Military Review

Service and combat use of Argentine turboprop attack aircraft IA.58A Pucara

59

Turboprop anti-guerrilla attack aircraft... After the end of the war in Indochina, interest in turboprop anti-insurgency attack aircraft did not disappear. To combat national liberation movements, various rebel groups and armed groups of drug cartels, the governments of Asia, Africa and Latin America needed inexpensive and easy-to-operate combat aircraft capable of operating from poorly prepared field airfields, making long patrol flights, searching and attacking point targets.


The most common way to create a light anti-insurgency attack aircraft was the suspension of weapons on serial turboprop trainer aircraft. In a number of cases, the revision was carried out without the knowledge of manufacturers in the countries where these machines were operated. However, conversion into combat aircraft, which were not originally intended for military use, did not always give the desired result. In addition to suspension units aviation means of destruction and sighting devices, to increase resistance to combat damage, special technical solutions were required: protection of fuel tanks, which prevented fuel leakage in the event of a lumbago, and filling them with inert gas, which was to prevent an explosion of the air-fuel mixture. It was also highly desirable to duplicate a number of systems and local booking of the most vulnerable nodes and the cockpit.

It is clear that a specially designed turboprop attack aircraft in terms of the level of protection, weapon power and efficiency will generally be higher than aircraft of a similar purpose converted from training vehicles. But such an approach was rarely implemented in practice, although projects for specialized turboprop attack aircraft were being worked out. Economically developed countries with a developed aviation industry in most cases did not have problems with insurgents and in preparation for the "big war" equipped their air forces with supersonic jet combat aircraft.

Although many countries of the "third world" wished to have specialized anti-guerrilla aircraft, not everyone had the opportunity to independently create such machines. In the late 1960s, specialists from the Argentine state aircraft company Fábrica Militar de Aviones began developing a light turboprop attack aircraft, primarily intended for counterinsurgency operations. The first flight of the strike aircraft, designated IA.58A Pucara ("pucara" in the Quechua language means "fortress") took place on August 20, 1969.

Service and combat use of Argentine turboprop attack aircraft IA.58A Pucara

IA.58A Pucara

Unlike the Bronco and Mohauca, the Argentine attack aircraft was made according to a normal aerodynamic configuration with a low-lying straight wing and T-shaped tail. The aircraft had a simple and technologically advanced design. Numerous easily removable cladding panels facilitate ground handling. The downward sloping front of the fuselage provided excellent forward-downward visibility. High landing gear struts made it possible to suspend a variety of bomb loads in the form of bombs and blocks with unguided missiles, and low-pressure pneumatics made it possible to operate from poorly prepared unpaved airfields.

The first serial attack aircraft was delivered to the Argentine Air Force (Spanish: Fuerza Aérea Argentina, FAA) at the end of 1974. This relatively small, sleek, straight-wing turboprop attack aircraft was the first production combat aircraft developed in Argentina. Its release lasted until 1988, a total of 114 were built, of which 16 were for export.

The attack aircraft was created taking into account the experience of the combat use of aviation during battles with guerilleros. During the issuance of the technical task, the Argentine military demanded that the aircraft have good take-off and landing characteristics (the required runway length is no more than 400 m), high maneuverability at low altitude, the ability to attack small-sized, well-camouflaged targets and evade anti-aircraft fire.


Compared to the American counterinsurgency aircraft used in Indochina, the Pukara's built-in small arms were much more powerful: two 20mm Hispano-Suiza HS.804 cannons and four 7,62mm Browning FN machine guns. Ammunition for each gun was 270 rounds, and each machine gun - 900 rounds. On seven nodes of the external suspension, it was possible to place a combat load weighing up to 1620 kg.


Two turboprop engines Turbomeca Astazou XVIG with 978 hp. each at an altitude of 3000 m could accelerate the plane to 520 km / h. The dive speed was limited to 750 km / h. Cruising speed - 430 km. Stall speed - 143 km / h. The maximum take-off weight is 6800 kg. Combat radius with a load of 1500 kg - up to 370 km. Ferry range with outboard tanks - 3700 km. The crew, consisting of a pilot and an observer navigator, was housed in Martin-Baker Mk 6 ejection seats. The cockpit armor protected the bottom and side from rifle bullets fired from a distance of 150 m. The canopy was made of bulletproof glass, the rest of the glazing was made of plexiglass.

