Military Review

What will be the wheeled floating Tor air defense system?


Serial "Tor-M2" on a tracked chassis. Photo by the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation /

To date, the armed forces of Russia and other countries have received and mastered several hundred anti-aircraft missile systems of various modifications of the Tor family. In the foreseeable future, another version of such an air defense system is expected to have distinctive differences. It is reported that this time it is about increasing mobility and mobility.

Prospects for the Torah

In the June issue of the National Defense magazine, an interview was published with the commander of the air defense forces of the ground forces, Lieutenant General Alexander Leonov. The general spoke about recent events and revealed some plans for the near future. In particular, they touched upon the development and supply of new samples from the composition of already known families.

A. Leonov said that there are contracts for the supply of serial Tor-M2 air defense systems, and their implementation will continue until 2027. There are also plans to equip the Arctic air defense units with specialized Tor-M2DT systems. The development of new modifications of the complex continues.

A new version of the Tor-M2 air defense system will be carried out on a special wheeled chassis. The main requirement for such a combat vehicle is the ability to overcome water obstacles by swimming. Other details of the project have not yet been given.

Mastered chassis

The key element of the Tor range of air defense systems is the so-called anti-aircraft missile module - a turret with a launcher, complemented by other equipment. Such products can be mounted on different chassis, which has been repeatedly confirmed in practice. To date, a potential customer has the opportunity to choose an air defense system on the most interesting platform for him. Some of the proposed options have reached the series.

Wheel "Tor-M2K" of the Belarusian army. Photo

The first modifications of the Torah were based on the GM-355 tracked chassis. Later it was replaced with a newer GM-5955. As part of the development of the 9K331 Tor-M1 project, wheeled air defense systems were offered. So, the option “Tor-M1TA” was built on the basis of a truck with a semi-trailer, and the modification “M1B” was completely placed on trailers. A stationary version of the complex has been developed.

The later Tor-M2 project also involved the use of several different types of chassis. The basic and export ("M2E") options were based on tracked chassis. The Tor-M2K complex was proposed on the MZKT-6922 triaxial chassis from the Minsk Wheel Tractor Plant. Finally, it was developed and put into a series of air defense systems on a two-link tracked chassis DT-30 - “Tor-M2DT”.

Now it is expected the appearance of a new modification of the Tor-M2 on a wheeled chassis. Very little is known about it so far - in fact, only the type of chassis and its capabilities.

New platform

Although the model of a promising chassis for the next modification of the Torah has not yet been named, you can consider the available options and make some predictions. Available information also allows us to predict the possible areas of application and advantages of the new air defense system over existing ones.

"Tor-M2DT" on an articulated chassis. Photo AP RF /

The Tor family already has a wheeled combat vehicle, but it does not fully comply with the new requirements of the air defense forces. The MZKT-6922 chassis for the Tor-M2K complex is distinguished by sufficiently large dimensions and mass, but it shows the necessary characteristics of mobility on land. Due to its large mass, this platform can only overcome water barriers along fords of limited depth. There is no swimming opportunity.

Thus, a new project requires some promising chassis, different from the already used one. Moreover, the choice is not too great: wheeled platforms with the necessary carrying capacity for our army are supplied by only two enterprises, the Minsk MZKT and the Bryansk BAZ. The latter has already been involved in the work on the Torah.

At the Army-2019 exhibition, the Izhevsk Electromechanical Plant Kupol showed a full-size prototype of the promising Tor air defense missile system on a completely new chassis. The four-axle car was designed and built by the BAZ; the layout of the target equipment was made and installed on the "Dome".

The chassis sample shown had a characteristic exterior formed by flat panels. The machine is built according to the rear-engine scheme with the organization of all-wheel drive of all eight wheels. The frontal part of the hull is allocated for a cabin with developed glazing, and the central compartment is given for the installation of target equipment, including anti-aircraft missile module.

What will be the wheeled floating Tor air defense system?

The prototype “Torah” on the new BAZ chassis, 2019. Photo by

The new development is an option for the development of the Tor-M2 air defense system and has corresponding combat qualities. The module is equipped with all the necessary means of radar and carries 16 missiles in the TPK. The ability to shoot on the go and the enhanced characteristics provided by modern SAMs should be maintained.

