Spite of Oshkosh. "Kalam-1": the last army truck ZIL


ZIL-4334A1, developed as part of the Kalam-1. Source: 5koleso.ru


ZIL-131: farewell to retirement


Back in 1977, the first attempts were made at ZIL to replace the 131st truck. The military demanded to equip the new product with a ZIL-645 diesel engine, raise the load capacity to 4 tons, and also replace the cabin with the ability to withstand arms mass destruction design. In addition, the army planned to locally armor the cabin of a new truck in the future, so there was no question of any panoramic curved glass. The first prototypes created in 1977 in the onboard version were called ZIL-132 (in some sources - ZIL-136). The main thing here is not to confuse this car with a three-axle floating all-terrain vehicle ZIL-132 of the special design bureau ZIL.

The cab of the new car was angular in shape - it was she who became the prototype for the cars of the next generation. Index 4334 for an on-board vehicle itself appeared in 1981, however, for some reason, the cabin of an experienced truck was returned from ZIL-131. This hybrid received a reinforced frame, finally a diesel V-shaped eight-cylinder 185-horsepower engine, an automatic fan clutch, an automatic pre-heater, an amplifier in the clutch drive, a winch with a wave gear and new radial tires. This car also remained in the category of experimental.


ZIL-132. 1977 year. The first attempt to replace the ZIL-131. Source: en.wheelsage.org

After 8 years, in 1989, the third version of the cab appears on a machine with a long name ZIL-433410. In this version, the cabin was partially unified with the civilian from ZIL-4331, which has been produced in small series since 1986. The new truck could take on board 3,75 tons of payload and was equipped with a multi-fuel diesel 170-horsepower engine. The windshield was now divided into two flat parts, which allowed including mounting bulletproof glass.

In 1994, the front lining was finally unified with civilian trucks and once again the updated truck is called ZIL-433420. In a tank repair version, these machines went into export together with the ordered Indian aircraft. tanks T-90 Also, for foreign buyers, Muscovites have developed another hybrid - ZIL-131D with a 145-horsepower 145T Fayzer diesel engine from Perkins. ZIL-433420 was the best embodiment of the concept of the 131st car, coupled with a diesel engine, which provided the truck with a range of 1300 kilometers.




So could the successors of the ZIL-131. Source: gruzovikpress.ru


Army ZIL-4343. Differences from the previous ZML-131 only in the cabin and engine. Source: en.wheelsage.org


ZIL-433420. Source: gruzovikpress.ru


ZIL-433420. Source: militaryarms.ru





Spite of Oshkosh. "Kalam-1": the last army truck ZIL
ZIL-433420 in the open area No. 1 of the museum of the Ryazan Military Automobile Institute (RVAI). Source: denisovets.ru






Another representative of the many-sided Zilovsky family is ZIL-433410 with a modified tail unit. Pay attention to the windshield - it was this design that was later introduced on Kalam-1 machines. Open area No. 1 of the museum of the Ryazan Military Automobile Institute (RVAI). Source: denisovets.ru


Describing Army history ZIL of the 90s, one can not help but mention another car assembled from units of different models. This is a biaxial ZIL-432730 with a carrying capacity of 2,3-2,4 tons, which was put into small-scale production in 1996. The car was assembled from transmission units and wheels ZIL-131, Minsk diesel (again with a long name) D-245.9 MMZ E2, cabs from 4334 and plumage from the “Bychka”. In the early 2000s, when the army began to feel a shortage of airborne vehicles for the airborne forces, the Moscow Automobile Plant decided to push its hybrid into the framework of the state defense order. But the requirements for airborne descent vehicles are somewhat stricter than for conventional army trucks, they had to go through coping tests. What are they? The truck is attached to a special platform, lifted by 1 meter or more, and then dumped onto concrete. This simulates the hard landing of a parachute system. After such a strong fall, the truck for the Airborne Forces must also make a control run. Naturally, the Zilovites had to strengthen the frame and suspension of the army “Goby”, as well as save money for a test dump.




ZIL-43273N, the failed replacement of the GAZ-66. Source: en.wheelsage.org

The whole procedure was carried out by the capital Federal State Unitary Enterprise "Universal" - the Moscow Design and Production Complex. It cost about 8 million rubles. No money was found at the factory workers; coping tests did not take place, which put an end to the future ZIL for the airborne forces. By the way, money appeared in Naberezhnye Chelny for test copying of KamAZ-43501, and then the corresponding contract of the Ministry of Defense appeared. After a fight, the engineers at the Moscow Automobile Plant waved their fists for a long time, assuring that their “Goby” was better than KamAZ in terms of weight and size to replace the GAZ-66. The Nizhny Tagil machine was noticeably larger than the ZIL and the more so the retired Shishigi. The consequence of this was the high windage of the truck, which had to be taken into account when dropping from an airplane. Perhaps this failure was the penultimate attempt of the plant to seize on the rescue defense order. ZIL, which in the best Soviet times provided up to 40% of the army’s needs for wheeled vehicles, step by step moved away from the Russian arms market. The latest attempt to gain a foothold was the Kalam-1 development work, which became a breakthrough in many ways.