The Argentinean turboprop attack aircraft did not have outstanding flight characteristics, but it was simple and cheap to manufacture, was reliable and unpretentious in maintenance, could be based on poorly equipped airfields with unpaved runways, and two engines and an armored cabin made it quite tenacious.

Stormtroopers began to fight soon after being adopted. At the end of 1975, during Operation Independencia, several aircraft took part in the hostilities to defeat the People's Revolutionary Army in the province of Tucuman. The next time the Pukars entered the battle during the conflict over the Falklands. In mid-1982, the Argentine Air Force had about 60 turboprop attack aircraft. On several Pukara aircraft of the first series, the rear ejection seat was dismantled (during sorties, as a rule, only the pilot was in the crew), and instead of it an additional fuel tank was installed, which made it possible to increase the combat radius. In this case, the rear cockpit glazing was painted over.

IA.58A could not compete in flight speed with jet fighters, but since the airstrip at Port Stanley was unsuitable for basing Skyhawks and Mirages, the use of anti-guerrilla aircraft in combat became a necessary decision. In addition to the Port Stanley airstrip, attack aircraft operated from small airfields at Goose Green and Pebble Island. Before the end of hostilities, the "Pukars" managed to make 186 sorties, attacking British warships and British marines who landed on the islands with bombs, missiles and machine-gun fire. At the same time, the turboprop attack aircraft suffered heavy losses.


Turboprop attack aircraft IA.58A of the Argentine Air Force damaged by a British airstrike

Four "Pukars" of varying degrees of preservation went to the British as trophies. Six planes were blown up by "Navy SEALs" during a sabotage raid on the De Borbon airfield, nine were destroyed on the ground by British carrier-based aircraft or shot by naval artillery, one was shot down by FIM-92 Stinger MANPADS, one by a small-caliber anti-aircraft gun and another by a fighter Sea Harrier FRS. 1. In turn, the Argentine pilot Lieutenant Miguel Jimenez managed to shoot down the British Westland AN 1 Scout helicopter. It won the Argentine Air Force's only confirmed aerial victory in this war. But already in the next sortie "Pucara" Jimenez crashed into a hill due to loss of orientation in low clouds, the pilot was killed.

Aircraft IA.58A did not have a significant impact on the course of hostilities, which was largely due to the lack of effective weapons to fight ships. As military experts later noted, if the Argentines were able to equip the Pukara with torpedoes, the loss of the British fleet could have been much higher.

One captured IA.58A with serial number A-515 was brought up to flight condition by the British and used in a test program at Boscombe Down airbase. Two more damaged aircraft became a source of spare parts. During the preparation of the aircraft for testing, it became clear that it was poorly maintained. An inspection at Boscombe Down showed that the ejection seats had never been removed for maintenance since their installation. Under the influence of sunlight, the braking parachutes lost their strength, which made them unusable. The chassis pneumatics also needed replacement.


British-captured IA.58A turboprop attack aircraft

Initially, an overload limit of 3,5g was introduced for flight tests, which was gradually increased to 5,0g. The negative overload limit was 1,5g, and the duration of the flight with it should not exceed 30 seconds. The height of the start of the stall should not be lower than 3050 m, and the height of the exit from the stall should not exceed 2130 m. The permissible aerobatics were barrels, Nesterov's loops, runners (turns on the hill) and immelmans. During the test, the aircraft flew 25 hours, but the aircraft maintenance was based on a 50-hour flight test program.

British experts noted the high maneuverability and good controllability of the Pukara, but it turned out that it was difficult to control it at speeds over 600 km / h. When one engine was turned off, it was possible to climb flight.

During training air battles with British Phantoms and Harriers, the turboprop aircraft was easily detected by onboard radars and at medium distances was vulnerable to air-to-air missiles. But in close air combat, when there was an opportunity to use cannons, "Pukara" could quite successfully snap back. During joint maneuvering with Westland Puma and Sea King helicopters, the IA.58A turboprop aircraft easily took an advantageous position for attack. Based on the results of the tests, it was concluded that the Pukara was not of interest to the British Air Force. However, this machine, with the correct tactics of use, was capable of fighting helicopters and delivering effective strikes against ground targets.

