Military Review

Zouaves. New and unusual military units in France

79
Zouaves. New and unusual military units in France

A. Rachinsky. French zouaves during the Crimean War. (fragment of the picture, 1858)


The conquest of Algeria in 1830, as well as the later annexation of Tunisia and Morocco, led to the emergence in France of new and unusual military formations. The most famous of them, of course, are the zouaves. However, there were other exotic military units in the French army: tyrallers, spagi, and gumiers. And on March 9, 1831, King Louis-Philippe signed a decree on the formation of the famous Foreign Legion, whose units are still part of the French army. In this article, we will talk specifically about the zouaves, in the subsequent we will talk about the rest.

First zouaves


As we recall from the article The defeat of the pirate states of the MaghrebOn July 5, 1830, the last dei of Algeria Hussein Pasha surrendered to the French army besieging his capital and left the country.


Cezayir Dayısı. Hussein Pasha Dey of Algeria (1773-1838)

A little more than a month later (August 15, 1830) 500 mercenaries went over to the French - zwawa from the Berber tribe of the Kabil, who served Hussein for money and did not see anything wrong with the fact that now they will be paid not by faithful Muslims, but by the Giaurs-Franks . According to one version, it was the name of this tribe that gave the name to the new military formations.

According to another, less likely version, the name “zuava” originates from the local cloisters of Sufi dervishes, whose influence in the Maghreb at that time was very great.

The French took Kabil with joy, since the territory of Algeria was huge and there was not enough troops for full control over cities and ports. These first "soldiers of fortune" were soon joined by others. By the beginning of the fall of 1830, two battalions of Zouaves of 700 people were formed.

Nevertheless, the French military command completely did not trust them and therefore decided to add ethnic French to the “natives”, making the Zouave formations mixed. In 1833, the first two Zouave battalions were disbanded, and a mixed battalion was created in their place. In addition to Arabs and Berbers, it included Algerian Jews, volunteers from the Metropolis and the French, who decided to move to Algeria (the Arabs called them “black-legged” - the color of the boots they wore, they also began to call them in France).

A little distracted, we still note that later migrants from other European countries: Spain, Italy, Portugal, Switzerland, Belgium, Malta, were also referred to as “black-footed”. All of them, over time, became French and did not separate themselves from immigrants from France. Moreover, among the "black-footed" there were a certain number of Russians. The first were servicemen of the Russian Expeditionary Force, who after the revolution refused to join the Foreign Legion and were expelled to North Africa. Most of them returned to Russia in 1920, but some remained in Algeria. There was also a second wave: in 1922, ships with White Guards evacuated from Crimea arrived in Bizerte (Tunisia). Some of them also settled in Tunisia and Algeria.

Back to the zouaves. In 1835, the second mixed battalion was formed, in 1837 the third.

How zouaves became French


However, the mentality of the Berbers and the French was too different (not to mention the practice of different religions by them), so in 1841 the Zuav formations became completely French. Arabs and Berbers who served in Zuava formations were transferred to the new military units of the “Algerian riflemen” (tyraliers; they will be discussed later).

How did the French get into the zouaves? As well as in other military units. There were two ways: either the 20-year-old young man was unlucky at the draw, and he went to the army for 7 years. Or he went to serve as a volunteer - for two years.

However, young men from wealthy and prosperous families did not want to join the army and, as a rule, put in their place a “deputy” - a man who went to serve for them for a fee. In the Zouave battalions, “substitutes” were almost all ordinary soldiers and many corporals. According to contemporaries, these were not the best representatives of the French nation, there were many lumpen and obvious criminals, it is not surprising that the discipline in these first battalions was low, drunkenness was common, and these soldiers did not disdain the robberies of the local population.

F. Engels wrote about the Zouaves:

“They are not easy to deal with, but if they are trained, they become excellent soldiers. To keep them in check requires very strict discipline, and their ideas about order and submission are often very strange. A regiment, in which there are many, is not very suitable for garrison service and can cause many difficulties. Therefore, they came to the conclusion that the most suitable place for them is in front of the enemy. ”



Zouaves during the game play cards, 1870

However, over time, the qualitative composition of the zouaves has changed significantly, their units have turned into elite units of the French army. Soldiers of other regiments who wanted to join the Zouave battalion could do this only after two years of immaculate service.


Zouave Drum Major (senior regimental drummer), 1886

In 1852, in Algeria, there were three regiments of zouaves who stood in the largest cities of this country: in Algeria, Oran and Constantine.

In 1907 there were already four such regiments.

In total, 31 battalions of Zouaves were created, of which 8 were formed in Paris and Lyon.

Vivandiere. “Fighting friends”


In the Zouave formations (as in other French military units) there were women who were called Vivandiere (“Vivandie” - the Marktantes). Among them were cohabitants of soldiers and sergeants, and there were also prostitutes who were also part-time laundresses, cooks, and during the hostilities and nurses. The national composition of Vivandiere was motley: French, Algerian Jewesses, even local natives. In 1818, maritime women in the French army received official status, each of them was given a saber, and sometimes in the most desperate situations they took part in hostilities.


Vivandiere in the ranks of the Zouaves. The Zouaves. Museum of Mediterranean Civilizations, Marseille


Markantant and zuavas in Crimea. 1855 year

I must say that among the zouaves Vivandiere enjoyed great respect, and even the most “preoccupied” and “frostbitten” males did not risk offending not only the official friends of their colleagues, but also the “orphan” (regimental) marketeers. In relations with them, everything had to be honest and by mutual agreement. In the compounds of the Zouaves, Vivandiere disappeared only shortly before World War II.