At that time, it was about testing a prototype and working out various features of the project. Based on the results of such events, it was planned to determine the final appearance of the complex, and in the future it may get chances to get into the army.

It has been argued that the construction of the Torah on a BAZ chassis has several advantages. First of all, this is the lack of need for imported MZKT and support for its own production. In addition, BAZ and Kupol are part of the Almaz-Antey concern, which should simplify the organization of work. Also, the new project is the next step in restoring the competencies of BAZ in the development and construction of special chassis.

New opportunities

It is possible that last year’s layout was built specifically on a promising floating chassis and is directly related to the project recently mentioned by the commander of military air defense. If this is the case, then a real sample of the floating Thor may appear in the very near future, and then its mass production will begin. However, the timing of these stages of the project remains unknown.

Wheel "Tor-M2" in the expanded state. Photo by IEMZ "Dome"

Obviously, the appearance of air defense systems on a floating platform will provide significant advantages. The existing mass modifications of the Torah are not ideal in terms of general mobility and mobility on the battlefield. The prospective development of the "Dome" and the BAZ, apparently, will bring together the best qualities of existing equipment and complement them with new features.

The troops will receive a relatively simple machine with high mobility and mobility, and for the first time in the family capable of independently overcoming deep water barriers. She will be able to constantly accompany motorized rifle and other units equipped with light floating armored vehicles. Armored personnel carriers and infantry fighting vehicles at crossings will not remain without air defense.

A new version of the Torah may have good commercial prospects. The previous wheel modification attracted the attention of potential customers and was even supplied to third countries. Due to the obvious advantages, a floating air defense system is able to repeat such successes.

Universal SAM

The existing contracts provide for the delivery of the Tor-M2 air defense systems until 2027. There is enough time left to complete the development and launch production of the floating complex, although the exact dates are unknown. Also unanswered questions of production volumes, pace of implementation, etc. It is unclear exactly how the simultaneous service of the complexes on different chassis will be organized, and whether it is planned to replace old tracked vehicles.

However, it is clear that work is ongoing and will soon yield results. In addition, once again the chosen approach to the development of the project due to the change of platforms shows itself from the best side. Thanks to this, Torahs at different bases will be able to work equally efficiently both on land or on rivers, and in the snow of the Arctic.
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  1. alma
    alma 17 June 2020 18: 09
    Will do - see, evaluate. So far, only assumptions.
    1. venik
      venik 17 June 2020 19: 17
      Quote: alma
      Will do - see, evaluate. So far, only assumptions.

      This is the "Armament" section of the "Military Review" website. Without forecasts and assumptions - it would be boring and tedious ..... And so - there is also a subject for discussion!
    2. Bad_gr
      Bad_gr 17 June 2020 20: 23
      On the surface, the chassis is not bad. It was necessary to put "Armor" on this. And it is much better suited for self-propelled wheeled vehicles than KAMAZ.
      View from the BAZ cockpit, remote control
      1. volodimer
        volodimer 18 June 2020 12: 28
        The first photo is not entirely clear. How many seats are there in the cockpit, does the driver appear to the left of the center, but to the left of it another place? And on the right, what?
        1. Bad_gr
          Bad_gr 18 June 2020 20: 49
          The camera optics greatly distorted:
          the driver's seat is on the left, in the cab there are only 2 seats.
          Judging by the windshield (left, where the driver), the steering shaft goes in the area of ​​the left brush, just the center of the left windshield.
        2. vVvAD
          vVvAD 18 June 2020 22: 28
          Judging by the 2nd photo shown in the article (copied so that it was clear), nothing is truncated corners: the nose is rounded, apparently, for streamlined contours. Well, the doors at angles and partially in the side projection look unusual.
  2. rocket757
    rocket757 17 June 2020 18: 13
    Good technique. It is still to be developed, modernized, improved, so no stealth has flown by Schaub.
    1. asv363
      asv363 17 June 2020 18: 58
      Victor, that’s understandable. Belarus ordered on the chassis of the MZKT (she provided them). Now they are guarding the Belarusian NPP, the position is asphalted.
      1. rocket757
        rocket757 17 June 2020 19: 18
        The BAZ chassis is certainly good, on the roads, on dry land, on the steppe, but for real off-road equipment, it can only be on the tracks ... we have such a climate, such ... directions.
        Those. a reasonable combination of "road" performance and off-road technology.
        1. Boris ⁣ Shaver
          Boris ⁣ Shaver 18 June 2020 00: 51
          Quote: rocket757
          real off-road equipment can only be on tracks

