French military exotics. Moroccan gummers

French military exotics. Moroccan gummers


Gumiera in Italy, photo from the American magazine "Life"

The most exotic formations of the French army, of course, were the goumiers (goumiers marocains) - auxiliary units, which mainly consisted of Moroccan Berbers living in the Atlas mountains (the mountaineers of the Reef were in the territory controlled by Spain).


The Berber recruitment was initiated by Brigadier General Albert Amad, who then headed the French expeditionary force in Morocco.


Albert Gerard Leo d'Amade

The French authorities, who already had extensive experience in using “native” military formations, listened to the general’s opinion, and in 1908 the first detachments of the Hummers were recruited.


Gumier, plastic figure

There are two versions of the origin of the word. The first claims that the name was derived from the Maghreb word “gum” (Maghreb Arabic “gūm”, classical Arabic qawm), meaning “family” or “tribe”. According to the second, less likely, the word comes from the Maghreb Arabic verb "stand".

In the French army, this word began to be called a detachment of 200 people, which, in turn, formed a "camp" (3-4 "gum"), and three "camps were called a" group "- that is, we are talking about analogues of a company, a battalion and a shelf.

Initially, the Gumiers wore a traditional Berber costume, from which later remained turbans and gray or brown striped raincoats with a hood - jellabe.


Gumiers in jellaba: these cloaks make them easy to recognize in any photo

Another feature distinguishing gumiers from other parts was the curved Moroccan dagger, which became a symbol of their compounds.


Moroccan daggers

Later, some combat units created on the territory of French Sudan (Upper Volta and Mali), but a special trace in stories they did not leave, and therefore, when they talk about the gummers, the fierce Berber mountaineers of Morocco immediately appear.

For three years, the gumyers were mercenaries, since 1911 he became part of the French army, their commanders were officers of the Algerian battalions of tyiraliers and spag.

Unlike other "native" formations, the gumyers never became full-fledged regular army soldiers. They remained true to their tribal traditions, which more than once terrified not only their opponents, but also the French themselves. It was common practice to cut off captive ears, noses, and chopping off heads as evidence of masculinity and courage. Disciplinary punishments for such misconduct turned out to be futile. That is why the compounds of the Gumiers, despite the great losses of the French troops, were not used during World War I in Europe, but Moroccan spahi were sometimes mistaken for them. For example, the picture below is often signed: "Moroccan Gumiers in Flanders." But this is exactly spahi.


Moroccan spahi in Flanders in World War I, which are often mistaken for the Gumiers

This 1915 photo is signed: "Gumière in France."


And again, this is a Moroccan spag. Compare it with a real gummer:


Gumier

But the French authorities willingly used the gerberas of the Berbers to pacify the rebellious tribes, their actions during the Reef war were especially successful (and cruel). The soldiers of the army of the Emir-President Abd al-Krim al-Khattabi also did not spare them, and from 1908 to 1934. in Morocco, more than 12 thousand gumiers (12 583 according to French data) died out of 22 thousand - more than during World War II.

Moroccan gummers in Europe during World War II


In the period of World War II, the Hummers nevertheless came to Europe. Recall that de Gaulle then got two "camps" (battalions) of these Moroccans. In the future, new “camps” and “groups” (regiments) were recruited. Initially, they took part in the battles against the Italian troops in Libya (1940) and the German in Tunisia (participated in the capture of Bizerta and the city of Tunisia in 1942-1943).


Parade of Hummers in Liberated Tunisia

Then the compounds of the Hummers were transferred to Italy.

Altogether in Italy there were four Moroccan groups of hummers numbering about 12 thousand people. They were used for reconnaissance in combat, sabotage raids, as well as in battles in areas with difficult terrain, especially in the mountains.

The fourth camp of Hummers, seconded to the First American Infantry Division, took part in the landing operation to land on Sicily (Operation Husky, July-August 1943). Other units in September 1943 as part of Operation Vesuvius were on the island of Corsica.


Gumiers in Ajaccio, Corsica, September 1943


Gumiers in Bastia, Corsica, October 4, 1943


2013, Moroccan gumiers at the celebration of the 70th anniversary of the liberation of Corsica


Landing of one of the camps of Moroccan Gumieres of the Second group on a landing ship departing for the island of Elba

Finally, in November 1943, the units of the Hummers were transferred to Italy. They showed themselves very well when crossing the Avrunk mountains (May 1944), but “became famous” mainly for their incredible cruelty, and not only towards the Germans, but also to civilians of the “liberated” regions.

