Military Review

KamAZ-4310: the legendary army all-terrain vehicle hard worker

44

For most of our compatriots who served both in the Soviet Army and in the Armed Forces of Russia, the phrase “military truck” is likely to cause an association with the car of the Kama Automobile Plant, to which the epithet “legendary” is quite applicable. The machine, which was used in almost all military branches, not only traveled all over the USSR, but passed through the fiery roads of Afghanistan and other countries, where severe military necessity threw our soldiers into it, forever entered the Soviet and Russian military history.


The first batch of model 4310 cars left the assembly line built in record lines of a giant plant in 1981, and their mass production was launched 2 years later. No matter what they try to talk about the “extremely militarized” Soviet economy, the truck, originally designed and built for the needs of the army, was not the first in the line of the enterprise. At first, eight-ton heavy trucks, dump trucks and truck tractors in demand in the national economy went into the series. Then the turn came to the military. However, work on 4310 was carried out quite long and thoughtfully.

In 1969, when it was launched, the symbolic first bucket of land was removed at the construction of the Kama Automobile Plant. The authorship of the legendary car belongs to the developers of the Moscow Likhachev Automobile Plant (ZIL). As a matter of fact, they originally designed a model for their enterprise under the name ZIL-170, but it never reached mass production. But the ideas accumulated in the process were embodied in the KamAZ-4310. The state tested the new product in 1978, at the same time it was put into service - naturally, with the condition of eliminating the identified shortcomings.

What was the truck, which for many years was destined to become a faithful companion of our military? The KAMAZ-branded feature was a cabless cab: the engine was located under it. 4310 was a real all-terrain vehicle: six wheels and a permanent four-wheel drive, as well as a ground clearance of 365 mm gave him the opportunity to go where other cars were blocked. 4310 without problems took ups of 30% and forced water barriers to a depth of one and a half meters. In that case, if a car is caught in the convoy, it’s incapable of boasting such qualities, this truck had a powerful winch. The phrase “KAMAZ pull out” was quite commonplace in the Soviet Army (and not just one).

The carrying capacity of this machine was 5 tons (despite the fact that its own curb weight reached 8 tons and a half), but in addition, 4310 could easily transport a trailer of 10 tons on a relatively normal surface and up to 7 tons on a complete off-road. In an embodiment for transporting personnel, the car was equipped with an iron body with a wooden coating and folding benches, which could accommodate 30 troops. On top there was a tarpaulin awning with characteristic “bevels”. It should be noted that it was on the basis of this model that the domestic armored truck “Typhoon-1” was later created, which was used in “hot spots” mainly by soldiers of special forces and proved itself worthy there.

The heart of the 4310 was a four-stroke eight-cylinder diesel engine with a volume of 11 liters and a capacity of 210 horsepower, which allowed to develop a speed of up to 85 kilometers per hour on a good road. True, and at the same time he ate more than 30 liters of fuel per 100 kilometers. At the same time, it was still possible to go to KamAZ long and far - two fuel tanks with a capacity of 125 liters each provided considerable mileage. A special “feature” was the tire pressure adjustment system, thanks to which the driver, if necessary, could adjust his own wheels to the quality of the road or the complete lack thereof. Naturally, the steering wheel was equipped with a hydraulic booster - otherwise, unless Hercules could manage such a colossus.

The KamAZ-4310 cabin was almost the dream of an army driver (at least, at that time): a three-seater, with noise and heat insulation, equipped with a sunroof, and adjustable seats. For Soviet military equipment, whose creators of soldier's comfort never really "bother", the conditions are very good.

The development of technology, especially military, does not stand still. In 1990, the next, more modern modification, KamAZ-4310, took the place of 5350 in the army. Be that as it may, the first model of the military truck created at the Kama Automobile Plant was more than successful not only for its time, but for the next several decades.
Author:
Photos used:
Wikipedia / KamAZ-4310
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  1. dvina71
    dvina71 28 May 2020 18: 10 New
    11
    triple, with noise and heat insulation, equipped with a hatch, which had adjustable seats. For Soviet military equipment, whose creators of soldier's comfort never really "bother", the conditions are very good.

