The defeat of the pirate states of the Maghreb


Thomas Looney. "The bombing of Algeria by Lord Exmouth, August 1816"


Barbary pirate raids continued throughout the eighteenth century. But now the main arena of their actions has again become the Mediterranean Sea. After the capture of Gibraltar by the Anglo-Dutch squadron in 1704, the corsairs of Algeria and Tunisia were no longer able to freely enter the Atlantic Ocean. Here, the pirates of Morocco continued to operate, although, encountering an increasingly brutal rebuff in the vast expanses of the Atlantic, they no longer delivered the previous troubles. However, in the Mediterranean, merchant ships continued to be attacked by Maghreb corsairs and the coasts of European countries still suffered from their raids. Back in 1798, pirates from Tunisia sacked the city of Carloforte on the island of San Pietro (near Sardinia), capturing there 550 women, 200 men and 150 children.


Christian slaves in Algiers as late as the 19th century

Tribute to the pirate states of the Maghreb


As a result, the governments of European states gradually began to think that paying the rulers of the Maghreb was easier and cheaper than organizing costly and ineffective punitive expeditions. Everyone began to pay: Spain (which set an example for everyone), France, the Kingdom of both Sicilies, Portugal, Tuscany, the Papal States, Sweden, Denmark, Hanover, Bremen, even proud Britain. Some countries, for example, the Kingdom of both Sicilies, had to pay this tribute annually. Others sent “gifts” when appointing a new consul.

The problems arose in US merchant ships, which earlier (until 1776) “passed” like the British. During the War of Independence, the French temporarily took them “under the wing”, but since 1783 American ships have been a welcome prey for the Maghreb pirates: they did not have agreements with the United States, and the capture of ships under the new flag was a pleasant bonus to received from other countries “ tribute. "

The first "prize" was the Betsy brig, captured on October 11, 1784 from Tenerife. Then the merchant ships Maria Boston and Dauphin were captured. Algeria dei demanded a million dollars for the captured sailors (a fifth of the US budget!), The US government offered 60 thousand - and American diplomats were shamefully expelled from the country.

The Libyan Pasha Yusuf Karamanli, who ruled in Tripoli, even requested $ 1 one-time per contract and 600 annually, moreover, in English guineas.

The Moroccans turned out to be more modest in their wishes, requesting $ 18, and an agreement with this country was concluded in July 000. It was somehow possible to agree with other countries only in 1787.

The defeat of the pirate states of the Maghreb

American captain William Bainbridge pays tribute to Algerian day in 1800

But already in 1797, Yusuf from Tripoli began to demand an increase in tribute, threatening otherwise “to raise a foot from the tail of the Barbary tiger” (this is how the Libyans spoke with the USA at the turn of the 1800th-250th centuries). In 50, he already demanded XNUMX thousand dollars as a gift and XNUMX thousand in the form of an annual tribute.

First U.S. Barbary War


On May 10, 1801, a flagpole with a flag was solemnly cut down near the building of the American Consulate in Tripoli - this theatrical action became an act of declaring war. And the newly elected president, Thomas Jefferson, went into history as the first US leader to send a combat squadron to the Mediterranean: Captain Richard Dale led three frigates there (44-gun “President”, 36-gun “Philadelphia”, 32-gun “Essex”) and 12-gun brig “Enterprise” ( which in some sources is called a schooner).


Maser brown. Portrait of Thomas Jefferson


Captain Richard Dale

It turned out that the pirate states of the Maghreb are already at war with Sweden, whose ships tried to block their ports, and the Americans tried to enter into an alliance with this country. But they did not succeed in fighting together with the “Vikings”: soon the Swedes made peace, being content with the release of their compatriots for an ransom that seemed acceptable and non-destructive to them.

The Americans, too, were not eager for battle: Dale was given an amount of 10 thousand dollars, which he had to offer Yusuf in exchange for peace. It was possible to agree only on the redemption of prisoners.

The only combat clash that year was the battle of the Enterprise brig, commanded by Andrew Steret, with the 14-gun Pirate ship Tripoli. At the same time, both captains used the “military trick”.

The Enterprise approached the pirate ship, raising the British flag, and the captain of the corsairs greeted him, receiving a volley of airborne guns in response. Corsairs, in turn, twice lowered the flag, opening fire when trying to get closer.


Enterprise brig naval battle with Tripoli pirate ship

The victory remained with the Americans, but they did not know what to do with the captured ship, and even more so with its crew. Seret (like other captains) did not receive any instructions on this subject, which is further evidence that the Americans wanted to limit themselves to a demonstration of force and did not want a serious war at sea. He didn’t take responsibility. He didn’t: ordered to cut down the mast of the enemy’s ship, abandon everything weapon at sea, and the pirates themselves allowed to leave, raising the sail on a temporary mast.

In the United States, the news of this victory aroused great enthusiasm, Captain Seret received a personalized sword from Congress, the brig team received a monthly salary, and the frigate Boston and the sloop George Washington were additionally sent to the Mediterranean Sea.

However, all these ships could not come close to the shore - unlike the pirate shafts, who walked freely in shallow water.


Arab shebek model

As a result of a full-fledged blockade of Tripoli, the corsairs continued to receive food and other supplies by sea and even seized the American trading ship Franklin, for which sailors had to pay a ransom of 5 thousand dollars. On this, the actions of the first American squadron off the coast of the Maghreb ended.

The next American squadron came to the Mediterranean under the command of Richard Morris, who was in no hurry, visiting almost all major European ports and Malta on the way. He even went to Tunisia, where, not knowing the intricacies of local etiquette, contrived to insult the local bey and was arrested on his orders. It was necessary for the American and Danish consuls to pay a ransom of 34 thousand dollars for him.

Meanwhile, the state of affairs in this region was by no means brilliant for the United States.

The Sultan of Morocco, Mulei Suleiman, threatening the United States with war, demanded 20 thousand dollars, which were paid to him.

Day of Algeria was unhappy that the annual tribute to him was paid not in goods, but in American dollars (absolutely no respectable decent people): I had to apologize to him and promise to fix this “cant”.

