Military Review

Red plan. How France fell

44
Red plan. How France fell

Adolf Hitler with his entourage posing against the backdrop of the Eiffel Tower in Paris. On the left is Albert Speer, future Reich Minister of Defense Industry and Arms, on the right is sculptor Arno Breker. June 23, 1940


80 years ago, on June 14, 1940, German troops entered Paris without a fight. As a result of the successful offensive of the Wehrmacht, the main forces of the French army were defeated, fled or surrendered.

Operation Mouth (Red Plan)


After the fighting in the Dunkirk region was completed, the German High Command began the second stage of the battle for France. Directive of the High Command of the Wehrmacht (OKV) No. 13 of May 23, 1940 determined the plan and the main stages of the operation. On May 31, the High Command of the Ground Forces (OKH) sent a plan of Operation Rot to the troops. The Germans planned a swift attack to break the remaining enemy forces in France, break through the front, hastily created by the French south of the Somme and En rivers, with a quick break into the depths to prevent them from retreating into the depths and create a new line of defense.

At the first stage of the operation, the right flank of the German army advanced from the coast to Oise; on the second, the main forces struck between Paris and the Ardennes (the area in the north-east of France near its border with Belgium, has high hills and dense forest) to the south-east, with the aim of defeating the French group in the triangle Paris, Metz and Belfort, and on the Maginot line. The third stage - auxiliary operations with the aim of mastering the Maginot line.

The Germans regrouped their troops. Army Group "B" under the command of Bock as part of the 4th, 6th and 9th armies (48 divisions, including 6 tank and 4 motorized, 2 motorized brigades) took up positions from the coast along the Somme, the Oise-Aisne Canal to the Aisne River. Boca's armies were to make a breakthrough to the southwest from the Somme line, taking Le Havre and Rouen. With the left flank, go to the Soissons, Compiegne area, ensuring the actions of the main forces. Mobile connections were to play an important role. Gotha's 15th Panzer Corps from the Abbeville area was supposed to reach the mouth of the Seine. Kleist's Panzer Group (16th Panzer and 14th Motorized Corps) was to attack east of Paris and capture bridgeheads on the Marne.

Army Group "A" under the command of Rundstedt in the 2nd, 12th and 16th armies (45 divisions, including 4 tank and 2 motorized) is located on the river. Aisne and further east to Luxembourg. The Germans had to attack in the Reims direction, go to Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier. To strengthen the attacking capabilities of the troops of Rundstedt, a Guderian tank group was formed (the 39th and 41st tank corps). German mobile units were supposed to go behind the Maginot line.

Army Group "Ts" under the leadership of Leeb as part of the 1st and 7th armies (20 infantry and 4 serf divisions) occupied positions on the Siegfried line and along the Rhine in readiness to capture the French fortified line. The 18th Army (4 divisions) was abandoned in the Dunkirk area, providing coastal defense. At the same time, the 18th Army served as a reserve; it was planned to be brought into battle during the development of the offensive. Also, 19 infantry divisions remained in the reserve of the main command.


French defense


After a crushing defeat in Belgium and Flanders, the French were stunned, demoralized and greatly weakened. Under the command of Weygan, 71 divisions remained. Affected by the relaxation of France during the “strange war”. The French military-political leadership did not form strategic reserves in case of failure, did not conduct a total mobilization of the country, population and economy. At the same time, mainly second-rate divisions remained, the best fell into a trap in Belgium and Northern France and were defeated. Many of the remaining units were weakened in battles, had a large staff shortage, weapons and technology. The soldiers lost heart. In four tank divisions, 50–80 vehicles remained. Of the troops that were able to evacuate from Dunkirk, formed a reduced division.

On the 400-kilometer front, from the mouth of the Somme to the Maginot Line, the French put up two army groups (a total of 49 divisions). The 3rd Army Group of General Besson, consisting of the 10th, 7th and 6th Armies, held positions from the coast to Neuchâtel. The army group included two British divisions led by General Brooke: the 51st Scottish, transferred from the Maginot Line, and the 1st Armored Division, which arrived from England. Somme positions were weak. Attempts by the Allies to liquidate the enemy bridgeheads in the area of ​​Abbeville, Amiens and Peronn did not lead to success.

