Legends and myths. Aviasharaga: God's gift or the curse of Beria?

Surprise our "история"And our" historians ". It is clear that the winners write the story, but the question already arises: in general, who won? And where? When did the war end, after which the total census of history began?

The fact is that, in spite of all the attempts of introducing something into the constitution about the history and heritage, what they bring in, they will keep it. And they will bring in what they write. Including the brew of Solzhenitsyn, intensely canonized by modern power.



However, we have our own road, and we will follow it without looking at those who are interested in reading fairy tales about our past.

When writing the history of the appearance of the Tu-2 aircraft, it was impossible not to get into the sharaga, because it was from there that it (Tu-2) was rolled out. And there, in the material, I promised that I would return to the topic of scarab.

In general, the sharagi phenomenon is peculiar in itself. But I want to consider it, perhaps from an unconventional point of view.

There are usually two points. The first is from the fans of Solzhenitsyn and Radzinsky, which says that the bloody executioners Stalin and Beria drove engineers and designers to the Gulag in droves, and there they invented something.

Second: sharaga is evil, but evil is necessary in the spirit of the times. "There was such a time, otherwise it was impossible."

I do not really agree with both points of view, and here's why. Everything is simple with the followers of the Solzhenitsyn sect: they are plunged into the mud by facts and figures. With the Stalinists it is necessary more elegantly.

There is such an expression: "Winners are not judged." But, alas, it is completely inappropriate in our case, in the case of assessing the activities of Stalin and his associates, especially Beria, in organizing and implementing a powerful industrial upsurge of Soviet industry immediately before and during the Great Patriotic War.

If it were not for this colossal breakthrough in the industrialization of the country, we would never have defeated this European team (and it is known that America equipped herself in Hitler’s equipment in full), using the potential of industry throughout Europe, and not only it.

Stalin and his associates are the unconditional organizers of the Victory. Unconditional. But they were tried and convicted. Almost immediately after the death of Stalin. Yes, I can proudly say that not all in our country have adopted the decision of this “court”.

And the sharaga - it was an integral part of that jerk that broke the back of fascism.

The definition of sharagi is on Wikipedia, so, if it’s important for someone, there. Because, in my opinion, this is superfluous. Another question is whether these sharashki were a hard labor prison, where the criminal Stalinist regime exploited the slave labor of prisoners, or was it a way to mobilize the "unconscious" part of the scientific and technical intelligentsia to fulfill vital state tasks.



I would like to say a few words about the so-called scientific and technical intelligentsia. Should they be organized or not?

In general, the idea of ​​creating a sharag was quite good. It turns out that under Stalin the authorities were interested in the fact that a person of outstanding abilities could create, even after committing a crime and even shaking the term. Though not always, but at least in the notorious sharashka, the authorities provided real opportunities for this.

Why? Yes, everything is simple! Times were like that. And if there were no sharag, then designers, inventors, engineers would simply cut down the forest.

This is probably a secret for many, but if we are talking about the aviation industry, then the sharag system was very useful there.

The fact is that in the 30s of the last century it was as if generally accepted in the USSR to “knock”. To a neighbor with his living space, to a colleague with his salary, and so on. With the help of tricks and denunciations, people made careers. Can't believe it? Well, of course, and more than five million denunciations in the FSB archive - how is it?

And in the aviation industry, this business generally bloomed in double color. After all, a timely written complaint allowed pushing your project around the competitor. And what is a completed project? Respect, money, orders ...

But the main thing is immunity to the fact that tomorrow they will believe complaints about you.

Therefore, they wrote all or almost all. More precisely, it’s easier to say who among the aircraft designers did NOT write denunciations. Personally, I have only two surnames: Grigorovich and Polikarpov. They were taken first. The rest is much in doubt.

Perhaps Yakovlev, who not only did the entire time of the deputy commissar beat off denunciations of himself, and who had his own ways to annoy his neighbor. Good, Mikoyan. With his top-level support ...

So in a sense, sharagi can be called an experiment for creative people, when a person is punished with imprisonment, but not excommunication from creativity.

Here, by the way, a vivid example is Polikarpov, who, by the will of Tupolev, was excommunicated from the design of aircraft and forced to deal with some trifle. So for Nikolai Nikolayevich sharaga with the ability to build airplanes was clearly more acceptable than working at the factory for some reason.