But Morris’s squadron, which had already gone on a campaign for a long time, still hadn’t reached the Libyan coast, aimlessly plowing the sea, and could not influence the situation. Only a year later she joined the battle: on June 2, 1803, the Americans, landing on the shore, burned 10 enemy ships, standing in one of the bays 35 miles from Tripoli. Yusuf did not impress these feats: he demanded 250 thousand dollars at a time and 20 thousand in the form of annual tribute, as well as compensation for military expenses.

Morris went to Malta with nothing. The US Congress accused him of incompetence and removed from office, replacing John Rogers. And a new squadron was sent to the Mediterranean Sea, commanded by Commander Edward Preble. Its structure included the heavy frigates “Constitution” and “Philadelphia”, 16-gun brig “Argus” and “Siren”, 12-gun schooners “Nautilus” and “Vixen”. The Enterprise brig joined these ships, already having a victory over the Tripolitanian corsair ship.

The start of this expedition was very unsuccessful: the 44-gun frigate Philadelphia, chasing the Tripolitan ship entering the port, ran aground and was captured by the enemy, the captain and 300 of his subordinates were captured.


Philadelphia frigate on the reefs near Tripoli

To prevent the inclusion of such a powerful ship in the enemy fleet, six months later, American sailors in a captured Berber ship (ketch "Mastico", renamed "Intrepid") entered the port, captured this frigate, but, having no opportunity to go on board to the sea, burned it. The most striking thing is that American saboteurs, taking advantage of the turmoil and confusion, managed, without losing a single person, to safely return back. They were led by a young officer, Stephen Decatur (who had previously captured this ketch).


Edward Moran. The burning of the Philadelphia frigate on the docks of Tripoli, February 16, 1804 (1897)


Commander Decatur aboard the Philadelphia. Figure XIX century.

Admiral Nelson called this operation "the most daring and brave act of the century."

Now it's time to storm Tripoli. By taking credit in the Kingdom of Naples, Preble was able to hire the bombing ships he lacked. On August 3, 1804, under the cover of volleys of frigates, bombardment ships (gunboats) attempted to enter the harbor in order to crush coastal batteries and destroy the vessels that were on the roadstead. The battle was extremely fierce, Preble himself was injured, during the boarding fight, Stephen Decatur miraculously survived, and two gunboat captains were killed (including Decatur’s younger brother). The city was on fire, residents fled to the desert, but failed to capture it.

Preble entered into negotiations again, offering Yusuf $ 80 for prisoners and $ 10 as a gift, but Tripolitan Pasha demanded 150 thousand. Preble increased the amount to 100 thousand and, having been refused, on September 4 he tried to strike Tripoli using a firewall into which the captured Intrepid bombardier ketch was converted - as you recall, it was on it that a successful sabotage was completed, which ended in the frigate’s burning Philadelphia". Alas, this time everything turned out completely differently, and the firewall exploded ahead of time from the core released by the coastal battery, all 10 crew members were killed.

Preble and a naval agent in the "Barbarian States" William Eaton decided to "go from the other side": use Yusuf’s brother, Hamet (Ahmet), who was once expelled from Tripoli. With American money, a “army” of 500 people was gathered for Hamet, which included Arabs, Greek mercenaries and 10 Americans, including Eaton, who was the true leader of this expedition.


William Eaton, US Consul in Tunisia from 1797-1803, naval agent in the "Barbarian States" in 1804-1805 Portrait painted in the style of French neoclassicism by artist Peel Rembrandt in 1807

In March 1805, they moved from Alexandria to the port of Dern and, having traveled 620 km through the desert, captured it with the artillery support of three brigs. The words of the US Marine Anthem recall this storm:

From Montezuma's halls to Tripoli
We fight for our country
In the air, on land and at sea.

The Americans, of course, did not reach Tripoli, but they repelled two assaults of Yusuf's superior forces in Derna.

However, there is another version according to which the lines refer to the feat of the team of Stephen Decatur, who managed to burn the frigate "Philadelphia" (as described earlier). In this case, the mention of Tripoli is quite reasonable.

The appearance of the applicant was very concerned about Yusuf Karamanli. In June 1805, he made concessions, agreeing to take compensation from the Americans in the amount of 60 thousand dollars. The first U.S. Barbary war was over.

The results of this military campaign did not suit either the Americans or the Berbers.

Second Barbary War


Algeria's corsairs already in 1807 resumed attacks on American ships. The reason was the delay in the supply of goods on account of the tribute established by the last contract. In 1812, Algerian dei Haji Ali demanded the payment of tribute in cash, arbitrarily setting its size - 27 thousand dollars. Despite the fact that the US consul managed to collect the necessary amount in 5 days, Dei declared war on the United States.

The Americans were not up to it: in June of that year, they started the Second War of Independence (against Great Britain), which lasted until 1815. It was then, during the siege of Baltimore by the British, that Francis Scott Key wrote Fort McHenry's Defense, an excerpt from which, The Star-Spangled Banner, became the US anthem.


Francis Scott Key Post Card

After the end of this war (February 1815), the US Congress approved a new military expedition against Algeria. Two squadrons were formed. The first, under the command of Commodore Stephen Decatur, who took an active part in the storming of Algeria in 1804, set off from New York on May 20.


Orlando Lagman. Portrait of Stephen Decatur, 1820

It consisted of 3 frigates, 2 sloops, 3 brigs and 2 schooners. The flagship was the 44-gun frigate Guerre.

The second American squadron (under the command of Bainbridge), sailed from Boston on July 3, arrived in the Mediterranean Sea after the end of this war.

Already on June 17, Decatur’s ships entered the first naval battle, during which the 46-gun Algerian frigate "Mashuda" was captured, 406 Algerian sailors were captured. On June 19, the 22-gun Algerian brigade Estedio, stranded, was captured.

On June 28, Decatur approached Algeria, negotiations with the Day began on the 30th. The Americans demanded the complete abolition of tribute, the release of all American captives (in exchange for Algerian) and the payment of compensation of 10 thousand dollars. The ruler of Algeria was forced to agree to these conditions.