    All this was in the cabin ZIL-131 and Ural-375 ..
    1. Civil
      Civil 28 May 2020 21: 40 New
      0
      The best of what was available, and so time has shown that there is what.
    2. neri73-r
      neri73-r 28 May 2020 22: 02 New
      0
      Quote: dvina71
      All this was in the cabin ZIL-131 and Ural-375 ..

      Yes it is! But, I remember the sensations from the transition to KamAZ from them, all the same, the sensations are different, it seemed a more modern car. But unlike KamAZ 5320, 4310 it is a song on a dirt road and off-road.
      1. ccsr
        ccsr 29 May 2020 10: 56 New
        +3
        Quote: neri73-r
        But, I remember the sensations from the transition to KamAZ from them, all the same, the sensations are different, it seemed a more modern car.

        Yes, I remember how the chief of communications of the 3rd brigade of the Special Forces in the eighties immediately began to go to the exercises in the cockpit of the equipment room, which appeared on the basis of Kamaz, and was delighted with the comfort of movement, especially over long distances.
  2. lucul
    lucul 28 May 2020 18: 17 New
    0
    The authorship of the legendary car belongs to the developers of the Moscow Likhachev Automobile Plant (ZIL). As a matter of fact, they originally designed a model for their enterprise under the name ZIL-170, but it never reached mass production.

    But ZIL -170 could have lived, but someone really didn’t want to ....
    1. dvina71
      dvina71 28 May 2020 18: 20 New
      +7
      Quote: lucul
      But ZIL -170 could have lived, but someone didn’t want this ....

      It would be better if they gave the development of the engine to the Yaroslavl engine .., and so they dazzled diesel on gasoline patterns .. and they are surprised .. there is no traction, the consumption is too big ..
      1. lucul
        lucul 28 May 2020 18: 23 New
        -1
        It would be better if they gave the development of the engine to the Yaroslavl motor ..

        In any self-respecting country, there should be 2-3 centers of engine building, and not just one Yaroslavl plant, like ours.
        Although, I repeat - engine building, development (R&D for new lines of engines) in the USSR was taboo, money could be spent on anything, but not on new lines of engines.
        1. dvina71
          dvina71 28 May 2020 18: 27 New
          +7
          Quote: lucul
          there should be 2-3 centers of engine building

          This does not mean that people working on one profile should abruptly begin to produce a result on another. As a result, the USSR NX received a not-so-good engine for decades. The same YaMZ-236 was slightly inferior in power and exceeded the d-740 in terms of torque and elasticity. But ... it was developed in the early 60s.
        2. dvina71
          dvina71 28 May 2020 18: 50 New
          +3
          Quote: lucul
          engine building, development (R&D on the new line of motors) in the USSR was a taboo

          Come on? A 740th apparently developed a national donation?
          I’ll tell you more news ... no one in the world is developing a motor anywhere from scratch. They get a working sample, customize it to their own requirements, make changes depending on the existing metalworking technologies, and here ... your new engine. Then for several years you keep statistics on the answers of services and repair services, a number of changes are generated and the engine is upgraded if there are a lot of changes .. the engine is already running under a different index.
          In if to explain in brief .. why. all work processes in the engine can be described by formulas and calculated .. yes with simplifications ... but nevertheless .. everything except part of the expansion process. There is a gap. Thanks to which we have such a variety of internal combustion engines and the only way of development is the accumulation of statistics.
        3. The comment was deleted.
        4. barium
          barium 29 May 2020 15: 29 New
          -1
          money spent on feeding the Communist Parties of the whole world!
      2. CA CA
        CA CA 28 May 2020 19: 08 New
        +3
        So it was the Yaroslavl engine. And the machine itself was designed by OGK ZiL.
        1. dvina71
          dvina71 28 May 2020 20: 43 New
          0
          Without going into details .. YaMZ-740 and D-740 are not the same .. so this transformation happened in playful gasoline handles ..
    2. Hagen
      Hagen 29 May 2020 12: 06 New
      0
      Quote: lucul
      But ZIL -170 could have lived, but someone really didn’t want to ....