Military uniform of zouaves


The zouaves were distinguished by an unusual form, which made them look like Turkish janissaries. Instead of a uniform, they had a short cloth jacket of dark blue color, embroidered with red woolen braid, under which they put on a vest with five buttons. In summer, they wore short white harem pants, in winter - long red, sewn from more of a more dense fabric. They wore leggings on their feet, on which sometimes buttons and boots were sewn as decorations. As a headdress, the zouaves used a red fez with a blue tassel (“sheshiya”), which was sometimes wrapped in green or blue cloth. The fez of officers and sergeants could be distinguished by the golden thread woven into it.


French zuav in summer uniform


Winter form of zuava since the July monarchy (1830-1848)

By the way, in the middle of the XNUMXth century, so-called Zuava jackets became fashionable for women, look at one of them:


But we are a little distracted, back to the zouaves. On the right side of the jacket they wore a copper badge - a crescent moon with a star, to which a chain with a needle was attached to clean the seed opening of the musket.


Zoav icon

All zouaves wore beards (although the charter did not require this), the length of the beard served as a kind of indicator of years of service.


Zouave, 1855

In 1915, the shape of the zouaves underwent significant changes: they were dressed in mustard or khaki uniforms, as the decals remained fez and a blue wool belt. Then the Zouaves were given metal helmets.


The form of the zouaves in 1914 and 1918.

Vivandiere also had its own military uniform: red harem pants, leggings, blue jackets with red lining, blue skirts and red fez with blue tassels.


Vivandiere

Zouav Battle Path


The first big war for the French zouaves was the famous Crimean (1853-1856).


Zuav in the Crimean War. 1855, photograph of Roger Fenton

At that time, their formations were already considered elite and highly combat-ready, but it soon became clear that the Russians were fighting especially hard against them. It turned out that the Russians, dressed in an exotic “eastern” uniform, were mistaken for the Turks, whose military reputation at that time was already extremely low. And the Russians were simply ashamed to retreat before the "Turks".


E. Detail. Tambour major Zuava regiment

Nevertheless, the zouaves fought skillfully and with dignity. At the Battle of Alma, soldiers of the First Battalion of the Third Zouave Regiment, having climbed steep cliffs, were able to get around the positions of the left flank of the Russian army.


Attaque des positions russes par les zouaves durant la bataille de l'Alma

The Malakhov Kurgan was stormed by seven regiments, three of which were Zuavian. Even the body of the French Marshal Saint-Arnaud, who died of cholera, was entrusted with the company of accompanying a Zouave company.

After the Crimean War, Napoleon III ordered the formation of an additional regiment of zouaves, which became part of the imperial guard.


Zouaves of the time of Napoleon III. Hand-painted photograph from Album photographique des uniformes de l'armee francaise Paris, 1866


Zouaves in the camp of Napoleon III

In 1859, the Zouaves fought in Italy against Austrian forces and crushed the uprising in the Kabiliya region (Northern Algeria). During the Italian War, the Second Zouave Regiment, during the Battle of Medzhent, captured the banner of the 9th Austrian Infantry Regiment. For this, he was awarded the Order of the Legion of Honor, and the reigning monarch of the Sardinian kingdom (Piedmont), Victor Emmanuel II, became his honorary corporal.


Victor Emmanuel II, who became an honorary corporal of the Second Zouave Regiment, a portrait by Alessandro Camussi

In 1861-1864 The second and third regiments of the Zouaves fought in Mexico, where French troops supported Archduke Maximilian (brother of the Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph): according to the results of that campaign, the Third Regiment was awarded the Order of the Legion of Honor.

And other Zouave formations at the same time fought in Morocco.

In July 1870, the Zouave regiments (including the Guards) took part in the hostilities during the Franco-Prussian War, which ended in France with a heavy defeat and collapse of the monarchy.


Zouaves in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871


Les uniformes de la guerre franco-prussienne de 1870-1871

The Zuav guards regiment dismissed the new republican authorities (like all other imperial guards units), but then re-formed, already as an army. When, in 1881, the Bay of Tunisia signed an agreement recognizing the French protectorate, the Fourth Zouave Regiment was stationed in that country.

History Zuavs continued: in 1872 four regiments of Zouavas fought against the rebels in Algeria and Tunisia, in 1880 and in 1890. - "pacified" Morocco. In 1907-1912 Zouave units again participated in hostilities in Morocco, which ended with the signing of the 1912 Fez Treaty with this country (recognition by the Sultan of the French protectorate). At that time, eight battalions of Zouaves were stationed in Morocco.

At the end of the 1884th century, the zouaves also ended up in Vietnam, where the battalion of the Third Regiment was sent. Two other battalions participated in the fighting during the Franco-Chinese War (August 1885 - April 1900). And in 1901-XNUMX. the Zouaves were part of the French contingent during the suppression of the Ichtuan rebellion.

After the outbreak of World War I, in December 1914 and January 1915, in addition to the existing zouave regiments, the Seventh Regiment, the Second Encore and the Third Encore (based on the reserve battalions of the Second and Third Regiments) were formed in Algeria, in Morocco - Eighth and Ninth Regiments.

