Military Review

Russian volunteers of the French Foreign Legion

182

Russian soldiers in France. In the helmet - Rodion Malinovsky, future Soviet Marshal and Minister of Defense of the USSR


The first Russian soldiers in the Foreign Legion appeared at the end of the 1th century, but their number was small: as of January 1913, 116, there were XNUMX people.

However, immediately after the outbreak of World War I, many Russian emigrants entered the ranks of the legionnaires, succumbing to a feeling of general euphoria (by which all former citizens of the Russian Empire were understood): about 9 thousand people turned to call points, were found fit and sent to training camps - 4 thousand.

Most of all among the Russian-speaking volunteers were Jews - 51,4%. Russians were 37,8%, Georgians - 5,4%, Poles - 2,7%. Bulgarians and Estonians were also considered “Russians” - 1,3% each.

It is estimated that 70,5% of Russian-speaking recruits were workers, 25,7% considered themselves to be intelligentsia, 4,8% called themselves “persons without specific occupations”.

It also turned out that 9,5% of Russian legionnaires went to imperial penal servitude, 52,7% were in exile for some time, many were in prison - all in full accordance with historical traditions of the Foreign Legion.

Among the legionnaires was then even the former deputy of the State Duma of the first convocation F.M. Onipko, who was exiled to Siberia, but fled to France, where he was forced to work as a shoemaker.

The reputation of the Foreign Legion was not the most favorable, and therefore the Russian volunteers insisted on being transferred to regular regiments, but the French military bureaucrats decided everything in their own way.

The most famous Russians who completed the “school” of the French Foreign Legion were Zinovy ​​(Yeshua-Zalman) Peshkov and Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky, but they will be described in separate articles.


Now we will talk about other "Russian legionnaires", the fate of some of which are very interesting and instructive.

Difficulties of service in the Foreign Legion


The service of Russian volunteers in the Foreign Legion is told in different ways. Many authors emphasize heroism, thanks, awards, which, of course, were. However, there is another side, which is sometimes bashfully hushed up. We are talking about evidence of extremely rude treatment of Russian recruits by officers and corporals of the legion.

One can still be skeptical of the testimonies of the legionnaires of the first, “patriotic wave”: they say that they, for the most part, were civilian dodges, did not serve coffee and cakes to bed on time? However, these stories are almost word for word repeated in the memoirs of soldiers and officers of the White Army, forced to join the legion after the end of the Civil War. And this despite the fact that the Russian imperial army also had enough problems, and the White Guards themselves in their memoirs did not deny that the reason for the mass extermination of officers after the revolution was the inappropriate attitude of "their nobility" to the lower ranks. But even these former tsarist military personnel were struck by the orders in the Foreign Legion.

In June 1915, 9 Russian legionnaires were even shot for having fought with “old-timers” and non-commissioned officers who insulted them. This story had a great resonance in France, and in Russia, and in late summer and early autumn of 1915, some Russians were transferred to regular regiments, others (about 600 people) were sent to Russia. By the way, many Italians and Belgians left the Legion along with the Russians.

But there were among the Russian volunteers those who remained. Later, General Dogan, in his speech on the battles of Verdun, emphasized their stamina and heroism.

I must say that the French authorities themselves sent some Russian legionaries to Russia, for example, Mikhail Gerasimov, a political emigrant who lived in France since 1907.

Gerasimov brothers


Mikhail and Peter Grigoriev were political emigrants from Russia, they almost simultaneously entered the service of the Foreign Legion, but their fate was very different.

Mikhail Gerasimov was in the Second Regiment of the Foreign Legion, fought with him on the Marne, in Champagne, Argonne and was shell-shocked near Reims.

Russian volunteers of the French Foreign Legion

Argonne forest after shelling, photograph of 1915

The reason for his deportation was anti-war propaganda. In Russia, he joined the Bolsheviks and made a good career - he was the chairman of the council of military deputies, a member of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of the First Convocation, the chairman of the Samara proletariat and one of the founders of the Kuznitsa association of proletarian writers and poets. He was arrested in 1937, there is no reliable information about his future fate.

The brother of Mikhail Gerasimov, Peter, went to serve in the Foreign Legion under the name of Mark Volokhov. At first, he fought in the First Regiment in Gallipoli and on the Thessaloniki Front.


French soldiers on the Thessaloniki front, November 1916

In August 1916, Mark (Peter) rose to the rank of lieutenant, in February 1918 he was transferred to the Western Front, where he was awarded the Order of the Legion of Honor for saving two aviators.

After World War I, he studied at a flight school and was sent to Morocco with the rank of captain.

In 1922, having received French citizenship, he continued to serve in the legion. In 1925, one of the documents noted his “outstanding merits”: 11 years of service, nine campaigns, one wound, four mentions in orders.

He was twice wounded during the Reef War, in 1930, rising to the rank of major, retired, but was again drafted into the army after the outbreak of World War II.


Mark Volokhov, 1939

He was captured, but was repatriated to France as injured. He died in 1979.

Russian legionnaires after the revolution


We will return to France during the First World War. At this time, two brigades of the Russian Expeditionary Force - the First and Third (the Second and Fourth fought on the Thessaloniki Front) fought there.


Combat drill of the 1st Russian brigade, military camp near Maya. October 1916

As part of the Russian expeditionary forces in France, there was also a Russian pilot (graduate of the Military School of Aeronautics) Vladimir Polyakov-Baidarov, father of actress Marina Vlady.

After the revolution in Russia and the fall of the autocracy, the French authorities demanded that the servicemen of the Russian Expeditionary Force (more than 11 thousand people) go to the Foreign Legion, only 252 of them agreed. Many of the refused Russian soldiers and officers were sent to forced rear work, including to North Africa. Under such conditions, part of the Russian soldiers and officers changed their minds, and the number of Russian-speaking legionnaires increased significantly: in December 1917 there were only 207 of them, in March 1918 - already 2080.

On March 20, 1918, they were supplemented by 300 participants in the uprising of the First Russian Brigade in the La Curtina camp who were deported to North Africa (September 1917, the rebels demanded that they be sent home).


Some of them fell into the “Russian battalions” of the legion (for example, R. Malinovsky, a detailed account of which is ahead), but most of them were mixed.

Russian Legionnaires after the Civil War


After the end of the Civil War in Russia, many former soldiers and officers of the White Army entered the Foreign Legion simply because of hopelessness, so as not to die of starvation. It is estimated that the bulk of the Russians who were at that time in the Foreign Legion were soldiers and officers of the Wrangel Army — about 60%. Denikins escaped from Russia 25%, former military personnel of the Russian Expeditionary Force - 10%, and former prisoners of war - 5%.

The first to enter the Legion were evacuated to Galipoli, Constantinople and the island of Lemnos “Wrangel”. Those of them who ended up in Constantinople often did this involuntarily. Theft flourished in this city, along with things the identity cards issued by the British occupation authorities disappeared. Those who lost their documents had only two ways: to “volunteer” to go to the legion, where they did not pay attention to such “little things,” or to prison. On the attitude towards Russian recruits, the Cossack officer N. Matin wrote in his memoirs:

“When we entered French waters, the attitude of the French authorities noticeably worsened us ... In the fortress (Saint-Jean) on the first day there was a clash with the French: after not letting us rest, after the road, we were forced to sweep and whitewash the fortress ... the French made it clear that we sold ourselves for five hundred francs and we do not have the right to any vote ... In Marseille we were kept as prisoners. "

Here is his description of the situation of Russian legionnaires in Tunisia:

“We were deceived in everything except the prize we received: two hundred and fifty francs on arrival and two hundred and fifty francs in four months. The service became harder every day, and a massive desertion began among us. Two or three people fled, fled, not knowing where, just to leave. True, many managed to hide for several weeks, and even there were cases that crossed the border, but this was very rare, in most cases they were caught, put on trial, and then, at best, they were in prison for six months with forced work, without offsetting the service life. "It didn’t fit in my head like the French, cultured people, could cheat so impudently."

And here is how the former Cossack colonel F. I. Eliseev (who served in the legion as a commander of a machine-gun platoon from 1939 to 1945) describes the orders in the legion:

“In the Foreign Legion of the French Army, every foreign legionnaire is a creature" without clan and tribe. " Whether he dies or is killed, he is struck off the list “as a number” and nothing more. He has no relatives and no heirs and should not have one. His things are sold in the company from auction and enter the company or battalion. This also applies to foreign officers. All of them are considered “salibiter,” that is, unmarried, even if they had legal wives. In the event of death, the family does not receive anything. ”



Colonel F.I. Eliseev

As you can see, in the middle of the twentieth century, orders in the legion have changed little.

We will remember about F. Eliseev when we talk about the war in Indochina. In the meantime, a little distracted, let's say that, born in 1892, F. Eliseev, up to 60 years old, retained enviable physical data: after being demobilized, he performed for several years in the circus troupe of horsemen in the Netherlands, Belgium, Switzerland and the USA. And he died in 1987 at the age of 95.

In total, about 10 thousand soldiers and officers of the White Army, including three thousand Cossacks, switched over to the French service. Among them were aristocrats, for example, N. A. Rumyantsev, who in the end had the highest number of awards among cavalrymen of the legion.

In the 1921st cavalry regiment of the legion (formed in XNUMX, the place of deployment is Sousse, Tunisia), among others, B.R. Khreschatitsky served as major general of the Russian imperial army, lieutenant general of the Kolchak army and ataman of the Far Eastern Ukrainian army.


Khreschatitsky B.R.

July 11, 1925 he entered the service in the 4th squadron of this regiment, already in September he was wounded in battle with the Syrian rebels, by January 1929 he had gone from a private to a lieutenant. Then he acted as an employee of the Legion's special assignments for the Levant and North Africa, in November 1933, resigned, and in 1935 received French citizenship. He took part in the fleeting military campaign of 1940, in June 1940 he was evacuated with his squadron to Tunisia, where he soon died of a disease.

The lieutenants of this regiment were also BC Kanivalsky (former lieutenant colonel of the 2nd Life Hussar Pavlograd regiment) and V. M. Solomirsky (former staff captain of the Life Guards of the Horse-Grenadier Regiment). Here was the now forgotten poet Nikolai Turoverov, who had previously served in the Life Guards of the Ataman Regiment. In total, this regiment included 128 Russian emigrants, 30 of them former officers of the White Army. The march of the fourth squadron of the First Cavalry Regiment (recall that it was Khreschatitsky who served in it) was performed at that time on the motive of the famous song “Along the valleys and on the hills”, but it was already a question of “jabal” - the rocky part of the Sahara desert.


Soldiers of the 1st Cavalry (armored) regiment of the Foreign Legion, in which many soldiers and officers of the Wrangel Army served

This regiment became the first French military unit to enter German territory. But he also became famous for participating in the suppression of the rebellion of Druze tribes in the Middle East. The above-mentioned Turovers did not experience any special complexes on this occasion:

We don't care which country
To sweep away the popular system,
And not in others, as not in me
No pity, no compassion.
Keep a record: in which year, -
For us an unnecessary burden;
And now, in the desert, as in hell,
We go to the indignant Druze.
Seventeen-year period
Passed without rushing through the world;
Still the sky and the sand
Look blithely at Palmyra
Among the destroyed columns.
But the surviving columns
Our Foreign Legion,
Heir to the Roman legions.



Nikolay Turoverov

Former captain S. Andolenko managed to enter the Saint-Cyr Military School. Since 1927, Russian cadets were released from it by sergeants (and not by lieutenants) and were sent to serve not in the French army, but in the Foreign Legion. Andolenko first rose to the rank of commander of the headquarters company of the 6th regiment of the legion, which was stationed in Syria, and then completely to the rank of brigadier general and the post of commander of the 5th regiment, which he held from 1956 to 1958.

Even more fantastic is the career of a certain captain von Knorre, who after the revolution became the inspector general of the Cossack division of the Persian Shah (there was one). Then for 23 years he served in the Foreign Legion. He resigned in the late 40s with the rank of major, became commander of the Carabinieri of Monaco and held this position until 1969.

The highest post in the legion was occupied by the former Georgian prince Dmitry Amilahvari, but in order not to run too far ahead, we will talk about him a little later - in an article about the legionnaires of World War II.

Circassian "squads of the Levant"


In November 1925, from the descendants of the Circassians who migrated to the Middle East from the Caucasus in the second half of the XNUMXth century (in the Aleppo region, the Golan Heights, Amman-Balka, Tiberias in Palestine, Jordan), the “Light squadrons of the Levant” (d'Escadrons Legers du Levant). Their commander was Captain Philibert Colle, who later rose to the rank of general.