      With the level of salaries that prevailed in Moscow, he would have died like ZIL. So it’s good that he (KAMAZ) is in Tatarstan. It could have been in Tambov or Ryazan, but not in the white stone.
  3. ccsr
    ccsr 28 May 2020 18: 36 New
    19
    Author:
    Alexander Kharaluzhny
    For most of our compatriots who served both in the Soviet Army and in the Armed Forces of Russia, the phrase “military truck” is likely to cause an association with the car of the Kama Automobile Plant,

    I think that in this case you are wrong, because the "military truck" in the SA was still ZIL-131, because Kamaz began to arrive only in the eighties, and even then they could not replace, for example, the Urals or Gaz-66 ... But in the Russian army Kamaz really pressed ZiL, and naturally it became a "military truck" for those who did not serve in the SA.
    1. Katanikotael
      Katanikotael 28 May 2020 21: 18 New
      +3
      I do not know what you mean by "military", but Kamaz joined the army almost from the first days of the plant's operation, for this it was built - to replace the entire fleet of logistics support. Look at the pictures from Afghanistan - quite often there are "civilian" Kamaz trucks. The military version was therefore ordered because there were a lot of them in the army and at least some kind of unification was very much welcomed.
      1. ccsr
        ccsr 29 May 2020 10: 52 New
        +3
        Quote: Katanikotael
        Look at the pictures from Afghanistan - quite often there are "civilian" Kamaz trucks.

        So the fact of the matter is that they were civilian cars, not military cars, and these are two big differences.
        Quote: Katanikotael
        Therefore, they ordered the military version because there were a lot of them in the army and at least some kind of unification was very welcome.

        Firstly, it is not so simple if only because military orders have a quantity limit, and secondly, the change occurred because the ZIL-131 is morally outdated, and the plant itself stopped releasing them in the nineties.
        As for Kamaz, firstly the car was much more expensive, secondly it had a sophisticated engine for repair in units, and thirdly, diesel fuel is unacceptable for too low temperatures. That's why the mass transition to this car began in the nineties, although I do not deny that the new hardware arrived at the Kamaz base in the second half of the eighties - I myself participated in the adoption of one of such hardware.
        But the question is not even that, but that during the Soviet Army, the ZIL-131 was the most massive car, and this will be confirmed by those who were involved in mobile vehicles during the service.
        1. Katanikotael
          Katanikotael 29 May 2020 18: 33 New
          0
          So the fact of the matter is that they were civilian cars, not military cars, and these are two big differences.

          But what exactly is the difference if they drove under the bullets and put snacks on these very Kamaz trucks and not only on the supposedly prevailing 131?
          1. ccsr
            ccsr 30 May 2020 10: 32 New
            +1
            Quote: Katanikotael
            And what exactly is the difference

            In the chassis, first of all, and in some other design changes. Moreover, the climatic range of application of military equipment is wider. And the intercom must be placed, as well as the power take-off generator for powering the on-board network and equipment, a winch, etc.
            Quote: Katanikotael
            and zushki put on these same KAMAZ and not only on the supposedly prevailing 131?