Shortly before the end of the test program, the captured Argentine attack aircraft IA-58 Pucar was presented in a static display at the Royal International Air Tattoo, held at Greenham Common. The aircraft also took part in an open day at the test pilot school in Boscombe Down.


Captured Argentine attack aircraft IA-58 Pucara during the Royal International Air Tattoo at the British airbase Greenham Common, July 23, 1983

On September 9, 1983, the light attack aircraft IA-58A Pucara, hull number A-515, became an exhibit at the RAF Aerospace Museum in Cosford and remains there to this day.

Even before the start of mass production, the IA-58 Pucara attack aircraft was actively advertised at various aerospace shows and weapons exhibitions. Negotiations on the sale of Pukara were conducted with Bolivia, Venezuela, Mauritania, Morocco, Paraguay, Peru, Iraq and the Central African Republic. Although buyers from Third World countries were actively interested in it, few export contracts were signed. This was mainly due to Argentina's unwillingness to supply aircraft on credit and the strong influence of foreign policy factors. As a result, the governments of Venezuela and Morocco chose to purchase the American OV-10 Bronco.

Uruguay became the first foreign buyer of Pukara. In the Air Force of this Central American state, six Argentinean-made turboprop attack aircraft replaced the piston AT-6 Texan and P-51 Mustang, which were mainly intended to fight the rebels.


IA-58A Pucar, Uruguayan Air Force

Currently, all Uruguayan IA-58A are non-combatant, in connection with which the issue of overhaul and modernization to the IA-58D Pucar Delta level is being considered. As of 2017, in the Uruguayan Air Force, three Pukars could take off. These machines are currently in storage.


In the late 1980s, the Argentine government announced its intention to sell 40 used attack aircraft in connection with a reduction in the military budget. Colombia and Sri Lanka became interested in this proposal, in which at that time there was actually a civil war.


IA-58A Pucar, Colombian Air Force

There are very few details about the actions of the IA-58A turboprop attack aircraft in Colombia; in total, this country has acquired 6 attack aircraft. It is known that the Pukars, together with the American-made OV-10 Bronco and A-37 Dragonfly attack aircraft, dropped 113- and 227-kg bombs and fired unguided rockets at targets of armed leftist groups and drug cartel militants in the Los Llanos area. According to the reference data, IA-58A aircraft are not currently in the active composition of the Colombian Air Force.


IA-58A Pucar, Sri Lanka Air Force

Sri Lanka bought four IA-58A in 1993. These vehicles were actively involved in operations against Tamil separatists. Turboprop attack aircraft conducted armed reconnaissance, carried out bomb-assault strikes and aimed at the target Kfir C.2 and F-7В / G jet fighter-bombers, as well as Chinese-made Y-8 military transport aircraft converted into bombers.

Acting against the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), recognized as a terrorist organization, the Pukara light attack aircraft showed their best qualities: high firepower, excellent visibility from the cockpit, good maneuverability, unpretentiousness, reliability and the ability to be based on poorly prepared temporary airfields ...


The surviving IA-58A turboprop attack aircraft at the Sri Lanka Air Force Museum

Very soon, the Pukars, which greatly annoyed the militants, became a priority target for their air defense systems. During combat missions, one aircraft was shot down by the fire of a large-caliber anti-aircraft machine gun, and two more became victims of the Strela-2M MANPADS. The last surviving IA-58A, due to a lack of spare parts, was decommissioned in 1999 and is now on display at the Sri Lankan Air Force Museum. To compensate for the loss of IA-58A attack aircraft, the Indian government handed over several MiG-27 variable geometry fighter-bombers. However, high-speed MiGs with powerful built-in armament in the form of a six-barreled 30-mm cannon and a much higher combat load are less suited for counter-guerrilla actions and have many times higher operating costs.

Currently, the IA-58A Pucar attack aircraft are considered outdated physically and mentally. Despite this, the FAA command has initiated a major overhaul and modernization program, through which at least 15 aircraft built in the second half of the 1980s must pass. Currently, the Argentine Air Force has 24 turboprop attack aircraft, but a significant part of them are to be written off in the near future due to the full depletion of the airframe resource. All "Pukars" capable of taking off into the air are combined into two assault squadrons based at the Daniel Yukich airfield.


