Military Review

ADS: on land and under water. American Journalists Appreciate Russian Weapons


Special two-machine gun, or ADS, is weapon, at the sight of which you feel pride in the Russian defense industry. The unique assault rifle can be effectively used both on land and under water, and it is already in service with the Russian power structures. In 2019, the shipment of the first batches of serial machine guns to the troops began. American journalists could not get past this weapon either. For example, on the website of The National Interest magazine in early April 2020, material on ADS was published. American journalists speak well of the "underwater assault rifle" from Russia, noting that they can’t escape from this Russian weapon even under water.

From development to mass production

ADS was developed by engineers of the Design Bureau of Instrument Engineering from Tula. A new model of small arms was created on the basis of the A-91 rifle-grenade launcher complex, which was created by Tula gunsmiths in the early 1990s. The new weapon was originally created to replace in special units of the Russian armed forces (primarily the Navy) a special submachine gun for underwater firing of the APS and the classic AK-74M. It is worth noting that the Tula gunsmiths were able to successfully solve the task assigned to them. Their novelty, called ADS (special two-machine gun), in terms of accuracy of fire exceeds both AK-74M and APS (on land and under water, respectively).

The draft of the new weapon was completed by 2007, after which until 2013 various work was carried out to improve the design, test prototypes and refine them. The ADF was first introduced to the general public in 2013 as part of the International Naval Salon in St. Petersburg. The machine gun immediately attracted increased public attention as a unique example of small arms.

The very idea of ​​the development and the general concept of the ADF belonged to Vasily Gryazev, an outstanding domestic weapons designer, one of the masters of creating small arms in our country. We managed to release weapons in metal after the designer’s death, when his colleagues and students who worked at TsKIB SOO, the Central Design Research Bureau of Sports and Hunting Weapons, which is an organizational part of the Tula Instrument Design Bureau, continued to work on the project.

For a long time, the weapon was refined and went through trial operation directly in the troops. As a result, the armed forces of Russia received the first batch of new ADF submachine guns capable of equally efficiently shooting both on land and under water only at the end of 2019. This was reported by TASS with reference to the press service of the holding "High-precision complexes", which includes the enterprise of Instrument Design Bureau (Tula).

Representatives of the holding "High-precision complexes" said that in Tula mastered the mass production of two-medium automatic machines, and the first batches of ADF were already shipped to the customer as part of the state defense order. Moreover, the machines were in trial operation for several years. For example, previously appeared news that deliveries of individual parties to law enforcement agencies began in 2018. The holding company "High-precision complexes" told reporters that according to the results of the trial operation of the new machines, some improvements to the product were made, aimed primarily at improving the usability of the two-medium machine.

It is clear that the main operators of the machine will be special units of the Russian fleet (primarily combat swimmers). But back in 2017, representatives of TsKIB SOO talked about the fact that customers of not only the Russian Ministry of Defense, but also the Russian Guard, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the FSB show interest in the product from Tula. And in 2018, Yuri Amelin, a representative of TsKIB SOO, told RIA Novosti reporters that the company, which was preparing for the start of mass production of the ADF, also received permission to export a new model of small arms.

Unique features of the ADF machine

The two-medium special assault rifle is a universal automatic weapon with high efficiency that allows the shooter to confidently fight the enemy not only on land but also under water, where the cartridges of ordinary small arms become useless. The ADF is a truly unique development, which is sometimes rightly compared to the weapons that came down to us from the pages of science fiction.

For the first time, the ADS gives the shooter the opportunity to confidently hit targets both on land using a wide range of standard automatic rifle cartridges of 5,45x39 mm caliber, as well as 40-mm caliber grenade shots, and underwater, where the machine is used to combat enemy saboteurs and combat swimmers. For firing under water, special ammunition is used that have the same caliber. In order to fight in suitable conditions, the shooter only needs to change the store. Such a successful combination of a full-time and special assault rifle in one model is very important, as it allows combat swimmers to almost halve the weight of their weapons.