The 4th group of armies of General Huntziger in the 4th and 2nd armies occupied the defense from Neuchâtel to the Maginot Line. The 2nd group of armies of General Pretel as part of the 3rd, 5th and 8th armies defended the Maginot line. In the 2nd group of armies, only 17 divisions remained. Despite the losses, the French still had a large fleet of air forces. However, the command could not organize and use all the planes in battle. In particular, significant aviation the group remained in North Africa. The British also did not begin to transfer aircraft to France, obviously, suggesting the imminent collapse of an ally and the need to defend the British Isles from the air.


Thrown in a defensive position on Rouen Street, the French 25-mm anti-tank gun of the 1934 model of Hotchkiss


German troops sitting on French FT-31 tank look at a ruined and burning building in captured Rouen


German soldiers in a captured French 25-mm anti-tank gun of the 1934 model on the Seine embankment in Rouen

The course for surrender


On May 25, the French commander-in-chief Weygang at a meeting of the military committee outlined a defense plan. It was planned to meet the enemy on the borders of Somme and Ena, covering the capital and the central part of the country. The command gave instructions to create defensive lines, strongholds, in which the troops were to stay even in the case of encirclement. That is, the French plan was a continuation of the old: a solid front line, stubborn and tough defense. No ideas, decisive action, if the enemy breaks the line of defense, was not proposed.

True, the stubborn defense of the army made sense if at the same time total mobilization began in the rear. The government and the military will call on the people to defend the country and hold major mobilization events. France, even in the face of a catastrophe, had more human and material resources than the Third Reich. If the French leadership could drag out the war, then Germany had a bad time. In particular, the occupation of all France would require tremendous efforts from the Reich, a huge contingent of troops to control hostile territory. However, French politicians and the military did not want a total war and mobilization, confrontation not for life, but for death. When large cities become a battlefield, they bind the enemy’s forces, but lead to numerous casualties and material losses.

Weygans plan did not provide for the mobilization of the people to fight the enemy. There was no action plan in case the government left the metropolis in the colony to continue the struggle. And France had a huge colonial empire with large resources, a fleet that ruled out the possibility of a quick victory for Germany if the war continued. And the prolongation of the war put an end to all plans of Hitler, leading in the end to an internal crisis and defeat. France had everything to continue the war. Human and material resources of the colonies. Representatives of the civil and military administration in the colonies in North Africa, the Levant (Syria and Lebanon), and in French Equatorial and West Africa reported to the government about the possibility of continuing the struggle. Only in North Africa there were 10 divisions, they could become the core of the new army. The presence of a large fleet allowed to remove part of the troops, 500 thousand reservists and weapons from the metropolis to North Africa. There was a gold reserve exported from the French Bank to the United States, Canada and Martinique. Gold could pay for weapons, ammunition and ammunition. Already signed contracts for the supply of weapons from the United States. There was a strong ally of Britain, with a world colonial empire.

However, the French government and generals did not timely prepare plans for the prospects of the struggle against Germany, and Weygand rejected all proposals to continue the war outside the metropolis. Weigan himself did not believe in the possibility of a long defense on the Somme and Aene, and thought about surrender. “But since he did not want to take responsibility for it, his actions were reduced to persuading the government to surrender,” General de Gaulle noted in his memoirs. Weygand and Marshal Pétain (a member of the Reynaud government) began a line of surrender. They gained considerable weight in the government. True, General de Gaulle, an ardent champion of the struggle to the end, was appointed to the place of the deputy minister of defense. But he recently received the rank of brigadier general and had no serious influence in the French military and political elite.


French tank Char B1-bis No. 518 “Algeria” abandoned near the town of La Bouillet, southwest of Rouen


Refugee column leaves city in France


German Junkers U-87 bombers from StG 77 shortly after take-off from an airfield in France

Collapse of defense on the Somme


On the morning of June 5, 1940, German aviation launched a series of powerful strikes on the enemy’s defense. Then the forces of Army Group B advanced into a general offensive. Goth's tanks attacked from the bridgehead at Abbeville, the Kleist group acted with a bridgehead at Amiens and Perron. Goth's divisions on the first day advanced 10 km and on June 6 broke into the defenses of the 10th French army of Altmeyer. The Hitlerites, having beaten off the counterattacks of the English Panzer Division, cut through the French army. The left flank was blocked by the sea, the right wing of the 10th Army retreated to the Seine. On June 8, German tanks were on the outskirts of Rouen. The Anglo-French forces pressed to the sea capitulated a few days later.