Russian Oshkosh


According to one version, voiced in the publication “Equipment and Armament: Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow”, the idea of ​​launching the Kalam-1 OCD came to the Main Armored Directorate under the impression of the American Oshkosh MTVR trucks. These machines came to the place of the M939, which was in many respects an analogue (although heavier) of the domestic ZIL-131 and Ural-4320. And in May 2001, the MTVR (Medium Tactical Vehicle Replacement) “medium tactical replacement vehicle” for the Marine Corps and the Navy appeared in the United States.


Oshkosh MTVR. The machine, the concept of which was oriented by the engineers of the Kalam-1. Naturally, they did not pay attention to the weight and size parameters. Source: en.wikipedia.org

For the United States Army, this car was very modern: a 6-cylinder 11,9-liter Caterpillar C-12 diesel engine (425 hp), an Allison 7-speed automatic transmission with electronic control, and an independent TAK-4 spring-loaded wishbone each wheel travels from 325 to 406 mm, an electronic system for changing tire pressure, automatic adjustment of traction on wheels, ABS, as well as a welded aluminum cabin. At the moment, Oshkosh has delivered more than 10 thousand trucks to the troops, including MTVR Armor Systems equipped with local armoring. The truck range includes both relatively light 4x4 vehicles and huge 8x8 vehicles with a payload of 16,5 tons. Oshkosh MTVR managed to fight in Iraq, where it proved itself very well (obviously, for this reason, it attracted the attention of the Russian military). It is interesting that the GABTU did not plan to create a truck of a similar size - the lightest version of the MK23 pulled 13-plus tons of curb weight. It was rather a job for the Kremenchug Automobile Plant than for the ZIL. Therefore, in the technical requirements for the promising ZIL of the Kalam-1 project, both the carrying capacity and dimensions were seriously reduced relative to the American counterpart.

In 2004, AMO-ZIL developed two cars with long indexes (once again) 4327A1 and 4334A1. The first truck was biaxial and with a carrying capacity of 2,5 tons, and the second with three axles and a payload of 4 tons. Externally, Kalam-1 cars did not practically differ from army trucks of the previous series, unless separate windshields gave a specific purpose in ZIL. However, according to the technical content of the Kalama, they seriously departed from their distant ancestor ZIL-131. The main motto of the developers was: “Modularity and unification!” This can be seen even with the example of motors. On a biaxial ZIL-4327A1, a 4-cylinder YaMZ-534 turbodiesel was installed with a capacity of 173 liters. sec., and for the six-wheeled “Kalam”, two more cylinders of 1,1 liters were added each and a 230-strong YaMZ-536 was already obtained. These engines were developed in Yaroslavl from scratch with the support of the foreign engineering office AVL List, equipped with Bosch Common Rail fuel injection system, charge air cooler (intercooler) and electronics to prevent excessive engine speeds. For the beginning of the XXI century, these engines were quite modern, not only for army operation, but also for the civilian market.




ZIL-4334A1 "Kalam-1". Pay attention to the nodes of the front independent suspension. Source: en.wheelsage.org

Of course, the Kalam-1 family of cars could not dream of any automatic gearbox - in Russia they could not make such units for such equipment. As, however, do not know how to do now. Muscovites installed a mechanical 4327-speed SAAZ-1A5 gearbox on ZIL-136A2, while the senior comrade received a self-developed gearbox ZIL-4334K2 with 6 steps. At the same time, both potential units could “digest” a greater torque than the Yaroslavl engines gave out. This was a backlog for further truck upgrades.

An important difference from the ancient design of ZIL-131 was a permanent all-wheel drive, it was decided to abandon the capricious system of connecting the front axle. The general transmission scheme remained the same with one pass-through bridge in the 6x6 version, but additionally rear axle and interwheel differentials appeared. The track was increased from 1820 mm (ZIL-4334 and predecessors) to 2030 mm, which allowed the track to go on the track off-road with heavier Ural and KamAZ vehicles.