Marocchinate


In Italy, they still remember the numerous cases of murders, robberies, as well as the massive rape of women, even girls (starting from 11 years old) and teenage boys by the gumiers of Moroccan regiments. Events 1943-1945 in Italy they often call guerra al femminile (“war with women”), but this emotional and catchy phrase does not fully describe the events that took place: after all, not only women suffered from the actions of Moroccans. A more correct (and official) definition of the outrages of the Hummers is marocchinate (Morocquinate).

It came to the point that the fighters of the Italian Resistance, having forgotten about the Germans, began to fight with the Gumieres, trying to protect the inhabitants of neighboring towns and villages from them.


Fighters of one of the Italian partisan detachments


Women of an Italian partisan detachment, 1945

The first cases of rape by Italian gummers date back to December 11, 1943. Already in March 1944, the number of incidents involving Moroccans became such that local residents turned to Charles de Gaulle, who had arrived on the Italian front, with a request to remove them from Italy - this appeal was ignored by de Gaulle. But these were still “flowers”. The Italians saw the “Berries” in May 1944, when, with the active participation of the Gumiers, the Monte Cassino region, about 120 km southeast of Rome, was “liberated”.


Monte Cassino region on a map of Italy (the region on which the green rectangle “E-45” turned out to be very successful)

Here the so-called defensive "Gustav line" took place and bloody battles unfolded.


Gumiers of the 2nd Moroccan Infantry Division as part of the French Expeditionary Force with a Browning M1919 machine gun, Esperia, Italy, May 1944

The French general Alfons Juan (who commanded the expeditionary force of the “Fighting France” in North Africa, he had been working with Moroccans since the winter of 1916) decided to further motivate the gumiers and managed to find the “necessary words”:

“Soldiers! You are not fighting for the freedom of your land. This time I tell you: if you win the battle, then you will have the best houses, women and wine in the world. But not a single German should remain alive! I say this and keep my promise. Fifty hours after the victory, you will be absolutely free in your actions. Nobody will punish you later, no matter what you do. ”



Alphonse juin

Thus, he actually became an accomplice in numerous crimes of his subordinates, but did not suffer any punishment for this. In 1952, Juan received the rank of Marshal of France and after his death in 1967 he was buried in the Paris House of Disabled.

The outrages of the Hummers began on May 15, 1944. In the small town of Spigno alone, they raped 600 women and killed 800 men who tried to defend them.

In the cities of Ceccano, Supino, Sgorgola and their neighbors, 5418 rapes of women and children were recorded (many of them were subjected to violence more than once), 29 murders, 517 robberies. Some men were neutered.

Even the modern Moroccan writer Tahar Ben Gellain wrote about the gummers:

“These were savages who recognized power, loved to dominate.”

The official British report of those years dryly says:

“Women, girls, adolescents and children were raped right on the street, men were neutered ... American soldiers entered the city just at that time and tried to intervene, but the officers stopped them, saying that they were not there, and that the Moroccans made this victory for us ".

American sergeant McCormick recalled the events of those days:

“We asked our lieutenant Bazik what to do, to which he replied:“ I think they are doing what the Italians did with their women in Africa. ”
We wanted to add that the Italian troops did not enter Morocco, but we were ordered not to intervene. ”

Many were shocked by the fate of two girls, sisters 18 and 15 years old: the youngest died after gang rape, the eldest went crazy and was kept in a psychiatric hospital until the end of her life (for 53 years).

Many women were then forced to have an abortion, and even more were treated for sexually transmitted diseases.

These events are mentioned in the novel “Chochara” by Alberto Moravia, later two films were shot: “La ciociara” (“Chochara”, sometimes translated as “Woman from Chochar” or “Two Women”, directed by Vittorio de Sica) and “White Book” "(John Houston).

The first of them is better known, having received many international prizes and awards, the main role in it was glorified by Sophia Loren. In 1961, she was awarded three awards for Best Actress: New York Society of Film Critics, David Di Donatello (Italian National Film Award) and Silver Ribbon (Italian National Film Association). And in 1962, Lauren received an Oscar for Best Actress (she became the first actress to receive this award for a film not in English), and the British Film and Television Academy (BAFTA) named her the best foreign actress.