Several Zouave battalions during the war were formed from Alsatian and Lorraine defectors.


French zuav in 1914, painted tin figurine


Zuava lunch, colorized photograph, 1914

The Zouaves were famous for their desperate courage and earned a reputation as "thugs" - both in the French army and among German soldiers. In the course of hostilities, all the Zouave regiments received the Legion of Honor and the “record on standards”.

The indigenous inhabitants of the Maghreb took part in the First World War - about 170 thousand Arabs and Berbers. Of these, 25 thousand Algerians, 9800 Tunisians and 12 thousand Moroccans died. In addition, up to 140 thousand people from North Africa worked at that time in French factories and farms, thus becoming the first mass labor migrants.

You have probably heard of the “Miracle on the Marne” and the transfer of French troops to combat positions in Parisian taxis (600 cars were involved).

Thus, at first two regiments of the Tunisian zouaves were delivered to the front, and then part of the soldiers of the Moroccan division, which included units of the Zouaves, the Foreign Legion and the Moroccan tyrael (legionnaires and tyiraliers, as well as spag and hummers, will be described in the following articles).


Transfer of troops of the Moroccan division by taxi, September 1914

The invaders


In December 1918, the Zouaves (as interventionists) ended up in Odessa and left it only in April 1919. You can guess how they behaved there from a statement made on the very first day after the landing by the commander of the French troops in the east, General Franche d'Espere:

“I ask the officers not to be shy with the Russians. These barbarians must be acted decisively, and therefore - just that, shoot them, starting from the peasants and ending with their highest representatives. I take responsibility. ”

However, representatives of other "enlightened nations" (Serbs, Poles, Greeks, Siregalese tyrals and French tyrants) acted better in Odessa: it is estimated that 4 people were killed in 700 months in a city of 38 by the interventionists , 436 were injured, 16 women were raped, 386 were arrested and subjected to corporal punishment.


Odessa, French intervention, 1919 (Primorsky Boulevard). In this photo we see zuava (left)

Despite such toughness, the intervention authorities showed a complete inability to restore elementary order in the city. It was under them that the “star” of the pretty romanticized I. Babel Moishe-Yankel Meer-Wolfovich Vinnitsky - Mishka Yaponchik (Odessa Tales, in which the Japanese became the prototype of the bandit Beni Crick) ascended.

It came to the point that the bandits of Yaponchik in broad daylight had robbed a Romanian game club (the Romanians occupied Bessarabia, but they preferred to have fun in a more fun Odessa).

In January 1919, the Governor-General of Odessa A.N. Grishin-Almazov said in an interview with the newspaper "Odessa news":

"Odessa in our crazy time has an exceptional share - to become a refuge for all the criminal banners and the leaders of the criminal world, who fled from Yekaterinoslav, Kiev, Kharkov."

Bear Jap then wrote him an ultimatum letter that said:

“We are not Bolsheviks and not Ukrainians. We are criminal. Leave us alone, and we will not fight. ”

The Governor-General dared to refuse this proposal, and the "offended" bandits of Jap attacked his car.


Archival photo of a real, not "cinematic" Jap

At the same time, Yaponchik himself was, as they say, “clean”, Leonid Utesov, who knew him, spoke of him:

“He has a bold army of well-armed urkagans. Wet things he does not recognize. At the sight of blood it turns pale. There was a case when one of his subjects bit his finger. The bear screamed as if it had been stabbed. "

An Cheka employee F. Fomin recalled Odessa after the interventionists:

“Once upon a time, a rich, noisy and crowded city lived in hiding, anxious, in constant fear. Not only in the evening or even more at night, but also during the day, the population was afraid to take to the streets. Everyone's life here was constantly in danger. Unbelievable young men in broad daylight stopped men and women on the streets, ripped off jewelry, rummaged through their pockets. Gang raids on apartments, restaurants, theaters have become commonplace. ”

About Bear Jap, Fomin writes:

“Bear Jap had about 10 thousand people. He had bodyguards. Appeared where and when he pleases. Everywhere they feared him and therefore rendered royal honors. He was called the "king" of Odessa thieves and robbers. He occupied the best restaurants for his diners, paid handsomely, lived in a big way. ”

You can write a separate article about the far from romantic adventures of this criminal. But we will not be distracted and say only that the KGB quickly managed to stop this “lawlessness”; in July 1919, Yaponchik himself was arrested and shot by the head of the Ascension Combat Station, N. I. Ursulov.

The zouaves also visited Siberia: on August 4, 1918, the Siberian colonial battalion was formed in the Chinese city of Taku, which, along with other parts of the colonial regiments, included the 5th company of the Third Zuav regiment. There is evidence that this battalion took part in the attack on the positions of the Red Army near Ufa. Further in Ufa and Chelyabinsk he carried garrison service, guarded the railway tracks, accompanied the trains. The Siberian adventures of the Zouaves ended on February 14, 1920 - with evacuation from Vladivostok.

Reef War in Morocco


After the end of the First World War, part of the zouaves was demobilized, and in 1920 six Zuava regiments remained in the French army - four “old” and two new (Eighth and Ninth). All of them took part in the so-called Reef War, which, despite the victory at an expensive price, did not bring glory to the Europeans (Spaniards and French).