ZIL-4334A1 "Kalam-1". Source: gruzovikpress.ru

One of the main advantages of "Kalam" was a completely independent suspension of all wheels. This, firstly, seriously improved ride and patency, and, secondly, made it possible to implement the principle of modularity. Now it was relatively painless to “drive” another driving axle to the truck. On machines of the ZIL-131 family, we recall that there was a balanced spring suspension at the rear. It should be noted that ZIL engineers approached the suspension design non-trivially, having installed a composite torsion as an elastic element. It was a rod in a pipe made of high alloy steel. It turned out relatively compact, reliable and durable. By the way, externally, Kalam-1 trucks with an empty body can be distinguished in the photographs by the small “club foot” of the rear wheels, caused by the design features of the independent suspension. The result was an excellent running gear, albeit somewhat overweight: the utilization rate of the mass of the truck decreased. Now, the more lifting KamAZs and the Urals were defeating Moscow Kalamas in this respect. For example, KamAZ-43114 with a curb weight of 9030 kg could take on board 6,09 tons, and ZIL-4334A1 - only 4 tons with a curb weight of 8,53 tons. However, due to a more advanced power unit, the specific fuel consumption was not so significant.

As you can already understand, “Kalam-1” never appeared in the Russian Army in any of the options. After completing the entire cycle of tests of the State Academic Technical University, the military department did not issue an order for this truck, which is largely unique to the domestic industry. Following the latest ZIL army truck, the main production of the Moscow Automobile Plant also died.
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  1. Obi-Wan Kenobi 19 May 2020 06: 19 New
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    Why Kalam?
    Kalam, translated from Uzbek (Turkic) - a pencil.
    1. Free wind 19 May 2020 08: 55 New
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      It was originally called “kalym.” (I will give a kalym to you, I’ll sell my soul to the devil.) But the letter нел is not easy to cut out, then we replaced Ы with A. Well, the crew that made the Ы can be shortened. It became "Kalam" laughing
    2. lucul 19 May 2020 08: 59 New
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      Why Kalam?
      Kalam, translated from Uzbek (Turkic) - a pencil.

      Yes, someone in Moscow, the land occupied by the plant liked, under the hotels there or restaurants. So it was decided to bankrupt ZIL.
      I do not see other reasons at point blank .....
      1. Katanikotael 19 May 2020 18: 12 New
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        It’s just that the KAMAZ with its pace of release squeezed the entire niche both in the civilian and in the army, the Urals were lucky to catch on and survive when the KAMAZ engine factory burned down, otherwise it would be crowded out.
      2. not main 20 May 2020 01: 06 New
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        Quote: lucul
        Why Kalam?
        Kalam, translated from Uzbek (Turkic) - a pencil.

        Yes, someone in Moscow, the land occupied by the plant liked, under the hotels there or restaurants. So it was decided to bankrupt ZIL.
        I do not see other reasons at point blank .....

        That’s not in the eyebrow, but in the eye says !!!
      3. ccsr 20 May 2020 11: 34 New
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        Quote: lucul
        Why Kalam?
        Kalam, translated from Uzbek (Turkic) - a pencil.

        Yes, someone in Moscow, the land occupied by the plant liked, under the hotels there or restaurants. So it was decided to bankrupt ZIL.
        I do not see other reasons at point blank .....

        Do you think that the Moscow office plankton will run to work for ZIL, if it is restored? Do not tell me - again you have to recruit limiters all over the country, but most likely migrant workers from Central Asia will be imported. So one of the main reasons why such mass production closed in the capital is the lack of skilled labor for such enterprises. Well, the aging of the Moscow population is also the reason why such industries will no longer develop in the capital, where the main contingent is still people of a younger age.
        1. bk316 20 May 2020 20: 52 New
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          that one of the main reasons why such mass production closed in the capital is the lack of skilled labor for such enterprises.

          Not only this, but also logistics. Such production in the city center creates a lot of logistical problems.
          Well, the "little things" such as pollution, the cost of land ....
          Therefore, ZIL had to be taken out of the MKAD in any way.
          It is not by chance that AZLK was built almost outside the city.

          Well, then KAMAZ turned around and didn’t make it, It seems that there were even plans to withdraw to Serpukhov ....
          Oh, my friend worked as a tester on ZiL ...
          1. ccsr 21 May 2020 12: 19 New
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            Quote: bk316
            Not only this, but also logistics. Such production in the city center creates a lot of logistical problems.

            It’s absolutely true - the capital was already choking under the Providence, although the metro worked perfectly.
            Quote: bk316
            Therefore, ZIL had to be taken out of the MKAD in any way.