Satellite image of Google Earth: IA-58A Pucar turboprop attack aircraft at the Daniel Yukich airfield

The creation of the modernized attack aircraft was carried out by the former designer and serial manufacturer of Pukara aircraft - the Argentinean state-owned enterprise Fabrica Argentina de Aviones (FAdeA) in Cordoba, together with the Israeli corporation Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI).

In addition to the new avionics complex, the supplier of which is another Israeli company Elbit Systems, the aircraft received a new wing and Pratt & Whitney Canada PT-6A-62 engines with a capacity of 950 hp, with four-bladed propellers. The updated avionics should significantly expand the search and strike capabilities of the attack aircraft, ensure the use of modern guided aviation ammunition and include a laser rangefinder-target designator, a synthetic aperture radar, modern communications and navigation. The upgraded aircraft will be able to carry a container with passive IR sensors, which will improve the ability to search for and destroy targets in the dark. 20mm Hispano-Suiza HS.804 cannons and 7,62mm Browning FN machine guns are planned to be replaced with 30mm DEFA 554 cannons.


IA-58H Pucara

The renovated IA-58H Pucara aircraft, hull number A-561, intended for testing new engines, made its first flight on November 24, 2015. Another attack aircraft with the number A-568 was converted to test electronic systems.


IA-58D Pucarа Delta

The fully modernized and overhauled aircraft received the designation IA-58D Pucar Delta (sometimes referred to as the IA-58 Fenix). It is envisaged that the modernized turboprop attack aircraft will remain in service until 2045.

To be continued ...
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Light turboprop attack aircraft: the experience of Vietnam
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  1. zyablik.olga
    zyablik.olga 4 October 2020 05: 59
    +9
    Compared to the American counter-guerrilla aircraft used in Indochina, the Pukara's built-in small arms were much more powerful.

    And according to flight data, the Pukara was superior to the American Bronco. Apparently, the Argentine anti-guerrilla attack aircraft did not receive much distribution, since this niche was occupied by American aircraft and due to the fact that in the conflict with Argentina, the United States sided with Great Britain. This, in turn, closed the market of the US allies.
    1. YOUR
      YOUR 4 October 2020 09: 17
      0
      Bronco was written off long ago, and Pukar still flies. And it is in service with at least 5 countries. Also the Brazilian Tucano. Even the Americans decided to buy this one for Afgan. There was such infa from 100 to 200 copies. Those. screw machines have potential.
      The American OV-10 Bronco has never been delivered to third countries. They could not close this niche.
      1. Bongo
        4 October 2020 09: 30
        15
        Quote: YOUR
        Bronco was written off long ago, and Pukar still flies. And it is in service with at least 5 countries.

        Vladimir, hello!

        You are a little deluded. "Pucara" is currently in service with the Argentine Air Force only.
        Quote: YOUR
        The American OV-10 Bronco has never been delivered to third countries. They could not close this niche.

        As for the "Bronco", it was supplied to Germany, Venezuela, Indonesia, Colombia, Morocco, Thailand and the Philippines. It still flies in some countries. In the USA, several machines are also used. It is known that in 2015, two turboprop attack aircraft flew about 120 sorties against IS in Iraq. Until now, several aircraft are at the disposal of the Air Wing of the US Department of State, these aircraft are used to combat drugs in "third countries". "Bronco" is also at the disposal of private aviation companies under contract with the Pentagon.
        This will be discussed in more detail in the next part of the review devoted to turboprop attack aircraft.
        1. Mister X
          Mister X 4 October 2020 10: 26
          +4
          In a number of cases, the revision was carried out without the knowledge of manufacturers in the countries where these machines were operated.
          Author: Linnik Sergey

          hi
          I understand to remake the truck. But to modify the plane ...
          Any details / photos?
          1. Bongo
            4 October 2020 12: 54
            +8
            Quote: Mister X
            I understand to remake the truck. But to modify the plane ...
            Any details / photos?