A feature of the ADS model is the bullpup layout, which made it possible to make the weapon more compact. At the same time, the reduction in the length of the weapon did not occur to the detriment of the length of the barrel and while maintaining the high combat characteristics of the model. The machine received a closed box, which should increase the reliability of the ADF in difficult conditions. Composite materials used in the manufacture of weapons have a positive effect on the weight of the model, while at the same time increasing the corrosion resistance of the machine. Also, the machine is equipped with a universal mounting plate of the Picatinny type, which allows you to install various models of sighting devices on the ADF. In addition, the two-medium automatic can be equipped with a device for silent shooting or with a special nozzle for idle shooting.

ADS: on land and under water. American Journalists Appreciate Russian Weapons

A lot of interesting solutions were implemented in the ADF, including new ones for serial Russian small arms. For example, it is on a two-medium machine that the ejection of spent cartridges is carried out not sideways, but forward with the box closed. Such a solution simultaneously reduces the gas contamination of the shooter's face and allows the use of the machine by right-handed and left-handed people. The ADF is equally suitable for shooting from the right or left shoulder, for this the shooter does not need to rearrange any details on the weapon.

A distinctive feature of the Russian ADF is the grenade launcher integrated into the design of the weapon, designed to use VOG-25 shellless grenades and their modifications. Such a solution significantly increases the fire capabilities of the machine, and therefore the shooter himself, providing the fighter with an additional set of tools for solving various tasks on the battlefield.

Technical characteristics of ADF and used cartridges

The machine gun has two main modes of firing: single shots and automatic fire. The rate of fire reaches 700 rounds per minute (when firing on land). For firing from the automatic submachine gun, ordinary cartridges for AK submachine guns of 5,45x39 mm caliber and specialized ammunition for firing under water can be used: 5,45x39 PSP and PSP-UD. Magazine capacity - 30 rounds. Also, along with weapons, 40-mm VOG-25 grenade launchers and their various modifications can be used. The aiming range of the ADF on land is up to 600 meters, from a grenade launcher - 400 meters. Under water, the target can be confidently hit at a distance of up to 25 meters at a depth of five meters, with increasing depth, this value decreases.

The weight of the weapon is 4,82 kg without a sight, this value is given on the website of the holding "High-precision complexes." Moreover, the ADF has the following geometric dimensions: the length of the special machine is 685 mm, the width is 60 mm, the height is 302 mm. The barrel length of the machine is 418 mm. According to this indicator, the weapon is in no way inferior to the AK-74M assault rifle, the barrel length of which is 415 mm. At the same time, the ADF is much more compact due to the bullpup layout (for comparison: the length of the AK-74M with the buttstock unfolded is 940 mm).

Underwater ammunition cartridges

On land along with weapons, standard cartridges for an AK-74M assault rifle of 5,45x39 mm caliber (7N6, 7N10, 7N22) can be used, but special ammunition of the same caliber was created by designers of TsKIB SOO for firing from a weapon under water. The main one is the PSP cartridge, which is designed to defeat enemy combat swimmers when firing from the ADF in underwater position. In addition to it, there is also a cartridge for combat training use - PSP-UD. The latter is different in that it can also be used to solve combat missions, although with restrictions on the range of destruction of underwater targets.

Both cartridges are equipped with a standard steel sleeve of a 5,45 mm submachine gun cartridge, but received a different bullet and improved gunpowder. The bullet itself for a live cartridge is made of tungsten, for a combat trainer - of bronze. Outwardly, it is a spherical longer bullet of variable diameter, having a top in the shape of a truncated cone (cavitator) and a conical bottom. This bullet shape provides a cavitation cavity to minimize water resistance. This is important, since conventional ammunition is not able to overcome three meters of distance under water.
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  1. Chaldon48
    Chaldon48 April 8 2020 06: 10 New
    Swimmers with these machine guns are probably already guarding the Crimean bridge.
    1. Insurgent
      Insurgent April 8 2020 06: 59 New
      Gradually tempting to call this weapons complex - "Sea Lion", but unfortunately, this name is already taken over by an earlier model ...

    2. Doliva63
      Doliva63 April 8 2020 20: 55 New
      Swimmers - a new kind of troops, or what? laughing
      1. Chaldon48
        Chaldon48 April 9 2020 11: 40 New
        Marine Special Forces.
        1. Doliva63
          Doliva63 April 9 2020 19: 45 New
          Quote: Chaldon48
          Marine Special Forces.