            Of course - just as they did during the construction of the Ford assembly plant in Vsevolozhsk later after the collapse of the USSR.

            Quote: bk316
            It seems that there were even plans to withdraw to Serpukhov ....

            There, Oka was released at one time - I remember that. So in the far Moscow suburbs it was possible to organize the production of ZIL, although I think that, if desired, another area could be chosen.
            In general, the closure of ZIL in Moscow was not connected with the collapse of the USSR, but because such production in the capitals did not open because of many problems, and its fate was already a foregone conclusion.
      4. Pavel57 20 May 2020 17: 17 New
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        But was the USSR an excess of automobile factories?
        1. LastPS 22 May 2020 21: 02 New
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          Did not have. They, as a rule, were profiled for something specific, and there should be competition, even with a planned economy, otherwise everything will slide into a monopoly with sad consequences for the end consumer.
    3. iouris 19 May 2020 10: 53 New
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      Quote: “Kalam (Arabic - word, speech) - in medieval Muslim literature: any reasoning on a religious-philosophical theme, and also, in a special sense, a speculative discipline that gives the dogmas of Islam an interpretation based on reason, and not on following religious "Kalam is also called rationalistic theology and one of the main directions of Arab-Muslim philosophy, noting that it is unacceptable to consider Kalam Muslim Muslim orthodoxy." The end of the quote.
      Why "spite" ???
  2. Free wind 19 May 2020 06: 45 New
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    Some of the things described in the article are just enraging. These are the coping tests, 8 million rubles, this is lam greenery, for what?!?! What you need for testing. A cubic meter board, a tape measure, ropes 200 meters, and an ax. Or a butcher’s knife, everything, you understand everything, nothing else is needed. They put together a platform, secured it as a parachute system, and drove a car. Raised a meter, measured with a tape measure, and carefully. and cut the rope with a knife. We looked at the frame, the whole springs, no, that's all, all the tests. Everything else is from the evil one. What did you measure there, oh our cameras are expensive, we did measurements, but I don’t care what you did there .. Yes, and now these kind of approvals ....... ZiLok Bull-calf, cool little car was gone. About Oshkosh, the data is certainly impressive, the engine is powerful, the automatic transmission is seven-speed, great. I don’t know everything else somewhere and not for me .. The suspension is independent, well, the front axle is yes, and the rear axles seem to be superfluous. ABC is now the norm, for those wow years. Traction adjustment on wheels, well viscous couplings, yes, well, their ass. Wheel pressure, nothing complicated. The cabin seems not aluminum. conventional design. The fact that Oshkosh was originally created with the possibility of booking is a fact. We only recently came to this, after 30 years, we quickly understood the situation. Now About our ZiL, Appearance, this is good. You won’t hang the armor, it’s bad. Integral hood, it’s good, (completely lining leans back) access to the engine is good. Separate glazing, more practical than panorama, many would appreciate. Independent suspension, front, yes, no rear suspension, definitely. Sit in a passenger car a foreign car, you can, by the behavior of the car to understand what kind of suspension it is. Lighting technology, infuriates the location of the headlights in the bumper, it’s an all-terrain vehicle, hooked on dirt, squeezed out optics, hooked the stump, led the bumper, you can’t adjust the headlights already, the headlights should be on the wings, well, or there and there. You can’t put it yourself, a design change, a dozen fine. It's a pity of course, a good car could work for the countryside.
    1. serezhasoldatow 19 May 2020 12: 58 New
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      Koprov tests are carried out only at certified enterprises and certified equipment. It really is worth ... a lot of money.
      1. Free wind 19 May 2020 13: 30 New
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        So, and what equipment should be certified, specifically for these tests? Landing platform? It, by definition, must be of a standard form, standing in service, the suspension system, too, a disconnecting system, I do not know how to correctly, there must also be a standard pattern. What remains to certify? Concrete floor? Truck crane? Roulette.? Let's take the airfield concrete slab, it is certified in terms of strength, yes. By strength, everyone is happy, yes. The truck crane is again certified, yes, state technical supervision is passed, yes. What is left? Roulette .... Oh my God, how expensive it is to certify .............. Suddenly it is not accurate at 0.1 microns, it is necessary to check three-meter roulette 100 thousand bucks. Money is tearing it all. am
        1. serezhasoldatow 22 May 2020 12: 57 New
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          For the defense industry, the test is an important stage in the promotion of their products. As for platforms, there are no universal ones. For almost every product that drops, its own is created. Swam, we know. It all depends on the requirements of the customer, and the Airborne ...
      2. Grits 19 May 2020 17: 08 New
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        Quote: serezhasoldatow
        Koprov tests are carried out only at certified enterprises and certified equipment. Worth it really ... big bucks

