Military Review

With the letters "C" and "D". Current and future modernization of the M1 Abrams tanks

40

Tank Abrams modifications M1A2 SEP v.2


The U.S. Army plans to maintain the main combat arms in the foreseeable future. Tanks M1A2 Abrams, but such equipment will have to undergo repairs and upgrades. Work has already begun on updating armored vehicles in accordance with the modern project M1A2C (aka M1A2 SEP v.3), and in the future they will start assembling tanks M1A2D (SEP v.4). It is expected that due to all these measures, Abrams MBTs will be able to remain in service for several decades, while maintaining high combat effectiveness.

With the letter "C"


The modernization project M1A2 SEP v.3 or M1A2C was developed several years ago. In 2017, the U.S. Army made the first order for the serial production of such equipment, it was received by General Dynamics Land Systems (GDLS). There are several contracts to date, and new ones may appear in the future.

At the moment, there are plans to upgrade 435 tanks, and 325 vehicles have been contracted. Under the terms of the agreements, GLDS will repair and rebuild obsolete MBT M1A1, both from combat parts and from storage. Armies will return the modern M1A2C with new features and an extended resource.


Upgraded M1A2C

Two GLDS factories and the joint venture Joint Systems Manufacturing Center (JSMC) will work with tanks. The current contracts concluded in 2017-19 provide for the necessary work until the end of fiscal year 2021.

Decade plans


In March last year, the Pentagon released the National Guard and Reserve Equipment Report for Fiscal Year 2020, describing the state of the materiel of the armed forces at the beginning of fiscal 2019. and current plans for their development. Among other things, information was provided on the status and prospects of the tank fleet.

At that time, there were 15 tank brigades of the Armored Brigade Combat Team (ABST) type in the ground forces and the National Guard - 10 and 5, respectively. At the disposal of the army were 95 tanks M1A1SA and 783 newer M1A2 SEP v.2. The National Guard had 275 older cars and only 160 SEP v.2. The state of each ABCT relies on 87 MBT.

FY2019 it was planned the formation of the 11th ABCT as part of the ground forces. This step expands the combat capabilities of the army, and also increases the requirements for the total number of armored vehicles.


FY2020 planned the deployment and development of new MBT M1A2C in combat units. At the same time, they are planning to launch full-scale rearmament of brigades in 2021. The process of replacing equipment will continue until 2031. For 11 brigades 957 tanks will be needed. Each year, one ABCT will completely upgrade its armored fleet.

In accordance with existing agreements between the Pentagon and industry, obsolete M1A1 tanks from parts and from storage bases will go for modernization. Existing M1A2 SEP v.2 will change the owners - they will have to serve in the national guard. In the years 2023-26. five brigade sets of such equipment will be handed over to her from the army.

Further development


In 2018, the Pentagon launched work on a new technology modernization project. It was originally designated as M1A2 SEP v.4, now it uses the M1A2D index. So far, the plans for this project provide only for development work - design, construction and testing of prototypes.

Full-scale OCD started in 2019 and will continue until 2024. The prototype will be tested in 2021. Further plans for the M1A2D remain unknown. What equipment will be used for repair and modernization, when and in what quantities the work will be carried out is unknown. It is likely that such plans will be formed later, after part of the design work has been completed.


It is easy to notice that the new project will be completed during the period of active production of equipment of the previous model. Thus, in the middle of the current decade, the Pentagon will have to decide how to manage the two existing projects. Perhaps, for the sake of starting the assembly of tanks of one model, they will sacrifice the production of another.

Current upgrade


The M1A2C modernization project provides for a number of measures aimed at improving all the basic technical and combat characteristics of the tank. During the modernization, it is planned to install new components and replace some of the existing systems. During the modernization of MBT modifications M1A1 may require the installation of components and assemblies previously implemented in the projects of SEP and SEP v.2.

MBT M1A2C differs in frontal tower armor, reinforced by new overhead units. Installation of dynamic and active protection of new types is provided. Performance and survivability are improved with a new auxiliary power unit located inside the armored hull. The machine is equipped with a Vehicle Health Management System self-diagnosis kit that simplifies maintenance.


The main armament of the tank remains the same, but related devices are being processed. The fire control system is updated using modern thermal imaging devices. A programmer is installed for the use of ammunition with controlled detonation. A new remotely controlled combat module is mounted on the tower.