          In the distant bright Soviet years, three of my friends served in the MRP at the Northern Fleet, Pacific Fleet, Black Sea Fleet. They did not have any "combat swimmers", they had regular scout divers. And they were the parts of the Special Forces. But then there were PDSS - like, "hunters" for special forces laughing , so later the Western term "combat swimmer" was glued to them. They did not belong to any special forces, just as there was no special forces in the police, GUFSIN, in civil defense - this is a fad already in the 90s, they belonged to the coastal defense forces. Special Forces have always been special intelligence, which was subordinate to the GRU, then to the districts / fleets. Today, apparently, the term "special forces" has been smeared so that you cannot understand who is who laughing drinks
  2. DMB 75
    DMB 75 April 8 2020 06: 14 New
    Of all the options, whatever one may say, the Soviet systems (SPP and APS) are the most optimal. The design is not bulky, the recharge process is simple, the efficiency is high, but it is achieved with "little blood". The ammunition is just as simple. The probable enemy will catch up and catch up with us. Here's where, where, and here we are definitely ahead of the rest of the planet, thanks to our Soviet designers.
    1. Bersaglieri
      Bersaglieri April 8 2020 14: 32 New
      The universal cartridge is better. A "nail" from the APS on land is useless at a distance of more than 15-20 meters ...
    2. Ilya Vasilievich
      Ilya Vasilievich 1 July 2020 23: 50 New
      Those who used the APS often complained of a skew cartridge. And to fix the problem under water and in the air .....
  3. andrewkor
    andrewkor April 8 2020 06: 33 New
    Now the Chinese will buy two ASD assault rifles with ammunition and in a year, another at the exhibition will have a similar Type - ....!
    1. Bersaglieri
      Bersaglieri April 8 2020 14: 33 New
      Duc, "don't go to the fortuneteller." "printer is working"
    2. Clerk
      Clerk 2 May 2020 14: 12 New
      They generally need to drive pissing rags from our weapons! Even if such all of us are brilliant and successful, then let them design equipment and weapons from scratch!
  4. Lipchanin
    Lipchanin April 8 2020 07: 36 New
    In addition, the two-medium automatic can be equipped with a device for silent shooting or with a special nozzle for idle shooting.

    Who in the know, do not tell me why I need a single shooting mode?
    Thank you hi
    1. awdrgy
      awdrgy April 8 2020 07: 50 New
      For training, a nozzle for automatic shooting (so that the shutter does not distort every time)
      1. Lipchanin
        Lipchanin April 8 2020 07: 51 New
        Quote: awdrgy
        For training, a nozzle for automatic shooting (so that the shutter does not distort every time)

        Clear. Thanks again hi
  5. Aleksandr72
    Aleksandr72 April 8 2020 07: 52 New
    The bullet itself for a live cartridge is made of tungsten, for a combat trainer - of bronze. Outwardly, it is a spherical longer bullet of variable diameter, having a top in the shape of a truncated cone (cavitator) and a conical bottom.

    For the first time I learned that tungsten is used for the manufacture of an AMS cartridge. Interestingly, the characteristics of the combat and training cartridges do not differ, given that the bullets are made of different metals with different characteristics (relative density, and hence weight, with equal caliber and length)?
    The cartridge for the ADF in the context of:

    For comparison, the cartridge for the old APS:
    1. Fat
      Fat April 8 2020 16: 15 New
      Alexander, you seem to understand the issue. Say what does "spherical longer variable diameter bullet "
      At a loss. Is a spherical bullet a special term? What does it mean?
      Usually a sphere is the surface of a ball.
      1. Aleksandr72
        Aleksandr72 April 8 2020 17: 22 New
        For me, this is also a mystery: a spherical one is an ordinary round ball, or rather a spherical bullet. From time immemorial, these have been used for firing smooth-bore weapons. However, they were also used in rifled ones before the appearance of cylindrical-conical bullets, incl. Minier bullets. Spherical shape and variable diameter are the same compatible concepts as hot and ice cream. I believe there is an incorrect mechanical translation from some of the foreign sources. "spherical longer bullet of variable diameter" - sounds like a new iteration of the long-known term "spherical horse in vacuum", just as clever and just as meaningless. To describe a bullet for an ADS machine gun, it is better to use the following: a cylindrical-conical steel bullet with a high relative elongation (needle) with leading belts, recessed into the sleeve by 2/3 of the length, which made it possible to keep the dimensions of the 5,45x39mm automatic cartridge. But it's long, it's better to look at a photo (instead of a thousand words):
  6. Operator
    Operator April 8 2020 08: 50 New
    Weight 4,8 kg - when the cartridges run out, it can be used as a copter laughing