Sophia Loren in the movie "La ciociara"

And this is “the communist shot by the Germans Jean-Paul Belmondo” (did they all recognize the beloved “handsome” in the USSR?) As Michele Di Libero, the bridegroom of the daughter of the heroine Sophia Loren:


Ciociaria is a small region in the Lazio region whose mother and daughter were born, whose fate is described in the novel Moravia and the film Vittorio de Sica: returning home from Rome, they stopped for the night in a church in a small town and were raped by “liberators” .

The outrages of the Moroccan gumiers continued in other regions of Italy. 55-year-old E. Rossi, who lived in the town of Farneta (Tuscany region, about 35 km from the city of Siena), showed at a hearing in the lower house of the Italian parliament on April 7, 1952:

“I tried to protect my daughters 18 and 17 years old, but I was stabbed in the stomach with a knife. Bleeding, I watched them being raped. A five-year-old boy, not understanding what is happening, rushed to us. Several bullets were fired into his stomach and thrown into a ravine. The next day, the child died. ”

There is quite a lot of such evidence, and reading them is very difficult.

The ugly actions of the Gumiers aroused indignation of Pope Pius XII, who in June 1944 sent de Gaulle an official protest and a request to send only "Christian troops" to Rome - and received in return assurances of "heartfelt sympathy". The only attempt to stabilize the situation de Gaulle made was the order to increase the number of prostitutes in the places of deployment of African troops, but it was not fulfilled either: there were no Italians among those who wanted to voluntarily "slaughter" the Moroccans.

In fairness, it is worth saying that some commanders of the allies tried to restore order in the territories they control. Some rapists were shot - at the crime scene or by court order (the exact number of those shot is still unknown). Others were detained and sentenced to forced labor (so did not keep his word "blessing" his subordinates in the robbery and violence of the French General Alfons Juan).

Already after the end of the war (August 1, 1947), the government that sided with the allies of Italy turned to France with a demand to investigate the actions of the Gumiers. The French initially stated that the Italians “not burdened with morality” themselves “provoked” Muslim Moroccans, but under the influence of numerous evidence agreed to pay insignificant amounts (from 30 to 150 thousand lire) for every Italian citizen who proved the violence, but not to them in person: reparations were reduced by this amount.

In Italy, the National Association of Marocchinate Victims still exists. On October 15, 2011, the president of this association, Emiliano Ciotti, declared:

“From the many documents collected today, it is known that at least 20 recorded cases of violence have been committed. This number still does not reflect the truth - medical reports of those years report that two-thirds of raped women, out of shame or modesty, chose not to report anything to the authorities. ”

The association appealed to the international court three times (in 1951, 1993 and 2011), demanding an objective investigation of the events of those years and payment of adequate compensation to the victims, all of these attempts were unsuccessful.

As a result, the inhabitants of the city of Pontecorvo smashed a monument to the “liberating” Gummers, and when a memorial stele was erected on behalf of France in honor of the fallen Moroccans, a pig’s head was thrown to it.

The completion of the history of Moroccan gumiers


The Gumiers continued to fight. Since the end of 1944, they have already fought on the territory of France, and here, of course, they were not allowed to rob and rape them. For example, their participation in the liberation of Marseilles was noted.


Gumier with flag 1 GTM


The form of the Moroccan gumier in May 1944

At the end of March 1945, one of the units of the Hummers was the first in the French army to enter German territory from the Siegfried Line.

It is estimated that during the years of World War II, the “Troops of Free France” consisted of 12 thousand Moroccan hummers (22 thousand people took part in the hostilities). According to French data, 1638 of them were killed (including 166 officers and non-commissioned officers), and about 7 were wounded.

After the war, the gumiers were returned to Morocco, where they were used to perform garrison service. From 1948 to 1954 three “groups of Moroccan camps of the Far East” (nine camps) fought in Vietnam, losing 787 people killed (including 57 officers and non-commissioned officers).

In 1956, after the declaration of independence of Morocco, all formations of the Gumiers went over to the royal service - more than 14 thousand people. Many of them actually became gendarmes, fulfilling the duties of maintaining order and “appeasing” the Berber tribes.

In the next article we will begin the story of the history of the French Foreign Legion.