It has been repeatedly argued that after the modernization of the MBT, the M1A2C surpasses the existing American tanks in all major respects. It is more tenacious, has improved combat qualities and is easier to operate. As a result, it is of great interest to the army and over the next few years will have to become the basis of the armored fleet.

Next project


The main objectives of the new project M1A2D / SEP v.4 are known. This time, the focus will be on the OMS and its components; also improve weapons. Perhaps the introduction of new solutions aimed at increasing protection.

Cardinal processing will undergo optoelectronic devices commander and gunner. Sights based on modern thermal imaging systems will be used. It is planned to replace the weather sensors with more accurate ones. The gun will remain the same, but new shots will enter its ammunition. Planned modernization of smoke grenade launchers.

With the letters "C" and "D". Current and future modernization of the M1 Abrams tanks

M1A2T Tank Advertising for the Taiwanese Army

The development of the M1A2D began not too long ago, and the customer can still change the project requirements. However, it is already clear that a promising modernization will give tanks new opportunities and advantages even over the current M1A2C, not to mention older versions.

Decade of modernization


The last of the Abrams tank modernization projects created, the M1A2 SEP v.3 / M1A2C, has already reached the stage of assembly and transfer of the first batches of equipment to the troops. Plans for this project are planned before the end of this decade, and industry has to seriously work. In parallel with the restructuring of the M1A1 tanks in the M1A2C will be the development of the project M1A2D.

It is curious that enterprises will work not only in the interests of the American army. Last year, Taiwan and the United States agreed to supply tanks modification M1A2T - a modified version of the M1A2C. Newly built tanks will differ in their armor design and the presence / absence of some units. Otherwise, they must comply with draft “C” or SEP v.3.

Thus, the main tanks of the M1 Abrams family will for a long time take their place in the armed forces of the United States and some other countries, and their replacement remains a matter of the distant future. To ensure a long and efficient service, new repair and modernization projects are being created. One of them can be watched right now, and in a few years the next one starts.
Author:
Photos used:
U.S. Army
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  1. Thrifty
    Thrifty April 7 2020 05: 37 New
    17
    Cyril, would you at least indicate the difference in the types of modernized tanks, not only in the index of letters, but also, so to speak, on a concrete example. And then there are many letters, but the meaning is practically zero from the article. ..
    1. Grigory_45
      Grigory_45 April 7 2020 09: 34 New
      15
      Quote: Thrifty
      And then there are many letters, but the meaning is practically zero

      this is the corporate identity of Mr. Ryabov

      Quote: Thrifty
      indicated the difference in the types of modernized tanks

      M1A2 SEP v.3: frontal turret armor reinforced
      The gunner’s sight and panoramic commander’s sight are equipped with IFLIR thermal imaging devices. High-resolution liquid crystal displays are installed at the commander and gunner’s workstations
      The tank’s ammunition was equipped with a new M829E4 AKE BPS with increased armor penetration and an XM1147 programmable high-explosive fragmentation shell. Accordingly, the ADL (Ammunition Data Link) equipment for remote fuse programming is installed.
      CROWS-LP remotely controlled combat module with an M2HB machine gun installed
      Installed APU, under the protection of the body armor

      M1A2 SEP v.4: the emphasis is on updating the LMS. Tanks will need to be equipped with third-generation infrared surveillance systems. From the previous equipment of this class, the new one will differ in increased resolution and digital video processing.
      Installation of new digital LMS sensors, automatically transmitting information to the balancer
      The tank will receive a new laser rangefinder, a laser warning receiver, color cameras, an integrated control network
      There is unconfirmed information to do something with the cannon, but I think it will remain with Wishlist.
      1. Sergey_G_M
        Sergey_G_M April 7 2020 13: 29 New
        0
        Thank you, this article was very much lacking!
        And of course, there is not enough information about the price of such modernization, although it is clear that this is a trade secret and for different countries it will be different.
        1. Grigory_45
          Grigory_45 April 7 2020 13: 44 New
          +2
          Quote: Sergey_G_M
          there is not enough information about the price of such an upgrade