Philibert Colle Colonel

A total of 8 such squadrons were created, Damascus became their base.

These squadrons played a large role in the defeat of the Syrian Druze revolts (the relations of the Circassians and Druze from the very beginning were extremely tense) in 1925 and 1927, having lost 302 people killed (including 20 officers) and 600 wounded in battles with them.

After the defeat of France in 1940, part of these squadrons became subordinate to the government of Pétain, who awarded them a special sign with the inscription: "Always faithful." Three of them became motorized in November 1940. In November 1941, on the Syrian-Iraqi border, they opposed the 10th Indian division, actively participated in the expulsion of the British from Syria, Palestine and Jordan: the "natives" of the French and English fought for their masters. How can one not recall the famous phrase of Prince Mstislav Vladimirovich that he said after the Battle of Listvy in 1024:

“Who will not rejoice at this? Here lies the northerner, and here is the Varangian. His own squad is safe. ”

Please note that the Varangians in this battle fought on the side of Yaroslav (later called the "Wise"), so Mstislav was glad not only for himself, but also for his brother, who, in his opinion, was not badly damaged as a result of this defeat.

In 1946, Circassian squadrons were disbanded, but their standard can be seen in the Banner Hall of the Paris Army Museum.

Many soldiers of d'Escadrons Legers du Levant later ended up in the Syrian army.

Even more interesting was the fate of the Jordanian Circassians, 40 soldiers of which in 1946, after gaining independence by this country, delivered to Amman a candidate for the throne - the Hashemite prince Abdullah ibn Hussein, and since then only the Circassians have been the bodyguards of this royal family.


Abdullah bin al-Hussein and his Circassian bodyguards

On June 7, 1970, Circassian guards rescued King Hussein ibn Talal during an assassination attempt organized by militants of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO): 60 of the 40 guards were killed, the rest were injured.

If you call a spade a spade, then the Palestinians led by Yasser Arafat, who fled from the West Bank after the Six Day War of 1967, then tried to crush Jordan. Or at least create a state on its territory that is not controlled by local authorities. They really did not like the opposition to these plans by the legitimate government bodies, which caused the conflict.

On September 1 of the same year, another extremist organization, the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (which was part of the PLO), attacked the king of the sheltering 800 thousand Palestinians of the country.

On September 16, Hussein declared martial law in the country, Yasser Arafat, in turn, became commander in chief of the Palestine Liberation Army, and the Jordanian army launched a military operation against Palestinian militants.


King of Jordan Hussein ibn Talal, September 1970

Syria stood on the side of the Palestinians, whose authorities, since the time of the first assassination attempt, had called on "to present the bill to the traitor Hussein and his Circassian and Bedouin minions for their crimes against the Palestinian people." Syrian Tanks The Jordanian Centurions defeated the T-50, but were stopped by air attacks. In those battles with the Syrians, the Circassian Special Forces distinguished themselves.

The troops of Iraq (then, as the allies of the Palestinians) also entered the territory of Jordan, but they did not enter the battle. But Jordan was ready to provide military assistance ... Israel! The American 6th fleet came to the shores of Israel, the Soviet squadron - to the Syrian coast ...

On September 24, Arafat and other PLO leaders fled to Lebanon (they also did not sit still here, organizing the assassination of the country's president, after which they were forced to go to Tunisia).

Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser called for the convening of an emergency League of Arab States summit, at which a ceasefire was reached - and the next day died of a heart attack.

These events went down in history under the name “Black September” (or “The Age of Deplorable Events”): 2 thousand Jordanians and 20 thousand Palestinians died in a week - more than in 100 years of continuous confrontation with the Jews.


Black September 1970, PLO militants


Jordanian soldiers near the centurion tank dug in the ground. September 1970

About 150 thousand supporters of Arafat left Jordan at that time, but so far, Palestinians and their descendants make up 55% of the country's population.

At the same time, let’s say that in 1972 the whole world started talking about Black September again - that was the name of the Palestinian terrorist group, whose members captured 11 Israeli athletes at the Olympic Games in Munich.

Russian legionnaires during World War II


With the outbreak of the Soviet-Finnish war, many former White Guards were included in the 13th semi-brigade of the Legion, which was supposed to fight on the side of the Finns, but, as they say, God saved these people from the battle against the homeland: they did not have time for this war. Instead, they ended up in Norway, where they fought against the Germans at Narvik. Despite the fact that the Allied forces more than three times outnumbered the German (24 thousand against 6 thousand), they could not achieve success, and were evacuated: this is described in the article Vezeryubung vs. Wilfred.
At one time, the 13th semi-brigade was led by the previously mentioned Dmitry Amilahvari. He died in November 1942 during a survey of enemy positions near Bir-Hakeim, and a story about him is ahead, in the article “The French Foreign Legion in the First and Second World Wars”.


13e DBLE legionnaires in Dijon in September 1944

In July 1939, the French government, in anticipation of a major war, issued a decree according to which former Entente army officers could be enlisted in the Foreign Legion with a lower rank: lieutenants became sergeants, lieutenants became super-lieutenants, captains became lieutenants, colonels and generals became captains. This refers, of course, to the former White Guards, many of whom then joined the Foreign Legion. Some of them will be described in the article: “The French Foreign Legion in the First and Second World Wars” so as not to break the logic of the narrative and not return to the same topic several times.

Those of the Russian emigrants who served in the 5th regiment of the legion, together with him ended up in Indochina, which until 1930 was considered a very peaceful place - almost a resort. After World War II, everything changed: Vietnam, fighting for its independence, became one of the hottest spots on the planet. It was then that in the Indochinese compounds of the legion (their number was 10 thousand people) there were a lot of Russians - former prisoners of war. One of the veterans of the legion said this about them:

"The Russian legionnaires were strange people, they suffered greatly throughout their homeland and sang long Russian songs in the evenings, and then committed suicides."

A certain major of the Soviet Army by the name of Vasilchenko became the senior ensign of the Foreign Legion in a roundabout way. Having been captured in 1941, he joined the so-called "Russian Liberation Army" of the traitor Vlasov. But in the spring of 1945, realizing the scale of his problem, along with some colleagues he surrendered to the allies in Alsace and joined the ranks of the French Foreign Legion. He managed to avoid deportation to the USSR only because he was wounded and was being treated far in the rear. After the war ended, Vasilchenko continued to serve in Indochina, where Count A. Vorontsov-Dashkov, whose grandfather was the Governor General of New Russia, the commander of the troops in the Caucasus and the Caucasian governor (as well as one of the characters in the story of L. N. Tolstoy, “Hadji,” turned out to be his subordinate. Murat ").

Currently, in the Paris cemetery of Sainte-Genevieve-des-Bois, there is a site with the burials of Russian members of the Foreign Legion.

Schwarzbard and Conradi


Samuel Schwarzbard served in the Foreign Legion - an anarchist, a participant in the first Russian revolution (spent several months in prison in 1905-1906), as well as a poet who wrote in Yiddish under the pseudonym Bal-Khaloymes (“The Dreamer”). He lived in Paris since 1910, with the outbreak of World War I he entered the Legion, received a Military Cross and was seriously wounded during the Battle of the Somme. In August 1917, having refused a French pension, he returned to Russia, drove to Odessa, where he worked for some time as a watchmaker, and at the end of the year joined the detachment of anarchists operating in the Red Army. He fought in the brigade of G. Kotovsky and in the International Division, was engaged in work with children, including street children. But, disappointed, at the end of 1919 he returned to Paris, where he maintained contacts with many emigrant anarchists, among his close friends was Nestor Makhno. On January 16, 1925, Schwarzbard obtained French citizenship, and on May 25, 1926, he shot dead Simon Petlyura, the former chairman of the UNR Directory. He didn’t hide from the scene: after waiting for the police, he handed over a revolver, claiming that he had killed the killer of tens of thousands of Ukrainian Jews.


Photo from Schwarzbard's personal file at La Sante Prison

By the way, on January 8, 1919, the Directory issued a decree on the arrest and prosecution of all citizens who wore epaulettes of the Russian army and royal awards, except for St. George's crosses - as "enemies of Ukraine." So anti-Semitism was not the only sin of Simon Petliura.

Among others, M. Gorky, A. Barbus, R. Rolland, A. Einstein and even A. Kerensky spoke out in defense of Schwarzbard. Schwarzbard Defense Committees were organized in New York and Paris, finding 126 witnesses of Jewish pogroms in Ukraine under the Directory headed by Petlyura.


Victims of the pogrom, Zhytomyr

On October 27, 1927, Schwarzbard was acquitted by a jury (8 votes to 4), and released in the courtroom, awarding mocking compensation to Petliura’s widow and brother in the amount of 1 franc each.

Schwarzbard died of a heart attack during a trip to South Africa on March 3, 1938. In 1967, his ashes were reburied in a moshav (rural settlement) Avihal - north of Netanya.


The grave of Samuel Schwarzbard in the moshavim Abihail

In modern Israel, the streets in Jerusalem, Netanya, and Be'er Sheva (the Avenger) are named after Samuel Schwarzbard.

And the Bandera rulers of present-day Ukraine on October 14, 2017 (on the day of the Intercession and the UPA, banned in Russia) inaugurated the monument to S. Petlyure in Vinnitsa!


Monument to Simon Petlyura in Vinnitsa

Another high-profile political murder around the same years was committed not by a former legionnaire, but by a future citizen of Switzerland, Maurice Conradi, a native of the family who founded the confectionery factories in St. Petersburg and Moscow. During World War I, he served in the Russian army, during the Civil War - in the Wrangel army. Returning to his homeland, on May 23, 1923, he shot in Lausanne the Soviet diplomat Vaclav Vorovsky and his two assistants (Arens and Divilkovsky). He was acquitted by the court, but, apparently suffering from a psychopathic personality disorder, he constantly got into various criminal stories. In Geneva, for example, he was once arrested for threatening local variety show artists with a revolver in his hands. Having enlisted in the Foreign Legion as a sergeant, he fell under the tribunal and was demoted after he hit the officer.

In the following articles we will talk about two Russian legionaries who have achieved the greatest success in the military field: Zinovia Peshkova and Rodion Malinovsky.
Author:
Articles from this series:
Ryzhov V. A. “Weserubung” vs. “Wilfred”
Ryzhov V.A. Zuava. New and unusual military units in France
Ryzhov V.A. Exotic military units of France. Tyiraliers
Ryzhov V.A. Spagi. Exotic cavalry units of the French army
Ryzhov V.A. French military exotics. Moroccan gummers
Ryzhov V. A. “Dogs of War” of the French Foreign Legion
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  1. Pessimist22
    Pessimist22 April 28 2020 06: 12 New
    +9
    Thank you interesting.
  2. apro
    apro April 28 2020 06: 12 New
    -9
    An article on how to attach yourself in a warm place? If the citizens who were in France before PMV were forcefully taken into the legion. After the civil war only to get somewhere else, then after the WWII to avoid a deserved punishment.
    1. 210ox
      210ox April 28 2020 12: 03 New
      +4
      A foreign Legion cannot be called a warm place ....
      1. apro
        apro April 28 2020 12: 05 New
        -4
        Citizenship of the country. Pension. European values. And this is not enough ...
      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave April 28 2020 18: 55 New
        +1
        If only geographically.
  3. cost
    cost April 28 2020 06: 32 New
    +9
    Mikhail and Peter Grigoryev were political emigrants from Russia

    Incidentally, members of the RSDLP (b).
    Mikhail Gerasimov was born in 1889 in the family of a railway worker, was educated at an agricultural school and began his studies at a railway school in Samara. As a very young man, he plunged into the revolutionary struggle, joining the Bolshevik party. In 1907, due to participation in illegal political activities, Mikhail Gerasimov was forced to flee from Russia to France, where he joined the Foreign Legion. Participated in battles on the Marne, in Champagne, Argonne. He was shell-shocked near Reims (Fort St. Thierry). In the fall of 1915, together with other volunteers, he was expelled to Russia for disobeying the authorities and promoting Bolshevism. In the spring of 1916 he was arrested: he was sitting in a guardhouse in Samara, and then he was placed under surveillance in the 4th reserve engineer battalion. Since 1917, he held a number of important posts: the chairman of the council of military deputies, the deputy chairman of the executive committee, gubernial commissar, the commander of the front, a member of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of the 1st convocation from Mezhrayontsi, the chairman of the Samara proletariat, and others. ”Since the early 1920s. all the strength of Gerasimov is literature. He was one of the founders of the Forge association of proletarian writers and poets, which lasted until 1932. Gerasimov himself continued to engage in creative activities until his arrest in 1937, immediately after which he was apparently shot (although there is evidence that he died from an illness during his imprisonment in 1939
    photo 1. Mikhail Prokofievich Gerasimov, photo from the investigation file of the NKVD of 1937