Soldier of the 13th half-brigade of the Foreign Legion, 1940, Libya
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  1. Keeping April 20 2020 18: 52 New
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    Some kind of sexual terrorists ...
    1. Gost2012 April 20 2020 19: 19 New
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      Quote: Keeping
      Some kind of sexual terrorists ...

      children of the mountains however
      1. Catfish April 21 2020 06: 29 New
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        Something is clearly wrong with your audience rating. Call the children of the mountains of these geeks ... Are you kidding me, or didn’t you travel far from them yourself? fool
        1. Gost2012 April 21 2020 13: 42 New
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          Quote: Sea Cat
          Something is clearly wrong with your audience rating. Call the children of the mountains of these geeks ... Are you kidding me, or didn’t you travel far from them yourself? fool

          Why such aggression, dear? Are these geeks highlanders? - highlanders. So the children of the mountains. And besides, I don’t know how for you, but for me, this phrase means wild, uncivilized people who have descended from the mountains.
          Why so hawary, uh?
          1. Catfish April 21 2020 19: 16 New
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            For me, this phrase means Father Fyodor at the top of the cliff and the reaction of the idle audience to it. Those. nothing serious, just one "joke of humor", and there are no jokes in this story about the gamers.
            For poking, I apologize, broke and was fundamentally wrong. hi
            1. Gost2012 April 21 2020 19: 59 New
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              Quote: Sea Cat
              For me, this phrase means Father Fyodor at the top of the cliff and the reaction of the idle audience to it. Those. nothing serious, just one "joke of humor", and there are no jokes in this story about the gamers.
              For poking, I apologize, broke and was fundamentally wrong. hi

              Poking - norms, this is a forum, I do not mind. Mainly "or didn’t he move far from them in life?" laughing
              Normal people can always resolve the situation related to the exchange of opinions on the forum in a civilized manner, our situation is such) My respect hi
        2. Astra wild April 21 2020 13: 43 New
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          Sea cat, in general, I agree with your assessment of these hummers, but in vain you poke. The reference to "you" is appropriate between comrades. I’m not sure that he is your friend.
          However, there are exceptions: in childhood, she knew a married couple, they always turned to each other by name and patronymic. I was very surprised
          1. Catfish April 21 2020 19: 17 New
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            Lady love , You are absolutely right and I have already apologized to the Guest.
            1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Catfish April 21 2020 06: 25 New
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      Long thought before writing? fool
  2. Gost2012 April 20 2020 18: 57 New
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    Thank you interesting
  3. polpot April 20 2020 19: 21 New
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    Thanks for the article, I learned a lot ........
  4. Marine engineer April 20 2020 19: 43 New
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    de Gaulle was a weakling, could not get his officers to keep this rabble in check.
  5. Astra wild April 20 2020 19: 57 New
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    Valery, it offends me that Vas has few reviews, but it's all up to the moderators: why do they put you on the same day as V.O.?
    Please, please do not be offended that you have few reviews.
  6. Astra wild April 20 2020 19: 59 New
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    Quote: Gost2012
    Quote: Keeping
    Some kind of sexual terrorists ...

    children of the mountains however

    I would say that I think about them, but I do not want to catch bans.
  7. Astra wild April 20 2020 20: 04 New
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    "here they are not allowed to rob and rape, of course," double standards? And how did the Hummers react to this?
  8. Astra wild April 20 2020 20: 26 New
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    "it was a common practice to cut off captive ears, Noses and chopped off the head" when I read this I remembered the GDR film with the participation of Renata Blum: "Front without mercy," when in Spain, Moroccans who fought on the side of Franco, cut off the head of a Republican pilot .. When I watched for the first time, I thought that the scriptwriters had exaggerated it.
    When the Hummers entered Germany, did they act like that too? Valery did not make this clear.
    1. VLR
      VLR April 20 2020 20: 36 New
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      No, these were other compounds of the Hummers, and the shock from the Italian events among the Allies was too great. They didn’t give such provocative promises anymore (they say, capture the city or region and do whatever you want) and tried to keep them “within the framework”.
      There were isolated excesses, but there is no more mass violence.
      1. hohol95 April 20 2020 22: 46 New
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        It is good that these "thugs" were not brought into the territory of our country during the Civil War!
        1. Liam April 20 2020 23: 08 New
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          Quote: hohol95
          It is good that these "thugs" were not brought into the territory of our country during the Civil War!

          Believe that such a good thing during the Civil War was in bulk. Some Chinese Yakir were worth
          1. hohol95 April 20 2020 23: 46 New
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            The Chinese in the territory of the Republic of Ingushetia appeared before the Civil. They were ordinary guest workers! And there were already articles about them on warspot!
            "Wei hundan!" - “For the Red Party!”
            Mostly the Chinese worked on railways, gold mines in Siberia, the mines of Donbass, logging in Karelia, enterprises of Petrograd, Moscow, Kiev, Odessa, in the North Caucasus. Many Chinese people worked all over the country in agricultural work. Chinese accounted for 70% of workers in Lena goldfields, 5000 Chinese worked immediately at the Ural enterprises of Abamalek-Lazarev.