          even the Americans themselves do not know about M1A2 SEP v.4, because the study of the requirements for the machine is still in an active stage
  2. svp67
    svp67 April 7 2020 05: 38 New
    -4
    Upgraded M1A2C
    Here, I did not understand something, but what kind of "pimples" on the tower's armor popped up, did you get sick with tea?
    1. Aleksandr72
      Aleksandr72 April 7 2020 06: 33 New
      0
      I believe that these are "Ilyich's eyebrows", but if it is serious, then this is most likely this declared modernization of "Abrasha" for battles in an urbanized zone:
      Tank Urban Survival Kit (TUSK) - “a set of additional equipment and reservations that enhance combat capabilities in urban conditions”, designed for mounting on M1A1 and M1A2 tanks; includes an ARAT dynamic protection system to increase the protection of side projections from cumulative weapons, a thermal imaging sight for turret mounting an M240 loader, guards for protecting the commander and loader when observing from open hatches, remote bottom reservation, a headset for communication with infantry, an additional machine gun M2 on the CSAMM installation (mounted on the mask of the gun), the thermal imaging sight of the commander’s ZPU (for M1A1), the remotely controlled CROWS installation (for M1A2)

      The main thing you need to know about the Abrams:
      1. svp67
        svp67 April 7 2020 06: 36 New
        0
        Quote: Aleksandr72
        I believe that these are "Ilyich's eyebrows",

        No, up to the "eyebrows of Ilyich" "THIS is" some kind of "plucked out eyebrows of Ilyich", some area remains uncovered ...
      2. Grigory_45
        Grigory_45 April 7 2020 09: 07 New
        +2
        Quote: Aleksandr72
        I believe that these are "Ilyich's eyebrows"

        most likely, these are counterweights. All of Abrams' armor is "hidden", even the first generation of armored uranium ceramics was under the outer layer of steel.
      3. English tarantas
        English tarantas April 7 2020 18: 18 New
        0
        TUSK is completely different, it’s a body kit that includes DZ, anti-cumulative screens, guards for machine guns and DBMs, the kit is designed for installation on M1A2 tanks, the kit has two versions (as far as I can remember, I don’t know what the differences are, maybe one for SEP v. 1, and the second for SEP v. 2)
        You can throw out your memo, there is only one from Abramsov’s vulnerable zones there - epaulettes.
        1. Bad_gr
          Bad_gr April 8 2020 09: 08 New
          0
          Quote: Gregory_45
          rather, these are balances ....

          Quote: English tarantass
          TUSK is generally different, it is a kit body kit, which includes remote sensing, cumulative screens ...........

          It's strange. Below the first snapshot I have an explanation: "M1A2C with SEP v.3 update package". The second does not need explanations, since the tank itself says that this is SEP v.3.
          That is, it is not loads to check the balancing of the tower with a new body kit, but there is an element of the body kit.
          In my opinion, something like textolite (like ours, between sheets of frontal armor)


          In the bottom photo, a similar sheet and on the frontal armor is hung.
          1. English tarantas
            English tarantas April 8 2020 16: 59 New
            0
            Below is a comment with a new turret, with normal armor. You can write anything on the tank, even though it’s a T-34.
      4. Alexandra
        Alexandra April 8 2020 00: 43 New
        0
        More accurate image of vulnerabilities:



        Although the central and rear side of the side of the tower is not one of those. So from cumulative ammunition the equivalent of protection is at least 400 mm RHA at an angle of 90 degrees.
        1. English tarantas
          English tarantas April 8 2020 17: 04 New
          0
          Again, throw out the memo, here are also indicated places - vulnerable on all MBT. Do not play the fool, it’s Abrams’s weak points: the area of ​​the front skating rink with even a relatively small angle of rotation, shoulder straps, and the first-stage internal ammunition.
          1. Alexandra
            Alexandra April 9 2020 00: 16 New
            0
            Let's do without advice.

            Vulnerable zones of different tanks are located in different ways and have different areas. If the tank "Leopad-2A4" has the first stage ammunition rack covered from the side with thin armor with an equivalent of ~ 50 mm:



            Then the "Abrams" has the same ammunition rack covered from the side with this kind of armor:



            With the equivalent of ~ 400 mm from cumulative ammunition.

