Military Review

Air Defense Day

Air Defense Day

Since 2015, the air defense forces have been officially called the air defense and missile defense troops (air defense missile defense troops), representing a separate branch of the armed forces of the Russian Federation. Memorial Day of the Air Defense Forces was established on the basis of the decree of the President of Russia of May 31, 2006. According to the published decree, the holiday date falls on every second Sunday of April (in 2020 - April 12). In the Soviet Union, a holiday since 1980 was also celebrated every second Sunday of April, but earlier its date was fixed - April 11.

The appearance of air defense forces in Russia

The first air defense units appeared in our country during the First World War, which in many ways changed the army and navy of the warring states. Development and widespread use in hostilities aviation demanded an adequate response from all parties to the conflict. In Russia, the date of the formation of air defense is considered December 8 (November 25 according to the old style) of 1914, on that day the air defense system of Petrograd was formed.

At the same time, work to create means to combat air targets began in the Russian Empire before the war. For example, since 1910, the country worked on the creation of a rocket weapons, which was planned to be used against air targets. Such a project was proposed, in particular, by a military engineer N.V. Gerasimov. Even then, he understood that getting a rocket directly into an airplane was an impossible task. That is why the engineer did not propose to hit the very air target, but the space in which it is located. The very approach and understanding of the problem prove that Gerasimov was thinking in the right direction.

Also, even before the war began, in 1912, the empire managed to develop the first self-propelled anti-aircraft artillery mount on a truck chassis. A distinctive feature of the new combat vehicle was that it was also armored. The inventor, the permanent officer of the Officer Artillery School of the Guard, Staff Captain V.V. Tarnavsky was responsible for the development of the first domestic ZSU. It was Tarnavsky who created the armored installation on a car chassis, in the back of which on the pedestal installation there was a 76,2 mm gun. The production of such ZSU was established at the famous Putilov factory, and the first order for the production of 12 units was issued in June 1914.

The best anti-aircraft weapons of the First World War in the Russian Imperial Army were the 76,2-mm gun of the 1900 model and a gun of the same caliber of the Schneider system (model of 1909). Often, to solve the tasks of air defense, the most ordinary field tools were used, which were mounted on special anti-aircraft rotary frames. At the same time, during the years of the First World War, a variety of air defense systems were developed in the country, including those based on a motorcycle with a sidecar, in which a 7,62 mm Maxim machine gun was installed on a special machine.

Despite the practical lack of experience in combating air targets, with simple technical means that were not available in the troops, by the end of 1914 the Russian ground forces chalked up 19 enemy aircraft destroyed, as well as two enemy airships. They managed to capture 80 crew members, three more aircraft were chalked up by Russian pilots.

Air Defense Forces during World War II

By the beginning of World War II, the air defense forces had passed a serious development path, becoming a formidable force. The Soviet air defense was armed not only with modern anti-aircraft guns, including automatic and numerous machine-gun mounts, but also with modern means such as radar. So the first Soviet serial radar, designated RUS-1, was adopted as early as 1939. A total of 45 such complexes were produced, which were used including in the air defense of Moscow and Leningrad.

Another important difference was the widespread use of anti-aircraft defense aircraft. For example, the 6th fighter air defense corps was in charge of the defense of the capital of the Soviet Union, armed with about 600 fighters of various types. At the same time, the 85-mm anti-aircraft guns were effectively used by the Soviet troops as anti-tank weapons, playing a significant role in the defense of Moscow in the fall of 1941. And Moscow’s air defense fighters were often used to carry out reconnaissance flights and attack ground targets.

Cars from the RUS-1 complex

One can single out the fact that the war required the mobilization of all possible resources and forces. A large number of women were called to the front, especially in the units that did not fight on the front lines. In the air defense forces, they occupied a significant share, becoming radio operators, telephone operators, reconnaissance observers of anti-aircraft artillery units and air support posts, numbers of searchlight stations, anti-aircraft machine guns and guns, as well as barrage balloons. Only by the decree of the GKO on March 25, 1942, in the air defense part, it was ordered to mobilize 100 thousand young girls aged 19-25 years, of which 45 thousand people were ordered to be included in anti-aircraft machine-gun units, and another 40 thousand in the airspace service.