            Firstly, the 40 Army is not all the armed forces, and secondly, Kamaz’s carrying capacity and body dimensions are greater than those of the ZIL-131, which is why it was more convenient to place the memory there.
  4. Free wind
    Free wind 28 May 2020 18: 45 New
    +6
    for those years was a good car. The cabin was quite comfortable. for our drivers, after Krazov and Zil, it’s a song. the engine here is not very reliable after a couple of years of laying under the heads you need to change, contagious. And it’s very poisonous, the carcass exhaust is light. In the pits, while the pressure is over, the cockroaches are dead. They say even lice in one place exhaust poisoned. but it’s certainly fairy tales.
    1. dvina71
      dvina71 28 May 2020 19: 08 New
      +2
      Quote: Free Wind
      . They say even lice in one place exhaust poisoned

      Not ... not fairy tales .. when I was serving in Cuba, cables came to our park to fumigate a bread truck, over time it was occupied by cuckaras ... cockroaches about 3-5 cm in size, so they were poisoned by an apparatus that stupidly caught up in a volume of paired solarium. Kukarachi immediately emigrated to the garbage truck ..
  5. dgonni
    dgonni 28 May 2020 19: 06 New
    10
    Let's just say the military truck association is firmly fixed to 131 zil. For the USSR army, KAMAZ was new and not the most common. At least in the mid-80s so for sure. Softer than the Urals. Also, the consumption of diesel fuel is less in comparison with the same Urals with a diesel engine. Faster in comparison with it and softer on the move. Allowed to maintain high speed without severe fatigue of the driver.
    With regards to patency, it was inferior to the same Urals and 131 zil. For shishigu, I'm just silent.
    For an army truck, a hoodless camouflage is something like that. Not much comme il faut if you look from the driver's side. The platform can be loaded more more. But there is such a thing as a mine. And she undermined under the front wheel did not leave a chance to the driver. In contrast to the bonnet of zils and urals. For kraz even uncomfortable to remember. As the drivers said 2 meters of life, in contrast to the meter in the Urals and Zil.
    P.S. which of the designers shoved such small tanks into him, I don’t know, but I would set the pens on him.
    1. really
      really 28 May 2020 19: 52 New
      +2
      When viewed from the point of view of the economic and transport and transport battlefields, you are right. Different requirements.
    2. SashOK
      SashOK 28 May 2020 22: 24 New
      -2
      well, colleague, about patency you waved
      66 and 131 did not stand nearby)
      1. dgonni
        dgonni 28 May 2020 22: 54 New
        +2
        Didn't wave. Heavy diesel on marshy sandy and peaty soils is not comme il faut. Dives at times. By the way, the same ural with a diesel engine has the same problem.
        Shishigiga patency as for me the leader in second place I would put the 157th and gasoline urals. The 157th in some cases wins due to a slow-revving engine and tires which, when the pressure is reduced, perfectly distribute the load and do not burrow into the ground. In some cases, the .131st Ural is better in third place, although not a big lag in fact.
        Well, from experience, as it were, to put it right. Kamaz as if gentle in terms of cross. It seems that everything is with him, but he doesn’t go where the above drives. Or it requires reducing tire pressure where others do not need to.
        Although I do not argue that on the ruts it is more comfortable for the driver
        1. SashOK
          SashOK 29 May 2020 23: 47 New
          0
          despite the minuses, it’s not clear why, let me disagree with your rating.
          66 categorically lacks a motor, the geometry of 157 is worse than that of 131 and the slow-speed engine is not a panacea, and the KAMAZ rushing is not much worse than diesel urals, which, in turn, will give odds to gasoline
  6. faterdom
    faterdom 28 May 2020 21: 50 New
    +2
    Of course, a comfortable cabin, after the Urals, or ZiL. Only tender, bend her trifling matter somewhere in the forest, or an accident (in the army a very common event for each car), but the price of the cabin is 2700 Soviet rubles! Well, who at that time lived in a conscious age - they will understand how much it is. Well, the engine is repairable at the level of a unit (regiment or separate battalion) - to put it mildly, at the level of changing filters or fuel injection pumps as a whole, for something more complicated you need a specialized service.
  7. BAI
    BAI 28 May 2020 22: 10 New
    0
    Good car. In early May 1989, they drove it through the flooded meadows of Sozh (a river in Belarus). The picture is super. Spray above the cabin, the village boys came running to see. But there is an ambush in the pits - it scoops out the ground from under itself with wheels and hangs in the air, leaning on the bumper and stern. We have to take out a crane.
    1. dgonni
      dgonni 28 May 2020 22: 57 New
      0
      Ooh, I also served in Belarus then
  8. KSVK
    KSVK 28 May 2020 23: 16 New
    0
    Quote: dvina71

    All this was in the cabin ZIL-131 and Ural-375 ..