Decatur Squadron in Algeria Harbor

After that, Decatur came to Tunisia, where he demanded (and received) 46 thousand dollars for two British ships that were "legally" seized by American privateers, but confiscated by local authorities. Then he visited Tripoli, where he also meekly paid compensation of 25 thousand dollars.

November 12, 1815 Decatur returned to New York. His triumph overshadowed the denial of all Algeria agreements.

The final defeat of the pirate states of the Maghreb


The following year, the combined fleet of Britain and Holland approached Algeria. After a 9-hour shelling (August 27, 1816), dei Omar capitulated and released all Christian slaves.


Martinus Howman. "The bombing of Algeria in support of the ultimatum on the liberation of white slaves on August 26-27, 1816"

This surrender caused an explosion of discontent among his subjects, who openly accused him of cowardice. As a result, Omar was strangled in 1817.

The new rulers of Algeria, albeit on a smaller scale, continued pirate activities in the Mediterranean, attempts at coercion by European states in 1819, 1824, 1827. did not have much success.

But the situation still changed, Britain, France, Sardinia and Holland soon refused to pay tribute to Algeria, but Naples, Sweden, Denmark and Portugal continued to pay it.

In 1829, the Austrians hit Morocco: the fact is that, having annexed Venice, they refused to pay 25 thousand compensation thieves for it. The Moroccans captured the Venetian ship, which entered Rabat, the Austrians in response fired at Tetuan, Larache, Arzella and burned 2 brig in Rabat. After that, the Moroccan authorities officially refused financial claims against any Austrian possessions.

The problem of Algerian pirates was finally solved in the summer of 1830, when the French army captured Algeria.

In fact, the French still did not disdain cooperation with Algeria, their trading posts were located at that time in La Calais, Annaba and Collot. Moreover, the trade balance was not in favor of enlightened Europeans, and they received a number of goods (mainly food) on credit. This debt has accumulated since the time of Napoleon Bonaparte, who did not pay for wheat delivered to the soldiers of his Egyptian army. Subsequently, Algeria, also on credit, supplied France, corn, corned beef and leather. After the restoration of the monarchy, the new authorities decided to “forgive” their Algerian creditors and did not recognize the debts of revolutionary and Bonapartist France. Algerians, as you know, strongly disagreed with such methods of doing business and continued to brazenly demand the return of debts.

On April 27, 1827, during the reception of Consul General Pierre Deval, dei Hussein Pasha again raised the issue of debt calculations, and, pissed off by the defiant behavior of the Frenchman, slightly hit him in the face with a fan (rather, he even touched his face).


Fan Incident

Then France did not yet feel ready for war, and the scandal was hushed up, but it was not forgotten: the incident was used to declare war on Algeria in 1830. The fact is that King Charles X and his government, headed by Count Polignac, were rapidly losing popularity, the situation in the country was heating up, and therefore it was decided to divert the attention of subjects by organizing a "small victorious war." Thus, it was planned to achieve a solution to several problems at once: to “raise the rating” of the monarch, to get rid of accumulated debts and send part of the disaffected population to Africa.

In May 1830, a huge French fleet (98 military and 352 transport ships) left Toulon and sailed to Algeria. He approached the shores of North Africa on June 13, the 30th army landed on the shore, the siege of the fortress lasted from June 19 to July 4.


Morel Fasio. "Attack of Algeria from the sea by the fleet of Duperre on July 3, 1830", National Museum of the Trianon Palace

Both the inhabitants of the city and its last ruler were little like the former selfless defenders of Algeria. Those wishing to die heroically were almost gone. The last day of independent Algeria Hussein Pasha capitulated. July 5, 1830, he went to Naples, leaving the country forever. The former dei in Alexandria died in 1838.


Last Algerian dei Hussein Pasha

In its capital, the French captured 2 thousand artillery pieces and a treasury, in which there were 48 million francs.

So, the war with Algeria really turned out to be “small and victorious,” but it did not save Charles X: on July 27, fighting on the barricades began in Paris, and on August 2, he abdicated.

Meanwhile, the French who already considered themselves winners faced a new problem in Algeria: the emir Abd al-Qader, who arrived from Egypt, managed to unite more than 30 tribes and create his own state with the capital in Maskara in the north-west of the country.


Abd al-Qadir


Mascara province on a map of modern Algeria

Not having achieved much success in the fight against him, the French in 1834 entered into a truce. It did not last long: hostilities resumed in 1835 and ended with the signing of a new truce in 1837. In 1838, the war broke out with renewed vigor and continued until 1843, when the defeated Abd al-Qader was forced to flee to Morocco. The ruler of this country, Sultan Abd al-Rahman, decided to provide him with military assistance, but in the battle of the Isli River his army was defeated. On December 22, 1847, the emir Abd al-Qader was captured and sent to France. Here he lived until 1852, when Napoleon III allowed him to leave for Damascus. There he died in 1883.

In 1848, Algeria was officially declared French territory and divided into prefectures, governed by the Governor-General appointed by Paris.


French Algeria. Map of Alexander Vuyeman, 1877

In 1881, the French and Bey Tunisia were forced to sign an agreement recognizing the French protectorate and consent to the "temporary occupation" of the country: the reason was the raids of idols (one of the tribes) on the "French" Algeria. This treaty provoked indignation in the country and an uprising led by Sheikh Ali bin Khalifa, but the rebels did not have a chance to defeat the regular French army. On June 8, 1883, a convention was signed in La Mars that finally subordinated Tunisia to France.