In 1921, the Confederate Republic of Er-Reef tribes was created in Morocco (Er-Reef is the name of a mountainous region in the north of Morocco), headed by Abd al-Krim al-Khattabi - the son of the leader of the Berber tribe Banu Uriagel.


Reef Republic on map of Morocco


Abd al-Krim al-Khattabi

Back in 1919, he began a guerrilla war. In 1920, after the death of his father, he headed the tribe, introduced general conscription for men aged 16 to 50 years, and eventually created a real army, which included artillery units. The rebellion was supported initially by the Beni-tuzin tribe, and then by other Berber tribes (12 in total).


Army Unit of the Reef Republic

This, of course, could not please the French, who controlled the main part of the country, and the Spaniards, who now owned the northern coast of Morocco with the ports of Ceuta and Melitlia, as well as the Reef Mountains.

The fighting continued until May 27, 1926, when the Moroccans were finally defeated by the Franco-Spanish army (numbering 250 thousand people), led by Marshal Petain. The losses of the Europeans who used against the rebels Tanks, Aviation and chemical weapon, were shocking: the Spanish army lost 18 thousand people killed, died of wounds and missing, the French - about 10 thousand. Moroccan losses were almost three times lower: about 10 thousand people.


Spanish tanks FT-17 Renault in Morocco


French light bomber "Breguet-14", shot down by rifle and machine gun fire of Moroccan rebels


Francisco Franco (future dictator) at the banner during the Reef War

From 1927 to 1939, the First and Second Zouaves regiments were in Morocco, the Third, Eighth and Ninth in Algeria, and the Fourth in Tunisia.

Unsuccessful war


After the outbreak of World War II, 9 new Zouave regiments were created: 5 were formed in France, 4 in North Africa. This time they failed to distinguish themselves: during the fighting, these formations suffered heavy losses, many soldiers and officers were captured. But the First, Third, and Fourth Zouaves remaining in Africa after the Allied landings as part of Operation Dragoon fought in Tunisia along with the British and Americans (campaign 1942-1943), nine battalions of Zouaves in 1944-1945. together with the allies fought in France and Germany.

The completion of the history of the French Zouaves


In 1954-1962 the Zouaves again took part in the fighting in Algeria.

It should be said that Algeria was not a colony, but the overseas department of France (its full part), and therefore the life of ordinary Algerians could not be called very difficult and hopeless - their standard of living, of course, was lower than that of the French metropolis and the "black-footed" but much higher than the neighbors. However, the nationalists preferred not to look around. On November 1, 1954, the Algeria National Liberation Front was established. A war broke out in which French troops invariably defeated poorly armed and organized rebels. The French army achieved particularly great successes starting in February 1959: in 1960 it was already possible to talk about the military victory of the French units and the disorganization of the TNF, almost all of whose leaders were arrested or killed. However, this did not help in the least to achieve the loyalty of the local population.


French soldiers of the 4th Zouave Regiment


Oran city, 1962, a boy with a toy machine and his mother walk past French soldiers

Charles de Gaulle stopped the Algerian war. On June 1, 1958 he was appointed chairman of the Council of Ministers, and on December 21 he was elected president of the French Republic. Ironically, it was with him that the French army achieved the greatest success in the fight against TNF, but the president made a firm decision to leave Algeria. This “surrender” led to an open revolt of the military units stationed in Algeria (April 1961) and to the emergence in 1961 of the SLA (Secret Armed Organization, or Organization of the Secret Army, Organization de l'Armee Secrete), which began the hunt for de Gaulle (according to various sources, from 13 to 15 attempts), and other "traitors".


"Brothers." SLA poster


SLA poster: “To arms, citizens!”

We will talk about these events in an article devoted to the French Foreign Legion, since it was precisely its parts that played a crucial role in decoupling this story, and the most famous and elite regiment of legionaries was disbanded by order of de Gaulle.


Soldiers of the most elite regiment of the Foreign Legion, which on the night of April 22, 1961 took control of all Algerian government agencies and was disbanded by order of de Gaulle, photograph of 1953. What is this regiment, you will learn later

In the meantime, we say that everything ended with the conclusion of the Evian Agreements (March 18, 1962), after which, in referenda held in France and Algeria, the majority of the population spoke in favor of the formation of an independent Algerian state. Algeria's independence was officially proclaimed on July 5, 1962.

And then the long history of the Zouaves of the French army came to an end, the combat units of which were disbanded. Only in the French commando military school until 2006 were flags and uniforms of the Zouaves still used.