    In the above vehicles there was no spring suspension for the driver's seat. Awesome Vesch!
    But the average passenger in KamAZ during sharp braking or poking into an obstacle clearly caught his forehead on the handle on the middle pillar between the windshields. laughing
    1. dgonni
      dgonni 29 May 2020 22: 57 New
      +1
      And they do not really need a spring suspension of the seat. They drove not sitting on the wheel. In KAMAZ, given its mobility, when moving on all sorts of primers or gravel roads with pits at high speeds near the carrier, the spine will spill out into underpants without such a suspension for the seat.
      By the way, the shishiga also lost speed when driving on such roads and precisely because of the sharply increasing vertical loads on the carrier. And kaiaz is more dynamic than shishigi and allows you to maintain high speeds.
      What Kamaz was good at is moving in a column. When this worm is formed from a heterogeneous technique. Here are the Kamaz at the end to put the most. Never be left behind. For the glove in the form of kraz drags under 50, and sometimes it is necessary to press the closing ones under the weave so as not to lag behind.
  9. KSVK
    KSVK 28 May 2020 23: 38 New
    0
    Quote: Free Wind
    the engine is not very reliable

    The 740th engine was certainly not ideal. Everlasting due to separate heads for each cylinder. Yaroslavl engines in this regard were more condo. However, comparing 740 with 236 is completely incorrect. There are 8 cylinders and there are 6. Then from the 238th. But the 238th 740th loses outright. IMHO.
    But at KAMAZ boxes were good. What is ordinary, what is with dividers. Compared to MAZs both in terms of reliability and the convenience of the switching algorithm. There were craftsmen who put KamAZ boxes on MAZs. They could be immediately distinguished by the cunning traction of the gearshift lever.
    But in general, of course, reseeding from 131st to 43101 (long), it felt as if it had moved from a Lada to a gelding. smile
  10. tolancop
    tolancop 29 May 2020 00: 50 New
    +8
    The material is garbage ... The author is an obvious graffoman not in the subject.
    "... A special feature was the tire pressure adjustment system, thanks to which the driver, if necessary, could adjust his own wheels to the quality of the road or its complete absence .."
    This "special feature" was already on the ZIL-157. And its purpose is to increase off-road patency by increasing the contact area of ​​the tire with the surface. There can be no question of any adjustment to the quality of the road.
    1. dgonni
      dgonni 29 May 2020 11: 15 New
      +2
      Why doesn’t it adjust. On a knocked-out graveyard, the tire pressure drops and the car goes softly and the soldiers in the back or kung do not sausage. On the pavement, half-thrown up the pressure and rolls easier and less fuel consumption.
      The only question is that in 90% of the drivers the swap did not work and the cranes on the wheels were closed.
  11. Kunica
    Kunica 29 May 2020 02: 03 New
    0
    He studied on it to drive in DOSAF. The first car always remains in the shower, no matter how much you change them. I would love to ride now. In his youth, he seemed almost a tank). And this is his rumbling under a load of 1,5-2 thousand revolutions of RA-RA-RA-RA ... Whoever heard, he will understand hi
  12. About 2
    About 2 29 May 2020 02: 28 New
    0
    At our 25th military car plant, this car was called "swamp".
    1. Bad_gr
      Bad_gr 29 May 2020 10: 00 New
      +3
      Actually, this car was called "swamp".