In 1912, it was Morocco's turn. The independence of this country, in fact, was guaranteed by the Madrid Treaty of 1880, signed by the heads of 13 states: Great Britain, France, the USA, Austria-Hungary, Germany, Italy, Spain and others, with a lower rank. But the geographical position of Morocco was very advantageous, and the outlines of the coastline looked extremely pleasant in all respects. The local Arabs also had another “problem”: at the end of the 1904th century, considerable reserves of natural resources were discovered on their territory: phosphates, manganese, zinc, lead, tin, iron and copper. The great European powers, naturally, were racing to “help” the Moroccans in their development. The question was who exactly would “help”. In 31, Great Britain, Italy, Spain and France agreed to divide the spheres of influence in the Mediterranean: the British were interested in Egypt, Italy was given to Libya, France and Spain were "allowed" to divide Morocco. But Kaiser Wilhelm II unexpectedly intervened in the "peaceful course of events", who suddenly visited Tangier on March 1905, 40 and declared German interests. The fact is that XNUMX German firms have already worked in Morocco, German investments in the economy of this country were very large, second only to the investments of the British and French. In the far-reaching plans of the military department of the German Empire, the outlines of the plans of naval bases and coal stations of the German fleet were already clearly traced. To the indignant demarches of the French, the Kaiser, without hesitation, declared:

“Let the French ministers know what the risks are ... The German army in front of Paris in three weeks, the revolution in the 15 main cities of France and 7 billion francs of indemnity!”

The planned crisis was resolved at the 1906 Algeciras Conference, and in 1907 the Spaniards and the French began to occupy Moroccan territory.

In 1911, an uprising began in Fez, crushed by the French, which became an occasion for William II to “flex his muscles”: the German gunboat “Panther” came to the Moroccan port of Agadir (the famous “jump of the Panther”).


The great war almost began, but the French and Germans managed to agree: in exchange for Morocco, France ceded to Germany the territory in the Congo - 230 square meters. km and with a population of 000 thousand people.

Now no one interfered with France, and on May 30, 1912, the Sultan of Morocco Abd al-Hafid was forced to sign a protectorate agreement. In northern Morocco, de facto power was now vested in the Spanish High Commissioner, and the rest of the country was ruled by a general resident in France. Ahead were the Reef Wars (1921-1926), which would bring neither France nor Spain glory. But about them, perhaps, another time.

The Maghreb states were under French rule until the middle of the 1956th century: Tunisia and Morocco achieved independence in 1962, Algeria in XNUMX.

Then the reverse process began - the “colonization" of France by immigrants from the former North African colonies. Michele Tribalat, a modern French demographer in 2015, claimed that in 2011, at least 4,6 million people of North African descent lived in France, mainly in Paris, Marseille and Lyon. Of these, only about 470 thousand were born in the Maghreb states.


July 2019 Algeria national team celebrates victory over Nigeria team in Africa Cup semi-final in Paris

But that's another story.
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  1. Catfish April 5 2020 05: 28 New
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    Good morning friends and good day everyone! smile
    Even insomnia has its advantages: I can greet you all. hi
    I’ll get enough sleep and read it freshly.
    1. Phil77 April 5 2020 05: 52 New
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      Good morning to you, Konstantin! So don’t sleep? And the morning cat marathon woke me up, I wanted to eat, a tramp. fool And for the article, of course, we'll talk later! hi
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka April 5 2020 06: 42 New
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        Good morning guys!
        .
        Enterprise brig naval battle with Tripoli pirate ship

        Judging by the illustration, the Enterprise is not a schooner and not a brig, but a brig schooner (brigantine), while the hull is clearly pronounced brigovskogo (the British shipbuilding school). Why the grotto-mat is armed only with slanting sails I do not know. Rey for full sailing weapons not?
        I can offer a conspiracy version. Rey grotto lost during an accident or ship modernization. Many sinned this. For example, the coeval of the Enterprise, the frigate Konstitityushen, also underwent modernization (by the way, it almost drowned during testing, as it was built as a battleship with two battery decks, and served with one). A similar situation could affect Enterprise, which during the service could change sailing weapons from a truncated schooner to a full one - brig or even have a third mast !!!
        However, we also dabbled in similar alterations. Most of the expeditionary vessels were redistributed from two-masted brig or military transports to three-masted sloops!
        Regards, Vlad!
        R.s. Thank you very much Valery for the cycle of pirate romance! I did not expect that when reading it, apart from the spray of the salty sea, I will feel the sand of the Sahara !!!
        1. Kostyar April 5 2020 12: 12 New
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          Thank! Interesting and informative, thank you very much for the illustration!
        2. mmaxx April 5 2020 15: 36 New
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          Americans loved schooners. In general, they did and developed them. They preferred slanting sails everywhere. Apparently the sloppy way of thinking of American sailors led to this. Everything is much simpler than direct armament. And in terms of speed and architecture of the hulls, the British quickly managed. They did not build squadrons where identical ships were needed. Most likely, therefore, the speed of individual ships played a big role.
        3. Sergey S. April 5 2020 16: 42 New
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          Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Rey grotto lost during an accident or ship modernization.

          I don’t know how it was in the American Navy ...
          And in the Russian ship with the start of the campaign, it was armed according to the approved regulations.
          In some cases, with the permission of the authorities, the commanders armed their ships for personal reasons.
          This applies to artillery weapons, and mast, rigging and sails.

          So, if the ray had been lost ... it would have been restored (there were spare parts in the era of the sailing fleet).

          I suppose that in the conditions of the Mediterranean Sea the "civilized" sailors adopted the best practices of increasing the maneuverability of ships from the "wild" Arabs ...

          As for the Enterprise, it is the most modern ship of the young American shipbuilding school - the Marseille schooner (Boston schooner) - an excellent walker in ocean passages.
          Marseille schooners were widely used by the Americans in the delivery of slaves from Africa, bypassing the frigates and corvettes of the great powers, and, to a certain extent, became landmark prototypes when creating the first ocean clippers.
          1. mmaxx April 5 2020 18: 30 New
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            I apologize, I wanted to plus, but I pressed the minus. Sam wanted to write about the marseille schooner. I saw a comment and clicked .... not there.
            1. 3x3zsave April 5 2020 20: 01 New
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              It happens, comrade, it happens with everyone!
              Special thanks for the tact! hi
            2. Sergey S. April 5 2020 20: 32 New
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              Quote: mmaxx
              I apologize, I wanted to plus, but I pressed the minus.