Moreover, engineers and designers did not work in basements. And in the same workshops, laboratories, design bureaus ... But under supervision. And did not sleep at home.

Well, of course, unpleasant. How unpleasant are the special effects associated with arrests, interrogations, and the investigation.

But excuse me, but where did the NKVD go? If denunciations, complaints, slander flowed like a river? You think about the figure of "five million." This is not just a figure, it is a worked denunciation. And how many were returned? And returned, especially clumsy and fantastic. Or ignored.

By the way, given how in the 30s literacy was the case ... In the republics of Central Asia, for example. There wasn’t much to go about; not everyone knew the letter. But where they knew - there they pulled themselves to the fullest.

Sometimes the effects were very peculiar. I don’t know who wrote to Polikarpov, hardly Tupolev himself, most likely someone from his subordinates, but Korolev is a classic of the genre. It is known who wrote on Sergey Pavlovich. It’s known why. Tukhachevsky’s guys did not agree with Korolev’s policies, and here is the result. Kostikov, who is the "kind of inventor" of Katyusha, wrote in Korolev and Langemak. The second was worth the life, the Queen was more fortunate. Judas No. 2, Kleimenov was not inferior to Kostikov.

But we can talk about the affairs of the RNII separately, there are enough materials.

Who said that in other industries it was different? I did not say. But in a dynamic aviation there were enough people who wanted to fight not with the Kuhlmann, but with anonymous letters.

By the way, not everyone was pressed on bald accusations. The very same Tupolev got a well-deserved attempt for causing economic harm to the country. Well, you must admit, if you were sent to buy equipment (for gold and currency) for subsequent licensed production, then at least you had to arrange everything humanly.

And Tupolev brought thousands of technical documents not only not translated, although the American side had to provide the translation at his own expense, so also in the inch system. That is, the documents brought by Tupolev had to be translated twice. Loss of time and money. Tupolev was "presented" quite rightly. Less had to go shopping.

I cannot but remain silent about the scandal that broke out in 1938. When the German magazine weapon"Published a series of articles on military aviation of the Soviet Union.

Ours also got acquainted with the publications, after which, I suspect, the NKVD officers were ready not only to leave designers on their kidneys with boots, but to strangle them in the workplace. The author of the articles, the major of the German Air Force Schettel, published secret data on the production of Soviet aircraft plants.

Shettel cited many facts in articles that directly testified to the fact that secret data easily flows abroad.

And here is what an interesting situation has turned out. Designers, instead of calmly and thoroughly working for the good of their native country, by hook or by crook try to grab privileges for themselves, for which they simply engage in denunciation of each other. And plus, in violation of the secrecy regime, they either simply divulge data on the Soviet military-industrial complex, or they do it for worse reasons. For money, for example.

By the way, this reigned not only in the aviation industry. In the Red Army and the Air Force, the situation was no better, as evidenced by numerous documents. Drunkenness, theft, denunciations have become commonplace.

Dear readers, did your hand reach for TT? There were plenty of documents confirming the mess in the army.

In industry too. Yes, in the USSR, where cadres decided everything, work with cadres was very active. The number of specialists with higher education grew at an impressive pace, from 233 in 000 to 1928 in 909. The only question is quality.

It is clear that in an agricultural country experts were taken from where? Right, from there. Where did, for example, come from the boy Seryozha Ilyushin, who worked as a digger at the construction of an airfield and who had been ill with a seen airplane for his whole life? From village. And, fortunately, his path was somewhat nontrivial, but ... However, everyone knows the biography of Ilyushin.

Well, it’s true that there was little to say for the soul of the technical intelligentsia from the nobility. Due to the knocking out and elimination of the nobility in Soviet Russia. Yes, and merchants, too, was over. So they took from where they could and brought up. And this, in my opinion, was a very confident move.

But in terms of education ... It was more difficult with ethics. Hence the rat fuss for a warm place, and thousands of denunciations. And the disclosure of state secrets.

And it turns out that we have a very luxurious situation. It seems that work is going on. Aircraft design, build, test. But: there is a shaft of denunciations, and half (or even more) of the designers must be put under investigation. And in the long run - send to build a canal or cut down a forest.

But who will be involved in the aircraft? Those who wrote the slogans? Maybe. But whoever writes good slander is unlikely to build airplanes well. And who does not write? Grigorovich? Well, for a long time he was alone in the hydroaviation. Mikoyan? Here he has nothing more to do with such relatives. Yakovlev? Well, with all the negativity to Alexander Sergeyevich, he knew how to build airplanes. Plus post hoo ...