            Hello my corrosive friend! You will definitely have a photo, but in the third part of the review.
            The refinement of the TCB consisted in the installation of sights and weapon suspension assemblies, as well as the laying of cable harnesses for controlling the weapon. Sometimes, measures were taken to increase combat survivability.
            1. Mister X
              Mister X 4 October 2020 15: 02
              +4
              Quote: Bongo
              Hello my meticulous friend!

              Hello my dear friend!

              Quote: Bongo
              Sometimes, measures were taken to increase combat survivability.

              Including booking?
              1. Bongo
                5 October 2020 08: 52
                +5
                Quote: Mister X
                Quote: Bongo
                Hello my meticulous friend!

                Hello my dear friend!

                Quote: Bongo
                Sometimes, measures were taken to increase combat survivability.

                Including booking?

                Basically, local armoring of the cockpit against small arms bullets and the installation of nitrogen cylinders to fill the fuel tanks.
                1. Mister X
                  Mister X 5 October 2020 11: 35
                  +4
                  Quote: Bongo
                  Mostly local armoring of the cockpit against bullets of light rifle

                  Can an aviation helmet save a pilot's life when hit by a rifle caliber bullet?
                  For example ZSH-7AB (B - Armored) is made of Kevlar.
                  Are they often used?
                  Are there analogues abroad?
                  1. Bongo
                    5 October 2020 12: 48
                    +6
                    Quote: Mister X
                    Can an aviation helmet save a pilot's life when hit by a rifle caliber bullet?

                    It depends on the distance. In Afghanistan, Su-25 pilots flew in titanium cast iron for some time. But in the end, this was abandoned due to severe fatigue. And as bulletproof vests and helmets are one of the ways to reduce losses among the flight crew. Another question is that these means of protection are not popular with pilots.
                    1. Mister X
                      Mister X 5 October 2020 13: 11
                      +4
                      Quote: Bongo
                      these means of protection are not popular with pilots.

                      Therefore, the hope for the speed and maneuverability of the car, as well as the pilot's luck wink
                      1. Bongo
                        5 October 2020 13: 12
                        +6
                        Quote: Mister X
                        Therefore, the hope for the speed and maneuverability of the car, as well as the pilot's luck

                        I would also add flying skills and tactical literacy.
                      2. Mister X
                        Mister X 5 October 2020 13: 14
                        +4
                        Quote: Bongo
                        flight skills and tactical literacy

                        Exactly!
                        I'm an amateur in aviation smile
                      3. Bongo
                        5 October 2020 13: 18
                        +6
                        Quote: Mister X
                        I'm an amateur in aviation

                        Do not Cry the blues. At least you have common sense. yes Other "specialists" at full suruyoz assure that the suspension of "Calibers" and X-34 is possible on the Su-32. And the fact that with the help of the ZGRLS it is possible to issue accurate target designation of the air defense system. wassat
                      4. Mister X
                        Mister X 5 October 2020 14: 44
                        +4
                        Quote: Bongo
                        At least you have common sense.

                        At least I'm familiar with the performance characteristics and weapons of some deck helicopters.
                        I studied the topic for a long time in order to write about them, and not go crazy wink
                        Ka-27
                        IAR-316B Alouette III
                        IAR 330 Puma Naval
                        SH-32 Cougar
                        Lynx HAS.3
                      5. Bongo
                        5 October 2020 14: 52
                        +3
                        Quote: Mister X
                        At least I'm familiar with the performance characteristics and weapons of some deck helicopters.
                        I studied the topic for a long time to write about them, and do not go crazy wink
                        Ka-27
                        IAR-316B Alouette III
                        IAR 330 Puma Naval
                        SH-32 Cougar
                        Lynx HAS.3

                        I remember very well your wonderful articles about the Romanian Navy good
                      6. Mister X
                        Mister X 5 October 2020 16: 10
                        +4
                        Quote: Bongo
                        I remember very well your wonderful articles about the Romanian Navy

                        Thanks! I delved into the topic for many months in a row
                      7. Bongo
                        5 October 2020 16: 11
                        +4
                        Quote: Mister X
                        I delved into the topic for many months in a row

                        Yeah, I remember reading satellite images at your request ... laughing
                      8. Mister X
                        Mister X 5 October 2020 16: 15
                        +2
                        Quote: Bongo
                        I remember reading satellite images at your request

                        Brothers and sisters! Third carriage!
                        I'm confused in the maps, thanks for the help!
  • Mister X
    Mister X 4 October 2020 10: 26
    +3
    The canopy of the lantern was made of bulletproof glass, the rest of the glazing was made of plexiglass.