  13. Efgen
    Efgen 29 May 2020 04: 05 New
    +3
    In the article "A workhorse named GAZ-66" it was noted that "The car's cabin was located directly above the front wheelset, which reduced the probability of crew survival to a minimum if the car ran into a mine. It is for this reason that the GAZ-66 and had to be withdrawn from Afghanistan, although individual units of this automotive equipment continued to serve there until the withdrawal of Soviet troops. "
    As I understand it, in this KAMAZ is no better than the 66th.
  14. Hog
    Hog 29 May 2020 13: 20 New
    +3
    "Legendary" and unexpectedly Kamaz, I would understand if they said KrAZ, Ural, ZIL or Shishiga, but well, there is nothing legendary in it from the word at all.
  15. Silver Fox
    Silver Fox 29 May 2020 13: 57 New
    0
    I took the license on 4310. driving also took place on this KamAZ
  16. tolancop
    tolancop 29 May 2020 14: 26 New
    +1
    Quote: dgonni
    Why doesn’t it adjust. On a knocked-out graveyard, the tire pressure drops and the car goes softly and the soldiers in the back or kung do not sausage. On the pavement, half-thrown up the pressure and rolls easier and less fuel consumption.
    The only question is that in 90% of the drivers the swap did not work and the cranes on the wheels were closed.

    The adjustment described by you may take place, only, as far as I remember, it was not a normal mode, due to increased wear of rubber with reduced pressure. In my unit from the head of the car service for this and could be raked. True, we are not transporters, and some were in the city, we even got out relatively often on primers. T.ch. there was no need for pressure reduction. And ALL wheeled cranes were closed, although the swap systems were working - they checked from time to time. That was a long time ago...
  17. Alexey Z
    Alexey Z 29 May 2020 20: 16 New
    +1
    Happy holiday to all! Happy Military Motorist Day! Good luck And if on the topic of the article, then for me personally the legendary is the Urals. CHVVAIU.
  18. Vlad Malkin
    Vlad Malkin 29 May 2020 21: 08 New
    +1
    When I served Kamaz was not there! Urals, Krazy and 66 basically!
  19. trahterist
    trahterist 15 June 2020 21: 56 New
    0
    Concerning the "weak KAMAZ engine".
    And you look at the g / p 'according to the passport' of the same basic onboard 5320 and 5410 tractors, there the maximum maximum load / semi-trailer is only 20 tons, in fact in the region of 14-15 tons, this is the class of the same MB Atego.
    For a similar weight of 210 horses, and even at that time, just right.
    You are in your right mind on the Gazelle or some sort of Iveco Daily will not pull trailers of 5-7 tons, right ??
    I remember well the wildly smoking saddlers in the 90s, that the Lithuanians began to fuck in the tail and in the mane (My house was right next to the highway, Riga-Moscow, and I watched such mockery of the 'Tatars' on a regular basis), clinging to 40-katon (!! ) trucks, and with the innocent surprise of those who do not understand-A CHO DOES NOT PULL ???
    For a 40t truck, the "living wage" for a confident movement is 360-420hp. from a tractor, which was brilliantly confirmed by SuperMAZs, as well as an influx of foreign tractors of this particular power range.
  20. Virus-free crown
    Virus-free crown 24 August 2020 18: 49 New
    0
    Quote: ccsr
    Author:
    Alexander Kharaluzhny
    For most of our compatriots who served both in the Soviet Army and in the Armed Forces of Russia, the phrase “military truck” is likely to cause an association with the car of the Kama Automobile Plant,

    I think that in this case you are wrong, because the "military truck" in the SA was still ZIL-131, because Kamaz began to arrive only in the eighties, and even then they could not replace, for example, the Urals or Gaz-66 ... But in the Russian army Kamaz really pressed ZiL, and naturally it became a "military truck" for those who did not serve in the SA.

    Here I disagree with you hi
    Ivanovo special military district for the posting of "points" for launching ICBMs - for 10 conventional vehicles in the late 1980s there were 6 KamAZs for sure yes