        Any atobaza can carry out such tests for a price ten times cheaper.
    2. Mordvin 3 19 May 2020 19: 51 New
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      Quote: Free Wind
      Separate glazing

      Where is it? recourse One came, Vovan, put the whole glass in, out, half of it fell apart for no reason. This is on the 130th - 131st, and on 4331 there were no halves.
      1. Free wind 19 May 2020 19: 57 New
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        In the bottom photo, the car "Kalam" is clearly visible. Where the half crumbled, the whole thing will crumble into a crumb. Red-hot glass, according to collective farm stale, is the curse of Russian drivers.
        1. Mordvin 3 19 May 2020 20: 02 New
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          Quote: Free Wind
          In the bottom photo, the car "Kalam" is clearly visible.

          I have never come across such people.
          Quote: Free Wind
          Red-hot glass, according to collective farm stale, is the curse of Russian drivers.

          But for us, locksmiths, for the good. Not that triplex which you are afraid to break at an insert.
          1. Free wind 19 May 2020 20: 53 New
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            And what is wrong with the triplex, Only if it is normal, otherwise I saw the top three. . On KAMAZ a half together, with a lace well, an hour, we have no experience. If only the cabin was not behaved. And Stalin, oh well him. Sometimes it’s not clear why it explodes.
            1. Mordvin 3 19 May 2020 20: 56 New
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              Quote: Free Wind
              And what is wrong with triplex

              Paste it harder. The red-hot knocked fist, it fell into place. And the triplex breaks easily, you can not knock on it.
              1. Free wind 19 May 2020 21: 12 New
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                Normal triplex five is acceptable, very strong, of course it is more expensive. The triple is of course Tryndets. Well, you need to insert with a cord. So before, both joiners and glaziers were hackneyed, they didn’t want, they didn’t know how, they refused to cut out curves on the glasses. Many trucks, and very often near tractors, had cabins glazed with wooden frames.
                1. Mordvin 3 19 May 2020 21: 15 New
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                  Quote: Free Wind
                  Well, you need to insert with a cord.

                  Fuck you on the 130th with a string. Only screwdriver and gadget, insert lock.
                  1. Free wind 19 May 2020 21: 22 New
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                    The cabin at 130 is certainly something, it’s a contagion from the factory curve. I don’t argue that it is very difficult to insert glass, how many curses and wishes there were for the plant to burn out. And the wedge used to be thrown out, the four electrodes, with coating, are quite suitable. Well, the clamps are natural.
                    1. Mordvin 3 19 May 2020 21: 24 New
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                      Quote: Free Wind
                      The cabin at 130 is certainly something, it’s a contagion from the factory curve. I don’t argue that it’s very difficult to insert glass,

                      Pretty easy. laughing Not one hundred inserted. Just a matter of habit. hi
  3. Mordvin 3 19 May 2020 06: 53 New
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    On machines of the ZIL-131 family, we recall that there was a balanced spring suspension at the rear.
    I do not understand what was there?
    1. Evgeny Fedorov 19 May 2020 07: 06 New
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      Dependent, spring, balancer suspension.
      1. Mordvin 3 19 May 2020 07: 13 New
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        [quote = Evgeny Fedorov] balancer suspension. [/ quote]
        And, it was necessary to tighten up this draft constantly. The key is 32, sort of?
  4. I agree with the author - the last "kalama" remotely visually resemble an "error", but the first ones and the picture - obviously the "magirus" did not let the designers sleep!))) laughing
    1. Free wind 19 May 2020 08: 13 New
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      Oshkosh there and did not stand. But many of us looked at Mgiri, and not without reason, the car is cool. But saddlery with KRAZ echoes in appearance. This should be the lighting technology on all-terrain vehicles. I’m wondering why there are anti-roll-on wheels on all-terrain vehicles, especially on army ones. Well, mainly used as an additional system of material in the cottages. The use of intercoolers is interesting, it is such an enchanting scam. Approximately at the level of Kolgon, only Kolgon bred housewives, well, like stupid. And intercoolers breed men who consider themselves incredibly smart. Housewives in court proved that scale does not form, even when using sea water, even if instead of washing powder, there will be ordinary soap. And men are enthusiastic about intercoolers. Physics, this is not for us. Cooling the body, with a temperature of + 30 * C, air flow, with a temperature of + 30 * C, we will cool the body to a temperature of + 30 * C. An interesting argument is the defenders of his great mind, "but to us it’s cooler under the fan." Damn, you’re cooler from the evaporation of sweat from your “faces”.
      1. Nekarmadlen 19 May 2020 09: 36 New
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        The use of intercoolers is interesting, it is such an enchanting scam.
        ... the interestuller helps to increase the boost pressure without increasing the temperature))) that is, the point is not to lower the temperature, but to increase the pressure)))
        1. Free wind 19 May 2020 09: 52 New
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          lol Unfortunately no. I'm sorry.
      2. Mik13 19 May 2020 13: 20 New
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        Quote: Free Wind
        And intercoolers breed men who consider themselves incredibly smart. ... Physics, this is not for us. Cooling the body, with a temperature of + 30 * C, air flow, with a temperature of + 30 * C, we will cool the body to a temperature of + 30 * C.