    Peter, was also an active Bolshevik. Judging by the official reports of the tsarist secret police, Peter, like his brother, showed himself to be a rather active fighter against the regime, actively participated in expropriations on the instructions of the party committee. He was arrested, made a daring escape from the convoy right before the start of the trial. Then he fled to his brother in France, and did the same in the Foreign Legion. After his brother was expelled from France for Bolshevism, Peter changed his name and began to be called Mark Volokhov, under this name he made a truly dizzying career in the legion and forever linked his life with the French army. Unlike Mikhail, after 1917 he became an ardent anti-communist and opponent of Bolshevism. After WWI, Mark Volokhov was awarded the Military Cross of foreign theaters of military operations with a palm branch, and in 1925 he became an officer of the Legion of Honor. The awarding order mentions his "outstanding services" - 11 years of service, nine campaigns, one injury, four mentions in orders. After the First World War, he did not leave the ranks of the French army and continued to serve as a pilot in Morocco with the rank of major, having undergone appropriate retraining. During the 2nd MV, he was shot down, was taken prisoner by the Germans, but was repatriated by the Germans to France, as "a wounded citizen of France, not dangerous for the Reich in his political views. Checked. Can live on the territory of Southern France Signature - arr.l- t Hauzer ". He was arrested during the overthrow of the Vichy regime, but managed to survive and lived peacefully until 1979.
    photo 2 Mark Volokhov, 1939

    Two brothers and such different fates
  4. Catfish
    Catfish April 28 2020 06: 39 New
    12
    Good morning friends. hi
    Valery, thank you! Everything is interesting and easy to read. Only after reading some kind of melancholy rolled over, perhaps ... How many broken lives and crippled lives. How hard life was for our White emigrants, if they had no other choice but to recruit into the Legion, dooming themselves in advance to the existence of "second-class" people. All this is sad. No, there were, of course, born adventurers, who could not imagine their lives without war and their lives, and they did not care who to fight and whom to kill, for those the Legion became a calling. But there weren't many of them.
    Somehow, after getting to know your works, for me the whole romantic flair from the Legion flew off and the attitude changed not only to him, but also to the French, to a certain extent, too.
    Thanks again. soldier
    1. Olgovich
      Olgovich April 28 2020 08: 23 New
      -3
      Quote: Sea Cat
      How hard life was for our White emigrants, if they had no other choice but to recruit into the Legion, dooming themselves in advance to the existence of "second-class" people. It's all sad

      however, most of them survived. received citizenship and lived a decent long life free people.

      At home, they were waiting for a much more humiliating existence by people of not the second. and the third grade and almost total destruction.
      author: forgotten now poet Nikolai Turoverov

      On the contrary, now he is just very famous-beautiful, talented Russian poet!

      But in the USSR it was impossible to forget him, because he was forbidden.

      We were few, too few.
      From the enemy crowds the distance darkened;
      But solid shine
      Sparkled
      Removed steel from the sheath.
      Last fiery gusts
      The soul was filled
      In the iron rumble of ruptures
      The waters of Sivash boiled.
      And they all waited, listening to the sign,
      And a familiar sign was given ...
      The regiment was in the final attack,
      Crowning the path of their attacks.

      Do I forget how downed in the snow
      The last time I cut a Cossack,
      Like under a sweeping hoof
      The frozen salt marsh rang.

      And like a minute victory
      Threw us through the trench
      And the snoring of horses, and the cry of a neighbor,
      And blood drenched in snow ..... b
      ...
      1. cost
        cost April 28 2020 09: 13 New
        +7
        author: now forgotten poet Nikolai Turoverov

        Why is now forgotten?
        In 1992, both Turoverov and Lun were included in the Collection of Russian Poets of the Silver Age.

        A memorial plaque dedicated to Nikolai Turoverov was installed on the building of Kamensky Pedagogical College (Kamensk-Shakhtinsky), where Kamenskoye Real School used to be.

        A memorial plaque in the poet’s homeland is installed in the village of Starocherkasskaya
        .
        The annual festival of Russian Cossack culture is called "Turover readings."
        In 1997, a street in the Zheleznodorozhny district of Rostov-on-Don was named in honor of Nikolai Turoverov
        Songs on verses by Turoverov are performed by many Russian groups
        1. VLR
          April 28 2020 09: 18 New
          +5
          Well, you can't call him a "famous poet" either: ask a dozen people on the street - who is Turoverov, hardly anyone will answer. The Don is perhaps better known than the Russian average.
          1. cost
            cost April 28 2020 09: 50 New
            +7
            ask a dozen people on the street - who is the Turovers, hardly anyone will answer.

            Nevertheless, 9 out of 10 heard his poems without suspecting who their author is.
            For example, this song written by the composer A. Nikolsky for K. Nikolsky and gr. Sunday"
            1. cost
              cost April 28 2020 09: 58 New
              +5
              And here's another Turoverov, already performed by "Lyuba"
            2. Olgovich
              Olgovich April 28 2020 10: 37 New
              +3
              Quote: Rich
              this song written by the composer A. Nikolsky for K. Nikolsky and gr. Sunday"

              Thank you, Dmitry, for the information about the song and the perpetuation of the memory of the beautiful poet in his native village! hi

              And yes, I agree with you: Nikolay Turoverov makes its TRIUMPHAL homecoming, becoming more and more KNOWN and PEOPLE.

              But all artificial so-called. "folk" so-called "poets" Tychyna ("tractor in the field of holes-holes-holes ...") and Poor demons ("the tractor hums merrily ...") and pr-really go into oblivion - unnecessary already to nobody....
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku April 28 2020 13: 40 New
                +6
                But all artificial so-called. "folk" so-called "poets" Tychiny ("a tractor in a field of holes-holes-holes ...") and Poor demians ("the tractor hums merrily ...") and pr-really go into oblivion - no one needs anymore ...

                Andrei (I don’t know about the priest), "Demyan" was needed for certain purposes, but when Demyan believed in his infallibility and began to bury himself, Iosif Vissarionovich quickly put him in his place. Although, again, as a poet-agitator, he was useful during the war, in part. hi that is, we can say that "personal poetry" is one thing, poetry-agitation is somewhat different ... what
                1. Olgovich
                  Olgovich April 28 2020 14: 35 New
                  +2
                  Quote: Pane Kohanku
                  "Demyan" was needed for certain purposes, to

                  .
                  A peasant Komsomol is coming from the mountain,
                  And to the harmonica, zealously zealously
                  Agitation sings Poor Demian
                  With a cheerful cry, announcing the dol.

                  S. Yesenin
                  1. Pane Kohanku
                    Pane Kohanku April 28 2020 14: 40 New
                    +6
                    S. Yesenin

                    There was an even harsher anonymous poem addressed to "Demyan", where he is directly called Efim Lakeevich Pridvorov. The courtiers' real name (well, you know), but coincidentally! fellow
                    1. Olgovich
                      Olgovich April 28 2020 16: 28 New
                      +1
                      Quote: Pane Kohanku
                      Pridvorov is the real name

                      Of course, I didn’t remember it specially, but it crashed, and precisely because of the uniqueness of its coincidence and essence
                    2. vladcub
                      vladcub April 28 2020 20: 49 New
                      +5
                      Nikolay, and in fact it is true, as they say: "not in the eyebrow, but in the eye." Out of boredom, I was interested in the origin of Russian surnames. The peasants had surnames from the name, "profession", etc. Perhaps the ancestor served with a landowner, somewhere as a lackey
                      1. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku April 29 2020 09: 23 New
                        0
                        Perhaps the ancestor served at the landowner, somewhere a lackey

                        "Genetics is the corrupt girl of imperialism!" wink drinks
                      2. vladcub
                        vladcub April 29 2020 12: 50 New
                        +1
                        Only he is not Vavilov
            3. Phil77
              Phil77 April 28 2020 18: 57 New
              +4
              * Engine whistle,
              crane pipes
              and teeth chill
              through open lips.
              Bye, sorry
              let not captivity be the same.
              Go the way
              and will not meet again.
              On the roads of spring
              the trains will rush and not hands
              and dreams will meet at night.
              The empty station
              over the confusion of fate ....
              The one who did not know grief
              let him not judge love. *
              My respect, Andrei! But let's not be so categorical about poetry, even about Soviet poetry. I have cited as an example only one, you probably will name the author yourself?
              With regards to the article respected Valery, I read it just now, alas, work! Thanks Author, I look forward to continuing !!! hi
              1. Olgovich
                Olgovich April 28 2020 21: 12 New
                +1
                Quote: Phil77
                My respect, Andrei, but let’s not be so categorical about poetry, even about Soviet poetry.

                Hello Sergey! hi

                I categorically not about poetrybut about the Poor Demons ..

                Almost everyone knew him (them). Today, few. Nobody tomorrow.

                Naturally.

                NOT poetry.
              2. Olgovich
                Olgovich April 29 2020 07: 24 New
                0
                Quote: Phil77
                Engine whistle,
                crane pipes

                ....
                And suddenly war, departure, platform,
                There’s no place where to hug
                And a country car of Klyazma,
                In which to go to Brest.

                Suddenly an evening with no hope of a night
                Fortunately, in the warmth of the bed.
                Like a scream: nothing can be helped! -
                The taste of a kiss on an overcoat.

                So that with those in the dark, in the hop
                Not confused with the previous words,
                You suddenly said to me “love”
                Almost calm lips.

                I have never seen one like this before
                You, before these words of separation:
                Love, love ... night station,
                Cold hands from grief.

                K. Simonov, 1941
            4. Phil77
              Phil77 April 28 2020 19: 07 New
              +3
              Andrei !!!! In Soviet poetry there was not only Demian Poor and it was at least incorrect to cite him as an example !!!! And as Nikolai rightly noted, his * verses * were simply used. AGITPROM, no more!
          2. vladcub
            vladcub April 28 2020 14: 52 New
            +3
            But it says: "music and words by Nikolsky." If "Nikolsky" pseudonym of Turoverov is one thing, but if Nikolsky attributed other people's poems to himself it is completely different
            1. cost
              cost April 28 2020 16: 31 New
              +4
              Svyatoslav hi
              K. Nikolsky didn’t ascribe anything to himself, this is a blunder of the one who bungled this video on YouTube and so signed.
              Poems by N. Turoverov. Make sure this is simple - read his poems.
              Music of the People's Artist of Russia, Andrei Yuryevich Nikolsky - composer, author of more than 300 Soviet hits

              Awards and titles
              Order of Honor (November 30, 2011) - for great merits in the development of national culture and art, many years of fruitful activity [1].
              People's Artist of the Russian Federation (May 9, 2007) - for great merits in the field of art [2].
              Officer patent No. 10 of 21.04.2008/XNUMX/XNUMX, the rank of colonel of the Cossack troops.
              Diploma of the President of the Russian Federation for his great personal contribution to the development of culture and education (06.05.2006).
              Order of Merit to the Cossacks of the 3rd degree.
              Order of the Academy of Culture and Arts.
              Order for contribution to the culture of Russia.
              Copyright discs
              1984 - Unnecessary Words
              1986 - First album
              1986 - Andrey Nikolsky performs his songs
              1986 - What is far away (concert in St. Petersburg)
              1987 - Second album
              1987 - Snow whirls over you
              1987 - I love you alone
              1988 - Third Concert
              1990 - Fifth album. Bully with Pokrovka
              1991 - I want to go to America
              1992 - Lyric songs and romances
              1994 - Gentle Captivity
              1994 - Sing Andryusha
              1995 - Tomorrow
              1996 - Songs sung by the heart
              1997 - Dusya
              1999 - The Gray Three
              1999 - Centurion
              2007 - Wolf
              2009 - I dream
              2010 - Sad Window
              2011 - Che Guevara
              2012 - Brother - together with K. Nikolsky and "Ksandra" (A. Nikolskaya)
              Yes, he himself sings well. The song by the way is the same of him.

              here is the spread of the DVD GAPiP "Tersk Cossacks" "My white birds"