It should be said that the French zouaves were very popular in other countries where attempts were made to organize their military formations according to their model. We will talk about them in a separate article. In the following articles, we will talk about the purely Maghreb formations of the French army: tyralers, spag and gumery.
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Ryzhov V. A. The defeat of the pirate states of the Maghreb
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  1. andrewkor
    andrewkor April 8 2020 06: 51 New
    +9
    In the film "Red Square" the regimental combat song, the red soldiers chose "Little Zouave", something consonant with "Don't cry, girl" of my youth!
    1. kalibr
      kalibr April 8 2020 08: 34 New
      10
      On the road, on the road, the day of fun is over, it's time to go on a trip!
      Aim at the chest little zuav, shout cheers!
      1. Van 16
        Van 16 April 8 2020 08: 49 New
        +7
        I remembered the same song)) I first heard performed by Oleg Medvedev, then I learned that the song was from the film.
        Thanks to the author for the article, very interesting. Special thanks for the illustration.
        1. kalibr
          kalibr April 8 2020 09: 15 New
          11
          Yes, Valery, well done. Just great!
    2. vladcub
      vladcub April 8 2020 15: 30 New
      0
      "don't cry, girl. The rain will pass the soldier will return"
      1. vladcub
        vladcub April 8 2020 21: 54 New
        +1
        For the information of the minus player, "Don't cry, little girl" was written by Shainsky. Remember: "I'll get off at the far station", "wedding ring", "blue carriage", "song of the crocodile Gena," a grasshopper was sitting in the grass "
  2. Ros 56
    Ros 56 April 8 2020 07: 01 New
    -10
    As a historical fact, this is an interesting story. And from the point of view of patriotism, the most ordinary collaborators, traitors to their homeland. Our peasants during the French!, Mind you, the invasions went to the partisans and beat these paddles in the tail and mane. And these went to fight for them, and what is there to be proud of? In fact, they can be compared with our Vlasovites.
    1. Pissarro
      Pissarro April 8 2020 08: 46 New
      16
      You read inattentively. These parts were formed from the French a couple of years after the creation. And de Gaulle looks more likely to be a traitor to his people, having thrown Algerian Frenchmen under the knife, for example, in the Oran massacre, and this is after the war won than these French thugs
    2. EvilLion
      EvilLion April 8 2020 09: 05 New
      0
      Given that the Arabs lived in tribes and did not really recognize each other, such allegations look ridiculous.
    3. Undecim
      Undecim April 8 2020 10: 12 New
      +7
      Try re-reading the article again, sometimes it helps.
  3. Aleksandr72
    Aleksandr72 April 8 2020 07: 04 New
    17
    For the first time I learned about the Zouaves from the book of Sergeev-Tsensky, read in childhood, "Sevastopol Strada", where in the description of the first battle between the Russian army and the allies on the Alma River there was such a moment: the Russian infantry regiment shoots as they taught a volley from their smooth-bore rifles, General Bosquet's division zouave lines crouch down at once to pass bullets over them if possible. But Russian bullets fly no further than three hundred paces from the shooting Russian soldiers. Seeing this, the Zouaves begin to scoff at the Russians, and then open up a lively, but not correct (in the sense not in volleys, but out of order) and rather accurate shooting. Moreover, they shoot more on the right flank of the Russian column, because, as the Zouaves taught, there were Russian officers (their place in the ranks according to the charter). I read the book for a long time and did not reread it anymore, so I don’t remember what happened next in the book. And in history it is known that the Russian infantry, deceived by the appearance of the Zouaves, whose uniform was not similar to the standard European, took them for the Turks and, when attacking, suffered heavy losses.
    As for this:
    French zouaves were very popular in other countries where attempts were made to organize their military formations according to their model.

    Perhaps this was more about military fashion, which often took a very bizarre turn, than a perceived need. Surely the author will tell us about the units of the "Zouaves" in the army of the northerners in the great American civil strife, in particular about the "Fire Zouaves" - the 11th New York regiment, formed from former firefighters, brightly and bizarrely dressed, who "distinguished themselves" in the first the battle of Bul-Ran on July 21, 1861, after escaping from the battlefield after the attack of the southerners - the 1st Virginia Cavalry under the command of Jeb Stewart - the future hero of this war.
    1. VLR
      April 8 2020 10: 01 New
      +5
      Including about them. But not only.
      1. Liam
        Liam April 8 2020 10: 39 New
        -1
        How they behaved there can be guessed from a statement made by the commander of the French troops in the east, General Franchet d'Espere, on the very first day after the landing:

        “I ask the officers not to be shy with the Russians. These barbarians must be acted decisively, and therefore - just that, shoot them, starting from the peasants and ending with their highest representatives. I take responsibility. ”

        Do not be embarrassed to name the source of this passage?
        1. VLR
          April 8 2020 11: 02 New
          +5
          In this case, cited in: Shirokorad A. "France. The history of enmity, rivalry and love."
          But I read about it in other sources.
          1. Liam
            Liam April 8 2020 11: 19 New
            +1
            I meant the original source. In the sense of whether it was some sort of order from the army or the recollections of some eyewitnesses to whom the general said this and so on.
            I know that such a passage walks on the Runet. I would like to know the source. That would not work as with all kinds of pseudocytes Bismarck, Churchill, etc.
            1. Ryazan87
              Ryazan87 April 8 2020 13: 34 New
              +4
              Shirokorad is a very dubious source. Moreover, he himself does not give any reference to the source, and the numbers are calculated to unity. Especially these data look ambiguous after reading the following paragraphs of the article about the unprecedented rampant banditry in Odessa. By the way, the author noted that the Reds were shot by the Bear of Yaponchik, but for some reason he delicately kept silent about his service in the Red Army.
              1. Liam
                Liam April 8 2020 13: 53 New
                0
                Quote: Ryazanets87
                Moreover, he himself does not give any reference to the source

                Thank you. Even had no doubt honestly
              2. VLR
                April 8 2020 13: 54 New
                +4
                Yes, "Yaponchik goes to war" is a plot for an operetta in the style of "Wedding in Malinovka". But I did not want to “spread like a head along the tree”.
                There you need to write a separate article. Maybe I’ll get together somehow.
                1. vladcub
                  vladcub April 8 2020 15: 25 New
                  +2
                  Valery, the work was good, but out of harm.
                  Jap to zouaves has the same relation as from the hippo Plisetskaya. My opinion is that in vain a lot of attention to him
          2. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave April 8 2020 13: 56 New
            +3
            Alas, Valery, they don’t like Shirokorad here laughing
            1. vladcub
              vladcub April 8 2020 15: 01 New
              +4
              Quote: 3x3zsave