Kleist’s troops could not immediately break the resistance of the 7th French Army of General Frer. The French stubbornly fought back. However, the breakthrough of the Goth tanks in the Rouen direction eased the position of the 6th German army of Reichenau. French resistance weakened and the Nazis reached Compiegne. The troops of the 9th German army crossed Enu at Soissons and squeezed the left wing of the 6th French army of Tushon. As a result, under the pressure of the enemy, the French defense on the Somme collapsed. The French command quickly began to create a new line of defense from the mouth of the Seine to Pontoise on the river. Oise, then through Senlis to the turn of the river. Urk. The Paris Army was hastily advanced northwest of the capital, created on the basis of the Paris garrison and some parts of the 7th and 10th armies.

Army Group A launched an offensive on June 9. On the first day, the Germans crossed Enu and created a bridgehead in the area of ​​Retel. Guderian tanks were thrown into battle. The German mobile unit reached the operational space and rushed south, bypassing the Maginot line. The French tried to counterattack with the forces of the reserve divisions, but the Germans easily parried and continued the offensive.


German ZSU Sd.Kfz.10 / 4 drive along the street of the village in the Marne department


German soldiers posing on a wrecked French reconnaissance tank AMR-33


Captured French cavalry and German soldiers in a village in eastern France


German dive bombers U-87 in flight over France

Germans in Paris


On June 10, Italy (How the Duce tried to take over southern France) However, despite the large numerical superiority over the French Alpine army, the Italian troops could not create a serious threat to the enemy. On the same day, the French government fled from Paris to Tours, then to Bordeaux, essentially losing control of the country.

On June 11, the Allies Supreme Council was held in Briard. The British understood that the French were inclined to surrender. Churchill tried to extend the resistance of the French army. He promised to land additional forces on the mainland, supported the French hopes for US help, spoke about the possibility of developing a guerrilla war. However, he refused to increase the number of British aircraft that participated in the battle for France. Weigan in his report outlined a hopeless military-strategic situation. He reported the loss of control, the lack of reserves, the inability to continue the fight if the new line of defense collapses.

On June 12–13, a meeting of the French government took place in Canje near Tours. The main question was the possibility of concluding a truce with Hitler. Weigan openly demanded surrender. He said that the continuation of the war will lead the country to riots and revolution (the ghost of the Paris Commune). The commander in chief lied that the Communists had already raised an uprising in Paris. The “Verden Lion” Peten also argued for the need for surrender. However, he demanded that the government remain in France. The defeatists did not want some members of the government and parliament to flee to the colonies, where they could create a new center of resistance.

Meanwhile, the front fell apart. The French were unable to organize a new solid defense line. On June 12, the Nazis crossed the Seine. In the east south of the border of the river. Marne Germans reached Monmiraya. Guderian's tanks irresistibly rushed south. The organized resistance of the French army was broken. With the consent of the government, Weigan declared the capital an open city and surrendered without a fight. On the morning of June 14, the Nazis entered Paris. The huge city was almost empty, most of the population escaped. Millions of French flocked to southern France.

To be continued ...


German soldiers in the Place de la Concorde in Paris


German artillerymen on a Sd.Kfz half-track tractor. 8, towing an sFH150 18 mm heavy field howitzer, drive through Place de la Concorde in Paris


A column of French prisoners at the Versailles Palace in Paris


German machine gunner on the background of the Eiffel Tower
Author:
Photos used:
http://waralbum.ru/
Articles from this series:
Blitzkrieg in the West

Blitzkrieg in the West. How the Holland, Belgium and France fell
Psychological warfare. How the Germans stormed the "Holland Fortress"
Capture of Eben-Enamel. The assault on Belgium
Tank Battle of Annu
Hitler's “Stop Order”. Why German tanks did not crush the British army
How the Duce tried to take over southern France
44 comments
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  1. apro
    apro 13 June 2020 05: 10
    -1
    When did France lose the war? I think long before the events of 1940. after the Napoleonic wars, fell under British influence ... becoming a bargaining chip in the game of Angles on the continent. 15 years ago, it could dictate its will to the Germans. And then in an instant of a magic wand lost all leverage influence on the Germans. what was it?
    1. antivirus
      antivirus 14 June 2020 22: 07
      -1
      then, in an instant of the magic wand, it lost all leverage over the Germans. what was it?