              By the way, the DVD is also a blooper - the author of both the words and music of the song "What the Night Bird Sings About" Konstantin Nikolsky. If memory serves, he dedicated it to his friend, an emigrant
              1. cost
                cost April 28 2020 16: 50 New
                +3
                For those who are not familiar with the work of A. Nikolsky, I propose his concert Russian soul "in the Kremlin (07.01.2017/XNUMX/XNUMX). Many stars and well-known bands with his hits take part. It takes more than an hour, but it is worth seeing
              2. Phil77
                Phil77 April 28 2020 19: 14 New
                +3
                Dmitry! Hello from the bottom of my heart!
                Do you know who was the first to sing the song * What is the night bird singing about *?
                Andrey Sapunov! As part of the already mentioned * Sunday *. At that time, 1979, Konstantin was not part of this group and only in 96 did he perform it for his second album. hi It was already a solo career.
                1. cost
                  cost April 28 2020 19: 20 New
                  +3
                  And Andrey and Konstantin, by the way, seem to have a voice, Didn’t they notice?
                  1. Phil77
                    Phil77 April 28 2020 19: 28 New
                    +2
                    Yes, of course. But as part of * Sunday * Lyokha Romanov out of competition! In my opinion! hi
                    1. cost
                      cost April 28 2020 20: 14 New
                      +2
                      some of his squinting are worth it, it seemed that he was helping to sound the strings.
                      And his songs - Who is to blame, I have never been overseas, I dreamed I consider one of the best
                    2. Phil77
                      Phil77 April 28 2020 20: 24 New
                      +2
                      * Flag above the castle *?, * Mirror of the world *? And of course * Musician * !!!!! good
                    3. cost
                      cost April 28 2020 20: 39 New
                      +2
                      And he was the first to perform the Golden Balls, and now the author himself, Nikolsky, sings. And A. Romanov started them back in "Sunday". Then for some reason I didn't like this song, like not rock. And now I like

                      Although with Romanov, it somehow sounded more chased or sounded with anguish "in the tavern"
                    4. cost
                      cost April 28 2020 20: 56 New
                      +2
                      Sergey, drew attention to who is behind the piano on this video from the anniversary of A. Nikolsky wink
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave April 28 2020 19: 08 New
      +2
      Bravo, Dmitry! "Sunday" is perhaps the most lyrical group in the entire history of Russian rock.
  5. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku April 28 2020 10: 21 New
    +5
    ask a dozen people on the street - who is the Turovers, hardly anyone will answer. On the Don, perhaps more famous than the average for Russia.

    Colleagues, you remembered Turoverov, but for some reason reminded me of another "writer", though more than dubious (!) - "centurion" Gorgulov, who killed the French president and ended his life on the guillotine. hi As far as I read, it was an obscene graphomaniac with an obscure biography. I could not find his works on the Internet! request Would you like to fill this gap in our knowledge, Valery? drinks The topic is completely yours - France, but hardly anyone knows about Gorgulov himself. yes If you give examples of his "works", except for those excerpts that are in Wikipedia - all the more we will be grateful. hi
    And yes - thanks again for the article! good Have a nice day, everyone! drinks
  • ccsr
    ccsr April 28 2020 11: 52 New
    +2
    Quote: Sea Cat
    Somehow, after getting to know your works, for me the whole romantic flair from the Legion flew off and the attitude changed not only to him, but also to the French, to a certain extent, too.

    I was also always surprised by the naivety of some of our people about serving in the Legion, to which dubious figures presented the legionnaires as an example of worthy service and imitation. But if you professionally evaluate the legion from a military point of view, then this structure in the armed forces of France was not so much a military army unit, but rather looked like a unit for colonial wars, where soldiers were looked at as second-class people.
    I don’t think that now in the psychology of professional French military there are illusions about service in the legion - they know very well what it is and hardly dream of serving there.
    The author of the article did an excellent job, many thanks to him for this, I really liked the article. True, at the end of the article he suffered, and for some reason he began to weave worldwide Jewish sorrow and Palestinian affairs into the affairs of the legion, but in general this does not change the attitude towards his work.
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar April 28 2020 13: 25 New
      +6
      Quote: ccsr

      I don’t think that now in the psychology of professional French military there are illusions about service in the legion - they know very well what it is and hardly dream of serving there.
      The author of the article did an excellent job, many thanks to him for this, I really liked the article. True, at the end of the article he suffered, and for some reason he began to weave worldwide Jewish sorrow and Palestinian affairs into the affairs of the legion, but in general this does not change the attitude towards his work.

      To me, a French Jew who made an urgent term in the French army told me that the Legion is the most professional and combat-ready formation of the country. The training of my unit was attended by legionnaires from a unit that has the right, among other things, to free hostages. 70% - Russian speakers, 1999. Judging by the comments at the shooting range (all in the case) - pretty professional guys. How to work, did not see.
      1. vladcub
        vladcub April 28 2020 15: 09 New
        +2
        Probably the best thing the French themselves can answer. And so we ALL judge the Legion by film or read
        1. ccsr
          ccsr April 28 2020 17: 19 New
          0
          Quote: vladcub
          Probably the best thing the French themselves can answer.

          Actually, we studied our opponent professionally, and therefore we have much more knowledge about them than those who served in the French army in insignificant posts. So it’s not a fact that the French know more than some of our specialists. Here is an example of brief data on the armed forces of Belgium (though very old), but I’m sure that the vast majority of the citizens of this country do not know about this:
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar April 28 2020 17: 32 New
            +4
            This is general information. Shooting training of infantry, tankmen, artillery, etc.? What is the preparation time for the main fighter-bomber after landing for a new take-off? Special forces training? Parts deployment time? Call reserve? Reserve warehouses? Etc.
            1. ccsr
              ccsr April 28 2020 18: 25 New
              +2
              Quote: Krasnodar
              This is general information.

              This is a guide for a certain level of command personnel, which is informational in nature.
              Quote: Krasnodar
              Shooting training of infantry, tankmen, artillery, etc.?

              And this is already a specialized information company, and it is not included in the reference book, otherwise the reference book will turn into a multivolume.
              1. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar April 28 2020 19: 05 New
                +3
                It is clear - very few Belgians really knew this.
      2. ccsr
        ccsr April 28 2020 17: 02 New
        +3
        Quote: Krasnodar
        To me, a French Jew who made an urgent term in the French army told me that the Legion is the most professional and combat-ready formation of the country.

        You still don’t know our construction battalions from Central Asia when they told fellow countrymen in embroidered demobilization uniforms that they didn’t need weapons, they destroyed the enemy with shovels in battle.

        Quote: Krasnodar
        Judging by the comments at the shooting range (all in the case) - pretty professional guys.

        So this is the key to their survival, and they themselves understand this, which is why they do not play the fool.
        Quote: Krasnodar
        How to work, did not see.

        For us, they never posed a threat, unlike their submarine fleet and other carriers of nuclear weapons - I know this for sure, without even seeing how it works.
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar April 28 2020 17: 36 New
          +3
          What kind of survival? "Crookedly opened the left corner from the knee?" laughing
          This is the problem that no one wanted to bring to a nuclear war - this is a khan for everyone, but only the Western group of forces, specialists and air defense were normally prepared
          1. ccsr
            ccsr April 28 2020 18: 28 New
            +2
            Quote: Krasnodar
            What kind of survival?

            The most common - the Foreign Legion is often used in hot spots, and therefore they can’t fool around, so they train as expected.
            1. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar April 28 2020 19: 02 New
              +2
              Yes, I agree
  • The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins April 28 2020 07: 07 New
    +5
    Thanks to the author. A very interesting cycle is obtained)
  • cost
    cost April 28 2020 07: 21 New
    +7
    Another famous Russian participant in the French Foreign Legion was the Russian poet Don Cossack, an officer of the Russian and White armies, a participant in World War I, Civil War, and World War II NN Turoverov. The same one to whom R.A. Lun dedicated his famous poem "Esaul, Esaul. That you abandoned your horse"
    photo 1 Podesaul N. N. Turoverov in the form of the Ataman regiment

    A native of the village of Starocherkasskaya (now in the Aksaysky district, Rostov region), Don troops. In 1917 he graduated from the Kamensk Real College (the building now houses the Kamensky Pedagogical College). After the crash course of the Novocherkassk Cossack School, the Ataman regiment was released in the Life Guards, as part of which he managed to take part in the First World War.
    After the collapse of the front, he returned to the Don, joined the partisan detachment of Colonel V. Chernetsov. Member of the Steppe campaign. He participated in the Civil War before the evacuation of the Russian army of Wrangel from the Crimea.
    After the camp on the island of Lemnos, he worked as a lumberjack in Serbia, as a loader in France. He later served in a bank in Paris. In 1939, Nikolai Turoverov enters the 1st Foreign Cavalry Regiment (1er Régiment Étranger de Cavalerie) of the Foreign Legion, serves in North Africa (1939 - early 1940), participates in the suppression of the rebellion of Druze tribes (Middle East)
    "You and I share the same faith

    Pointed out the long way.
    Same Legionnaire Badge

    On yours and on my chest.
    No matter where fate doesn’t throw,
    We will have a dream before the grave:
    In the pinkish haze of the desert

    Under the gun is a standing legion.
    The Moroccan sirocco was dying

    Pouring the last dune

    The star lit up lonely
    The caravan went east.
    And we drank and were silent more

    By the fire with the wrong fire

    It seemed to us that we were remembered

    And regretted in a distant land
    It seemed to us: the monist rang

    Behind the tent, where it was dark ...
    And then we called the accordion player

    And they poured more wine. "
    N. Turoverov
    In 1940, the 1st Cavalry Regiment was transferred to France and, on the eve of the beginning of the active phase of the war with Germany, was assigned to the 97th Division Reconnaissance Group (GDR 97). Since May 18, the regiment has been participating in defensive battles against German troops on the Somme, for which it is noted in the order, and continues to conduct hostilities until the surrender of France.
    During the years of occupation, Nikolai Turoverov actively participated in the Russian resistance movement in France, for which De Golem was awarded the Order of the Legion of Honor
    After the war, he worked in the Paris Messenger newspaper, wrote poetry.
    Died September 23, 1972, Paris
    He was buried at the Russian cemetery in Sainte-Genevieve-des-Bois near the graves of fellow soldiers of the Ataman regiment.
    1. Olgovich
      Olgovich April 28 2020 10: 58 New
      +1
      Quote: Rich
      After the collapse of the front, he returned to the Don, joined the partisan detachment of Colonel V. Chernetsov. Participant Steppe camping trip.

      A piercing poem by Nikolai Nikolaevich about this:
      Remember, remember to the grave

      Brutal youth

      Smoke crest snowdrift

      Victory and death in battle

      The longing of hopeless rut,

      Anxiety in frosty nights,

      Yes shine dull epaulet

      On fragile, on children's shoulders.

      We gave everything we had

      You, the eighteenth year,

      Your Asian blizzard

      Stepnoy - for Russia - a campaign.


      PS my acquaintance with the poet was absolutely amazing: once, 25 years ago, on our street, from home to home, a young Russian poetess walked, knocked on doors, called people and ....talked about Russian poetry, about Turoverov and read his poems.

      It was so unusual, strange and bright that it was remembered for a lifetime ...

      I have never heard of or seen such a thing ....

      We talked with her for a long time, took her coordinates, but, to my shame, I lost ...
    2. vladcub
      vladcub April 28 2020 15: 20 New
      +2
      Rich, judging by the awards, the man is brave.
      I am not a great connoisseur of the RI awards, but in my opinion there is a so-called "soldier's Egoriy" and some foreign
      1. cost
        cost April 28 2020 17: 01 New
        +1
        awards:
        St. Vladimir with swords
        St. Anna 4 st
        St. Stanislav 4 st
        Officer St. George 4 tbsp
        sign "For the steppe campaign 1918"
        Officer of the Order of the Legion of Honor of France (1950)
        1. vladcub
          vladcub April 28 2020 20: 04 New
          +1
          Rich, you have listed all his awards, but the photograph is at the latest in 1919, which means he does not yet have the Legion of Honor
          1. cost
            cost April 28 2020 21: 48 New
            +1
            So I wrote the date of receipt in parentheses. Only this is not a photo, but a modern painting by an artist from Baku

            and here he is in Paris with the Legion of Honor. Some French medal hangs above the order; I don’t understand them.
            1. vladcub
              vladcub April 29 2020 13: 28 New
              +1
              "a picture of a contemporary artist" explains it all. Otherwise, I felt a kind of absurdity with the awards: somehow everything is the same and still, something
  • Borz
    Borz April 28 2020 07: 37 New
    +5
    Thank you for the article. Sometimes people's fates and historical events are very bizarrely intertwined.
    1. cost
      cost April 28 2020 08: 11 New
      11
      In the following articles we will talk about two Russian legionaries who have achieved the greatest success in the military field: Zinovia Peshkova and Rodion Malinovsky.

      did the author leave the most delicious for dessert? wink
      But seriously, many thanks to the Dear author. The article turned out. I learned a lot of new and interesting things. Special thanks for the illustrations.
      1. Borz
        Borz April 28 2020 08: 38 New
        +5
        Russian history and the history of Russian people is multifaceted, rich in events and personalities. These are tragedies and valor, outstanding feats and bitterness of defeat, progress and destruction. This is Russian history ... these are Russian people.
        Sorry for the perhaps extra pathos.
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave April 28 2020 07: 50 New
    +5
    Thank you, Valery!
    At the same time, let’s say that in 1972 the whole world started talking about Black September again - that was the name of the Palestinian terrorist group, whose members captured 11 Israeli athletes at the Olympic Games in Munich.
    A couple of years ago an article was published on the site (not very successful) dedicated to these events. Maybe take up the theme of the history of international terrorism?
    1. VLR
      April 28 2020 09: 26 New
      +7
      It's hard to say exactly what you want to write later. Quite an unpredictable process. The second cycle about pirates (Maghreb) was written as a continuation of the article about the Inquisition, where a little was told about the Moriscos. I thought I would write one article - I will summarize the main events, but it turned out 7 articles. And the cycle about the exotic military formations of France - also grew out of the idea of ​​one article - a kind of afterword to the article "The Defeat of the Pirate States of the Maghreb": I also wanted it so quickly and concisely - here are the Zouaves, here are the tyrallers, the spagi ... But it turned out that in this case "do not fit" a lot of interesting stories and facts that it would simply be a pity not to tell. Let's see what happens.
      1. Legionista
        Legionista April 28 2020 10: 39 New
        +6
        Thank you very much for the interesting article you wrote! 4 squadron (escadron reconnaissance) is a reconnaissance squadron. He was often called the "Russian squadron." The song with the melody "... along the valleys and on the hills" is now a squadron song.
        1. cost
          cost April 28 2020 11: 26 New
          +4
          The song with the melody "... along the valleys and on the hills" is now a squadron song.

