demonstrated at an exhibition in Switzerland, where it made a splash ... But then the Germans cheated a little and put up an experimental model equipped with DV.600 engines for measurement. And the usual Do.17M with BMW engines flew at the same exhibition at a speed of 360 km / h.
    Again, this is not your truth. At the beginning of 1937, the designers created the Do-17M variant; the Do-17V8 served as the prototype for this modification. the aircraft was equipped with new Daimler-Benz DV600 engines with a power of 960 hp. the volume of fuel tanks is increased to 1910 liters. The aircraft received the designation Do-17M V8, new serial number W.Nr. 691 and registration D-AELE. He went on trial on April 7, 1937. After installing the engines DV601A (1075hp) for high-octane gasoline, the car took part in the IV International air rally in Zurich, which took place from July 23 to August 1, 1937. ... That is, as we can see, Daimler-Benz engines were installed on this prototype, but there is still silence on the BMW. On the serial Do-17M (all 200 aircraft were produced by Doronier), Bramo-323A-1 engines with a capacity of 900hp were installed. Again, not a sound about VMW. It was planned to create a reconnaissance version of the Do-17M, on which instead of the gluttonous Bramo-323A-1 they decided to install (drum roll !!!) BMW 132N engines, less powerful, only 865 horses, but lighter and more economical, the reconnaissance officer received the designation Do-17P.
    1. Fitter65
      Fitter65 21 October 2020 17: 40
      +4
      And by the way, at the time of the flight in Zurich, the Do-17M V1 plane was the only one, the second Do-17M (especially with engines from BMW) did not exist in nature. And this copy was piloted by E. Milch himself and Lieutenant Colonel Polte ... As something like this, I did not read this opus further. take into account that there is also a normal literature like



  10. Undecim
    Undecim 21 October 2020 17: 53
    +7
    Our hero appeared when the Dornier firm screwed up a little. Lufthansa has ordered a high-speed mail plane with a passenger compartment for six seats from Dornier. The team headed by Claude Dornier was already world-famous, since the flying boats from "Dornier" confidently conquered the whole world.
    But it wasn't a boat that was needed. A mail plane was needed.
    Let's note right away that it didn't work out. No boat, no postman. And, despite the fact that the plane was very advanced, it did not fit the Lutfganza.

    In this case, the author screwed up, rewriting the version. which has long been wandering around in different publications and which is also outdated for a long time.
    To begin with, Lufthansa did not order anything from Dornier. "Frachtflugzeuge für die Bundesbahn" und "Hochgeschwindigkeitspostflugzeug für die Lufthansa" (transport aircraft for the German state railways "and high-speed mail aircraft for Lufthansa) ordered the Heereswaffenamt, that is, the Armaments Directorate for masking ground transport, or truth. That is, a military plane was ordered under the cover of "transport and mail". This happened in 1932, when Germany did not openly kick the Versailles restrictions.
    Dornier tried to offer the aircraft it already had, the Dornier Do Y, and renamed it Do 15.

    This plane was designed as a transport plane, as a mail plane, and as a bomber.
    And was categorically rejected. Therefore, the Dornier firm began from scratch to design a new aircraft - the Dornier Do 17 high-speed bomber. Information about the passenger cabin was launched solely for camouflage. As a result, the first copy took off in November 1934.

    The first prototype, originally named Do 17 C, later named Do 17 V1. Eight windows are not for passengers, they are to improve the view of the radio operator's gunner and navigator. And the tests at Lufthansa are for misinformation. Cover operation.
  11. Force multiplier
    Force multiplier 21 October 2020 18: 27
    +2
    The Yugoslavian variant is not mentioned at all.
    The Croats also used the aircraft after 1943. In the Balkans Do 17 (not Do17, Do.17 or Do-17) was in use before surrender
    1. Fitter65
      Fitter65 23 October 2020 00: 11
      0
      Quote: Force Multiplier
      The Yugoslavian variant is not mentioned at all.
      The Croats also used the aircraft after 1943. In the Balkans, Do 17 (not Do17, Do.17 or Do-17) was used before surrender.
      Well, there are many things that were not mentioned. If we talk about the correct spelling, then all the German names DB 600, BMW VI, Ju 87, Bf 109 are written without a hyphen, in Russian it is customary to write through a hyphen, that's all, from this the plane in its performance characteristics and history does not lose anything.
      And that the Yugoslav version, the same Do 17. The Do 17Ka-1 version was supplied from Germany, the Do 17 Kb-1 machine was built in Yugoslavia, the main difference is the GR 14NO engine, which was produced under license in Yugoslavia, other equipment, Czech sights and AFA Belgian machine guns ... In the same Bulgaria, Do 17 remained in service until May 1945 ... Finns used Dornier until September 1948 ...
  12. Reklastik
    Reklastik 2 November 2020 08: 56
    0
    stability
    bomber? ...