              God be with them + -kami ...
              It was like that ...
              The main thing. that the topic is interesting ... and the situation develops our interests and knowledge.
      2. Kote Pan Kokhanka April 5 2020 06: 52 New
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        Quote: Phil77
        Good morning to you, Konstantin! So don’t sleep? And the morning cat marathon woke me up, I wanted to eat, a tramp. fool And for the article, of course, we'll talk later! hi
        good
        I have the following picture before my eyes !!! No offence!!! yes
        The cat Filipka arrives at 5 o’clock in the morning from the parties ..., well, from the cats !!! March, April everything is one !!! Only on the counter (with us, the bench by the stove on which cats sleep) was stretched out! And then Sergey a cat behind a bacon and a nose into a kalgushka - where a bad guy walked at night, from whom kittens should wait in a basket under the door of a kind of cattle !!!! And so on in the classics of the genre!
        laughing
        1. Phil77 April 5 2020 07: 04 New
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          Oh, Vlad! Everything is more prosaic. When I go to bed, the scoundrel-cat lies next to me. He sleeps, sleeps, sleeps, until almost 2 o’clock at night. At that time the thought comes to his mind: “But should I eat? But since he the evening food safely ate, then he runs a marathon for me and his wife demanding FOOD !!!! And then this story repeats in the morning. That's how he * suffers * with us! laughing
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka April 5 2020 07: 09 New
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            Quote: Phil77
            Oh, Vlad! Everything is more prosaic. When I go to bed, the scoundrel-cat lies next to him. He sleeps, sleeps, sleeps, until almost 2 a.m. At this time the thought comes to his mind: -Do I eat? laughing:

            Yeah, and they do it so quietly that the neighbor’s hammer drill is resting! At 5 in the morning, my planned belly, followed by a meal !!!
            1. 3x3zsave April 5 2020 12: 44 New
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              neighbor's hammer drill is resting!
              The phrase of one of my children:
              "But the very same" neighbor with a hammer "is our father !!!" laughing
        2. vladcub April 5 2020 21: 25 New
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          Namesake, welcome. And the cat answered him
          -You envy envy that you live with one cat. And I have a lot of them: red, black and whatever.
  2. DMB 75 April 5 2020 06: 37 New
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    Thank you very much, it reads in one go! Well, Stephen Decatur (whose phrase: “My country! Perhaps she’s not always right in her relations with other countries, but whether she is right or not is my country!” Is still cited by many) In general, he deserved a separate article through the first and second Barbary wars in North Africa, he fought with the French and the British. In all battles he was distinguished simply by some incredible courage and bravery, an outstanding naval officer, he was an icon for American naval sailors. died not in a naval battle, but in a duel ..
  3. Olgovich April 5 2020 06: 55 New
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    The defeat of the pirate countries was, in fact, predetermined: capitalism is stronger than the feudal lords and slave traders of northern Africa

    No ... only 100 years have passed since France seized Algeria and France itself (the south) is already being transformed by Algerians into Algeria ...
    1. Moskovit April 5 2020 12: 42 New
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      That is yes. In the French national football team, two whites. On the streets of blacks like we have Tajiks)
    2. Pilat2009 April 6 2020 09: 51 New
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      Quote: Olgovich
      and already France itself (the south) turns Algerians into Algeria ...

      Excuse me, but you also look askance at the Tatars, do they also turn Russia into Tataria? It's time to get used to multinationality. In America, up to the 70s Negroes spread rot in black, and now the president is Negro.
  4. Fat
    Fat April 5 2020 07: 52 New
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    USS Enterprise (1799-1823). it
    the third Enterprise. The ship was a schooner that was used to capture pirate ships during the Barbary Wars. At the time, anti-piracy operations were a major part of the Navy's mission.
    In 1804, the Enterprise, under the command of Lieutenant Stephen Decatur Jr., participated in a daring operation during which the frigate "Philadelphia" was burned in the port of Tripoli.
    The ship was rebuilt several times and rearmament and carried from 12 to 14 guns, finally, during the war of 1812, the Enterprise was converted into a brig.
    On September 5, 1813, the Enterprise captured the British Boxer brig. In the previous battle, the commanders of both ships, Lieutenant William Burroughs and Captain Samuel Blyth, were killed.
    From 1815 to 1823 Enterprise struggled with smugglers, pirates and slave traders. July 9, 1823, the ship ran aground in the West Indies and crashed, the crew managed to escape.
    This glorious ship was both a schooner and a brig ... At different times.
    1. Blacksmith 55 April 5 2020 10: 00 New
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      Good morning .
      Very interesting, thanks.
      I would like to add. The author only once mentioned the frigate Constitution. USS Constitution. This ship is still in service, although, as you know, as a museum. Well, like in Russia Aurora.
      It was built from Virginia Eiche. The tree is of a very hard variety, not a single core pierced the hull, the thickness of the sides reached 50 cm.
      For fans there is Wikipedia.
      1. Korsar4 April 5 2020 21: 54 New
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        As far as I understand it is made of white oak. And in 1997 he was still able to sail under the sails.
  5. knn54 April 5 2020 07: 54 New
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    On May 10, 1801, a flagpole with a flag was solemnly cut down near the building of the American Consulate in Tripoli - this theatrical action became an act of declaring war.
    Two centuries later, though in September. Twin towers in New York. A significant coincidence?
    And I’m still “more fun” —never a spaniel (9 months) with “lop-eared” (in May will be 10 years old) can’t find a common language.
    1. 3x3zsave April 5 2020 11: 33 New
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      My respect, dear!
      The "shelf" of dog lovers arrived !!!
      “Fold” is who?
      1. Undecim April 5 2020 17: 49 New
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        “Fold” is who?
        Apparently - a cat.
        I have a Labrador (11 years old) and "Persian" (13 years old) have not found a common language.
        1. 3x3zsave April 5 2020 18: 40 New
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          This is exclusively a Persian problem. My "labryha" is even ready to lick a killer whale. He smells of milk, which means his puppy.
          1. Undecim April 5 2020 19: 16 New
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            Perhaps that is why she remained the "old maid."
            1. 3x3zsave April 5 2020 20: 18 New
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              My creature, in any case, will find adventure on its "front end", despite the confrontation of her mistress.
  6. samarin1969 April 5 2020 08: 48 New
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    It is so interesting that the coffee has cooled down ... This is how the story should be stated: a living language, a connection of events, vivid illustrations, a nodal approach.
  7. Aviator_ April 5 2020 10: 00 New
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    An interesting series. I would never have thought that such African passions had raged in northern Africa for so long. Respect to the author!
  8. Korsar4 April 5 2020 10: 07 New
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    The story took a wide step in this article: from sailing ships to football celebrations.