        If the engine is naturally aspirated, then it does not need an intercooler. And if there is boost, it is very useful.
        When a gas is compressed, its temperature rises. If it is possible to cool the gas (in the intercooler) - this will increase the efficiency of the engine.
        1. Free wind 19 May 2020 13: 34 New
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          What a horror request The intercooler stands up to a turbocharger! I repeat once more in syllables, TO TOUR-BO-NAD-DO-VA. including
          1. Mik13 19 May 2020 13: 44 New
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            Quote: Free Wind
            What a horror request The intercooler stands up to a turbocharger! I repeat once more in syllables, TO TOUR-BO-NAD-DO-VA. including

            You know, emoticons and caps are a very bad argument in a discussion. In great secret, I can tell you that in the domestic engine building the intercooler has been used for a very long time - on diesel locomotives. There it is called ONV - a charge air cooler.
            In practice, the intercooler installation scheme looks like this:

            And, of course, it is installed after the supercharger.
            And if you don’t know or don’t understand something, it’s better to ask.
            1. Free wind 19 May 2020 20: 35 New
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              He personally threw out the cooler radiator from KAMAZ, he stood up to the turbines. We threw him away. How did we suffer with that KAMAZ, 2-3 days, a week of repair. Probably Kamaz experimented, and we fell into the role of mice. about an hour ago I arrived from my former job, sat on the K-702, and the air collector is hotter in temperature than street air, so it instantly heats up in the cylinders. I looked, but the radiator is now standing on the kamaz after the turbines .. But they are also thrown out by older cars, no one noticed the difference. The radiator creates resistance to the flow of air, getting into the cylinders, the air expands, its temperature drops. In the cylinders, the temperature itself is probably 150-250 * C. What is the difference what will be the temperature of the air that will reach the cylinders. If it immediately heats up to cylinder temperature. Moreover, we have such a climate. The average annual temperature in the Moscow Region is + 8 * C. outside the Urals from 0 * s to - 15 * C. Just think about coolers.
              1. Tima62 20 May 2020 12: 40 New
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                Quote: Free Wind
                What is the difference what will be the temperature of the air that will reach the cylinders.

                Bigger, cooler air will fit in more.
        2. ccsr 19 May 2020 18: 56 New
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          Quote: Mik13
          When a gas is compressed, its temperature rises.

          Not all school physics students have learned, that's why they don’t have any idea why intercoolers are needed in turbo engines.
      3. trahterist 25 May 2020 18: 34 New
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        Quote: Free Wind
        Oshkosh there and did not stand. But many of us looked at Mgiri, and not without reason, the car is cool. But saddlery with KRAZ echoes in appearance. This should be the lighting technology on all-terrain vehicles. I’m wondering why there are anti-roll-on wheels on all-terrain vehicles, especially on army ones. Well, mainly used as an additional system of material in the cottages. The use of intercoolers is interesting, it is such an enchanting scam. Approximately at the level of Kolgon, only Kolgon bred housewives, well, like stupid. And intercoolers breed men who consider themselves incredibly smart. Housewives in court proved that scale does not form, even when using sea water, even if instead of washing powder, there will be ordinary soap. And men are enthusiastic about intercoolers. Physics, this is not for us. Cooling the body, with a temperature of + 30 * C, air flow, with a temperature of + 30 * C, we will cool the body to a temperature of + 30 * C. An interesting argument is the defenders of his great mind, "but to us it’s cooler under the fan." Damn, you’re cooler from the evaporation of sweat from your “faces”.