            Read. Good article.
    2. hohol95 April 20 2020 22: 35 New
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      In one of the films about the Soviet intelligence officer who lived in Italy, there was a dialogue between two Spanish Franco pilots. One of them boasted that the captured Soviet pilot was "cut into pieces" and thrown into a box above the Republican airfield.
      1. Astra wild April 21 2020 13: 51 New
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        Alexey, this fact is in the film: "Front without mercy." My mother-in-law told me that this is a real fact. The Francoists shot down a Republican plane, and then the disfigured body of the pilot was dropped over the Republicans. Moreover, she said that it was a Soviet pilot
        1. hohol95 April 21 2020 16: 09 New
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          “Land on Demand” is a Soviet feature film drama directed at the Central Film Studio for Children and Youth Films named after M. Gorky in 1972 by director Veniamin Dorman based on the novel of the same name by Yevgeny Vorobyov, which tells about the life of a scout, the prototype of which was Lev Manevich.
      2. Icelord April 21 2020 23: 03 New
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        Civil wars, the most brutal and merciless of all wars
        1. hohol95 April 21 2020 23: 17 New
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          You're right. But...
          You should not beat yourself in the chest after such events and shout about your own "civilization"!
          And the "foreign guardians" left a lot of "bloody traces" in our Civil War!
          And the gummers are similar to the "proud peoples" with whom the Soviet and Russian armies had to fight later ...
  9. Astra wild April 20 2020 20: 38 New
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    “Gumiers in Jellab,” this photograph reminded me of the Basmachi, as they were shown in Soviet films. Remember: "The White Sun of the Desert" and more about the border guards, it seems, "Dzhulbars"? I saw him once in my early childhood and almost never remember
    1. iouris April 20 2020 21: 30 New
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      Quote: Astra wild
      Remember: "The White Sun of the Desert"

      In such “cloaks” back in the 1960s, they came to Moscow on the Tashkent-Moscow train. Including deputies of the USSR Armed Forces. Their current was called "bathrobes."
  10. hohol95 April 20 2020 22: 27 New
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    In the film, maybe not Moroccans are shown. But the film is exactly about the African connection in the ranks of "Free France".
    1. Liam April 20 2020 22: 34 New
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      Quote: hohol95

      The film may not show Moroccans

      This one is about Algerians. Rather, about 3 Algerians and one Moroccan.
      1. hohol95 April 20 2020 22: 40 New
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        I watched this film for a long time on TV and already forgot about the nationalities of the heroes. hi
        1. Liam April 20 2020 22: 42 New
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          But the film is about the gummers, you are right. The truth is only about heroism, without the harsh truth of life.
          1. hohol95 April 20 2020 22: 44 New
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            So there they are FOUR bold ... But the end of the film is interesting with the text that the surviving veterans of such units were not entitled to a pension.
            1. Liam April 20 2020 23: 01 New
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              Quote: hohol95
              So there they are FOUR bold ... But the end of the film is interesting with the text that the surviving veterans of such units were not entitled to a pension.

              They were paid a pension while Algeria and Morocco were colonies of France. When they gained independence, France refused to pay further. In the 90s, Chirac restored justice and paid to whom he was still alive
              1. hohol95 April 20 2020 23: 04 New
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                Thanks for the additional information. hi
                1. Liam April 20 2020 23: 06 New
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                  Yes, not at all. The author wrote an informative article, you can discuss
  11. Vinnibuh April 20 2020 22: 28 New
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    Thank you for the interesting article, how much we don’t know, alas. Even these "allies" can still, sorry, slander our Red Army. Cattle!
  12. Catfish April 21 2020 05: 06 New
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    Thank you Valery, even though after reading the article there was a disgusting sensation, as if having bathed in dermeme. But ... You promised to write about it and wrote. But the halo of de Gaulle dimmed for me pretty much. I understand - the war, but for bullying children need to hang.
    And as for General Alfons - do the French still have the audacity to call someone war criminals?
    Then someone there bleats that our German soldiers raped.
    To hell with them, with animals, I will wait for an article about the Legion. drinks
    1. Phil77 April 21 2020 06: 50 New
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      Quote: Sea Cat
      Thank you Valery, even though after reading the article there was a disgusting sensation, as if having bathed in a shit.