    Same as OV-10A Bronco
    There is information about the defeat of the Pucar pilots through the unarmored glazing of the cockpit canopy?
    1. Bongo
      4 October 2020 12: 56
      +5
      Quote: Mister X
      There is information about the defeat of the Pucar pilots through the unarmored glazing of the cockpit canopy?

      I did not come across such information. To be fair, we can say that the glazing area of ​​the Pukara's cabin is much smaller than the “balcony” on the Bronco.
      1. Mister X
        Mister X 4 October 2020 15: 16
        +3
        Quote: Bongo
        the glazing area of ​​the Pukara's cockpit is much smaller than the balcony on the Bronco.

        Consequently, the probability of hitting the Pucar pilots is less.
        1. Sergey Sfiedu
          Sergey Sfiedu 4 October 2020 19: 32
          +5
          Is not a fact. It is necessary to compare the proportions of the projections of the pilot's body, covered with armor. And that glass, that thin duralumin are vulnerable to small cannon fire.
          1. Mister X
            Mister X 4 October 2020 19: 39
            +2
            Quote: Sergey Sfyedu
            Not a fact.
            And that glass, that thin duralumin are vulnerable to small cannon fire.

            Not a fact.
            The author writes the following:
            - The armor of the cabin protected the bottom and side from rifle bullets fired from a distance of 150 m.
            1. Sergey Sfiedu
              Sergey Sfiedu 4 October 2020 19: 53
              +4
              Well, yes, purely visually, the "Bronco" has more glazing. But you still need to really look at what kind of protection one and the other have. There is little faith in advertising claims.
  • Mister X
    Mister X 4 October 2020 10: 27
    +3
    the aircraft was easily detected by airborne radars and at medium ranges was vulnerable to air-to-air missiles.

    The updated avionics should significantly expand the search and strike capabilities of the attack aircraft

    Do Pucar Delta provide countermeasures?
    1. Bongo
      4 October 2020 12: 57
      +3
      Quote: Mister X
      Do Pucar Delta provide countermeasures?

      But they do not write. request Cassettes with heat traps and dipole reflectors do not take long to put in. But does an anti-guerrilla attack aircraft need electronic warfare systems?
      1. Mister X
        Mister X 4 October 2020 15: 18
        +1
        Quote: Bongo
        Does an anti-guerrilla attack aircraft need electronic warfare systems?

        The British conducted training air battles with Phantoms and Harriers.
        1. Bongo
          5 October 2020 08: 50
          +3
          Quote: Mister X
          The British conducted training air battles with Phantoms and Harriers.

          Remember, this turboprop attack aircraft is primarily designed for counterinsurgency. Even the Su-25 has few chances when meeting a modern fighter.
          1. Mister X
            Mister X 5 October 2020 11: 24
            +2
            Quote: Bongo
            the attack aircraft is primarily intended for anti-insurgency.

            I agree that there will be enough heat traps and dipole reflectors.
      2. bk0010
        bk0010 4 October 2020 15: 23
        +4
        Electronic warfare is definitely not needed: the plane will immediately cease to be cheap. Plus, such an aircraft has a high chance of being shot down, and electronic warfare is an extremely secret equipment. But something like Curtains, from stingers and helfires, should be a must.
        1. Mister X
          Mister X 4 October 2020 21: 12
          +3
          Quote: bk0010
          the plane will immediately cease to be cheap ...