        The intercooler is still fine.
        But the “Euro” norms (or Tier, the same eggs, only on the side) is already beyond good and evil.
        Now they have reached the military, in any case in the West, in all seriousness, they are declaring their compliance with these FILK diplomas of military diesel engines (I rust until I drop).
        Okay, civilian dviguns, a civilian user by definition, for the most part, it’s possible to give him +100500 “improvements” that increase “environmental friendliness” (in fact, Euro 6 is NOTHING more environmentally friendly than Euro 0, it’s worth burning one AdBlue) the moment, smokelessness in transitional regimes (in fact, Euros 5 and 6 soot give Exactly Also with sharp gas, I’ve personally checked more than once, I can "smoke" any truck or tractor "modern" diesel engine for a bet, just come up. And no abstruse electronics in injection will not help) and then blah blah blah.
        But I’m going to throw such a thing to the military ...
    2. tihonmarine 19 May 2020 08: 33 New
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      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      I agree with the author - the last "kalama" remotely visually resemble an "oshkosh", but the first and the picture - obviously the "magirus" did not let the designers sleep!

      There would be designers, and so simply "copiers."
  5. Kote Pan Kokhanka 19 May 2020 07: 47 New
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    Thanks to the author, I thought the cycle was completed, but no!
    Regards, Kote!
  6. AlexVas44 19 May 2020 08: 17 New
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    The truck range includes relatively light 2x2 cars ...

    And such trucks (single-axle tractor) why?
    1. Lopatov 19 May 2020 08: 27 New
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      A very necessary segment.
      Just take a look. where the "cones" were used.
      Now, at best, they are trying to replace them with biaxial-triaxial Urals and KamAZ trucks, which are often redundant
      And at worst, tamper everything in the “Tiger”, whose reserved space is not enough.
    2. Evgeny Fedorov 19 May 2020 08: 41 New
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      I have a mistake here. And so MoAZ can do such things.
  7. Oleg Shustov 19 May 2020 08: 25 New
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    KAMAZ-43501Author! What cars are produced in Nizhny Tagil? KAMAZ-43501 cars are produced in Naberezhnye Chelny !!!!!!
    1. Evgeny Fedorov 19 May 2020 08: 39 New
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      Thank you for your comment! In Nizhny Tagil they specialize in tanks more. I'll try to fix it.
  8. tihonmarine 19 May 2020 08: 31 New
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    Following the latest ZIL army truck, the main production of the Moscow Automobile Plant also died.
    For the army, and for the country, ZIL was needed, but for young and greedy capitalism, this plant in almost the center of Moscow sat like a bone in the throat, and it had to be devoured. Gobbled up. And the place of ZIL cars will be taken by "Chevrolet", "Mercedes" and the Chinese fakes of the former ZIL.
    1. Lopatov 19 May 2020 08: 34 New
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      Quote: tihonmarine
      but for young and greedy capitalism

      Well, judging by other articles, the spread of ZIL began even under the USSR

      Quote: tihonmarine
      And the place of ZIL cars will be taken

      KamAZ trucks
      1. Potter 19 May 2020 09: 28 New
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        In recent years, the USSR ZIL was preparing to transfer part of the production outside of Moscow. In Smolensk, the body of the auto-aggregate plant was expanding, which was supposed to produce a checkpoint for the entire ZIL lineup. In Roslavl, another auto plant expanded. In the late 1980s, a diesel engine plant was built in Yartsevo, Smolensk region. It was a giant construction site, Mospromstroy built production buildings, Glavmosstroy housing. This plant still somehow worked after a production stop in Moscow.
        1. tihonmarine 19 May 2020 09: 33 New
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          Quote: Potter
          In the late 1980s, a diesel engine plant was built in Yartsevo, Smolensk region. It was a giant construction site, Mospromstroy built production buildings, Glavmosstroy housing.

          I remember my uncle worked there as a foreman while he was still alive.
        2. ccsr 19 May 2020 13: 13 New
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          Quote: Potter
          In recent years, the USSR ZIL was preparing to transfer part of the production outside of Moscow.

          Quite right, because even then Moscow lacked the energy capacity to operate all the large factories, the people were aging, the housing problem was not solved, so they planned to move part of the production outside Moscow. Not the least role was played by transport congestion of the capital and railway. including, so that ZiL all early would be withdrawn from Moscow over time. Just the collapse of the USSR accelerated this process, but for other reasons related to the transition from socialism to capitalism.
          1. Mordvin 3 19 May 2020 13: 22 New
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            Quote: ccsr
            Moscow lacked the energy capacity to operate all large factories, the people were aging, the housing problem was not solved, and they planned to move part of the production outside Moscow.

            Do not condone. The Chinese copy of ZIL that we built is still working.
            1. ccsr 19 May 2020 14: 05 New
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              Quote: mordvin xnumx
              Do not condone.