In total, during the years of World War II, Soviet air defense chalked up 7313 enemy aircraft, of which 3145 were anti-aircraft artillery, machine gun fire and air barrage balloons, and another 4168 aircraft were chalked up by fighter aircraft. In total, during the war years, nearly 270 thousand sorties were completed and 6787 air battles were carried out by fighter air defense aircraft.

Current status and missions of the air defense missile defense

Currently, formations and military units of the air defense missile defense provide reliable protection of the air borders of our country. One of the main tasks is the air defense of the city of Moscow and the entire central industrial region of Russia. The air defense forces provide reliable control of airspace and protect top-level state and military command and control facilities, as well as key industrial and energy facilities, important transport communications and facilities, as well as Russian Armed Forces from attacks that are carried out from aerospace.

In recent years, the equipment fleet in the air defense forces has been seriously updated. In Russia, 56 S-400 Triumph air defense divisions were deployed, which is considered the best air defense system in the world and is in steady demand in the global arms market. Such complexes are already in service with the armies of China, India, and Turkey. Air defense troops have always been demanding of military personnel and specialists; today, with the development of equipment and technologies, the training of specialists plays an increasingly important role. In Russia, several large higher military educational institutions are currently training personnel for the air defense missile defense forces, including: Marshal Zhukov in Tver, Yaroslavl Higher Military School of Air Defense, Training Center for Anti-aircraft Missile Forces, located in Gatchina, and the Center for the Training of Specialists of Radio Engineering Troops in Vladimir.

Like other servicemen, on their professional holiday, fighters and commanders of the air defense unit go to the service. Every day, as part of the air defense forces of the air defense forces, approximately 1,5 soldiers, officers and civilian personnel take up combat duty. At the same time, even the quietest combat duty requires a large concentration of attention and responsibility. This is due both to the enormous length of the Russian borders and the size of the controlled airspace, and to intensive air traffic. As noted by the Russian Ministry of Defense, in normal times, the air defense missile defense troops carry out radar surveillance and tracking of approximately 800 air targets every day. Approximately 10 percent of such targets need to be monitored in continuous radar mode.

On this festive day, Military Review congratulates all military personnel and civilian specialists related to the air defense of our country, as well as veterans of the air defense forces on their professional holiday!
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  1. DMB 75
    DMB 75 April 12 2020 04: 58 New
    Happy Communion Day! drinks

    Health and good mood!
    1. Spartanez300
      Spartanez300 April 12 2020 05: 11 New
      Happy Holiday !!! soldier drinks
      1. The comment was deleted.
  2. svp67
    svp67 April 12 2020 05: 02 New
    Hmm, RICH to celebrate today ...
    Day of Air Defense Troops - Happy Holders of the Keys to the Sky ... drinks

    Cosmonautics Day - Everyone involved in cosmonautics with a holiday drinks

    Palm Sunday - Peace, prosperity and happiness to all love
  3. Fedorov
    Fedorov April 12 2020 05: 13 New
    Damn - my day! Calls have already started in the morning. We'll have to dangle to Kiev, since there is a meeting place nearby and you will have to drink a little with fellow officers. All by the way Russian-speaking and "put the device on" Nezalezhnaya. But by the will of fate, we live here. hi
    1. Mar.Tirah
      Mar.Tirah April 12 2020 09: 52 New
      Quote: Fedorov
      my day !