    Interesting - where is the turning point? Europe paid tribute. And then - basta. What has changed on both sides? Technical equipment? People?
    1. 3x3zsave April 5 2020 13: 18 New
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      Interesting - where is the turning point?
      Bifurcation points are perhaps the most mysterious question in history. For example, whenever the invention of Eli Whitney happened, perhaps there would be no Civil War in the United States.
    2. Catfish April 5 2020 19: 36 New
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      Good evening, Sergey. hi Or maybe it is a matter of religion and, as a consequence, the development of creative technical thought? Have Muslim countries given the world at least one invention that has contributed to progress and moved humanity forward? I have never thought about this issue and therefore set out all pretty clumsily. But Anton, in my opinion, is right, Whitney’s invention of a ginning machine changed the world no less than Maxim’s machine gun.
      1. Korsar4 April 5 2020 20: 18 New
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        I probably do not agree. Mathematics, medicine, and philosophy were well developed. And many books from Ancient Greece came to Europe through the Arab world.
        Coffee, soap, carpets. In architecture - lancet arches.

        Although the above, especially coffee carpets, is more suitable for peaceful life, Sybaritic.
        1. Catfish April 5 2020 20: 22 New
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          I did not mean, of course, “coffee rugs,” but namely equipment, military, household, and electronics in general. Something that has always driven progress, and without carpets and coffee, would probably have been dispensed with. smile
          1. Korsar4 April 5 2020 20: 54 New
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            Edged weapons were quite competitive. Another thing is that civilizations are developing in waves. About such a key moment, for example, Feuchtwanger writes in The Spanish Ballad.
            1. Catfish April 5 2020 20: 58 New
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              With Feuchtwanger, he read only the Judean War. And the cold steel began to die slowly with the invention of the first squeak, the machine gun finished it off completely.
              1. Korsar4 April 5 2020 21: 08 New
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                Jewish Suess and Goya also deserve attention.
          2. Korsar4 April 5 2020 20: 57 New
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            And it is good that there is no call to do without soap. Although, of course, soap root can be used.
            1. Catfish April 5 2020 21: 00 New
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              And who calls to do without soap?
              1. Korsar4 April 5 2020 21: 08 New
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                Konstantin, you only left him when you urged you to do without coffee and carpets.

                “I have never heard Persia produce something worthy of mention, except for Turkish carpets and Maltese cats” (c).
                1. Catfish April 5 2020 21: 28 New
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                  That's why I did not touch the soap, because I remember very well all three years of military service in the army. Even without vodka and tobacco, you can completely do without food and soap - no.
                  “I have never heard Persia produce something worthy of mention, except for Turkish carpets and Maltese cats” (c).

                  "Pimento pancakes" O "Henry, if not mistaken. smile
                  1. Korsar4 April 5 2020 21: 42 New
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                    Nearly. "Directory of Hymen." But the plots are similar.
      2. 3x3zsave April 5 2020 20: 31 New
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        Arab culture and science has given humanity so much that Europeans should bite their toenails with envy!
        1. Catfish April 5 2020 20: 33 New
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          Yes, I did. And when did they stop there?
          1. 3x3zsave April 5 2020 20: 42 New
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            Arab culture did not stop. Do not confuse Arab culture with Islamic fanatics. These, even with Islam, have little in common.
            1. Catfish April 5 2020 20: 51 New
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              Anton, we are talking about different things. I am not talking about culture as such, but about the technological progress of these states. Well, it’s easier for me on the example of weapons: when did they start to produce at least European copies of the rifle range, not to mention their own developments? I'm not talking about warships and armored vehicles.
              1. 3x3zsave April 5 2020 21: 20 New
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                The technical and scientific progress of Asians has always surpassed the European!
                Uncle Kostya, do you want to fight? So I will “refute you in two bows”, and most comrades will cheer for my arguments!
                1. Catfish April 5 2020 21: 31 New
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                  And ... that means the unitary cartridge and everything else gave us the Arab world! And I didn’t know ...
                  And about the butting ... Yes, my horns did not grow, we, cats, only a mustache and a tail. wink
                  1. 3x3zsave April 5 2020 21: 44 New
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                    Uncle Kostya, no matter what, and with deep respect and attitude to your life path, I still doubt the growth of the horns, as well as I have no doubt in the opposite process. laughing
                    1. Catfish April 5 2020 22: 12 New
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                      Not, well, if for the whole "life path", then of course ... But those that were long ago fell away, and over the past thirty years no new ones have been observed. Neither the one nor the other. request
                      1. 3x3zsave April 5 2020 22: 18 New
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                        My admiration for your spouse !!! Pass on! Do not forget!
                      2. Catfish April 5 2020 22: 26 New
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                        I will, of course. But after all, what an unpleasant person you are, there is no way to say at least one good word about me ... recourse
                      3. 3x3zsave April 5 2020 22: 32 New
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                        So I, like you, an unpleasant person, all the good - only about the ba ...., to blame, about women!
                      4. Catfish April 5 2020 22: 54 New
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                        Well, for unpleasant personalities and, of course, for ba ... women! drinks
                      5. 3x3zsave April 5 2020 23: 11 New
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                        I hope that my personal nuisance will not affect your wife’s perception of me in any way.
                      6. Catfish April 5 2020 23: 16 New
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                        And you yourself will ask her when you drop into our lands. Only the whole question now is when will it be? We had a lie on the drum, but patrols on the roads couldn’t go round.
                        And tomorrow I’ll give everything to Masha, she regularly reads us all to raise “good spirits”.
                      7. 3x3zsave April 5 2020 23: 26 New
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                        My respect to Mary !!!
    3. Korsar4 April 5 2020 21: 43 New
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      First, the world should be divided. Is Japan Still Asia?
      1. 3x3zsave April 5 2020 21: 53 New
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        Yes, Sergey, Asia. For some reason, soroban turned out to be much more effective than abacus
        1. Korsar4 April 5 2020 22: 00 New
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          I have a colleague, an orientalist. By his way of life, he considered Japan closer to Europe.