      Hi Konstantin! I agree with your opinion! How can such actions be called? And what is this if not a war crime?
      But of course the greatest disgust is General Juan!
      Valery, thanks for the interesting article!
      1. Pane Kohanku April 21 2020 09: 51 New
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        Thank you Valery, although after reading the article there was a disgusting feeling

        colleagues, it’s scary, but it was. And, excuse me, this can happen in history for a long time. Such a contingent - heaps, give them only a gun in their hands, and the full will of action. I think it’s better to know the ugly truth than Hollywood and other heroic crafts.
        Fifty hours after the victory, you will be absolutely free in your actions. Nobody will punish you later, no matter what you do. ”

        Sergey, this is what we talked about araucan yesterday. "The one who has the gun is right, and the woman is a legitimate trophy for him." These are not my thoughts, these are the moral principles of such barmaleys. Unfortunately. angry
        Valery - I bow! hi
        1. Phil77 April 21 2020 10: 30 New
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          Nikolay! Dear Nikolay !!!
          Quote: Pan Kohanku
          Sergey, this is what we talked about araucan yesterday.

          I’m sorry, I categorically disagree with you! The difference is quite significant. I’ll explain: there is a difference between taking a woman as a trophy in the 17-18th century and what these * nonhumans * did for the civilian population in the middle of the 20th Century! Although by and large they, Gumyers, did not reach the twentieth. The feeling of special disgust is, as he wrote, the French General Juan! These are not the words of the general of a civilized country considering itself!
          Regards, I!
          1. Pane Kohanku April 21 2020 10: 42 New
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            what did these * nonhumans * do with respect to the civilian population in the middle of the 20th century!

            it’s just that these nonhumans “live” with their thoughts for another century in the XIIIth from the point of view of developed countries. Another mentality! It’s the same as busily explaining to a crocodile why he shouldn’t eat you - and he is “on a different wave” request Although, for example, Viktor Nikolaevich would have explained to the crocodile so that he would have understood everything, and would have died ... if he had time ... laughing
            The feeling of particular disgust is, as he wrote, the French General Jouin! These are not the words of a general who considers himself a civilized country!

            primary cynic. He performed the task, trying on the mentality of his subordinates. But in France, for sure - a national hero.
            I think the worst fate in any war is civilians. Everyone who is not lazy is cast out over him.
            1. Phil77 April 21 2020 10: 52 New
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              Quote: Pan Kohanku
              what did these * nonhumans * do with respect to the civilian population in the middle of the 20th century!

              it’s just that these nonhumans “live” with their thoughts for another century in the XIIIth from the point of view of developed countries. Another mentality! It’s the same as busily explaining to a crocodile why he shouldn’t eat you - and he is “on a different wave” request Although, for example, Viktor Nikolaevich would have explained to the crocodile so that he would have understood everything, and would have died ... if he had time ... laughing
              The feeling of particular disgust is, as he wrote, the French General Jouin! These are not the words of a general who considers himself a civilized country!

              primary cynic. He performed the task, trying on the mentality of his subordinates. But in France, for sure - a national hero.
              I think the worst fate in any war is civilians. Everyone who is not lazy is cast out over him.

              So who commanded them? Army General of France!
              1. Pane Kohanku April 21 2020 11: 03 New
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                So who commanded them? Army General of France!

                I will venture to suggest his thoughts: He was not in command of France. What does he care about these Italians? They themselves declared war on France in due time - let them suffer.
                Cynicism, as it is! Enlightened Europe, damn it ... no
                1. hohol95 April 21 2020 17: 23 New
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                  Vae victis (Russian “grief for the vanquished”) is a Latin winged expression that implies that the conditions are always dictated by the victors, and the vanquished must be prepared for any tragic turn of events

                  This expression will never cease to be relevant.
                  In Indochina, similar things happened.
                  Kowalski (former legionnaire) - character of the novel "JACKAL DAY"
                  He was nineteen, and at first experienced soldiers called him petit bonhomme (Malchugan (fr.)).
                  Then he showed them that he could kill, and they began to call him Kowalski.
                  Six years in Indochina deprived him of his last human feelings, and then Kowalski was sent to Algeria.