              С

              There are probably good reasons.
    2. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I April 9 2020 01: 40 New
      +1
      Quote: Aleksandr72
      For the first time I learned about the Zouaves from the book of Sergeev-Tsensky, read in childhood, "The Sevastopol Passion",

      It was the same with me! Then, I managed to read a little about the Zouaves in the translated books of French authors dedicated to WW1 and the colonial wars in North Africa in the 20s ... I managed, somehow, to read about spags ... But about tyrallers and gumiers, not remember! Maybe I read it (it seems, on the same VO ... or in the "Russian Seven" ...)), but I forgot ...
  4. Olgovich
    Olgovich April 8 2020 07: 24 New
    +9
    Reminded the famous:
    Dark skin, guttural sound of speeches
    Hurry to flash in a dream.
    Weasels of Fatima, the sparkle of her eyes
    - And a sudden stroke of the knife.
    In the dark basement the dawn is dull and dull
    Everything is forgotten - pain and anger.
    Buddy Philibert no longer hears
    What does the native chorus sound like:
    On the way, on the way, the day of fun is over, it's time to hike.
    Aim at the chest, little Zouav, shout "Hurray!"

    Believing in miracles for many days, Susanna is waiting.
    She has blue eyes and a red mouth.
    1. cost
      cost April 8 2020 11: 52 New
      +9
      On March 9, 1831, King Louis-Philippe signed a decree on the formation of the famous Foreign Legion, whose units are still part of the French army.

      How can one fail to recall the most famous commander of the French foreign legion - "the great and terrible commander" iron hand ", holder of the largest number of military awards in the history of France (fifty government orders and medals), four-star general Zinovy ​​Alekseevich Peshkov (Yeshua-Zalman Mikhailovich Sverdlov) A man of unusual fate - YM Sverdlov's elder brother, godson and adopted son of AM Gorky, personal friend of De Gaulle, W. Churchill, A. Saint-Exupery, Sartre, Camus, Mauriac, Exupery and E. Piaf.

      That's about whom, Dear Author, it would not be bad to write a separate article.
      1. VLR
        April 8 2020 12: 04 New
        +7
        He will be discussed in one of the articles of the cycle.
        1. cost
          cost April 8 2020 14: 16 New
          +4
          Thank you, Valery. I will look forward to it.
          Best regards
          Dmitriy
  5. DMB 75
    DMB 75 April 8 2020 08: 11 New
    10
    Thanks for the interesting and beautifully illustrated article! Have a nice day!
    1. cost
      cost April 8 2020 11: 53 New
      +6
      I am joining. The article was a success. In the best traditions of VO. thank
  6. Earthshaker
    Earthshaker April 8 2020 08: 17 New
    +6
    Thanks for the unexpected jump from pirates to the French army. A few spoilers, the regiment is airborne, but I don’t remember the number, maybe the 3rd.
    1. Walking
      Walking April 8 2020 16: 19 New
      +3
      1 parachute regiment of the Foreign Legion was disbanded.
      1. Earthshaker
        Earthshaker April 8 2020 18: 18 New
        +1
        Of course, 3 airborne parachute and never was. Memory fails.
  7. Aviator_
    Aviator_ April 8 2020 08: 42 New
    +4
    Good article, respect to the author. Small clarification:
    climbing a sheer the rocks, were able to get around the position of the left flank of the Russian army.

    In the Alma delta, the soil is loessial, there are basically no rocks there, although the cliffs are really very steep, 8-10 m. Climbing the loessial cliff is much more difficult than climbing the cliff.
  8. Free wind
    Free wind April 8 2020 08: 49 New
    +5
    Shtabletov at these zuavs offset. Ours in the fifties were also noted there, both with weapons and military experts. Although the actions of these liberators can only be called terrorism, they blew everything up. There were many shahids .. the USSR recognized the independence of Algeria 2 months before Algeria declared independence, and this happened. Sappers were sent for mine clearance. all demining works were carried out by Soviet specialists and conscripts. Algerians modestly withdrew.
    1. vladcub
      vladcub April 8 2020 15: 17 New
      +3
      "the Algerians have modestly withdrawn themselves." You can read about this and much more: Okorokov "Undeclared Wars of the Soviet Union
    2. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar April 8 2020 20: 56 New
      +1
      Quote: Free Wind
      Shtabletov at these zuavs offset. Ours in the fifties were also noted there, both with weapons and military experts. Although the actions of these liberators can only be called terrorism, they blew everything up. There were many shahids .. the USSR recognized the independence of Algeria 2 months before Algeria declared independence, and this happened. Sappers were sent for mine clearance. all demining works were carried out by Soviet specialists and conscripts. Algerians modestly withdrew.