          It is not easy to divide this business of civilization, as in the Sukharev Convention.
  • Marine engineer April 5 2020 22: 41 New
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    “I wonder where is the turning point?” Europe paid tribute. And then - basta. What has changed on both sides? ”

    The Napoleonic Wars ended. The necessary resources were freed and the pirate states of the Maghreb were over.
  • g1v2 April 5 2020 10: 54 New
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    Thank . The cycle was quite informative. There are a bunch of historical processes that we know about in general terms and a more detailed discussion of them is extremely interesting. In this case, the process of the fall of the Islamic state of Maghreb from the lords of the Mediterranean, to the inheritance of the colonies of European countries.
  • 3x3zsave April 5 2020 11: 26 New
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    Thank you, Valery!
    After reading the article the question arose: what, France of the First Republic and Bonaparte continued the traditional "flirting" with the Maghreb?
    1. VLR
      VLR April 5 2020 11: 51 New
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      With Algeria, both the republic and Napoleon actively traded. Moreover, the Egyptian expedition would not have taken place or would have ended much earlier and more deplorably if it had not been for food from Algeria. France did not want to give back the accumulated debts so much that it decided to “kill” Algeria - as the “good Catholics” killed their creditors during Bartholomew’s night.
      They say that since the Bartholomew’s night to lend is a bad omen in France: today your neighbor will lend you some money, and tomorrow you will cut somewhere in a dark alley.
      1. 3x3zsave April 5 2020 12: 37 New
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        bad luck in France
        I think this sign has a shorter history. I read somewhere that by the middle of the 19th century, non-payments to private creditors in France had acquired the character of a national economic disaster.
        But in principle, the destruction of the lender is a traditional French "fun" since the time of Philip the Beautiful.
      2. Pane Kohanku April 6 2020 11: 32 New
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        Valery, hello!
        In 1911, an uprising began in Fez, crushed by the French, which became an occasion for William II to “flex his muscles”: the German gunboat “Panther” came to the Moroccan port of Agadir (the famous “Panther jump”).

        I remembered that it was at Panther that the future “last corsair” Felix von Luckner received his first officer post. Would you like to write about him? The theme is the most that neither is archipiracy! good
        1. VLR
          VLR April 6 2020 11: 34 New
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          We will see smile
          But for now - in continuation of the topic - about the exotic military units of France. Coming soon - article on zouaves. Then - about the tyrellors, spag, gumery and the Foreign Legion.
          1. Pane Kohanku April 6 2020 11: 49 New
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            But for now - in continuation of the topic - about the exotic military units of France. Coming soon - article on zouaves. Then - about the tyrellors, spag, gumery and the Foreign Legion.

            ahh, here it is ... wink "saddled your favorite skate" - France? good Well, then I expect that you will touch the Napoleonic layer at the same time! hi
          2. 3x3zsave April 6 2020 14: 53 New
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            About the French Foreign Legion - very interesting! There de Gaulle began, well, I, the sinner, almost recruited, during it ... By the way, Franco also started in the Spanish Legion.
            1. Phil77 April 6 2020 20: 50 New
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              Quote: 3x3zsave
              Well, I, the sinner, almost recruited, during it ...

              Oh !!!! But from now on I would like to know more! angry God be with him, with this de Gaulle!
              1. Korsar4 April 6 2020 21: 11 New
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                "And, perverting the facts, they proved
                What is more dear to you than General de Gaulle ”(c).

                To memoirs, probably too early.

                “And from the audience they shout to me:“ Give me the details! ” (with).
                1. Phil77 April 6 2020 21: 16 New
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                  * everyday we are dear and dear to us ... *. But still, as Anton almost ended up in a * white cap * ????? what
                  1. Korsar4 April 6 2020 21: 26 New
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                    It is unlikely that a biographer was already wound up with him. Try to charm and question at a distance.
                    1. Phil77 April 6 2020 21: 32 New
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                      Uh, no! He hinted at this event, himself! I hope to share the details. I know that in the 90s there was a large flow of people from * indestructible and legendary *.
                  2. 3x3zsave April 6 2020 22: 58 New
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                    But he didn’t. So there’s nothing much to tell request
          3. Astra wild April 7 2020 20: 22 New
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            Look forward to. I read about the spag only in the "Count of Monte Cristo" and thought it was like a colonial police in the French colonies
  • Operator April 5 2020 12: 24 New
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    What the European colonialists could not do with North Africa, global warming and the coronavirus will complete, of course.

    PS In connection with the detection of coronavirus in vectors - domestic cats, they will all be plagued by root bully
    1. apro April 5 2020 12: 44 New
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      Quote: Operator
      domestic cats they will all be plagued by root