      Conducted military service fruitfully in these legendary and significant troops. For a peaceful sky above their heads. Let someone else’s inverse trail never cross our sky. Yugoslavia is an example. You’ve got excited about fear. My friend in Odessa, for example, is afraid to communicate even on Skype. God forbid, Svidomo will find out and report that he communicates with Muscovites. So patience and health are there. The main thing is that they did not sell their brotherhood and the identity of Soviet people.
    2. ccsr
      ccsr April 12 2020 10: 39 New
      Quote: Fedorov
      Damn - my day! Calls have already gone in the morning. We’ll have to go to Kiev

      There were two famous engineering schools of air defense in Kiev - KVIRTU and KVIZRU, with the graduates of which I had to encounter during the service. There were many graduates of KVIRTU in the units of the Special Forces and Special Forces and the central subordination units of the Main Intelligence Directorate, where they enjoyed authority because of the good basic training. One such graduate had to face even in the 3rd brigade of the Special Forces in Neutimen, where he suffered from the fact that he lost his professional qualifications as commanders of the RTR company and dreamed of getting into the 82 brigade of the Special Forces. I don’t know what his fate was, but the officer was sensible, and if his memory doesn’t fail, his name was Captain Sayenko. It was an interesting time - now many simply don’t understand this ...
  4. Asad
    Asad April 12 2020 05: 27 New
    Happy Holiday! Two years in the Arctic went to the benefit of boob! Do not be ill!!!
  5. Freeman
    Freeman April 12 2020 05: 34 New

    Moscow Air Defense District, joins in congratulations! drinks
    1. Lekov L
      Lekov L April 12 2020 10: 58 New
      And you, and all involved with the holiday! drinks
      Be safe and sound, colleagues and colleagues.
      Happy Air Defense Day comrades: generals, officers, warrant officers, sergeants and soldiers!
      After all, we are all, even in reserve, colleagues.
      I embrace, shake hands, it’s a pity that not everyone already ... remember them.
      I have the honor soldier
    2. AAK
      AAK April 12 2020 15: 39 New
      All colleagues with a holiday! He himself served in the RTV air defense in 1983-85. (YOUTH in military unit 03896, Yelets)
  6. Fedorov
    Fedorov April 12 2020 06: 02 New
    Previously, there were Air Defense Countries - S-300, Buki, Cuba-Squares, S-200 and air defense of the ground forces - Wasps, Torahs, Tunguska, Shilka at last. And now everything is mixed up. But I’ll drink 50 of them all today, especially since they are already pushing me. . drinks
    1. Sanya Terek
      Sanya Terek April 12 2020 10: 40 New
      Valery, "Buk" - means of military air defense of the combined arms (tank) army, "Wasp" and "Thor" (formerly "Cube") - means of air defense of a motorized rifle (tank) division (brigade), "Tunguska", "Shilka", "Strela" ", MANPADS - means of air defense of a motorized rifle (tank) regiment. The Air Defense Forces of the country did not have these complexes.
      A related kind of troops - Happy Holiday !!!
      1. ccsr
        ccsr April 12 2020 11: 50 New
        Quote: Sanya Tersky
        In the Air Defense Forces of the country these complexes were not.
        A related kind of troops - Happy Holiday !!!

        There was a period when the air defense of the country was combined with the air defense of the Ground Forces, but then they made the opposite decision, and they were brought back to their former state - I found this. By the way, in the GSVG of the Air Defense Forces of the Ground Forces, it performed tasks in the interests of the air defense of the country, because it was constantly on alert duty and delivered all operational information about strategic aviation to NATO in Black, as far as I know. So, by and large, the okrugs and groups of troops worked for a common cause, although of course the armament was different.
    2. Stoker of the stoker
      Stoker of the stoker April 12 2020 11: 03 New
      And then there was the Krug air defense system.
      And shishigi with ZPU-4 were hiding in storage.
  7. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave April 12 2020 06: 12 New
    Happy holiday to all involved!
    Air Defense, 91-93, Kharkov-Murmansk.
  8. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I April 12 2020 07: 09 New
    Air Defense Day! And we will congratulate those who are in the service or at home the day off. Their job is to defend the homeland, It doesn’t matter, General Il Private. They calmly guard the dream of the Country, tired after a day of work. Accept from us an earthly bow, The country is with you today, as always!
    1. AUL
      AUL April 12 2020 09: 08 New
      Happy Holidays, Fenders!
      6 Air Defense Army, "Gabarit" system, private, DMB72.
  9. Nait
    Nait April 12 2020 09: 24 New
    In Russia, several large higher military educational institutions are currently training personnel for the air defense missile defense forces, including the Military Academy of East Kazakhstan region named after Marshal Zhukov in Tver, Yaroslavl Higher Military School of Air Defense, Training Center for Anti-aircraft Missile Forces, located in Gatchina, and the Center for the Training of Specialists of Radio Engineering Troops in Vladimir.