    Integration of a grenade launcher is a necessary decision due to a rearward displacement of the center of gravity of the rifle unit (receiver, bolt group and magazine). Despite the fashionable bullpup layout, the weapon will remain narrow-minded due to the variable balance as the cartridges are spent in the store and the reduced reliability associated with the risk of jammed cartridges being stuck in a horizontal sleeve.

    In connection with the adoption of a dual-medium 5,45x39 mm caliber cartridge with a subsonic super-cavitating bronze / tungsten alloy bullet, combat swimmers are better suited for the AK-12 assault rifle, which is additionally equipped with a gas regulator for two-medium shooting. In addition, this ammunition is the best suited for shooting using a silencer.

    In general, the ADS will not take off.
    1. missuris
      missuris April 8 2020 09: 17 New
      93% will take off, because such a small party, few combat swimmers, it makes no difference to make new ADFs or remodel the AK-12
    2. Bad_gr
      Bad_gr April 8 2020 11: 18 New
      Quote: Operator
      reduced reliability associated with the risk of stuck spent cartridges in a horizontal sleeve.

      Why would they get stuck there? The "Maxim" machine gun casings are also thrown away - has anyone heard that he would have a problem?
      Quote: Operator
      weapons will remain narrow-minded due to the variable balance as cartridges are spent in the store

      A contrived problem. A lot of bulpups are being released in the world and no one bothers with this.

      1. Operator
        Operator April 8 2020 11: 40 New
        With an easel machine gun "Maxim" they do not crawl on their bellies in the mud.

        A lot of advertised bullpups are in the warehouses, but in reality the army team uses the classics.
        1. Bad_gr
          Bad_gr April 8 2020 14: 55 New
          Quote: Operator
          but really CSKA use the classics.

          In France, England, Israel the same?
          1. Operator
            Operator April 8 2020 15: 04 New
            In Israel, long ago switched to M16, in France - to HK416, and only British scientists have proved that there is no alternative to the L85 (with a folding receiver).
      2. Ilya Vasilievich
        Ilya Vasilievich 1 July 2020 23: 53 New
        don't get stuck. Verified
    3. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA April 8 2020 14: 11 New
      Quote: Operator
      Weight 4,8 kg - when the cartridges run out, it can be used as a copter

  7. Aviator_
    Aviator_ April 8 2020 09: 19 New
    incomprehensible phrase
    Externally this is a spherical longer bullet of variable diameterhaving a top in the shape of a truncated cone (cavitator) and a conical bottom

    How is it spherical and longer? It will be worse than a square trinomial (from a joke, as Vasily Ivanovich did not enter the academy).
  8. Shopping Mall
    Shopping Mall April 8 2020 13: 34 New
    It would be interesting to try and compare with AK in practice. Unfortunately, KBP and TsKIB are very inactive in "enclosing" their weapons, unlike the Kalashnikov concern and the Molot plant.

    Surely they would have bought shooting ranges, and weapon lovers would like to have both an ADF and IED ...
  9. KSVK
    KSVK April 8 2020 23: 57 New
    Quote: AVM

    Surely they would have bought shooting ranges, and weapon lovers would like to have both an ADF and IED ...

    He does not need a civilian version. For tricks is useless. And the cartridge for underwater shooting will not be cheap. All saiga boar (fenced AK74 and the like) exist mainly because of cheap ammunition. Well, if only for collectors. But this is only a few, and redesigning the trigger to exclude the fulavto will require investing money. And they IMHO do not pay off. There "screw cutter" fenced and sales are single. VCA from the same opera. Yes, and she was a sniper ... for a long time. Marxman with accuracy SVD something. Snipers operate with other tools.
  10. Clerk
    Clerk 2 May 2020 14: 10 New
    The smoking-room is alive ... it's nice to know that the handsome A-91M ("Russian FN2000") went into production, and even in this form!