              I don’t justify it - you just don’t know that in Moscow the beginning of work at some enterprises was at 6 in the morning, and ended at 12 due to different shifts, and this was also due to the lack of energy and transport capacities of the capital.
              1. Mordvin 3 19 May 2020 19: 44 New
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                Quote: ccsr
                You just don’t know that in Moscow, the beginning of work at some enterprises was at 6 in the morning, and ended at 12 due to different shifts, and this was also due to a shortage of energy and transportation capacities of the capital.

                My native plant under the USSR plowed in three shifts.
      2. AlexVas44 19 May 2020 09: 48 New
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        Quote: Spade
        Quote: tihonmarine
        And the place of ZIL cars will be taken
        KamAZ trucks

        And not only, the Ural-43206 is also actively squeezing into this niche.
        1. Lopatov 19 May 2020 10: 39 New
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          Quote: AlexVas44
          And not only, the Ural-43206 is also actively squeezing into this niche.

          I'm not talking about the GAZ-66 niche, I'm talking about the "general". Including civilian sector.
      3. Mordvin 3 19 May 2020 13: 26 New
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        Quote: Spade
        Well, judging by other articles, the spread of ZIL began even under the USSR

        It was like that when the engineering staff was transferred to KamAZ.
  9. The comment was deleted.
  10. ccsr 19 May 2020 13: 23 New
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    Author:
    Evgeny Fedorov
    Having gone through the entire cycle of tests of the State Academic Technical University, the military department did not issue an order for this truck, which is largely unique to domestic industry. Following the latest ZIL army truck, the main production of the Moscow Automobile Plant also died.

    I agree that the truck may be unique, but it is not entirely clear where it could be mass-produced for the needs of the army. As far as I understand, the question is precisely in the field of mass production and the lack of capacities for the military. I know from the past - the industry most likely wanted to build a new plant, but not for its own credit lines, but for the money of the gas customer and tried to transfer these costs to the cost of future finished products, which increased the cost. Naturally, the military sent them away, which is why the contract did not take place. I only see it this way, because I was faced with a situation where we were promised candy, but only if we could make it through our money to build production lines. In general, the old song in a new way, and naturally again they want to expose the military as extreme. I admit that I could be wrong, maybe someone will explain the situation differently.
  11. Inboost wett 19 May 2020 19: 24 New
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    Naturally, all died. If they did not use an engine with import participation from the west, there would be more chances. Then the Chinese counterparts have not yet reached the proper level. In addition, they perverted the idea of ​​modularity. They made hodovka heavier, went beyond their own coefficient and thereby killed their own car class. Those. they committed the initial diversion. Apparently, as it is always done now - someone received something in an envelope. And so they will take over the world and return it back to their skins.
  12. Ruger 19 May 2020 23: 31 New
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    Both on. Specialists in the "Kolgon" decided to tear the cover from useless intercoolers. Fiercely.
  13. Tima62 20 May 2020 12: 36 New
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    The general transmission scheme remained the same with one pass-through bridge in the 6x6 version, but additionally rear axle and interwheel differentials appeared.

    Eugene, please correct, otherwise, from the text it turns out that there were no rear cross-wheel diffs on previous versions.
  14. 75 Sergey 20 May 2020 13: 57 New
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    645 engine did not start, it is impossible to make a diesel engine on the basis of gasoline.
    But the plant is a pity ... again it will have to be restored as after the war.
  15. Cheerock 20 May 2020 15: 12 New
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    I saw this KALAM live in UKER in 2005. It was an interesting car, but raw and very expensive for the army at that time. Plus, the Zilovskaya checkpoint did not hold more than 50 kg of momentum, did not fit a new diesel engine, plus there weren’t a lot of things, the plant at that time was already eating up the last phallus without salt, only had time to lay down real estate for salary loans. In general, it was already agony. And the 4x4 goby was not bad, the factory team even won something in such a cargo trial.
  16. Romka47 20 May 2020 16: 03 New
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    Thanks to the author, I read with great interest, if the URAL series captivated me with the fact that (in my humble opinion) they are the most beautiful and brutal, then the ZILs forever impressed my soul like a father’s truck, as soon as my father reached for the pedals, he taught me how to drive there was more happiness in life, except for steering on the 130th (and then on others) along country roads, iPhones will not give today's kids those emotions ....
  17. Petrol cutter 20 May 2020 20: 51 New
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    Oh my god, how I love ZIL!
    One hundred and thirty is generally my icon! It is on the verge of the supernatural.
    To the fan, yes. You can begin by throwing the boots at me with soap and tarpaulin. And even berets ...