            As suggested, I will not advise you anything.
            1. English tarantas
              English tarantas April 10 2020 11: 47 New
              0
              It seems you are not in the know, but yes, the Leopard BC first stage is in the niche of the tower. In Abrams there are 6 shells lying below and behind the weapon, under the tower niche, in the hull. This place is either not filled with shells, or they spend it first, since they are essentially located in the fighting compartment, and they are protected by thin side armor.
              1. Alexandra
                Alexandra April 22 2020 00: 16 New
                +1
                These six shots are located in an armored fence between the fighting compartment and the MTO, which is also equipped with kick panels, like the niche of the tower.



                The loader has no opportunity to "spend them first" in battle.

                Due to the fact that they are there, the heavy side skirts "special armor" on the right side cover more of the hull side than on the left.



                As you can see, "Abrams" by its "vulnerabilities" is significantly different from "all MBT".
    2. Jack O'Neill
      Jack O'Neill April 7 2020 08: 05 New
      +3
      Here, I did not understand something, but what kind of "pimples" on the tower's armor popped up, did you get sick with tea?

      Counterweights to see how the tower with increased protection will behave.
      Here you can see the new dimensions of the tower:
      1. svp67
        svp67 April 7 2020 10: 34 New
        0
        Quote: Jack O'Neill
        Here you can see the new dimensions of the tower:

        Yes, not a bad increase in thickness ... Poor head fur-water ...
        1. Bad_gr
          Bad_gr April 8 2020 00: 50 New
          0
          Quote: Jack O'Neill
          Here you can see the new dimensions of the tower:

          Quote: svp67
          Yes, not a bad increase in thickness ... Poor head fur-water ...

          I do not see any increase in size. Most likely the filling of the cheekbones was changed in the direction of increasing the proportion of uranium, but the size is the same. For comparison, there are two tanks (the trunk of both is turned slightly to the right), the first Tusk3 (with the sunroof closed) and the old (with the open):


          The zaman is quite large in this tank: the cheekbone of the tower, when standing above the hatch, although it interferes with the driver, it still has the opportunity to crawl out.
          1. svp67
            svp67 April 8 2020 05: 19 New
            0
            Quote: Bad_gr
            I do not see any increase in size.

            Look at the height and sharpness of the cheekbones of the tank in the profile photo, you can see with the naked eye that it is longer ...
            1. Bad_gr
              Bad_gr April 8 2020 08: 59 New
              +1
              Quote: svp67
              Look at the height and sharpness of the cheekbones of the tank in the profile photo

              It is difficult to judge by height, since the towers are slightly deployed in relation to each other (yellow to the left, green to the right (you can even see part of the left cheekbone)), therefore the view of the towers is different.
              But judging by the gun, then, yes, 5 centimeters increased:
      2. English tarantas
        English tarantas April 7 2020 18: 20 New
        0
        I waited for the photos of the finished M1A2C to be thrown off in the comments, they already wrote about the style of this author above, but not to give a photo of a really finished sample is an omission.
    3. smaug78
      smaug78 April 7 2020 18: 11 New
      0
      This is a simulator add. reservation equal in weight.
  3. Thrifty
    Thrifty April 7 2020 05: 43 New
    -13
    Abrams has outlived himself! Good modernization also implies a significant increase in tank reservation. And he is already overweight! A few years ago, the Yankees got their head on when a deeply modernized tank at the firing range was literally shot by an old T72 firing obsolete shells! As a result, the abrashka was immediately sent for serious repairs. And, against the same T90S abrams is no match for the battle, our TOURS will shoot him here and that's all for a short time!
    1. English tarantas
      English tarantas April 7 2020 18: 23 New
      +1
      And what, our tanks have long received an increase in passive booking? And the introduction of new sighting systems and ammunition at what pace?
      And, against the same T90S abrams is no match for the battle, our TOURS will shoot him here and that's all for a short time!

      We’ve found it to help, stupid Americans will just stand there and wait for the rockets to arrive.
    2. Alexandra
      Alexandra April 8 2020 00: 47 New
      +3
      Provide information about the time and place of the shooting range of the Abrams from the old T-72 with old shells.