      -Money was hidden in Switzerland -More than the top was not necessary from the country. surrendered her
  2. Catfish
    Catfish 13 June 2020 05: 42
    +15
    Captured French cavalry and German soldiers in a village in eastern France

    Prisoners on horseback ride amicably to the place of imprisonment. I haven’t seen this before. Are horses captive too?
    Well France, you give! laughing
    1. mr.ZinGer
      mr.ZinGer 13 June 2020 06: 10
      +6
      There will be an opportunity, see https://m.ok.ru/video/245926726198
      The film is about Jozhar, director of the Louvre. It is not directly connected with the war, but it contains many interesting facts that make it possible to understand what France was like during the war.
      1. knn54
        knn54 13 June 2020 09: 33
        +3
        The generals remained at the WWI level when they went to machine guns with orchestras. The tanks in the Ardennes simply put them into a stupor. And the Germans rushed to Paris unprotected.
        -From the Maginot line, the troops will not be in time.
        - They won’t have time to mobilize either.
        -Best troops, including the British, are surrounded in Belgium and Dunkirk. Allies bought on Schlieffen's old plan.
        Paris surrendered without a fight.
    2. saigon
      saigon 13 June 2020 10: 01
      +3
      Well, you can say a lot, a strange defeat and scrapping of the French army, notably every fourth Frenchman who died was an officer.
    3. vladcub
      vladcub 13 June 2020 21: 35
      +3
      Kostya, hi. I myself grin that riding a jail. Maybe they and horses were sitting in the same cell?
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 13 June 2020 21: 39
        +2
        Hello, Glory. hi
        Surely in the same stall, these cameras have not yet been invented. drinks
  3. Basil50
    Basil50 13 June 2020 05: 43
    +10
    But today the French are talking about * heroism ..... * and about * resistance ...... *.
    I always wondered how Europoids worked so smoothly. They fought a bit, surrendered, and immediately joined the winner’s army.
    And after all they were taken.
    And then together already, under the command of Hitler, they went to seize * living space for the Germans *. At the same time they committed atrocities without a hint of * culture, civilization *.
    Apparently this is the basis of * European culture * - will obey the conqueror and then, with him, will be bent to the utter loss of humanity.
    And today we are talking about * heroism .... *, about * years of struggle .... *
    And do not be shy.
    1. Non-fighter
      Non-fighter 13 June 2020 11: 29
      +4
      And so from time immemorial, Europeans have fought. Well, you think you lost, another king, other taxes and all that. And the vanquished immediately join the army of victors, especially if there are no obstacles by faith.
      1. Kronos
        Kronos 13 June 2020 15: 05
        +3
        Why only Europeans were so all over the planet
      2. Alf
        Alf 13 June 2020 20: 03
        +1
        Quote: Not the fighter
        And so from time immemorial, Europeans have fought. Well, you think you lost, another king, other taxes and all that. And the vanquished immediately join the army of victors, especially if there are no obstacles by faith.

        So to say, a cabal.
    2. Zug
      Zug 13 June 2020 21: 22
      +3
      Well, the French resisted. And the company was not an easy walk. The Germans lost more than 30 thousand soldiers. And in some places they stubbornly resisted. I believe that it was not the French soldier who lost the war, but the genius
  4. Comrade
    Comrade 13 June 2020 05: 47
    +4
    the French government and generals did not timely prepare plans for the prospects of the struggle against Germany, and Weygand rejected all proposals to continue the war outside the metropolis. Weigan himself did not believe in the possibility of a long defense on the Somme and Aene, and thought about surrender.

    The French crushed after the Napoleonic wars, degenerated. In 1940, they surrendered the country to the Germans, today illegal immigrants who live comfortably at the expense of these very Frenchmen who do not dare to open their mouths to outrage.
    1. unknown
      unknown 14 June 2020 06: 20
      -2
      Unfortunately, there were no "Napoleonic" ones.
      The traditional story fell when the history written by the humanities began to be analyzed by techies.
      The first real war of this civilization is the so-called Eastern war, we call the Crimean one. Photo materials of this war have been preserved. Including a photo of a French prince surprisingly similar to "Napoleon".
  5. Olgovich
    Olgovich 13 June 2020 05: 55
    +9
    the boundary of the Somme make a breakthrough to the south-west, take Le Havre and Rouen.) was supposed to attack east of Paris and capture the bridgeheads on the marne.

    Familiar, famous places of difficult battles and examples of the glorious stamina of the French in WWI.

    And here is such a striking contrast with WWII.

    A-there was no Russia this time, that’s the appropriate result ....

    As in the next, June 1941, the year was no longer France ...
    1. Ragnar Lodbrok
      Ragnar Lodbrok 13 June 2020 07: 03
      +10
      Quote: Olgovich
      Familiar, famous places of difficult battles and examples of the glorious stamina of the French in WWI.
      And here is such a striking contrast with WWII.