          I'll correct you a little. The escadron song "escadron reconnaissance" is "March of the Drozdovsky Regiment" "written by the Drozdovites to the theme of" March of Siberian Riflemen "by V. Gilyarovsky. Now the legionnaires perform it in French.
          "Along the valleys and over the hills" is the Red Army version of Gilyarovsky's march.
          .
          chanson 4 de l'escadron de reconnaissance "russe" de la Légion étrangère française
          1. Legionista
            Legionista April 28 2020 13: 39 New
            +5
            You are absolutely right! By the way, sometimes Russian-speaking sergeants in 4 RE (training regiment) during the initial training on the so-called. "Farm" is learning with future legionnaires the song "Katyusha". In Russian)! language. They sing, for the most part, without understanding a word or a meaning, but the sergeant gets unspeakable pleasure)
            1. vladcub
              vladcub April 28 2020 15: 34 New
              +3
              Original, but why explain this? Perhaps the sergeants are pleased to recall their song, and the soldiers appreciate the melody and selfish interest: the sergeant's goodwill. We ALL know that a good officer is good, but a good-natured sergeant means a lot.
              1. Legionista
                Legionista April 28 2020 16: 02 New
                +4
                I think that this is primarily due specialsense of humor, which is inherent in most military).
                1. ccsr
                  ccsr April 28 2020 17: 28 New
                  +3
                  Quote: Legionista
                  this is due to the special sense of humor that is inherent in most military men).

                  Here I completely agree with you

                  https://youtu.be/7pFRYGtgslo
                  1. Krasnodar
                    Krasnodar April 28 2020 19: 38 New
                    +1
                    Against the background of birches - even funnier good laughing
            2. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar April 28 2020 16: 18 New
              +5
              Quote: Legionista
              You are absolutely right! By the way, sometimes Russian-speaking sergeants in 4 RE (training regiment) during the initial training on the so-called. "Farm" is learning with future legionnaires the song "Katyusha". In Russian)! language. They sing, for the most part, without understanding a word or a meaning, but the sergeant gets unspeakable pleasure)

              In the Israeli school, from my platoon, I localized:
              "You tell me, yes you tell me, what do you need .." laughing
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave April 28 2020 16: 57 New
                +3
                When I served in Kharkov, our marching song was "If you are not afraid of the evil Kashchei."
                1. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar April 28 2020 17: 06 New
                  +3
                  There was another joke from the Soviet cartoon: the Ethiopian ran out of the platoon in the morning and sang Chung-Changu, if the Russian-speaking sergeant came out, he was scared and spoke Russian:
                  - Hello, my white master!
                  We were then "loved" for a day laughing
                  PS He knew the translation)).
                  1. Phil77
                    Phil77 April 28 2020 19: 45 New
                    +2
                    I remember! The last month before the demobilization, we, the demobilization, lived in our group naturally for food. Our * combatant * was from * a flying ship *, remember the choir of grandmothers and lambs? This is exactly the song we bawled in the cold .Not melodic? But believe me, from the bottom of my heart !!!! laughing
                    1. Krasnodar
                      Krasnodar April 28 2020 19: 54 New
                      +2
                      To the demobilization in my unit, I knew by heart the most popular songs of the Palestinian Arabs - Habibi I Eni .... laughing
                      1. Phil77
                        Phil77 April 28 2020 19: 57 New
                        +2
                        What is it like?
                      2. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave April 28 2020 20: 05 New
                        +2
                        "What can I compare the beauty of your gentle eyes" (C)
                      3. Golovan Jack
                        Golovan Jack April 28 2020 20: 06 New
                        -2
                        Quote: 3x3zsave
                        "What can I compare the beauty of your gentle eyes" (C)

                        Stop already distorting the classics. Eyes hurt, do not believe it. Flooders.
                      4. Phil77
                        Phil77 April 28 2020 20: 09 New
                        +2
                        * how i love depth
                        your tender eyes ... *.
                        I know this, but * with what to compare * -Do not know, alas! what Old became?!?! crying
                      5. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave April 28 2020 20: 14 New
                        +2
                        Yes, Sergey, right! I was wrong request
                        But the meaning is something like this.
                      6. Phil77
                        Phil77 April 28 2020 20: 16 New
                        +2
                        What ????? !!!!!!! * Dark night * ??????? what what what what
                      7. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave April 28 2020 20: 19 New
                        +1
                        No, rather "Black Eyes".
                      8. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar April 28 2020 20: 44 New
                        +2
                        Habibi - my love
                        I am Eni - you are my eyes
                        I am Nuri El Eni - you are the light of my eyes
                        And all that sort of thing))
                      9. Phil77
                        Phil77 April 28 2020 20: 50 New
                        +2
                        Well .... in this, there is something. Lyrically so, with sadness. Close to Indian cinema. yes Impressive. For an amateur. In a moment of sadness. Sometimes. Infrequently. Under the mood.
                      10. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar April 28 2020 20: 56 New
                        +2
                        https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=7lPyyZ-2rUo

                        Not really - enjoy laughing
                      11. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave April 28 2020 21: 12 New
                        +2
                        In general - the unsatisfied libido of an Arab man laughing
                      12. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar April 28 2020 21: 16 New
                        +2
                        Well, yes - before the wedding, only a donkey or another man crying
                      13. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave April 28 2020 21: 35 New
                        +2
                        How cruel you are to the Palestinians! You do not leave them the right to gender choice. After all, there are more goats! Well, "sheep" ...
                      14. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar April 28 2020 21: 41 New
                        +2
                        Forgive me, blinded by my arrogant Zionist neglect of the Palestinian Arabs, who was equated with bestialophobia in the 70s as ambassador, Mira, Brukino Faso and the cucumber ambassador to the UN, I forgot that besides gender choice, there is also interspecific. And an excursion with Thai massage.
                      15. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave April 28 2020 21: 57 New
                        +2
                        And an excursion with Thai massage.
                        "Tell us about your secret desires! We will fulfill them! New: massage of erogenous zones with lemmings soaked in cloudberries." (Mirny, beauty salon "Brutal Yakut") laughing
                      16. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar April 28 2020 22: 12 New
                        +1
                        laughing
                        What about seals?
                      17. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave April 28 2020 22: 20 New
                        +1
                        Nerpa - do not touch! Exclusive Product! That is underestimated with OPEC for prices, now the Arab princes will suffer from seals !!!
                      18. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar April 28 2020 22: 24 New
                        +1
                        And on the brutal Yakut prostate health prevention ...
                      19. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave April 28 2020 22: 27 New
                        +2
                        And what, they are so bad?
                      20. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar April 28 2020 22: 50 New
                        +2
                        At the sheikhs?
                        Any novice model, pop and actress of any country in the world - easily. laughing
                        Palestinians - you won’t especially get sick with yours, although it does happen. Clans, the honor of the family, can kill both - at best.
                        They can stir up with the left activist - Israeli, but because it’s hard to get into the Zionist territory - access control, it’s easier to meet them somewhere in Cyprus, which requires some kind of dough.
                        East Jerusalem - this is easier, because those with money usually find themselves a girl from a dysfunctional Jewish region - cocaine + shopping. Moneyless people have a donkey, a peasant - and this is very careful, therefore they prefer to do this with a close circle, often related. In short - darkness and horror, in fact.
                      21. ccsr
                        ccsr April 29 2020 12: 44 New
                        +1
                        Quote: Krasnodar
                        In short - darkness and horror, in fact.

                        What an interesting guide to modern Israel and the Middle East. If possible, tell us about the LGBT communities of Israel - now they are, according to the press, one of the most advanced in the world, and this will be another page of your guide.
                      22. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar April 29 2020 13: 24 New
                        0
                        Gay clubs, in percentage terms, less than in Moscow. Gay parades are allowed, but they can be attacked by religious, about 4 years ago this led to human casualties. Nobody hides their bed preferences, discrimination on this basis is punishable. )))
  • vladcub
    vladcub April 28 2020 19: 57 New
    +2
    Anton, I support you. Together we will ask Valeria
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave April 28 2020 20: 09 New
      +2
      Vlad! hi
      The author’s thought goes in different ways. I am glad of the opportunity to sometimes serve as a source of inspiration for Shpakovsky, but Valery has his own path.
      1. Astra wild
        Astra wild April 28 2020 21: 16 New
        +2
        And if a woman asks Valery to listen to our wishes?
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave April 28 2020 21: 26 New
          +2
          The author has her own woman, who is often a co-author.
  • Avior
    Avior April 28 2020 08: 12 New
    +5
    About Malinovsky.
    It is widely believed that he was in the Foreign Legion.
    As far as I understand, it does not quite correspond to the truth
    Malinovsky served in the 1st Foreign Regiment of the 1st Moroccan Division of the French Armed Forces, which was called the Russian Legion of Honor, the Russian Legion, the foreign legion, but this was not the Foreign Legion in question.
    Peshkov is another matter.
    However, it is possible that the author in the announced article will actually confirm that the Russian Legion of Honor is the very Foreign Legion
    It will be interesting to read
    1. ccsr
      ccsr April 28 2020 12: 00 New
      +1
      Quote: Avior
      About Malinovsky.

      This name also alerted me, if only because he was obliged to indicate this in his profiles, and the investigators of Yezhov would hardly have missed this fact, which could affect the career of this marshal. Perhaps the author of the article has found some documents, and will give a link to them so that you can make sure about the service of Malinovsky in the Foreign Legion.
      1. Avior
        Avior April 28 2020 15: 23 New
        0
        I think that if only the questionnaire was the case, then he would still serve in the French army
        I think in his history the guarantee of Khrushchev played a greater role than the profile
        1. ccsr
          ccsr April 28 2020 17: 08 New
          +1
          Quote: Avior
          I think that if only the questionnaire was the case, then he would still serve in the French army

          Do not tell me, because whoever joined the legion then did not plan to return to their homeland, and this would immediately alert any special person in studying the biography. And digging for the subject of recruitment would begin - in general, they weren’t such coots at that time in the NKVD, so they would dig up all his affairs.
          Quote: Avior
          I think in his history the guarantee of Khrushchev played a greater role than the profile

          Kalinin and Molotov vouched for their wives, so this is not proof.
          1. Astra wild
            Astra wild April 28 2020 18: 57 New
            0
            "would you have dug up all his affairs" want to say that Malinovsky, to put it mildly, did not fill out the questionnaire accurately? If he tried to conceal something, and this surfaced - a shooting
            1. ccsr
              ccsr April 29 2020 12: 26 New
              +1
              Quote: Astra wild
              Malinowski, to put it mildly, did not accurately fill out the questionnaire?