          Not every goose is an all-terrain vehicle. A caterpillar but heavy tank in a swampy area purges a thread of a trackball on low-pressure wheels. And he, in turn, will succumb to the good old mtlbshke.
          The balance of driving performance on roads and off-road, as well as the validity of the costs of production and operation, is shifted from wheels to tracks and vice versa, depending on the weight of the equipment and its purpose. There is no single answer.
          1. rocket757
            rocket757 18 June 2020 05: 20
            There are nuances ... no one can compare with the auger with a cross-country vehicle in terms of cross-country ability ... tracked platforms are more universal in terms of cross-country ability in various conditions.
  3. knn54
    knn54 17 June 2020 18: 35
    The temperature is below -50 degrees C. With wind up to 30 m / s.
    So you will have to "conjure" over the module itself.
    1. venik
      venik 17 June 2020 19: 20
      Quote: knn54
      The temperature is below -50 degrees C. With wind up to 30 m / s.
      So you will have to "conjure" over the module itself.

      Are you talking about "Tor-M2DT"? So it seems that they have already "conjured" ... I heard out of my ear that they seem to be doing well in the Arctic ...
  4. lelik613
    lelik613 17 June 2020 18: 41
    Undoubtedly, the BAZ chassis is better suited for the complex than the KAMAZ sheds. But there is some mechanism, as if the box of Thor was simply stuck, without modification.
    1. venik
      venik 17 June 2020 19: 41
      Quote: lelik613
      Undoubtedly, the BAZ chassis is better suited for the complex than the KAMAZ sheds.

      So on them (KamAZ-ah) they also kind of tried:

      But the disadvantages are the same as those of the "Pantsir": it cannot swim, and the stability on the track is "so-so" ..... But if the BAZ chassis also floats ... Well, this is what "the doctor ordered" !!!
      1. lelik613
        lelik613 17 June 2020 20: 14
        Kamaz is an attraction of Luna Park on wheels. This is not even funny.
      2. Grits
        Grits 19 June 2020 07: 31
        Quote: venik
        So on them (KamAZ-ah) they also kind of tried:

        Horror ... better not try
    2. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 17 June 2020 20: 09
      Quote: lelik613
      But there is some mechanism, as if the box of Thor was simply stuck, without modification.

      Nowadays it is called modularity by the buzzword. Like, it is not appropriate to adjust the armament to a new chassis every time - let the chassis designers adjust their products to a ready-made unchanging module. smile
  5. Aag
    Aag 17 June 2020 19: 00
    Probably, the chassis of the complex should be identical to the technology of the unit to be covered: the gisli tank regiment, the Strategic Missile Forces division-wheel.
  6. Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 17 June 2020 19: 26
    Although the model of a promising chassis for the next modification of the Torah has not yet been named, you can consider the available options and make some predictions.

    Taking into account the cooling of army men to the products of MZKT and the availability of its own chassis plant (BAZ) at Almaz-Antey, there are not very many options for manufacturers of a wheeled chassis for the Thor. Either BAZ or the ubiquitous KamAZ.
  7. Thunderbolt
    Thunderbolt 17 June 2020 19: 27
    Thor is a battlefield complex, Pantsir is an outfit complex for system 400. Hence all the questions, not to systems / each one is good in its specialization / but to the commanders who throw object air defense into the very thick of it. But apparently these commanders have no other resources, constant time trouble and veetnad each battle "Fog of War ..."
    1. Peter is not the first
      Peter is not the first 17 June 2020 19: 35
      Time trouble is only in the desire to sell this complex over a hill, and there the wheeled version looks more competitive.
      1. Thunderbolt
        Thunderbolt 17 June 2020 19: 49
        The Shell is a module and Thor is the same, but the thoughts of some Marshals about pushing Shells into the hotbed of battles are stupid, but the Marshals do not have enough resources, they have to fight with help from the Emirate. . Anti-aircraft complexes only create "special zones" where our enemy fighters drive in. This is with regards to the air defense of the ground. And the object system is a different song, there is a different logic and principle of operation.
        1. Thunderbolt
          Thunderbolt 17 June 2020 20: 12
          Quote: Peter is not the first
          there the wheel option looks more competitive.