      I, too, cannot find any logical explanation for myself ... Not so much time has passed, but like heaven and earth France in these two wars ...
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 13 June 2020 09: 47
        +3
        Quote: Ragnar Lothbrok
        I, too, cannot find any logical explanation for myself ... Not so much time has passed, but like heaven and earth France in these two wars ..


        The main (not the only, of course) explanation is that in 1914 Russia was an ally, in 1940 it was not.

        Without it, the defeat of France in 1914, I’d be sure, would be practically the same ..
        1. Kronos
          Kronos 13 June 2020 12: 55
          .
          It is a myth that France would have fallen without Russia
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 13 June 2020 13: 20
            +3
            Quote: Kronos
            It is a myth that France would have fallen without Russia

            This "myth" is recognized by France itself, and the envious denial of those who clicked the History Lessons is of the least interest.
          2. Alf
            Alf 13 June 2020 20: 07
            +5
            Quote: Kronos
            It is a myth that France would have fallen without Russia

            How many divisions did the II Reich hold on the Eastern Front? Would they really hinder General Kluck?
            1. Lem111
              Lem111 30 December 2020 03: 29
              0
              Well, actually, Ludendorff arranged Tanneberg before the arrival of reinforcements from the Western Front. Yes, these are the problems of the Germans, but still.
              It can also be recalled that the Germans held part of the forces against Antwerp, it cannot be said that one thing alone decided the outcome of the battle.
      2. Kronos
        Kronos 13 June 2020 12: 54
        +2
        Everything has long been explained - in 1 world the French lost too many repetitions of this they did not want
      3. Alf
        Alf 13 June 2020 20: 05
        +9
        Quote: Ragnar Lothbrok
        I, too, cannot find any logical explanation for myself ... Not so much time has passed, but like heaven and earth France in these two wars ...

        The famous French idea of ​​the end of the 30s — Let us be better conquered than Verdun again. They broke morally, taking a sip of dirt and blood in the war.
      4. unknown
        unknown 14 June 2020 06: 27
        +3
        The totem animal of France is the Goat.
        Any astrologer will tell that people born under this sign are categorically not recommended to engage in POLICY, COMMERCE and MILITARY AFFAIRS.
        Exceptions occur. But exceptions, not the rule.
        The countries of this totem animal are sausages constantly.
        In addition to France, this is Poland and independent Ukraine.
        In WWI, France had very strong allies, which, in many ways, helped her win.
    2. tihonmarine
      tihonmarine 13 June 2020 08: 05
      +3
      Quote: Olgovich
      As in the next, June 1941, the year was no longer France.

      And still she is not.
    3. Sugar Honeyovich
      Sugar Honeyovich 13 June 2020 15: 36
      +1
      Quote: Olgovich
      -there was no Russia this time, that’s the appropriate result

      But Russia offered ... to be. hi
    4. cat Rusich
      cat Rusich 13 June 2020 21: 20
      +5
      On December 19, 1939, the Supreme Council of Great Britain ordered the beginning of the development of operational plans for military action against the USSR. The French General Staff was developing a "Southern Plan" against the USSR. Read the article on VO "In the spring of 1940, England and France were preparing for a war against the USSR" (22.11.2010). At the beginning of 1940, France was preparing to fight the USSR - only Hitler "interfered" ...
  6. alone
    alone 13 June 2020 11: 15
    +3
    There are several reasons for the defeat of France.
    1) France of 1940 did not have internal cohesion .. The government terrorized the left forces in the country, which had a very good social base. There were also very powerful forces in the country, which were for the Nazis
    2) The General Staff of the army adhered to the idea of ​​"Deaf Defense", which brought it success in 1914, but in 1940 this one had already lost its strategic meaning ..
    3) and the most important mistake was that the breakthrough through the Ardennes was flatly excluded .. The Germans very competently circled the fingers of all French strategists, encircling them at Dunkirk .. And the remaining troops of the first and second wave reservists were objectively unable to stop the tank corps of the Wehrmacht.
    The entire face of the French army was saved by De Gaulle’s armored division, hitting the Germans three times .. The rest of the army’s actions consisted in randomly retreating, surrendering into divisions, and defeatism and chaos reigned in the headquarters ..
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 13 June 2020 21: 14
      +1
      "which brought her success in 1914" I would not say that the strategy of "defensive defense" helped the French in 1914: the Germans did not storm the Maginot Line head-on, but simply bypassed the French. It was only later that "trench warfare" helped the French. But even then it became possible when the Germans had no reserves left
      1. alone
        alone 13 June 2020 21: 45
        +2
        Svyatoslav, if I’m not mistaken, in 1914 the Germans could not get around Maginot, because the line was built in the 1934-35s .. The positional war of 1914 helped France so that the Germans did not have large strategic resources, and therefore their the blitzkrieg idea prevailed .. In essence, Germany lost the first and second only when it started the war because of the lack of war resources
        1. vladcub
          vladcub 14 June 2020 10: 38
          +1
          You are right: the "Maginot Line" was built in the 30s, but in 1914 and 1940 the Germans struck through Belgium.
          The idea of ​​blitzkrieg in them, which is called not from fat
    2. Lem111
      Lem111 30 December 2020 03: 27
      0
      The General Staff adhered to the tactics of defensive defense so much that for some reason they sent their troops to Belgium?)))
      1. alone
        alone 30 December 2020 17: 16
        0
        Quote: Lem111
        The General Staff adhered to the tactics of defensive defense so much that for some reason they sent their troops to Belgium?)))