      PS Oh, these "urban legends".
  4. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U April 7 2020 06: 02 New
    -6
    Will the US sheep overpower the creation of a new tank? Abrams is clearly becoming obsolete.
    1. mark1
      mark1 April 7 2020 06: 34 New
      +8
      If the T-72 business is alive and well (let me remind you that the T-90 at the time of conception was known in narrow circles as the T-72BU), then what prevents the Abrams from feeling just as good?
      1. Vladimir_2U
        Vladimir_2U April 7 2020 06: 47 New
        -6
        Is that not sickly such "obesity".
      2. Sergey_G_M
        Sergey_G_M April 7 2020 13: 48 New
        0
        The modernization potential of the tanks of the classic layout is gradually exhausted.
        Panoramic cameras with picture stitching, new / additional sights and thermal imagers, improvement of the LMS with the issuance of more information, information from the automated control system of the unit and intelligence. All this requires a conclusion, and there is no more space for installing large monitors. Here the layout of Almaty is more promising - there is a place for large monitors and the information from them is visible to all three crew members (with modern automation, tankers are almost no longer the driver, gunner and commander, but more the operators of the corresponding systems)
  5. Mytholog
    Mytholog April 7 2020 06: 09 New
    0
    MBT M1A2C differs in frontal armoring of the tower, reinforced by new overhead units.

    "Donald Fedorovich's eyebrows", damn it))
    There is nothing new under the sun.
    1. Vladimir_2U
      Vladimir_2U April 7 2020 06: 49 New
      -2
      US-Sheep called it "Dolly Parton's Tits", but "Eyebrows .." is cleverer.
      1. English tarantas
        English tarantas April 7 2020 18: 25 New
        0
        Dolly Parton is generally a T-72 tower, without eyebrows. Like the T-72B called Super Dolly Parton
        1. Vladimir_2U
          Vladimir_2U April 8 2020 03: 54 New
          0
          Well, I write, "something like that."
          Quote: English tarantass
          T-72 tower, without eyebrows

          Yes, there are interesting outlines in terms of, but they would also see "eyebrows .."
  6. andrewkor
    andrewkor April 7 2020 06: 48 New
    +1
    Interestingly, the loss of the Abramsov as a result of combat and non-combat losses is compensated for as new ones are not being produced, and here is another team in the plans.
    The National Guard and the "state reserve" are not unlimited, and when it will run out to zero!
    1. Grigory_45
      Grigory_45 April 7 2020 09: 01 New
      +4
      Quote: andrewkor
      Interestingly, the loss of Abramsov as a result of combat and non-combat losses, how is it compensated?

      removed from storage, and also collect one tank from several (as you know, Americans drag even heavily beaten cars during the database).
      Quote: andrewkor
      New ones are not produced

      tank production can be deployed at the Lima Army Tank Plant, Ohio. Now Strikers are made there and Abrams are being repaired and modernized, but the equipment for the production of new tanks has been preserved.
      Also, new tanks are manufactured under license in Egypt.

      Quote: andrewkor
      The National Guard and the "state reserve" are not unlimited, and when it will run out to zero!

      In the United States alone, more than 10 Abrams were released. So the reserve is still very large.
      In addition, Abrams will sooner or later have to change - either to a new tank, or to a universal BRM. But years before the 2060s, there are enough US-tsam tanks.
  7. 501Legion
    501Legion April 7 2020 07: 01 New
    -6
    They hung garlands on him as if on a Christmas tree. looks creepy especially with "cheeks"
  8. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh April 7 2020 14: 18 New
    +1
    The Americans will need a new tank for the Marine Corps.
    Those refuse Abrams. But without tanks - nowhere.
    The Turks made a good tank. Americans need the same, just add
    full-fledged KAZ Trophy. Or similar. In short, an infantry support tank
    with the usual long-barreled 105 mm gun and KAZ.
  9. Grading
    Grading April 7 2020 16: 29 New
    0
    Quote: voyaka uh
    The Americans will need a new tank for the Marine Corps.
    Those refuse Abrams. But without tanks - nowhere.
    The Turks made a good tank. Americans need the same, just add
    full-fledged KAZ Trophy. Or similar. In short, an infantry support tank
    with the usual long-barreled 105 mm gun and KAZ.

  10. awdrgy
    awdrgy April 7 2020 23: 30 New
    0
    What is it that turns out? Will there be two lead cowards for US tankers now?)