          hi
          I'm a dilettante in aviation, but I think your opinion is reasonable
  • YOUR
    YOUR 5 October 2020 04: 15
    0
    Maybe, but I didn't find it on the net. Found that they, OV-10 Bronco, in 2014 were completely decommissioned.
  • The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 4 October 2020 06: 59
    +1
    I read about "pukar" when I studied the monograph on the Falkleno-Malvinas Islands, but it was the first time I learned that it had a small, but export success.
    Thanks, author.
  • swzero
    swzero 4 October 2020 07: 23
    -2
    The Argentinean turboprop attack aircraft did not have outstanding flight characteristics,
    And in my opinion, the characteristics are quite outstanding. Suffice it to compare with aircraft with engines of comparable power. The same Pe-2/3 carried two times less bombs, and had no cockpit reservation except for an armored back at the same speed (at an altitude of 3 km), and at the same time the engines were 1050-1150, not 950-978 on the pawn. Such an airplane would not interfere in WWII instead of pawns.
    1. bk0010
      bk0010 4 October 2020 09: 58
      +2
      This is not very good with the reservation either: the text contains a line about the shooting down of an attack aircraft with a large-caliber machine gun.
      1. Bongo
        4 October 2020 13: 23
        +5
        Quote: bk0010
        This is not very good with the reservation either: the text contains a line about the shooting down of an attack aircraft with a large-caliber machine gun.

        The Il-2 armor protection with a high degree of reliability protected against armor-piercing rifle bullets and small fragments. But when bullets of 12,7 mm and higher hit the armored box and transparent armor, a lot depended on the meeting angle and distance. The same applies to the "anti-guerrilla" attack aircraft. Only the cockpit has local armor protection against small arms.
        1. bk0010
          bk0010 4 October 2020 15: 19
          -2
          There is no need to refer to the Il-2: it is a wartime aircraft created before the middle of the 20th century. Now a normal attack aircraft, IMHO, must hold up to CPV (T) inclusive. Simply because there can be a lot of this good and all of it will hit him when he works at low altitudes. And it is quite possible to make such protection.
          1. Sergey Sfiedu
            Sergey Sfiedu 4 October 2020 19: 45
            +4
            And where are these planes? The KPVT bullet is comparable in energy to 20mm projectiles. It is not easy to make such a defense. And why? Now a normal attack aircraft is an aircraft flying at an altitude of at least 5 km (to avoid being hit by MANPADS and MZA fire), having an optical-location station (i.e., a laser rangefinder-target designator and high-resolution TV), striking targets with guided bombs. Those. Super Tucano.
            1. bk0010
              bk0010 4 October 2020 20: 14
              0
              Quote: Sergey Sfyedu
              Now a normal attack aircraft is an aircraft flying at an altitude of at least 5 km (to avoid being hit by MANPADS and MZA fire), having an optical-location station (i.e., a laser rangefinder-target designator and high-resolution TV), striking targets with guided bombs. Those. Super Tucano.
              This is not an attack aircraft, it could be considered a fighter-bomber, if only a little bit could function as a fighter. And it's not even clear what to call it, the simplest bomber, probably.
              1. LastPS
                LastPS 4 October 2020 21: 30
                +6
                Now no one makes or develops attack aircraft in this sense. What for? If this is a serious army with serious opponents, armor will not help such a stormtrooper, but drug dealers and terrorists can be bombed with toucanoes, as you correctly noted.
    2. Bongo
      4 October 2020 13: 09
      +8
      Quote: swzero
      And in my opinion, the characteristics are quite outstanding. Suffice it to compare with aircraft with engines of comparable power. The same Pe-2/3 carried two times less bombs, and had no cockpit reservation except for an armored back at the same speed (at an altitude of 3 km), and at the same time the engines were 1050-1150, not 950-978 on the pawn. Such an airplane would not interfere in WWII instead of pawns.

      As if not a very correct comparison. No. The Pukara has a maximum take-off weight of 6800 kg, while the Pe-2 EMNIP is somewhere around 8200 kg. It should be understood that the aerodynamics of the IA-58A are much better and the fuel efficiency of the theater is higher. In addition, the "pawn" was designed as a dive bomber, and therefore had a significant margin of safety and was overweight.
      1. swzero
        swzero 4 October 2020 15: 07
        +1
        The pawn was designed as a fighter; the bomber and dive bomber were so-so. Especially in terms of bomb load and bomb compartments. From a dive, she could use bombs only on an external sling. And with bombs on the external sling, speed dropped. AR-2 looked like a bomber / dive bomber IMHO better.
        1. Saxahorse
          Saxahorse 4 October 2020 19: 15
          +4
          Quote: swzero
          AR-2 looked like a bomber / dive bomber IMHO better.