The question is how much was written on them. Although I, Grigorovich was imprisoned.

And it is known who had a hand. V. B. Shavrov, a designer who worked under the leadership of Grigorovich.

“If Grigorovich was a pest, then he could not have done worse. He so decomposed the matter, having lost four years, deceiving the hopes placed on the department, that he deserves and deserved to be prevented earlier ... This [he] was promoted by the enormous reputation and authority enjoyed by Grigorovich, and even in tsarist times, several successful aircraft. The result is a complete crisis ... the achievements of the Division are zero. ” [From the denunciation of Shavrov.]
“About this time, it seems even back in August, the pleasant news of the arrest of Grigorovich came to us. The hateful manager, who was the cause of many unpleasant experiences, who spoiled me, you can say, a whole period in my life, finally sat down, and as if firmly ... "

Well, more or less with Shavrov everything is clear from his statements and memoirs. And what is the scammer famous for? Amphibious aircraft Sh-2, which was released in a series of 800 cars. Shavrov did not create it alone, but the co-author Corwin-Kerber was somehow planted ...

Actually, after the Sh-2, Shavrov didn’t notice anything anymore, wrote books, starred in the film, but did not build airplanes. Apparently, technical inspiration has ended. Or those who want to help him.

By the way, his statements may well become a picture for the era. Not always "testimony" was beaten out in the dungeons of the NKVD by executioners in uniform. Not always given under pain of arrest. On the contrary, they were often willingly given the very technical, in our case, and in the rest, both scientific and creative intelligentsia, which today the opponents of Stalin present as an innocent victim of the era.

Meanwhile, they didn’t really touch it. In sharaga TsKB-29 worked ... 316 specialists! These are all profiles: diesel engineers, tank builders, aviation and others. Three hundred and sixteen people.

Where are millions ... Where is the ruined intelligentsia ... Well, yes, Solzhenitsyn’s. But in reality - 316 people. That's the whole sharaga.

If you think that these are “the brightest minds” that the NKVD was hunting for, then you are mistaken. The NKVD did not hunt for anyone, they took it at the workplace, but mostly by the denunciation of their colleagues.

But there were exceptions. But don’t bother, it’s that exception.

Leo Landau, the future Nobel laureate, burnt in the manufacture of anti-Soviet literature. He compared Stalin and Hitler and called for the overthrow of power. Yes, maybe Landau didn’t compose everything, according to some sources, he only edited it all. But he worked for the execution, no? And even then, under the word Kapitsa and the intercession of Niels Bohr was released.

Try to compose a leaflet today that compares Putin with Paul Pot, Saddam Hussein or bin Laden and a call to overthrow. And then get caught with her. On the way to the Kremlin. I would love to hear your stories about the delights of democracy and other pleasures of life. Then, when you will be released.

Landau has only a consequence. Our aircraft designers have only a sharaga. Moreover, as soon as the aircraft projects turned into airplanes, amnesties, money, orders, letters of CEC and other pleasures began.

In general, there was a whip, but there was a carrot. Which of the OTB or TsKB-29 participants died poor, humiliated and forgotten? Petlyakov? Myasishchev? Tupolev? Korolev? Glush?

Was Beria a dumb executioner? Judge for yourself. Here are excerpts from a special message to Stalin dated 04.07.1939/XNUMX/XNUMX "On Specialized Prisoners Used in a Special Technical Bureau under the NKVD of the USSR."

“It is not advisable to resume the investigation of these cases and bring them to court in the usual manner, because, firstly, it will distract the arrested specialists for a long time from the design of the most important facilities and will actually disrupt the work of the Special Technical Bureau, and secondly, the investigation will not give essentially positive results due to the fact that the arrested, being for a long time in mutual communication during work, agreed among themselves about the nature of the testimony they gave during the preliminary investigation.

Meanwhile, the guilt of those arrested was confirmed during the preliminary investigation by personal confessions of those arrested, testimonies of accomplices (many of whom have already been convicted) and witnesses.