      So they started parenting with an upset school bus filled with French children
  9. EvilLion
    EvilLion April 8 2020 09: 17 New
    -1
    The usual mercenary rabble for work that the Europeans themselves do not really want to do.
    1. Astra wild
      Astra wild April 8 2020 15: 55 New
      0
      In fact, the author writes the opposite. Even the Sardinian king was considered a corporal of the Zuava regiment. He didn’t spoil his reputation so that his name would be associated with ordinary mercenaries
      1. EvilLion
        EvilLion April 8 2020 16: 03 New
        +1
        Duc, the guys need to show that they are important, "serve - you will get a badge", even if you happen to run, for example, by sea, the French will simply not let them on the ships. You can always pick up poor Arabs as cannon fodder.
  10. Operator
    Operator April 8 2020 09: 18 New
    -10
    After the frogmen broke the ridge in 1814, they ceased to be a significant force in Europe and distinguished themselves only in colonial wars, and even those ultimately lost everything (in North Africa and Indochina). Now they are happy to undergo the colonization process by Algerians and Tunisians (10% of the French population today).
    1. Ryazan87
      Ryazan87 April 8 2020 13: 39 New
      +8
      Quote: Operator
      After the frogmen broke the ridge in 1814, they ceased to be a significant force in Europe and distinguished themselves only in colonial wars.

      Yes, the Russian army itself was convinced of this - Alma, Inkerman, Black River. And Malakhov’s mound was directly assaulted by the French.
      Then the Austrian army also made sure - Magenta and Solferino.
      After all, Verdun wasn’t a fun walk for the Germans.
      1. Operator
        Operator April 8 2020 14: 44 New
        -6
        Quote: Ryazanets87
        Alma, Inkerman, Black River ... Malakhov Kurgan

        The Crimean War (as part of the coalition) - no, not heard. Alm war, Inkerman war, Chernorechensky war, Malakhov war - is another matter laughing
  11. Undecim
    Undecim April 8 2020 10: 40 New
    +4
    I must say that among the zouaves Vivandiere enjoyed great respect
    Vivandiere, cantinière from 1793, was respected throughout the French army. Replacing veteran soldiers in the role of cantinière since 1905, they have enjoyed the disgusting reputation of thieving rear rats.
    In 1940, cantinière in the French army eliminated.
  12. Maks1995
    Maks1995 April 8 2020 11: 20 New
    +3
    Great article
  13. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave April 8 2020 14: 01 New
    +4
    Thank you Valery! Great stuff!
    My question is: what about in subsequent articles about de Gaulle will be?
    1. VLR
      April 8 2020 14: 38 New
      +4
      Yes, basically, when it will be told in some detail about the Algerian war of 1954-1962.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave April 8 2020 14: 47 New
        +2
        Within Temptation!!!
        But do you want to consider de Gaulle’s personality?
        1. VLR
          April 8 2020 15: 10 New
          +3
          There are no such plans yet.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave April 8 2020 15: 18 New
            +2
            Sorry. In my opinion, the only European leader of that time who pursued his own independent policy (Franco, we do not take into account how more intelligent and cunning).
            1. Catfish
              Catfish April 8 2020 16: 26 New
              +2
              Hello Anton. I agree, it would be interesting to know more about de Gaulle. One story with a ship sent to the States for gold is worth it.
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave April 8 2020 16: 30 New
                +2
                Moreover, he pressed this gold!
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish April 8 2020 16: 45 New
                  +1
                  I am aware that I squeezed out, that's why I remembered about it. You're thin. Have you seen a film about the assassination attempt on de Gaulle? "Day of the Jackal". If we discard all the fantasy about the Jackal himself, then the film very accurately reconstructs the scene of a real attempt on the life of the President of France.
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave April 8 2020 17: 06 New
                    +2
                    I have not seen, I have read. "Dogs of War", "Dossier Odessa" - too.
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish April 8 2020 17: 23 New
                      +3
                      Look, at least because of the scene at the beginning of the film with the assassination attempt and execution of its organizer - Colonel Bastien Thierry, it is very well done.
                      In addition to "Dossier" I read both books, "Dogs" is generally about mercenaries and there is a film with Christopher Walken in the title role. But a really good movie about mercenaries is "Wild Geese", perhaps because Michael Hoare himself advised him, and who, no matter how he knows everything about this craft.
                      1. hohol95
                        hohol95 April 8 2020 19: 38 New
                        +3
                        The chill of an early spring Parisian morning became even more penetrating with the knowledge that the death sentence was to be carried out. On March 11, 1963, at six forty minutes, in the courtyard of Fort d'Ivry, an officer of the French Air Force stood at a pillar driven into the gravel with his hands tied behind his back and, still not believing his eyes, looked at a platoon of soldiers lined up twenty meters From him.
                        The gravel creaked under easy steps, a black blindfold fell on the eyes of Jean-Marie Bastien-Thiry, thirty-five years old, lieutenant colonel. The clatter of shutters drowned out the mumble of the priest.