                  And if you get into events in the Balkans at the end of the 20th century ...
                  1. Pane Kohanku April 21 2020 17: 25 New
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                    And if you get into events in the Balkans at the end of the 20th century ...

                    former residents of Yugoslavia are very fond of slaughtering each other with particular cruelty, and, apparently, they already have it at the genetic level!
                    1. hohol95 April 21 2020 19: 24 New
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                      And not Toko them.
                      22 September 2011 of
                      Papua New Guinea Pacific State Police detained a 19-year-old boy suspected of attempted murder of a foreigner. The weapon of crime was the bow, and the islander acted with malicious intent and shot two arrows in a row at the tourist. Most likely, the motive for the attack was jealousy.
                      The victim of an aggressive native was 28-year-old New Zealand citizen Matt Sheurich, who rested last summer in the North Fly area, remote from tourist routes. The foreigner was swimming peacefully in the river with a French girlfriend, when two arrows suddenly pierced his chest and stomach, reports radio station Radio New Zealand International. This happened on June 29, but law enforcement officers could only find the attacker in September.

                      newsru.com
          2. Icelord April 21 2020 23: 15 New
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            So this zhuen all his life in Morocco, he lived like a Frenchman, he is the same. Read kipling colonial officers, these are not metropolitan officers. But the fact that de Gaulle did not want to set up the Hummers against himself was also understandable. It was both numerically and militarily his main troops. He had almost no French
    2. Astra wild April 21 2020 20: 21 New
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      Sea cat, I know very well, what the Nazis did, but to become like animals.
      1. Catfish April 21 2020 20: 25 New
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        Here we are not talking about the Nazis, namely the cattle.
      2. Phil77 April 21 2020 20: 29 New
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        Faith! Excuse me, but animals kill when they want to eat! And without any cynicism! And aggravating circumstances! Man? But here everything is more difficult ... And it’s probably more correct to call such people non-humans.
        1. hohol95 April 21 2020 21: 26 New
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          Excerpts from news sites -
          In 2000, wolves destroyed entire herds of wild boars, cut a mass of roe deer, and increasingly began to attack domestic animals. In November of last year, a flock of predators repulsed from the flock and immediately bit 65 sheep in the tract Bagno on Velikodelsky Pass, and a few weeks later attacked pets near the village of Ilnitsa.

          In your opinion there were 65 wolves? I think they were much smaller and they entered the "bloody excitement"!
          And among animals recorded cases of aggression not related to hunger! And how many trainers killed dolphins and killer whales in the dolphinarium ... Oh, a lot.
          In 1994, an aggressive dolphin wound up on one of the beaches in Brazil, sending 28 people to the hospital. But on the 29th, Joao Paulo Moreira, the dolphin killed.

          So, that "nod" is not worth it! hi
          1. Phil77 April 22 2020 08: 20 New
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            Good morning! Isolated cases, no more. That is why they get on the news feeds !.
            1. hohol95 April 22 2020 08: 33 New
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              Single for wolves and dolphins? Or even for the animal kingdom?
              1. Phil77 April 22 2020 08: 40 New
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                On a global scale! laughing Sorry, I'm at work!
    3. Astra wild April 21 2020 21: 39 New
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      "that our German soldiers raped" unfortunately there were SEPARATE cases. Naturally, this was not officially spoken about, but there were similar excesses. Somewhere on the site I saw about it. And this is logically explainable: the Red Army men have seen too much and among them there were villains, but in any case it can not be compared with the appearance of the Hummers.
      R.
      S
      We must ask Valeriy: in addition to the Gumieres, there were spagi and other formations of the French. The British also had exotic formations; on TV, there were pro-Gurks. Who else is so marked?
      1. Catfish April 21 2020 22: 12 New
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        ... unfortunately there were SEPARATE cases.

        "Separate cases" were in all the armies of the world, but not one, not even the Nazis, had such an abomination.
        1. Phil77 April 22 2020 08: 27 New
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          Hi Konstantin, I’ll add to your words that they were shot for such an abomination in the Red Army.
      2. Catfish April 21 2020 22: 17 New
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        ... unfortunately there were SEPARATE cases.

        "Separate cases" were in all the armies of the world, but no one had such an abomination.
      3. Marine engineer April 21 2020 22: 58 New
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        ".... unfortunately there were SEPARATE cases."