Based on this, the NKVD of the USSR considers it necessary:

1) arrested specialists in the amount of 316 people used at work in the Special Technical Bureau of the NKVD of the USSR, without renewing the investigation, bring to trial the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR;
2) depending on the severity of the crime committed, the arrested shall be divided into three categories: liable to conviction for a term of up to 10 years, up to 15 years and up to 20 years. ”

On the one hand, it’s kind of luxurious. No need to judge, by a military court for 10 years on the trunk, the most distinguished before 20 years. Ominously? Ominously. Whip.

But here he is, the “carrot”:

“... in order to encourage the work of arrested specialists in the Special Technical Bureau, to consolidate them in this work and to create an incentive for further work on designing the most important defense facilities, to grant the right of the NKVD of the USSR to apply to the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR for applying to convicted specialists who have shown himself at work in the Special Technical Bureau, both full parole and reduction of the sentence ”.

Well, actually ...

It was on this request in July 1941 that Tupolev, Frenkel, Chizhevsky and another 27 people who were involved in the creation of the 103-U / Tu-2 aircraft were released with a criminal record.

Is debatable? Yes, debatable. Many can say: but what, it was impossible to simply screw up everyone and make them do business? So this is exactly what the NKVD did. Just a matter of efficiency. To threaten with a finger and not to take strict measures - you know how it ends?

And this ends with the fact that a certain president shrugs his hands and says that nothing can be done with the millions of salaries of top managers, otherwise they will run away and there will be no one to work.

But Stalin did not want to scatter. And I didn’t want lawlessness. Because every cricket knew his sixth. And they could come for everyone. And to ask from everyone.

Poorly? Probably.

But now it’s good. They come, find boxes with gold, bags with millions, apartments. And they can’t do anything. Because it is not the 1937th year.

And after all, these gentlemen will not rush to the front. They will run to offshore and neutral territories if something happens. And now some of ours will say that they won’t leave. Will leave. Classics of the genre, but will leave.

Okay, back to the topic.

Considering that L.P. Beria was a very good organizer, everything was fine with his reporting. Flash drives were not lost.

Therefore, in the summer of 1944, all the departments and departments of the central apparatus of the NKVD of the USSR wrote reports on the work done during the war years. And the reports did not burn out, did not drown, and therefore today we can clearly imagine the picture of what was done by those who worked in the sharaga.

From the report of the OTB at the NKVD of the USSR.

For the period from 1939 to 1944 4th Special Department on the instructions of the Government and People’s Commissar of Internal Affairs Comrade Beria L.P. completed and delivered the following work:

1. Diving bomber Pe-2 (aircraft "100"). Project Manager Petlyakov V.M.
2. Front diving bomber Tu-2 (aircraft "103U"). Project Manager A. Tupolev
3. Long-range high-altitude bomber (aircraft "102"). Project Manager Myasischev V.M.
4. Aviation engines of the MB-100 type. Project Manager A. Dobrotvorsky
5. Aircraft jet engine RD-1. Project Manager Glushko V.P.
6. Armored turret BUR-10. Project Manager S. Lodkin
7. Universal 152-mm artillery system M-U-2 for coastal and railway installations. Project Manager Ikonnikov E.P.
8. Universal 130-mm artillery system B-2-L-M for ship and coastal installations. Project Manager V. Kudryashev
9. Upgraded 45-mm anti-tank gun M-42. Project Manager Tsirulnikov M.Yu.
10. Tank 45-mm gun VT-42. Project Manager Tsirulnikov M.Yu.
11. Regimental 76-mm gun sample 1943 OB-25. Project Manager Tsirulnikov M.Yu.
12. Case 152-mm gun BL-7. Project Manager Tsirulnikov M.Yu.
13. The submarine S-135. Project Manager Kassatsier A.S.
14. Long-range torpedo boat STKDD. Project Leader P. Hoinkis
15. Screw press - new equipment and technology for the production of nitroglycerin powders. Project Managers Sporius A.E. and Bakaev A.S.
16. Universal absorbers UP-2 and UP-4 for military gas masks. Development Manager Fishman Ya.M.
17. A new method of intensifying the tower process for the production of sulfuric acid. Project Manager Stupnikov S.D.
18. Small-sized army radio station type "Mars". Project Manager Vasiliev A.M.
19. Portable radio station type "Squirrel". Project Manager Vasiliev A.M.
20. The device of night battle PNB. Project Manager Kuksenko P.N.

In addition, the specialists of the 4th special department participated in the construction, installation, commissioning and organization of production of six new plants.