          Ar-2 dive bomber of the same level as DB-3. wassat
          1. swzero
            swzero 4 October 2020 21: 58
            +1
            nevertheless, he could throw at least from a bomb-raid from a dive. Yes, and nafig these diving properties did not give up. With a dive, except for the Polbin and Rakov parts, no one really worked, most of the pilots were not even taught this. For that matter, the most effective dive bombers we had were I-16s from the SPB link. Here they are, they showed excellent accuracy.
      2. swzero
        swzero 4 October 2020 22: 58
        +1
        at the expense of fuel efficiency of TVD vs internal combustion engine is a big question. The engines themselves are smaller and lighter, yes, but at the expense of economy, no
  • Pavel57
    Pavel57 4 October 2020 09: 03
    +2
    Niche plane with a little combat history.
  • Firelake
    Firelake 4 October 2020 11: 18
    -2
    I think this would not hurt Russia. Taking into account our school (il 2 / pe 3 and so on), we could make a completely suitable plane purely for the foreign market.
  • Andrei from Chelyabinsk
    Andrei from Chelyabinsk 4 October 2020 12: 30
    12
    Very good article. It seems that the topic is not one of the most interesting, such that it seems to be lazy to dig itself, but here you are - rrraz! - on a platter with a blue border, the whole layout in a concise and accessible form :))))
    Thank you! hi
    1. Bongo
      4 October 2020 12: 58
      +7
      Quote: Andrey from Chelyabinsk
      Very good article. It seems that the topic is not one of the most interesting, such that it seems to be lazy to dig itself, but here you are - rrraz! - on a platter with a blue border, the whole layout in a concise and accessible form :))))
      Thank you!

      drinks
  • merkava-2bet
    merkava-2bet 4 October 2020 13: 59
    +5
    Greetings from sunny Israel, Happy New Year to you, Sergey and Olechka, health and happiness.
    Thanks for the interesting review, and as many cycles as possible, otherwise there is nothing to read, by God.
  • iouris
    iouris 4 October 2020 15: 10
    -1
    They are engaged. They work as best they can. The Russian Federation could not start production of the An-2.
  • Petrol cutter
    Petrol cutter 4 October 2020 16: 53
    +2
    Thank you.
    For the attack aircraft "Pukar" I read, examined the most beautiful photograph in the magazine Foreign Military Review at the dawn of distant youth.
    I didn’t even expect that the "smoking room" is still alive! .. fellow
  • Turist1996
    Turist1996 4 October 2020 17: 36
    +6
    In general - an interesting car!
  • Pushkowed
    Pushkowed 5 October 2020 12: 18
    +1
    But already in the next sortie "Pucara" Jimenez crashed into a hill due to loss of orientation in low clouds, the pilot was killed.
    In fact, he crashed and died in the same sortie in which he won the aerial victory. The wreckage of the plane and the remains of the pilot were found by the British only 4 years later.
  • Scharnhorst
    Scharnhorst 5 October 2020 12: 30
    +3
    "Pukara" is certainly not the "Rook" Su-25 and not the A-10 "Warthog", but it will make a nightmare of the Papuans in the jungle (and maybe the "Skakuas" in the Carpathians) is probably even better, especially in a modern interpretation.
  • PilotS37
    PilotS37 5 October 2020 15: 21
    +1
    Uruguay became the first foreign buyer of Pukara. In the air force of this Central American state ...

    Since when did Uruguay end up in Central America - there are Mexico, Nicaragua, Honduras ...
    And Uruguay is a neighbor of Argentina: the capitals of both countries are located on the shores of La Plata Bay!
    1. Crimean partisan 1974
      Crimean partisan 1974 8 October 2020 09: 33
      -1
      Since when did Uruguay end up in Central America .... and what is wrong !!! Uruguay and Paraguay are the very center of South America, you must have confused with Latin America which is sometimes called central !!!! but it's about Argentina. and she is in South America, and Uruguay and Paraguay are in the very center ....... shota you have a failure in geography
  • Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 7 October 2020 10: 27
    0
    For whatever Syria - quite economically .... and all weapons can be used.
  • monster
    monster 5 November 2020 17: 50
    0
    Immediately visible is the hand of the Gods of mechanics - the Gloomy German genius. Ehh, that's who to be allies to get, but for centuries. There would be no, Russia and Germany, more powerful than the forces on the planet!