                        Frederick Forsyth
                        Day of the Jackal
                        I did not watch the film, but reading the book I was surprised at the ability of special services to work quickly without computers of other gadgets.
                        Now they are more tied to gadgets.
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish April 8 2020 19: 45 New
                        +2
                        Hi Aleksey hi , the film very clearly showed the methods of work of Surte.
                      3. hohol95
                        hohol95 April 8 2020 19: 53 New
                        +2
                        So in the book everything was well described!
                        - It seems to me, Mr. Minister, that SDECE cannot find this person through its agents in the CCA, because the CCA does not know who he is. And the Counter Division cannot destroy it, because it does not know who needs to be destroyed. DST cannot stop it at the border, because it does not know who to stop. RZh cannot give us the necessary information, because it has no idea what documents we need. The police cannot arrest him because he has no idea who to arrest. Cattle cannot raid him, because you can’t catch anyone unknown. The whole structure of the French security forces is powerless in front of a man who does not have a surname. Therefore, it seems to me that our first task, without solving which all our efforts will be in vain, is to give this person a surname. The surname will be followed by a person, by a person - a passport, by a passport - an arrest. And to find out the name, and in the strictest secrecy, can only a detective.
  14. Catfish
    Catfish April 8 2020 16: 30 New
    +3
    Valery, hi during the Second World War, after the landing in Italy, the Moroccans "became famous" for their atrocities. What parts did they refer to, you do not know?
    1. VLR
      April 8 2020 16: 44 New
      +3
      Gumiers, about them - through one article. What they did in Monte Cassino is really not for the faint of heart. The following article is about tyirals. And already from the 4th - the Foreign Legion.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish April 8 2020 16: 46 New
        +3
        I'm understood, thank you. Boom to wait. smile
  • vladcub
    vladcub April 8 2020 15: 11 New
    +6
    Quote: Rich
    I am joining. The article was a success. In the best traditions of VO. thank

    In fact, Valeria is distinguished by conscientiousness. Other authors on the site have rather mediocre work, and Valery has quality work.
  • Korsar4
    Korsar4 April 8 2020 15: 29 New
    +3
    Beard length is an excellent indicator. Hottabych would certainly be in authority.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave April 8 2020 16: 49 New
      +2
      Gnomes, as there are gnomes! "... an insect and against a person, it's like a carpenter, against a carpenter" (C)
  • Astra wild
    Astra wild April 8 2020 15: 43 New
    +3
    The author, thank you very much for not making us wait long for your material. I have not heard about zouaves before, and therefore I read with interest
  • Astra wild
    Astra wild April 8 2020 16: 10 New
    +2
    Colleagues, do not you think that it was not very convenient for the Zouaves to carry a rifle around their neck?
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave April 8 2020 16: 21 New
      +2
      Stopping the Stranger, first of all, my respect!
      They carried it on the shoulder, on the neck, outweighed it, painting in front of women! laughing
      1. Astra wild
        Astra wild April 11 2020 20: 39 New
        +1
        My poet, want to say that the photographers were women?
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave April 11 2020 20: 52 New
          0
          Not at all. In order to show himself in front of a woman, a man does not need the presence of a woman. For "a woman's place is in the heart of a man."
  • Catfish
    Catfish April 8 2020 16: 24 New
    +3
    Valery thank you! Great article, I read it with pleasure. Before her, all my knowledge about zouaves was reduced to one line: "... the day of fun is over, shoot my little zouave."
    Very interested in details about the foreign legion, the SLA and General Salan. I will wait with impatience. hi
    1. VLR
      April 8 2020 16: 46 New
      +3
      Yes, this will be very interesting, do not hesitate smile
      1. Catfish
        Catfish April 8 2020 16: 47 New
        +2
        Without any doubts! I like your work. good
  • Astra wild
    Astra wild April 8 2020 17: 33 New
    0
    "the loss of the Moroccans is almost three times less" probably they were excellent shooters? I read somewhere on the site that the British troops in the war with the Boers suffered heavy losses from the Boer riflemen. It is quite possible that the Moroccans were good shooters and they knew the area very well.
  • Astra wild
    Astra wild April 8 2020 18: 52 New
    0
    Quote: Korsar4
    Beard length is an excellent indicator. Hottabych would certainly be in authority.

    In this case, Chernomor will be out of competition. Remember, there was once a film: "Ruslan and Lyudmila"?
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 April 8 2020 19: 40 New
      0
      ... there in the clouds in front of the people
      Through forests, across the seas
      The sorcerer carries a hero;

      In the dungeon there the princess is bothering ...
  • WayKheThuo
    WayKheThuo April 8 2020 19: 41 New
    +1
    Thanks, Author!
    It is very interesting to learn about the Foreign Legion.
  • hohol95
    hohol95 April 8 2020 19: 44 New
    +1
    I first heard about "ZUAFAH" from the movie "Makar-Pathfinder"!
  • Lamata
    Lamata April 9 2020 08: 44 New
    -1
    Shoot, little zuav)))) All our soldiers to you
  • Andrey_5
    Andrey_5 April 10 2020 07: 40 New
    +1
    Thank you, interesting and informative! Waiting for the next article.
  • bird
    bird April 10 2020 12: 12 New
    +1
    Bravo! very interesting. Particularly pleased with the clear structure of the narrative, though not without reeling to the side (Odessa Beni Creek). The topic is gracious, and not really disclosed in our country. Maghrib is generally an endless topic. in any direction, if you want to go back centuries - (Carthage for example), you want to go to the century ХХy (French is not a peaceful atom for example), you want Magrib and the USSR (he lived there for 3 years as a kid with his family). The author feels in the subject. PLEASE CONTINUE!
  • Astra wild
    Astra wild April 11 2020 21: 09 New
    +1
    Quote: 3x3zsave
    Not at all. In order to show himself in front of a woman, a man does not need the presence of a woman. For "a woman's place is in the heart of a man."

    In this case, only among the Zouaves did we "reign" in the heart. Others carried the rifle and are worn on the shoulder