              Fill out, and nowhere have I heard that he served in the Foreign Legion - this version appeared during the discussion of the article. That's why I said that I doubt it, and asked for evidence or at least a link to the source of information.
    2. Legionista
      Legionista April 28 2020 14: 54 New
      +4
      You're right. Marshal Malinovsky did not “tarnish” (this is irony)) as a service in I.L. After the 2nd Special Brigade was disbanded, the raging marshal joined the 1st battalion of the so-called. “Légion russe des volontaires”, which, along with the units of I.L., as well as units of the zouaves, tyraers, was part of the 1st Moroccan brigade of the Moroccan division. Organizationally, 1 battalion “Légion russe des volontaires” was part of the 8th regiment of zouaves (8 régiment de zouaves) of the 1st Moroccan brigade.
      1. Astra wild
        Astra wild April 28 2020 19: 09 New
        0
        I was not particularly interested in the biographies of the commanders, but about Malinovsky there was practically nothing but a few lines of the official biography.
        Yes, is it true or fiction that Rokossovsky was not one of the "workers and peasants"? My grandmother told me that he was arrested, but Voroshilov asked for him. It's true?
  • Undecim
    Undecim April 28 2020 09: 20 New
    +7

    Sergey Pavlovich Andolenko - French Brigadier General.
    A native of Volochisk. The son of an officer. After the civil war, he emigrated to France with his parents. Graduated from École spéciale militaire de Saint-Cyr. Most of the military career is in the Foreign Legion. He was deputy inspector of the Foreign Legion, the French military attache in Austria.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim April 28 2020 09: 46 New
      +6

      Boris Chelyakin, Don Cossack, graduate of the Novocherkassk Cossack School, participant in the Civil War. In exile in France since 1920. In the Foreign Legion since 1940. After the surrender of France, he fought in the Forces françaises libres - the armed formations of the "Fighting France".
      He finished his service in the Legion in Indochina in 1946 after reaching the age limit as a captain.
  • Krasnodar
    Krasnodar April 28 2020 09: 59 New
    +4
    On September 24, Arafat and other PLO leaders fled to Lebanon (they also did not sit still here, organizing the assassination of the country's president, after which they were forced to go to Tunisia).

    This was blamed on the Palestinians of Arafat.
    Kataib (the president’s phalanists) took revenge on these unfortunate people - with the connivance of the IDF, they massacred Palestinian refugee camps in Beirut. Later, they found an organizer - an activist of the pro-Russian Nazi party (Lebanese SSNP).
    1. vladcub
      vladcub April 28 2020 13: 44 New
      +2
      "they blamed Arafat on the Palestinians", of course they were "watchdogs", but in this case they suffered in vain
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar April 28 2020 14: 12 New
        +1
        Greetings, Vlad! hi
        I spoke with 60-year-old Israeli uncles who stood in the cordon of Sabra and Shatila. He asked why they did not intervene. The answer from two completely different people was the same - the Palestinians had previously cut and robbed Christian towns and villages, women and children, the latter, regardless of gender, were raped. Therefore, we olmlrosis - the phalangists did the same to them, and on a much smaller scale of perversions and atrocities.
        1. vladcub
          vladcub April 28 2020 19: 48 New
          +1
          I. and I say: they are of course watchdogs, but in the case of the assassination of the Lebanese president they are, as they say, out of business
  • Undecim
    Undecim April 28 2020 10: 11 New
    +5
    Schwarzbard Defense Committees were organized in New York and Paris, finding 126 witnesses of Jewish pogroms in Ukraine under the Directory headed by Petlyura.
    And the Bandera rulers of present-day Ukraine on October 14, 2017 (on the day of the Intercession and the UPA, banned in Russia) inaugurated the monument to S. Petlyure in Vinnitsa!
    Recently, many authors have shown amazing ingenuity in order to insert Ukraine into their plot, even if it is there completely off topic. Moreover, sometimes the authors fail completely, just like with Petlyura and the Jewish pogroms, the parallels drawn look tragicomic.
    Under Nicholas II, who headed the Russian one, the Jewish pogroms reached such proportions that Jews were forced to form self-defense units in most settlements.
    However, this did not prevent in today's Russia to rank him as a holiness.
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku April 28 2020 11: 16 New
      +4
      However, this did not prevent in today's Russia to rank him as a holiness.

      Unfortunately, now in many countries they are beginning to invent new "heroes and martyrs". Sometimes rehabilitating those who were not worth it ... hi By the way, according to the same Kolchak, the one who is usually sprinkled with nasty things by our "couch patriots" - V.O. Shpakovsky. Not rehabilitated on the "wave of democracy"? No. Goodbye, a war criminal. stop
      Viktor Nikolaevich, but I am glad for our time that finally a different consideration of the activities of Pavel Petrovich has appeared. drinks Because until the 2000s, from a school textbook to a guide in Gatchina, we had a "noble point of view" on the emperor, taken up by Karamzin, and so on. request But everything was much more complicated ... Although the emotionality and inconsistency of "Russian Hamlet", of course, could not be denied! On the other hand .. Perhaps he is even more worthy of canonization. And the first to pray for him posthumously were .. Old Believers! hi Yes, because he took a number of steps to meet them. Apparently, his teacher Plato fatigued him so much as a child in the Law of God! laughing drinks
      1. Astra wild
        Astra wild April 28 2020 18: 44 New
        +4
        I agree with you: we actually did not know the truth about Paul 1. I only learned 1,5-2 years ago that Paul was a progressive person for his time.
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku April 29 2020 09: 22 New
          0
          I only learned 1,5-2 years ago that Paul was a progressive person for his time.

          Faith, not that progressive .. Strange! "The Last Knight". hi True, all his good qualities were leveled by excessive temper and suspiciousness, unfortunately. request
    2. Fat
      Fat April 28 2020 11: 40 New
      +3
      Quote: Undecim
      However, this did not prevent in today's Russia to rank him as a holiness.

      Nicholas II was canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church as a "passion-bearer", no one considered him a saint.
      Passion-bearer - this is the name in the Orthodox Church in general of all Christian martyrs who suffered suffering (passion, Greek. Πάθος, πάθημα, lat. Passio) in the name of Jesus Christ. But mainly this name refers to persons who did not accept the martyrdom for the Christian faith, unlike martyrs and great martyrs, perhaps even their relatives and co-religionists - because of their malice, self-interest, treachery, conspiracy. Accordingly, in this case, the special character of their feat is emphasized - malice, which is one of the commandments of Jesus Christ
      1. Undecim
        Undecim April 28 2020 12: 02 New
        +6
        Andrei Borisovich, before writing, make it a rule to read.
        In the Orthodox Church, depending on the labors of their holy earthly life during the canonization of the saints, they are divided into, let’s say, categories - the faces of holiness. Today there are 18 of them - from holy fools to apostles. Passion bearers - between miracle workers and pillars, third from below.
        Like individual saints, these “thematic” groups of saints write special holiday services.
        Therefore, it is impossible to be canonized and not be ranked as a person of holiness.
        1. Fat
          Fat April 28 2020 23: 59 New
          0
          Quote: Undecim
          Therefore, it is impossible to be canonized and not be ranked as a person of holiness.

          Yes. You're right.
          But with holiness in the ROC everything is very muddy. The Apostle Peter considers all Christians in general to be holy "Be holy, because I am holy" (1 Pet. 1:16). The Apostle Paul in his epistles calls all church members saints, including addressing them "called saints" (1 Cor. 1: 2; Rom. 1: 7) or simply "saints" (Eph. 1: 1; Phil. 1: 1) ; Col.1: 2).
          The ROCz once canonized the family and servants in bulk in the guise of the holy martyrs Nicholas 2, even though not all the servants were even Orthodox.
          Archpriest Mikhail Polsky, who escaped from the USSR, considered all Orthodox Christians killed by representatives of state power in Soviet Russia to be "new martyrs of Russia".
          In radical monarchist circles, Nicholas II is revered in the face of the faithful, and even called the "redeemer". "O wonderful and Orthodox Tsar-Redeemer Nicholas" - in non-canonical akathists and prayers. Alexy II called it heresy: "We have one redeemer - Christ"
          The Russian Orthodox Church later ranked Nicholas 2 and his family among the saints of the "new martyrs and confessors of Russia, manifest and undetected," a variant of martyrdom (again in bulk, but without servants)
          Among other things, there were also other candidates for saints among those killed in different places and different months of 1918 of the courtiers of the royal family ...
          1. vladcub
            vladcub April 29 2020 14: 12 New
            +1
            AB "Tolstoy", during the canonization of the Romanovs, someone ("smart" is everywhere) "screwed up" with the wording. Hence, various misunderstandings.
            1. Fat
              Fat April 29 2020 17: 27 New
              +1
              Quote: vladcub
              AB "Tolstoy", during the canonization of the Romanovs, someone ("smart" is everywhere) "screwed up" with the wording. Hence, various misunderstandings.

              No. Not from here. Previously, theological people had to move their brains. In 81, the ROCOR canonized the royal family as "martyrs." From what they considered the Soviet government to be anti-Christian ...
              But in the 90s this was already clearly not so ... Pimen had at least some kind of dialogue between the branches of the Russian Orthodox Church, the authorities were honored to allow.
              I saw Pimen, even the pictures are ... He did not take anything ... Absolutely. Everything suited him, the old one ... and just didn’t have time ... Here Alexy II worked already in full glory of Russia.
              There have been more misunderstandings since 2007 ... I really hope that Kirill (Gundyaev) will do more to unite the church and just Orthodox people. He is a wonderful preacher, to the heap and quite media ...
              The Act on the Canonical Communion of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia with the Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate is a document proclaiming the unification of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia (ROCA) with the Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (ROC).
              Signed on May 17, 2007 in Moscow in the Cathedral of Christ the Savior, Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Alexy II and ROCA First Hierarch Metropolitan Laurus ...
              PS do not continue these discussions here in the comments of this article ... It's about something else. About the Russian people in the "DE-ME" of the French army ...
    3. cost
      cost April 28 2020 12: 10 New
      +4
      Under Nicholas II, who headed the Russian one, the Jewish pogroms reached such proportions that Jews were forced to form self-defense units in most settlements.
      However, this did not prevent in today's Russia to rank him as a holiness.

      For the sake of objectivity, the huge revelry of the Black Hundreds in 1905-1907. was not desirable for either the king or the church. The Black Hundreds managed to turn against themselves not only the Synod and influential radical left and liberal centrist circles, but also some of their potential allies among the supporters of the ideas of Russian imperial nationalism. Frightened by the radical rhetoric and episodic violence of the Black Hundreds, the ruling powers saw in Russian ethnic nationalism a threat to Russian statehood. To disperse the Black Hundreds, the Synod even had to use the "Synodists" - the Cossack guard of the Synod's property. And the government is gendarmes, police and troops. There were cases when the governors were forced to arm the workers-vigilantes to help the police (for example, the report of the Turukhansk governor to the Ministry of Internal Affairs that the vigilantes, after the arrest of the Black Hundreds, sabotaged the surrender of the weapons issued to them).
      1. Undecim
        Undecim April 28 2020 12: 16 New
        +4
        The question is complex. In the literature you can find the most opposite points of view.
      2. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar April 28 2020 13: 56 New
        +6
        Nicholas II wore the badge of the Union of the Russian People, i.e. he himself had Black-Hundred views - "it's bad that they killed, it's good that the Jews." If I had my way, I would have reeled the guts of Petliura and Nicolas on one large drill at the same time. After the first successful resistance to the rioters in Odessa, Okhranka arrested 150 Jews who dared to cripple the "daring fighters" of the Black Hundred in the pogrom they themselves initiated. The Emperor of All Russia did nothing against the pogroms of the Russian Germans during WWI in the Volga region. In Ukraine - Petliura himself did not welcome the pogroms, but he did not undertake much zeal to stop them - in this way tens of thousands of my fellow tribesmen died. That does not negate the fact of a large number of Ukrainians who saved Jews of the most diverse views on Soviet power during the Second World War.
        1. ccsr
          ccsr April 28 2020 17: 36 New
          +2
          Quote: Krasnodar
          Nicholas II wore the badge of the Union of the Russian People, i.e. himself was black-handed looks

          Just do not speculate on this, but rather ask how many Jews who converted to Christianity were in the highest positions in the Russian Empire, not to mention their activities in the country's economy. And then you will be pleasantly surprised, and will demand to put a monument to Nicholas II on your
          the promised land that gave them such an opportunity.
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar April 28 2020 19: 01 New
            +2
            Those who converted to Christianity are conditional Jews. Their children are no longer Jews. Even an outstanding student of Mechnikov, Khavkin, was offered to accept Christianity for a post in Russia, after which he left the country, having come up with his own vaccine with British funding. Any European country passed such an attitude towards Jews, but Nicolas, in his manner, did everything off topic.
            1. ccsr
              ccsr April 29 2020 12: 32 New
              +2
              Quote: Krasnodar
              Those who converted to Christianity are conditional Jews.