          The first stupid thing is to transfer military air defense to the wheels .. A country road laden with caterpillars is, in principle, sparse for supply columns. Tor-Batyushka goes at the speed of a tank column. Surveillance stops make it speed. The division air defense commander determines the order of movement of the batteries. The point is that the advanced the frontal attack was constantly under the TOR system. The tanks won’t go anywhere without him, and on the wheelbase he couldn’t always accompany the columns. That’s the whole point, it was necessary for the offensive, to maintain a pace. If the Arab-Asians want a wheeled trooper I don’t argue, I have to do it and sell it right there.
          1. Cympak
            Cympak 18 June 2020 10: 34
            As a rule, people tend to make simpler decisions with an understandable level of risk. If you are faced with the task of transferring BTG as quickly as possible on wheeled armored personnel carriers from Uglevik to Pristina, then most likely you will prefer to travel along public roads, and not directly through mountains, forests, rivers and swamps. Because in the second case, even though the path is shorter, there are very high risks of getting stuck and not completing the task.
          2. V.I.P.
            V.I.P. 18 June 2020 11: 15
            Yes, look at the Torah in Khmeinim. Put, dug. Why put caterpillar there? To drag trailers .... Yes, and who can buy them, so are the Arabs. There is sand. They prefer wheeled vehicles. So let them sell it. Wheeled is cheaper and simpler, the resource is higher in theory. At least on imported chassis. laughing ... .. Reliability, durability, comfort is certainly NOT about KamAZ, the Urals
  8. Free wind
    Free wind 17 June 2020 20: 49
    I don’t understand anything. Why should the air defense complex swim? And you’ll drown such a bandurin sooner than you cross some kind of puddle.
    1. Bad_gr
      Bad_gr 18 June 2020 00: 14
      Quote: Free Wind
      I don’t understand anything. Why should the air defense complex swim?

      The article also says:
      ".. She will be able to constantly accompany motorized rifle and other units equipped with light amphibious armored vehicles. Armored personnel carriers and infantry fighting vehicles on the crossings will not be left without air defense ..
      1. Cympak
        Cympak 18 June 2020 10: 16
        First, you need to answer the question: where are the Tor air defense systems registered in OSHS?
        "Thor" is a divisional air defense system. With this approach, there is no point in making her swim, because this air defense system does not need to cross water obstacles as part of assault groups. In extreme cases, he can cover them from the other side. And then it will cross with the main forces to the other side along with tanks, self-propelled guns, MLRS, KShM and logistical support. Those. it is necessary to deal with the development of engineering troops: mobile mechanized track bridges, pontoon crossings.
        And the idea of ​​a floating "Thor" on a wheeled chassis is nonsense! Those. Putting the TOR air defense missile system on a wheeled chassis is a very correct and necessary task to cover highly mobile units on a wheeled chassis, but making it also amphibious is expensive and not very promising. Moreover, a very likely failure to implement amphibiousness can "kill" the correct idea with a wheeled chassis.
        Let me remind you that the main advantages of a wheeled chassis over a tracked chassis are high mobility along the road network and a large motor resource, and not cross-country ability. And the amphibious wheeled vehicle loaded with a heavy module of the TOR air defense missile system will have problems with cross-country ability. And above all when this car tries to get out of the water onto the shore. The gentle banks, as a rule, almost all have very weak soil, because are heated during floods.
        1. Bad_gr
          Bad_gr 18 June 2020 20: 50
          Quote: Cympak
          With this approach, it makes no sense to make her swim,

          And what's the point of floating a tactical missile?
    2. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 18 June 2020 15: 54
      Quote: Free Wind
      I don’t understand anything. Why should the air defense complex swim?