    They cut the air defense schools thoroughly, I don’t understand who serves these S-300s, S-400s.
    Or they are an order of magnitude smaller than in the union time.

    If we talk about anti-aircraft defense, then SPRN there too.
    Forgot about Mozhaika and the Pushkin School - it seems to be reanimated as a branch of Mozhaika.
    1. indeveral
      indeveral April 12 2020 10: 43 New
      Pushkin was restored. But it is completely destroyed as a school. And the educational and residential part needs to be fully restored. Were in it last year on the 20th anniversary of release. Tears on eyes. Fucking farts. I'd like to believe that my school will again become what I remember, and better at the modern level.
      1. Nait
        Nait April 12 2020 11: 40 New
        and mine (1987 issue), but they began to nightmare him even before Perdyukov.
        And I’m interested, during the war and immediately after the war it worked (my father entered there in 1946), but here it is ....
        Quote: indeveral
        But it is completely destroyed as a school. And the educational and residential part needs to be fully restored.

        And the teaching staff, equipment for training .... traditions - stsuki, would kill those
        who closed it.
    2. MORDVIN13rus
      MORDVIN13rus April 12 2020 17: 14 New
      But what about training in Orenburg. He stayed there for six months, although it relates to air defense, but the Beeches are armed not only with air defense, but also about air defense.
  10. Pete mitchell
    Pete mitchell April 12 2020 09: 35 New
    Everyone involved with the holiday, take care soldier
  11. engineering
    engineering April 12 2020 10: 09 New
    With the holiday of all who served and serves in the air defense, the most important thing is health, family well-being and good luck in everything. Take care of yourself.
  12. Oberst_71
    Oberst_71 April 12 2020 10: 20 New

    1. MORDVIN13rus
      MORDVIN13rus April 12 2020 17: 16 New
      Native Chita. Already let a tear soldier
  13. iouris
    iouris April 12 2020 11: 34 New
    "Daddy serves in air defense: muzzle - in! And priest - in!
    Daddy serves in the Air Force: drinks a lot and eats little. "
    1. Aag
      Aag April 12 2020 16: 04 New
      Happy holiday of "key keepers" of heaven! All the best, guys!
      According to the article: "by the end of 1914, the Russian ground forces recorded 19 destroyed enemy aircraft, as well as two enemy airships. They managed to capture 80 crew members,"
      Some crowded crews of the aircraft were in the 2nd world, aren’t you? Maybe due to passenger airships such statistics? Can someone explain?
  14. MORDVIN13rus
    MORDVIN13rus April 12 2020 17: 21 New
    2 soldiers from StroyBat, replace the excavator;
    A soldier from the air defense, replaces at least someone !!!

    Happy US !!!
  15. Orkraider
    Orkraider April 12 2020 21: 56 New
    Happy holiday PVoshnikov!
    For a peaceful sky and your nap on your locator drinks
  16. IL-64
    IL-64 April 12 2020 23: 28 New
    Happy Holidays, colleagues!
    WUS 441002
  17. rezerv66
    rezerv66 April 16 2020 02: 03 New
    79 Guards. ZR Br. Happy Holidays !!! "Threat" AKP 85-86