              Come on with your Jewish troubles - I am not a believer and a former citizen of the USSR, and your speculation on faith does not interest me, because in the Soviet Union all nations and peoples were equal. The fact that many Jews in tsarist Russia and the USSR turned out to be in the highest echelon of power, you can not deny anything. So what other such oppression of the Jews you are trying to bet everyone, if they are well arranged under any authority?
              1. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar April 29 2020 13: 19 New
                +1
                1) What a wicked you are - calm down, get to know the girl, take her to the movies .... let her go. yes
                2) Equality and the USSR did not concern the percentage rate of Jews entering some faculties of Soviet universities - starting in 1967,
                3) Once again - Jews are not an ethnos, but many different peoples united by Judaism. In tsarist Russia, a Jew could take a place in the "echelons of power" only by ceasing to be such
                4) In the USSR, starting from the 70s, in the highest echelons of power, only Dymshits was a Jew - supply manager
                5) The Pale of Settlement and the percentage rate of admission to universities - is it a good job? laughing Well, sorry ...
                1. ccsr
                  ccsr April 29 2020 13: 34 New
                  +2
                  Quote: Krasnodar
                  What evil are you - calm down, get to know the girl, take her to the movies .... let her go.

                  This excuse against facts will not work, and I met girls in Soviet times.
                  Quote: Krasnodar
                  Equality and the USSR did not concern the percentage rate of Jewish admission to some faculties of Soviet universities - starting in 1967,

                  If Jewish secret bearers had not fled to Israel after 1967, then no restrictions would have entered anyone's mind.
                  Quote: Krasnodar
                  Once again, the Jews are not an ethnic group, but many different nations,

                  Huskies among them are not hesitated?
                  Quote: Krasnodar
                  In the USSR, starting from the 70s, in the highest echelons of power, only Dymshits was a Jew - supply manager

                  No need to whistle - your Zionists constantly publish lists of those Jews who held leadership positions in the USSR and were awarded state awards. And believe me, there are surnames not only Dymshits.
                  Quote: Krasnodar
                  The Pale of Settlement and the Percentage Rate of Admission to Higher Education Institutions - Was It That Well? Well, sorry ...

                  No, I'm not sorry - I just constantly ran into them, and not when digging trenches, so you won't tell me about your "suffering" of those years.
                  1. Krasnodar
                    Krasnodar April 29 2020 13: 43 New
                    +1
                    1) This is not an excuse, but a very gentle indication of your rudeness.
                    2) I am very glad that you acknowledge the fact that there are restrictions, only a small question - what secrets could a pediatrician have, for example? And admission to the medical faculty was strictly limited by the percentage rate
                    3) Eskimos are not. Hindus, Ethiopians, Kurds, Tibetans - yes.
                    4) If it’s not difficult - can such a list of the Central Committee of the CPSU since the 70s? )))
                    5) Did you come across my grandfather in a foundry with my father or at a milling machine? wink
                    1. ccsr
                      ccsr April 29 2020 13: 57 New
                      +2
                      Quote: Krasnodar
                      This is not an excuse, but a very gentle indication of your rudeness.

                      Your primitive lies cause a response, so do not blame me.
                      Quote: Krasnodar
                      And admission to the medical faculty was strictly limited by the percentage rate

                      Nothing of the kind, just in many universities there were orders and benefits for those who entered after the army or lived in remote regions, who had seniority, etc., which is why not all metropolitan Jews could get there to study. So they hysteria about this.
                      Quote: Krasnodar
                      If it’s not difficult, can such a list of the CPSU Central Committee begin in the 70s? )))

                      Contact your Zionists - they will even tell you more about them:
                      Joseph Tartakovsky
                      "Jews in the leadership of the USSR (1917-1991)".
                      Quote: Krasnodar
                      In a foundry with my father or at a milling machine did not come across my grandfather?

                      It did not happen. But the two with me had the first form of admission during study, and this was in the seventies.
                      1. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar April 29 2020 14: 26 New
                        0
                        1) Nichngo of my "primitive lies" you have not yet been able to refute, so you restrain your emotions
                        2) There was a clear percentage rate for admission to medical faculties even of provincial universities - my father could not enter Chisinau, because the norm was 3 Jews in total, could not enter the Urals for the same reasons - as a result, the Polytechnic of Chelyabinsk. Two of his friends could not enter the medical faculty of Chisinau - one went to infiz, the other to agricultural.
                        3) laughing In addition to Dymshits - two more, okay - one last name in the Central Committee of the CPSU of the 70s. can I name it?
                        4) There were such
                      2. ccsr
                        ccsr April 29 2020 17: 38 New
                        +1
                        Quote: Krasnodar
                        There was a clear percentage rate for admission to medical faculties even of provincial universities - my father could not enter Chisinau, because the norm was 3 Jews in total,

                        Stop lying because there were no such percentages for Jews, but there were restrictions on admission according to the territorial principle, when the quota was on rural applicants, residents of remote areas, some ethnic groups of the north who served in the army, etc. And since on collective farms there were few Jews, so they couldn’t do it, but not by nationality, but because after a medical institute it was very difficult to get them to work in a village or in the far north.
                        Restrictions appeared after 1967, and even then for specialties related to the regime of secrecy. But the Jews themselves are certainly to blame for this. Here I talked about Israel Wulfovich Koifman - an instructive story for people like you.
                        Quote: Krasnodar
                        In addition to Dymshits - two more, okay - one last name in the Central Committee of the CPSU of the 70s. can I name it?

                        I gave you a source where everything that interests you is indicated, but this is not interesting to me.
                      3. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar April 29 2020 17: 45 New
                        +1
                        And all this miraculously appeared after June 1967 lol
                        In addition to Dymshits, since 1967 no one has been there. )))
                      4. ccsr
                        ccsr April 29 2020 17: 55 New
                        +1
                        Quote: Krasnodar
                        In addition to Dymshits, since 1967 no one has been there. )))

                        I am in great doubt. Fedor Davidovich KULAKOV - a Jew who is known in his homeland in the Stavropol region as the son of David Abramovich STEIN.
                        And all this miraculously appeared after June 1967
                        Naturally, many Soviet Jews suddenly wanted to feel "oppressed" and flee over the hillock, ostensibly to build a Greater Israel.
                      5. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar April 29 2020 18: 05 New
                        +1
                        That is why he changed the name Davil to neutral Fedya, but instead of Abrashi he made dad Dodik fellow And he changed his name to a purely proletarian - Kulakov.
                        A native of Kursk Province, not Stavropol.
                        You know, there is such an old joke:
                        “Moshe, do you know who Mao Tse Dong is by nationality?”
                        - Oh, we don’t have enough of this drag ...
                      6. ccsr
                        ccsr April 29 2020 18: 10 New
                        +2
                        Quote: Krasnodar
                        That’s why he changed the name Davil to neutral Fedya,

                        But he simply could not physically change his nationality, and nevertheless reached the heights of power. So what is your next Jewish sadness - that not all members of the Politburo and the Central Committee were Jews?
                      7. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar April 29 2020 18: 14 New
                        0
                        Yes, he is Russian laughing From the peasants.
                        I don’t have Jewish sadness, I just show that there was discrimination against Jews in the USSR and in tsarist Russia.
                        And shaw is Jewish sadness? Shaw, not everyone on the Forbes list is Jewish - maybe, but that’s how we people are cheerful fellow
                      8. ccsr
                        ccsr April 29 2020 18: 25 New
                        +1
                        Quote: Krasnodar
                        Yes, he is Russian From the peasants.

                        Like Jacob Sverdlov or Leon Trotsky?
                        Quote: Krasnodar
                        so we are a cheerful people

                        You know how to poison jokes, you will not refuse this. The truth is sometimes forgotten, and you think that real life in the USSR and Russia is also such a Jewish joke ...
                      9. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar April 29 2020 19: 19 New
                        0
                        No, like Dzhugashvili, who became Stalin lol You confuse party nicknames with real names and surnames.
                        Real life in Russia is still a joke. In the USSR, stagnation - too.
                      10. ccsr
                        ccsr April 29 2020 22: 48 New
                        +1
                        Quote: Krasnodar
                        Real life in Russia is still a joke.

                        That's why there is no faith like you - we know very well that you rushed to Israel for sausage, and not because you were not accepted into institutes.
                        Quote: Krasnodar
                        In the USSR, stagnation - too.

                        This is a shallow assessment, although I admit that in the USSR there were a lot of stupidities, including emigrants. After 1967, it was necessary to give the opportunity to all of our Jews to leave for Israel, with the exception of only a few secret bearers. There would be no harm to us, so that was a mistake.
                      11. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar April 30 2020 00: 14 New
                        0
                        Don’t believe it, for God's sake. laughing They rushed, because by the beginning of the 90s it became scary in the Union. Namely, to Israel - because there you can die with weapons in your hands, humanly - in any other country they will beat with stones and sticks, like dogs, or poison like insects with poisonous substances.
                        I agree - it was necessary. This would not have affected the further events)).
                      12. ccsr
                        ccsr April 30 2020 09: 59 New
                        +1
                        Quote: Krasnodar
                        Namely, in Israel - because there you can die with weapons in your hands, humanly - in any other country they will beat with stones and sticks, like dogs, or poison like insects with poisonous substances.

                        Is it your orthodox with arms in their hands defending their freedom or are you doing it for them?
                        Do you even remember one Jewish pogrom during Soviet times? Why are you lying, or can't you live without it?
                      13. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar April 30 2020 13: 29 New
                        0
                        "Our" Orthodox do not recognize Israel's right to exist as a Jewish state, make up 14% of the population and what they eat - I would not say)).
                        There were no Jewish pogroms in the USSR — 70 years before the Holocaust, there were none in Germany — and how did it end?
                        About lying - I didn’t write that Bibi Naianyagu is actually Boris Ivanovich Sidorov, for example, because many knew him by that name in Ryazan lol
                      14. ccsr
                        ccsr April 30 2020 18: 12 New
                        0
                        Quote: Krasnodar
                        "Our" Orthodox do not recognize Israel's right to exist as a Jewish state,

                        So I told you even earlier that we are your Jewish brats. Just do not care about my homeland, accusing her that you were not allowed to live here, because you and your new fellow citizens do not get along very well.
                        Quote: Krasnodar
                        and how did it end?

                        It will end up that you merge from there when there will be more Arabs, and not to Europe, but most likely to us again, telling us that you have roots here.
                      15. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar April 30 2020 18: 51 New
                        0
                        Cheap pathos laughing
                        To live - they gave. Equal rights - no. Who doesn’t get along with whom? )))
                        This has been heard for about 70 years - there will be more Arabs about, etc. wink
  • Pissarro
    Pissarro April 28 2020 13: 09 New
    +4
    Well, if the legionnaire nailed Petlyura then the mention of the topic.
    And with regards to the pogroms of the Jews under the king and under Petliura. It may surprise you, but the rioters were the same people. At that time, the importation of activists by buses had not yet been invented)
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar April 28 2020 13: 58 New
      +5
      I agree - and it was mainly in the same territory.
    2. Phil77
      Phil77 April 28 2020 19: 23 New
      +3
      Quote: Pissarro
      bus delivery of activists has not yet been invented)

      But this is just brilliant !!!!! August 91, Moscow, buses, many buses with * strangers * numbers. I wonder who they brought it to? Probably * Muscovites * White House and * democracy * to protect! laughing
      It's me that some short-sighted people, instead of holding their own specific princes for something, are used to blaming the inhabitants of my city for all their troubles!
      1. Catfish
        Catfish April 28 2020 23: 34 New
        +3
        It's me that some short-sighted people, instead of holding their own specific princes for something, are used to blaming the inhabitants of my city for all their troubles!

        Oh ... They adore it, blame the reptiles-Muscovites for all their troubles, bursting with envy for the "luxurious" life in the capital. laughing
      2. Pissarro
        Pissarro April 29 2020 22: 38 New
        0
        We are about the Death of Petlyura at the hands of a legionnaire. What does the White House have to do with it?
  • The comment was deleted.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim April 28 2020 13: 41 New
      +5
      Look at my comment above to Tolstoy about "different things" and what a "face of holiness" is.
  • vladcub
    vladcub April 28 2020 13: 29 New
    +5
    Quote: apro
    Citizenship of the country. Pension. European values. And this is not enough ...