      Do not touch the cats ...
      1. Operator April 5 2020 13: 15 New
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        Domestic cats will be exposed centrally without asking for your opinion (and those who resist, that is, sources of infection - along with cats) bully
      2. 3x3zsave April 5 2020 13: 27 New
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        Unfortunately, Andrey (Operator) is right. Cats can fall prey to a new round of hysteria.
        1. VLR
          VLR April 5 2020 17: 27 New
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          I accidentally read here a funny article “Who is behind the pandemic”: Chinese, Americans, Jews, politicians or cats?
          Quote:
          “There are two groups of obvious winners.
          First of all, these are cats. Ask your cat, and he will confirm to you that a good life is when everyone is at home, no one is in a hurry and, accordingly, people living in his apartment can stroke and scratch him thoughtfully and without rushing. Exactly this is what many domestic cats have now gained. The contrast between this life and the owners who are constantly leaving or leaving, getting off the cat with a light patting and dry food, is huge. Cats think for hours, pretending to be sleeping. They do not tell us about their findings - they are sure that we will not understand. And they, by the way, are right. Their intellectual abilities, reinforced by the ability to coordinate their actions, connecting in our absence with each other on social networks, are sufficient to organize any event, even as large as a pandemic. Yes, cats have enough resources to arrange this, but they did not. They treat us about the same way we treat them - somewhat down on us, but with love. And just as we would never harm them, so they do to us. They are the winners, but they are not to blame. We release in the courtroom and give something tasty. ”
          1. 3x3zsave April 5 2020 17: 34 New
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            The second group - dolphins? laughing
            1. VLR
              VLR April 5 2020 17: 45 New
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              No, the author believes - politicians: because now you can write off all the “shoals” of the coronavirus. But he comes to the conclusion that they wouldn’t have enough mind for this (unlike cats). And therefore, the pandemic arose on its own.
              1. The comment was deleted.
              2. 3x3zsave April 5 2020 18: 54 New
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                Well, politicians are a dead end branch of the development of biological reason on this planet. Bees are more reasonable !!!
          2. vladcub April 5 2020 20: 41 New
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            Valery, just super. I’ll surely take it away. Maybe I read a cat
            1. 3x3zsave April 5 2020 21: 32 New
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              Kota will not save
        2. bubalik April 5 2020 18: 02 New
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          Cats can be a victim

          Shenzhen became the first city in China, where it is now forbidden to sell and eat cat and dog meat. The law will enter into force on May 1.
          The ban applies to other animals that are kept as pets. It is allowed to eat pigs, cattle, sheep, donkeys, rabbits, hens, ducks, geese, pigeons, quails, as well as the inhabitants of rivers and seas.
  • faterdom April 5 2020 14: 39 New
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    There it is what the Americans hate Libya. They paid tribute to her, and did not forget this 240 years later.
    1. 3x3zsave April 5 2020 15: 34 New
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      Again. No need to demonize the story. The current attack on Libya by the United States has nothing to do with historical processes.
      1. vladcub April 5 2020 20: 34 New
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        Anton, plus: the USA has forgotten 100 times that they paid tribute to Libya and now they climbed into Libya for completely different reasons
  • Ivan Kolodin April 5 2020 15: 30 New
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    It's funny to read how pirates were paid almost until the middle of the 19th century Denmark and Sweden the same irony of fate .... The descendants of the Vikings pay some sort of Arabs)))
    1. 3x3zsave April 5 2020 16: 05 New
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      What nafig descendants of the Vikings? What nafig Arabs?
  • vladcub April 5 2020 20: 29 New
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    Moderators, you again put Ryzhov and Shpakovsky together. These are two bright authors and on the same day, and then “Lent Kutia”.
    You please do not do it another time.
    1. 3x3zsave April 5 2020 20: 56 New
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      Vlad! So there will not be another three months.
  • vladcub April 5 2020 20: 47 New
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    [quote = Operator] What the European colonizers could not do with North Africa, global warming and the coronavirus will complete, of course.

    PS In connection with the detection of coronavirus in vectors - domestic cats, they will all be plagued by root: b
    If you let out cats who will catch mice? I doubt that you will want to catch mice.
  • vladcub April 5 2020 20: 52 New
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    Quote: apro
    Quote: Operator
    domestic cats they will all be plagued by root

    Do not touch the cats ...

    I am tormented by doubts: have the mice ordered this hit?
    1. 3x3zsave April 5 2020 20: 58 New
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      A good joke, but it's not like that.
      1. vladcub April 5 2020 21: 56 New
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        As if there was no scientific evidence that cats were to blame. There was information that the virus originated in bats, and then mutated.
        This chain is possible: there were some viruses in the bat, that snake grunted that mouse, and then the mouse virus connected with the virus in the snake, and some Chinese used a snake for lunch, and then sneezed at his wife or neighbor and went.
        1. 3x3zsave April 5 2020 22: 00 New
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          Vlad! Buddy Believe me, everything is much more complicated!
          1. vladcub April 6 2020 09: 44 New
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            We will live and see. In the meantime .... we are not Nostardamus
    2. Korsar4 April 5 2020 21: 23 New
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      “- Are you a mouse?”
      - Volatile, sir!
      “If you are a mouse, then you also don’t like cats?”
      “We can't stand it, sir!” (c).
  • vladcub April 5 2020 21: 44 New
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    Valery, don’t be offended that you didn’t get a lot of feedback, you pulled a big V. O. Shpakovsky (the moderators didn’t watch it: they made it together).
    But he has all the responses of emotions composed, and we love you.
  • vladcub April 5 2020 21: 58 New
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    Quote: 3x3zsave
    Vlad! So there will not be another three months.

    Well. Sinister moderators will leave us without sweets
  • iouris April 5 2020 23: 48 New
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    Excellent work in terms of content, style of presentation, and design. One of the best authors of the resource. A rather little-known page in world history and the history of the region (at least for me). Thank.
  • Almaty1982 April 6 2020 07: 41 New
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    Thank you, very informatively interesting
  • VLR
    VLR April 6 2020 08: 09 New
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    Good morning, thanks to everyone who left positive feedback, I hope to "correspond" in the future. smile
    In the next article, we will talk about the combat units of the Zouaves that appeared in France after the accession of Algeria.
    1. 3x3zsave April 6 2020 08: 38 New
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      Already soon! Because I, for example, have nothing to read and discuss today.
  • Catfish April 6 2020 11: 56 New
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    November 12, 1815 Decatur returned to New York. His triumph overshadowed the denial of all Algeria agreements.

    Stephen Dickeyter was very warmly received at home where he was immediately invited to the council of fleet commissars.
    He died in a duel on March 22, 1820. James Barron, the former commander of the Chesapeake frigate, killed him in 1807, after the battle, surrendering his ship to the British. Decatur, like many officers, was against the reinstatement of Barron in the Navy.
    The decorator also has the famous dictum: “My country! Perhaps she is not always right in her relations with other countries, but whether she is right or not is my country! Original text (Eng.) Our Country! In her intercourse with foreign nations may she always be in the right; but right or wrong, our country! "
    In memory of him several districts and settlements were named after him. And also five warships took turns bearing his name.
    In the photo is the last USS DDG Decatur.