        I sent it .. I don’t argue ... But even there they were engaged only in defensive actions .. Maybe I forgot, but do you remember any large-scale offensive of the French army against the troops of the 3rd Reich? I personally don't remember that.
        1. Lem111
          Lem111 30 December 2020 18: 33
          0
          Isaev wrote about attempts to counterattack in order to cut off the German grouping advancing in the sea.
          In general, all French troops in Belgium immediately found themselves in a difficult situation. It was not before the offensive.
  7. Astra wild
    Astra wild 13 June 2020 19: 03
    +4
    "France had everything to continue won" except the will and faith in the coming victory.
    1. Lem111
      Lem111 30 December 2020 03: 26
      0
      allegation.
    2. Lem111
      Lem111 30 December 2020 18: 37
      0
      a very unfounded statement.
  8. vladcub
    vladcub 13 June 2020 21: 01
    +2
    "the command was unable to organize and use aircraft in battles", unlike the French, the Wehrmacht has always had good troop control and skillful use of aviation.
    Only at the end of April 1945 did the OKW lose controllability of troops
  9. vladcub
    vladcub 14 June 2020 10: 41
    0
    Quote: Sea Cat
    Hello, Glory. hi
    Surely in the same stall, these cameras have not yet been invented. drinks

    Just a stall for donkeys
  10. Selevc
    Selevc 14 June 2020 22: 11
    +1
    Good photos for the article are rare ... And where is the glorious French aviation ??? Is the Germans also destroyed at the airfields ??? Surely the French had squadrons of the most modern aircraft ... That's what Blitzkrieg’s swiftness means - when Hitler attacked Paris and then it seems that the French were defending themselves with cardboard planes !!!
    However, French politicians and the military did not want total war and mobilization, confrontation not for life, but for death
    Sorry, but any malomalsky competent general staff should work out the actions of their armed forces in the event of a deep breakthrough of the enemy ... Precisely so that the breakthrough does not become a disaster !!! The fact that this is exactly what happened in France speaks of the complete mediocrity of the country's top military leadership ...
    1. Selevc
      Selevc 14 June 2020 22: 31
      +1
      There is one caveat in the French retreat - the territory north and northwest of Paris is crossed by several large and small rivers - the French just had to blow up bridges on them in time to greatly hamper the advance of the Germans !!! I think that there was a plan for undermining strategic bridges and a plan for the defense of crossings, including from the air ... For some reason, it did not work ...

      And I also think that, in general, the role of the French resistance and, in particular, the figure of De Gaulle was greatly inflated in the post-war period to conceal the cooperation of the defeated France with Nazi Germany ... There is a paradox of post-war statistics - when, after the war, the number of Frenchmen killed in World War II was calculated, it turned out that the French were more dead fighting for Hitler than against Hitler !!!
  11. pmkemcity
    pmkemcity 15 June 2020 12: 24
    0
    On the morning of June 14, the Nazis entered Paris. The huge city was almost empty, most of the population escaped. Millions of French flock to southern France

    Come on! In June, there is no season.
  12. Lem111
    Lem111 30 December 2020 03: 25
    0
    Where does the information come from: "even in the conditions of the catastrophe, I had more human and material resources"
    The population of France in the 39th year is about 40 million. The German Empire in PVM had approx. 62-64. The population of the Third Reich, including all the Anschluss will be approx. 80, plus occupied Poland, plus Italy.