    Wear it out until you get it. You read how the legionnaires had "fun"
  • faterdom
    faterdom April 28 2020 14: 36 New
    +5
    Thank you so much. I have your work cause great amazement and interest in topics, sometimes either completely unknown, or known in passing, a stroke.
    And there is so much all sorts of things!
    Perhaps so, in the 80s, after the school history course and "History of the CPSU" (what we officially stood out in the form of "rations"), you read Pikul about Japan, about Moonsund, about Minich and Potemkin, about Bismarck with Gorchakov, about the Janissaries : "From how it is! Not only everything - Marx, Engels, Lenin and Spartacus, there were still figures in the world, and they did a lot!"
    But such feelings of novelty are customary to experience in youth, and not in ... middle-transitional age. So, sincere thanks to the author for the new youth.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim April 28 2020 17: 38 New
      +3
      school course
      The school course of history is of an instructive and purposeful nature, it creates (at least should create) a system of concrete historical representations, gives information about the most important historical concepts and events, develops the ability and skills to work independently with historical material. And then everything is in your hands, if the story is interesting to you.
      And one cannot reproach "The History of the CPSU" for the fact that it did not tell about the Janissaries in any way. There is also nothing in the history of the Janissaries about the Communist Party.
  • The comment was deleted.
  • Astra wild
    Astra wild April 28 2020 18: 25 New
    +3
    "we don't care which country
    To sweep away the popular uprising "this is the whole essence of the punishers. In fact, these are living robots-killers. They don't know anything else.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish April 28 2020 23: 45 New
      +1
      Astra, they are essentially mercenaries, and this absolutely spit on where and who to kill, if only the money is paid. They are not much different from such "soldiers of fortune". Both there and there were people who fled from various problems and their dark past. But there were those for whom the war is just a vocation. These are, for example.
      1. Astra wild
        Astra wild April 29 2020 16: 56 New
        +1
        Cat, I don’t get acquainted with similar packers (I'm afraid of moderators)
        1. Catfish
          Catfish April 29 2020 20: 55 New
          +1
          Good evening, lady. love
          He is not a dirty trick, everything is much more serious. Journalists from the Federal Republic of Germany, those who interviewed him, called him "the laughing killer with the smile of the devil", look into this face. And there were enough people like that in the Legion, and they defined the face of the Legion. By the way, he honestly earned the Iron Cross in battles on the Eastern Front with the rank of Oberleutenant, the Wehrmacht, not the SS. And in Katanga he was already a major. If you are interested in the psychology of these people, watch an interview with him, there is a Russian translation on the net. His name is Siegfrit Müller, in the world Congo-Müller. By the way, we also have enough professional soldiers with similar views on peace and war. I know these, in everyday life they are completely ordinary people. hi
      2. saygon66
        saygon66 April 29 2020 22: 32 New
        +1
        - Siegfried "Congo" Müller ... Also an adventurer, what to look for ....
        1. Catfish
          Catfish April 29 2020 23: 35 New
          +3
          Are the adventurer and the professional soldier synonymous? There was no adventure in the Congo, Mueller himself said that it was pointless to fight with spears and bows, barefoot and against the "fifty dollars" in a jeep. It was not the mercenaries who lost that war, but those who sent them there. Do you know the history of the airport in Leopoldville? If you know, then you know what I'm talking about, and if not, read it, it dawned on it.
          1. saygon66
            saygon66 April 30 2020 12: 17 New
            +1
            - Without a certain share of adventurism, they don’t participate in such events ...
            “Moreover, by the beginning of the mess Mueller had been a civil and family man for several years now!”
            - PS A professional soldier is a soldier who has left the reserve upon reaching the age limit. He is fond of beer and fishing, builds a summer house. laughing wink
            1. Catfish
              Catfish April 30 2020 16: 35 New
              +1
              Namesake, hello and best wishes! hi
              Sincerely laughed when he imagined Muller with a beer while fishing laughing , in camouflage with the Iron Cross.
              We have two retired colonels in our village, there is absolutely nothing to talk to them about, no matter how I tried to do it over the bubble. They served, did not fight, they do not know this, they do not remember that, only women’s conversations "about politics" became boring and began to communicate with them.
              But with the young guys who returned from Donbass and passed the fire, there was a lot to talk about. And somehow I can’t compare our military pensioners with those guys who voluntarily went through a real meat grinder. Someone according to personal concepts of justice, and some just from natural adventurism.
              No, I understand that you were joking, but for me somehow it’s all serious.

              PS I was not there, too old for this.
              1. saygon66
                saygon66 April 30 2020 17: 37 New
                +1
                - Mutually! This is probably the difference between "professionals" and "amateurs" ...
                “It doesn’t seem like a conversation with a professional excavator about the details of digging trenches!” laughing So with most retirees ...
                - Comparing “ours” and “theirs” is a thankless task, but it seems that there and there is something other than mercantile interests ...
                “Foresight wrote in one of his books that a mercenary fighting only for a fee does not live long.
                - By the way, Muller, Hoar, Schramm and others like them also noted that they were extremely negative about the murder and robberies of the white population!
          2. Astra wild
            Astra wild April 30 2020 17: 27 New
            +1
            Cat, what's the story in Leopolville? Probably something with the actions of the mercenaries?
            1. Catfish
              Catfish April 30 2020 19: 14 New
              +3
              The story is very simple: when everyone there was "taken to the corners" and the shooting stopped, the mercenaries were offered to leave the country, having previously surrendered their weapons. Naturally, they had a reasonable question, from what alteration they, who have not lost a single battle, should hand it over to someone. They were offended smile and captured the civil airfield at Leopoldville, the only one, incidentally, on all of Congo. They could not get them out of there - there was no one. As a result of negotiations, a plane was sent on which they safely and flew away with all their weapons. I don’t remember how long they held the airfield, but no less than a week, for sure.
              1. saygon66
                saygon66 April 30 2020 20: 43 New
                +1
                - An interesting article about Congolese events:
                https://independent-africa.ru/history-of-5commando
                https://docplayer.ru/58004086-Soldaty-udachi-i-voiny-korporaciy-istoriya-sovremennogo-naemnichestva-konovalov-i-p-c-entr-strategicheskoy-konyunktury-pushkino.html
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish April 30 2020 20: 55 New
                  +1
                  Kostya, thanks, I’ll definitely look. hi
                  1. saygon66
                    saygon66 April 30 2020 20: 59 New
                    +1
                    - Another good article "On Stanleyville!" in the "Soldier of Fortune" community on VKontakte.
    2. Pissarro
      Pissarro April 29 2020 22: 49 New
      -1
      Strange logic. In general, it should be all the same to any soldier sent by his state to carry out the order. The Chechen rebellion in the first war was also in the nature of a popular uprising, does it follow from your logic that it did not have to be suppressed? In the then French Syria, the French soldier suppresses the rebellion. The poet drew an analogy with a Roman soldier suppressing a rebellion in the same place. By the way, the Sunni rebellion (there were a majority of Sunnis in Syria before the war and they are like people) also our soldiers help suppress. Because the Adequate soldier Acts in the national interests of his state, and does not help rebel nations. Our interest and the interest of the soldier sent there contradicts the Sunni one. And Palmyra has been looking at this constantly repeating action for thousands of years.
  • Astra wild
    Astra wild April 28 2020 21: 09 New
    +2
    Colleagues, for me the news is that the Palestinians were trying to capture Jordan. How did Soviet newspapers cover these events?
    1. VLR
      April 28 2020 22: 04 New
      +3
      The USSR supported the Palestinians and Syria. The situation was scary. Hafez al-Assad (father of Bashar, then the Minister of Defense of Syria) threw 200 tanks into battle, but was afraid to use aviation as a cover - this is why the Jordanians fought back. 20 Soviet ships and 6 submarines came to Syria, the 6th US fleet to the coast of Israel, and 2 British aircraft carriers were in full readiness near Malta. Therefore, the order of Lenin at Nasser (President of Egypt), contrary to the text of the famous song, does not need to be taken away (although he was not given him for this). If not for him, it's hard to say how it would all end.
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar April 28 2020 23: 00 New
        0
        Israel also raised tanks to the Golan Heights, and Hale Avira planes flew over the Syrian columns - and on the smallest, to be recognized.
      2. Astra wild
        Astra wild April 29 2020 16: 37 New
        +2
        Valery, Krasnodar, thank you for enlightening
  • Astra wild
    Astra wild April 28 2020 21: 11 New
    +2
    Quote: Pissarro
    Well, if the legionnaire nailed Petlyura then the mention of the topic.
    And with regards to the pogroms of the Jews under the king and under Petliura. It may surprise you, but the rioters were the same people. At that time, the importation of activists by buses had not yet been invented)

    There were probably no buses
  • nks
    nks April 28 2020 21: 31 New
    0
    > We are talking about evidence of extremely rough treatment of Russian recruits by officers and corporals of the legion.
    there is really no evidence.

    > In June 1915, 9 Russian legionnaires were even shot for fighting with the "old-timers" and non-commissioned officers who insulted them.

    This is somewhat wrong.

    https://www.legionetrangere.fr/79-infos-fsale/989-22-juin-1915-execution-de-9-legionnaires-de-nationalite-russe.html
    The desertion turning into a riot, which is not surprising, given the composition of those who signed up there. In wartime conditions, the result is quite logical and even somewhere soft. In the army of the Republic of Ingushetia there were corporal punishment, but in the French, including the legion was not.
    http://militera.lib.ru/memo/russian/ignatyev_aa/31.html
    Even Ignatiev, brightening up the situation, indicates that there was a fierce rebellion.

    > This story had a great resonance in France
    she had no particular resonance.


    > some of the Russians were transferred to regular regiments,
    Foreigners could not serve and cannot serve until now, except as a foreign legion. Only after obtaining citizenship. Ignatiev also writes about this.
    1. ccsr
      ccsr April 29 2020 12: 56 New
      +2
      Quote: nks
      In wartime conditions, the result is quite logical and even somewhere soft. In the army of the Republic of Ingushetia there were corporal punishment, but in the French, including the legion was not.

      Do not distort - by that time they had long been canceled in RI
      (29) April 1863 corporal punishment was abolished as a measure of criminal punishment (with the exception of sentences of convicts to convicts)
      By the beginning of the XNUMXth century, the following types of corporal punishment remained in the Russian Empire:
      1) rods: as punishments for peasants by sentences of volost courts, vagabonds and exiles, and as a corrective measure for craft students;
      2) lashes for convicts and settlers.
      On June 12, 1903, lash sentences for hard labor and exiles were abolished.
      On August 11, 1904, corporal punishment was abolished for peasants and minors.
      On June 30, 1904, corporal punishment in the army and navy was abolished.
      1. nks
        nks April 29 2020 17: 38 New
        +1
        However, during World War I in 1915, flogging soldiers with rods was again introduced as a disciplinary punishment.

        By the way, Ignatiev wrote about this in his book.
      2. Pissarro
        Pissarro April 29 2020 22: 58 New
        0
        I remembered the film Starship Troopers. When, for the accidental death of a subordinate due to the unprofessional actions of a sergeant, the sergeant was sent before the line. Nevertheless, for nonsense it can be better than a whip than a disbat and a broken career.
  • Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko
    Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko April 29 2020 14: 52 New
    +1
    Very interesting! Yes, human destinies are very complex and confusing ...
  • Astra wild
    Astra wild April 29 2020 16: 45 New
    0
    Quote: ccsr
    Quote: nks
    In wartime conditions, the result is quite logical and even somewhere soft. In the army of the Republic of Ingushetia there were corporal punishment, but in the French, including the legion was not.

    Do not distort - by that time they had long been canceled in RI
    (29) April 1863 corporal punishment was abolished as a measure of criminal punishment (with the exception of sentences of convicts to convicts)
    By the beginning of the XNUMXth century, the following types of corporal punishment remained in the Russian Empire:
    1) rods: as punishments for peasants by sentences of volost courts, vagabonds and exiles, and as a corrective measure for craft students;
    2) lashes for convicts and settlers.
    On June 12, 1903, lash sentences for hard labor and exiles were abolished.
    On August 11, 1904, corporal punishment was abolished for peasants and minors.
    On June 30, 1904, corporal punishment in the army and navy was abolished.

    And for comparison, as was the case in other countries
  • Astra wild
    Astra wild April 30 2020 17: 19 New
    0
    Quote: ccsr
    Quote: Krasnodar
    That’s why he changed the name Davil to neutral Fedya,

    But he simply could not physically change his nationality, and nevertheless reached the heights of power. So what is your next Jewish sadness - that not all members of the Politburo and the Central Committee were Jews?

    Perhaps this offends the Jews? For me the news is that Kulakov is a Jew