      So ... the experience of the Great Patriotic War: in front of the river, bridges were blown up, the pontoon park lagged behind and will, at best in a day, force the river and advance without air defense - it’s like death. So they started back in Soviet times to put air defense systems on a floating chassis.
      1. Cympak
        Cympak 18 June 2020 16: 57
        To support units capable of forcing rivers outright, there are air defense systems of a lower regimental level: ZSU-23 Shilka, ZRK Strela-10, ZRPK Tunguska, as well as promising systems ZRK Sosna and AU Derivation ... Promising vehicles are made on the basis of amphibious tracked platforms. So they must and will support the assault units on the "other bank".
      2. KVIRTU
        KVIRTU 19 June 2020 09: 59
        For example, the BAZ "Osnova" corps family, as in the photo above, taken out of service in 98, which the Oka was on, attracted the target customer primarily with a large sealed volume for placing the equipment. And to swim there somewhere, this is quite an extreme case.
      3. Cympak
        Cympak 19 June 2020 10: 02
        There were many other examples where highly mobile units managed to capture bridges before they were destroyed by the enemy. You need to understand that the enemy will protect the bridges until the very last moment, because he himself needs to transfer reinforcements and ammunition over them.
        The specificity of Russia is a weak road network, many rivers and very few bridges across them. In Europe, Central Asia, the Middle East, North Africa, and Mongolia, such problems usually do not arise.
    3. vVvAD
      vVvAD 18 June 2020 22: 50
      Rivers. Our country is full of rivers, and to park a pontoon or floating crossing for the sake of a quick transfer of the complex is an extra supply chain. Export: potential buyers, as a rule, do not have pontoon parks, and they can have rivers on their territory.
      In a variant of a wheeled chassis, this air defense system can be used to provide air defense for light mechanized brigades equipped with floating equipment, and, probably, to reinforce MP brigades.
      1. Cympak
        Cympak 19 June 2020 09: 52
        All the same, it will be necessary to erect a pontoon ferry to transport heavy armored vehicles, artillery, supply vehicles and the rear. Besides:
        1. Once again I remind the place of the "Tor" air defense missile system in the OShS - this is the level of the division. It is very unlikely that the TOR air defense missile system will be sent to cover the assault and strike battalion on the other side. To cover such units, if they are allocated, then something from the regimental level.
        2. The element of wheeled armored vehicles is a territory with a developed road network or at least with a solid, flat surface. It reveals its main advantages. For the rest, the caterpillar technique is optimal.
        3. The river not only needs to be crossed, it is also necessary to get out of the river to the shore, and this is a completely non-trivial task for wheeled vehicles on soft soil.
        1. vVvAD
          vVvAD 20 June 2020 00: 44
          3. To go ashore, you can give MTLB or something else in case of problems. If the order from the MO was specifically for a floating platform, then this argument is in any case not relevant in view of the existing solution for this case.
          2. Right. As well as the fact that there is an extensive road network in the European part of Russia. And do not forget about the economic side of the issue: running resource, gluttony, weight and cost. As well as the volume of export markets for both options.
          1. You are talking about the crawler version of the TOP, and the place of the wheels is not a fact, which is determined exactly the same way.
          That's when heavy equipment goes into battle - then they will build it, because To cover heavy equipment on the march, there are caterpillar TORs that are more relevant to it both in cross-country ability and in reservation.
  9. sivuch
    sivuch 18 June 2020 11: 39
    It would not have happened that to ensure the buoyancy of the BM it would have to be facilitated, for example, due to the BZ. For me, it would not be worth
  10. Uncle Izya
    Uncle Izya 18 June 2020 13: 14
    Baz even more mskt, why floating yet?
  11. A1845
    A1845 18 June 2020 15: 22
    Quote: Thunderbolt
    The first stupidity to transplant military air defense on wheels

    The torus had a predecessor - a wasp. So the topic is not new.
    1. Cympak
      Cympak 18 June 2020 16: 58
      And often "Wasp" swam? Often there was a need for her amphibiousness? Many do not even know about this property of the "Osa" air defense system.
      1. KVIRTU
        KVIRTU 19 June 2020 10: 10
        Sevastopol Marines swim in exercises :) Now they provide air defense of the bridge in the near zone, it was too early to say.
  12. And Makarov
    And Makarov 19 June 2020 16: 51
    Yes, we need a lot of air defense good
  13. evgen1221
    evgen1221 19 June 2020 19: 22
    Is it in the floating version that the troops will receive a relatively simple and reliable machine? I don’t know, but in general, where should he swim ??? What will change in the radius of his capabilities if he crosses a kilometer across the river? Yes, and about the pontoons for crossing apparently long forgotten and stopped using them. Well, if not a single bridge was left alive in the area being covered, then minus the work of such air defense and there is nowhere to swim even more so. As a result, what for it is necessary?