        But, so that senior officers would urge their subordinates to engage in violence against women, nobody could think of such a thing except the French.
    4. DDT
      DDT April 30 2020 12: 13 New
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      Quote: Sea Cat
      Thank you Valery, even though after reading the article there was a disgusting sensation, as if having bathed in dermeme. But ... You promised to write about it and wrote. But the halo of de Gaulle dimmed for me pretty much. I understand - the war, but for bullying children need to hang.
      And as for General Alfons - do the French still have the audacity to call someone war criminals?
      Then someone there bleats that our German soldiers raped.
      To hell with them, with animals, I will wait for an article about the Legion. drinks

      Plus. Moreover, the descendants of these cattle, in Paris, gather at a demonstration and talk about "grandfathers-heroes."
  13. 3x3zsave April 21 2020 07: 55 New
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    Thank you, Valery!
  14. VLR
    VLR April 21 2020 09: 44 New
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    By the way, did you notice how Italian partisans differ in the photographs given? On the first - fighters of the partisan brigade in "work clothes", apparently, have just left the forest. On the second - women and men obviously dressed up before the “photo shoot” and look quite stylish: a shot from the “movie about the mafia”. I chose between these photos for a long time, and, as a result, placed both.
    1. 3x3zsave April 21 2020 09: 55 New
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      Many photographs of Spanish Republicans, especially women, are also sessional.
      1. Phil77 April 21 2020 10: 32 New
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        Hello Anton!
        Quote: 3x3zsave
        especially women, also sessional.

        Actually, like any photo where the subject is looking at the lens. laughing
        1. VLR
          VLR April 21 2020 10: 43 New
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          In both photographs, people look at the lens, and on the first, partisans have joy on their faces, and on the second, calm confidence. Both there and there are winners. But the difference is huge - clothes, hairstyle. The guys in the second photo had the time and opportunity to prepare for the “historical frame”.
          1. Phil77 April 21 2020 10: 47 New
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            Valery, I welcome you! I mean a little different - they are ready to shoot, it’s not sudden for them! And the real skill is to remove an object so that he did not know about it! Here, remember the amazing photo of the political instructor rising to the attack.
            1. Icelord April 21 2020 23: 24 New
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              Alas, she is also staged
              1. Icelord April 21 2020 23: 25 New
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                And by the way, this is not a political instructor, this is a senior infantry lieutenant
              2. Icelord April 22 2020 15: 42 New
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                What is the minus? For the truth? Do you want lies but heroic?
                1. Icelord April 22 2020 15: 43 New
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                  The history of this photo is well known, and the name Politruk appeared in the 70s
                  1. Astra wild April 25 2020 15: 42 New
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                    I thought it was a political instructor. I am not familiar with the then insignia, but I know the form until the summer of 1943.
                    What is the story of this photo?
        2. 3x3zsave April 21 2020 18: 29 New
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          You can look at the lens in different ways. There is such a thing as a machine gun.
          1. Phil77 April 21 2020 18: 34 New
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            Yes, of course. But as Vereshchagin said: * That's what guys, I won’t give you a machine gun. * hi
    2. Earthshaker April 26 2020 11: 49 New
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      The first, perhaps from the countryside, the second urban underground. My personal assumption, not confirmed by anything. On the bottom one feels the setting, it is unconditional.
  15. WayKheThuo April 21 2020 11: 36 New
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    Author!
    Thanks for the great articles!
    I really look forward to the Foreign Legion!
    Good luck, Author.
  16. Astra wild April 21 2020 20: 04 New
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    Quote: 3x3zsave
    Many photographs of Spanish Republicans, especially women, are also sessional.

    My poet, I’ll tell you a secret: ALL women at the genetic level are “encoded” to like, hence the “session” photos
    1. 3x3zsave April 22 2020 20: 16 New
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      This is not a secret for me. Beautiful Stranger, I think you can’t imagine how much I understand female psychology.
      1. Astra wild April 25 2020 15: 48 New
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        I will not be surprised at this: you have a subtle nature. Such people, as a rule, love art, understand psychology, but there are scoundrels. I am not talking about you, but generally
  17. Astra wild April 21 2020 20: 14 New
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    Quote: Sea Cat
    Lady love , You are absolutely right and I have already apologized to the Guest.
    You are well done. Unfortunately, among us there are a lot of boors, and rudeness, no matter what clothes it is dressed in, remains rudeness
  18. awdrgy April 21 2020 21: 12 New
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    Monstrous Moroccans not to be captured
  19. Astra wild April 25 2020 15: 50 New
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    Quote: Sea Cat
    ... unfortunately there were SEPARATE cases.

    "Separate cases" were in all the armies of the world, but not one, not even the Nazis, had such an abomination.

    True?