Probably, for such a shock work, all the members of the sharaga received new terms, were shot, drowned on a barge in the Moscow Canal?

Not at all.

For the successful work on the creation of new types of weapons and the conscientiousness and devotion shown to the cause, at the request of the NKVD of the USSR (!) 156 imprisoned specialists were released with a criminal record, 23 of which were awarded government awards.

After removing their criminal record, they returned the previous awards, which they were deprived of in court.

So, already in 1941, Beria applied to the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR for the return of orders, medals of the USSR and diplomas of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR to amnestied aircraft designers.

Separate objects developed in the 4th special department were recognized as outstanding, and their authors were awarded the Stalin Prize. The winners were Tupolev, Petlyakov, Charomsky.

Was it a contribution to the victory? Not? Well, you know better.

In general, in order to objectively answer the question about the role of scarabs, a serious study is needed. Not burdened by the attitude towards Stalin as a whole. But in general, such a not unique phenomenon as sharaga can be explained from several sides.

By the way, why not unique? But simply, who are interested, let him find out how the Americans furnished their "Manhattan Project." And find three differences with our sharaga.

Now about the rationale and explanation.

Option 1. Once some scientists and engineers committed the crimes under the Criminal Code and were convicted, they decided to use their labor in custody wisely, to the advantage of the state and himself, mitigating the conditions of serving the sentence.

We are not going to get into this matter much now, but Tupolev and Korolev received quite reasonably. One for a poorly completed task, the second for embezzlement.

Option 2. For scientists and engineers started business on purpose, in order to put in sharashka and make them do there the same thing that they did before. Type of salary savings.

It is doubtful. Just because the comrades of Soviet designers themselves did a good job of sending colleagues to the dungeons of the NKVD. I would say that they did well.

Option 3. Sharaga is a special form of R&D organization, which has its own advantages in terms of efficiency and secrecy.

Yes, it is quite. After all, free specialists worked in sharagi.

Here is an interesting photo where the organizer of the sharaga Menzhinsky was photographed, it seems, with the participants of the sharaga. Yes, the photo was taken there, and so the head of the OGPU was easily photographed with undershots. The photo was taken on the territory of the Butyrka prison, where TsKB-39 was organized. Tentatively - 1931.


So, among those indicated in the photo there is under No. 10 Aram Nazarovich Rafaelyants, a designer from the Yakovlev Design Bureau and the chief pilot of the same Yakovlev Design Bureau, Julian Ivanovich Piontkovsky (No. 6). These people were not among the specialists working in the sharaga, and were not subjected to any repression. They just testify that people who were not burdened with sentences and sentences were also attracted to work in the sharaga.

So personally, I am inclined to believe that the sharaga is still a closed design bureau, in which the same developments were carried out as in the wild. Only in enhanced secrecy mode and with those who either messed up or wrote a lot to.

Although it is quite possible to combine all the options. But I repeat, it is unlikely that the necessary engineers were specially planted. The salary in the sharaga was still paid, but as you can see from the photo, if you needed a special on the chassis or a test pilot, it was easier to borrow than to put them. I do not think that Yakovlev strongly resisted the request of Menzhinsky.

And yes, it’s clear that behind the photographer’s back there could be a platoon of OGPU employees with revolvers, but even in this case, people in the photo somehow do not look humiliated and clogged by criminals. Yes, it’s not pleasant. But not a zone with logging.

And the airship doesn’t look like a camp of many thousands, does it?

By the way, indeed, it is worth comparing with Manhattan. And at the same time and remember our closed city of chemical physicists.

Well, the last. The topic, perhaps, should not be closed. There will be a separate discussion about the Queen and his associates. It’s probably worth talking about who and when turned the sharaga of 316 people into a branch of the Gulag of 316 thousand people.

It is clear that now the Constitution will be made about the historical heritage. And they will guard and protect him.

So the question arises: who will inherit in history, those who are about 316 people, or those who are about 316 thousand and a million executed?

* * *


To whom it will be interesting about the merits of the employees of the sharaga, I recommend this: t A. Kokurin Organization and activity of 4 special departments of the NKVD-MVD of the USSR / Telescope: Scientific almanac. Special issue: Historical and archival restoration of the names and achievements of the Fatherland. - Samara: Publishing House "STC", 2008. - 192 p. - ISBN 978-5-98229-188-2. S. 58-66.
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