Military Review

Legends and myths. Aviasharaga: God's gift or the curse of Beria?

129
Surprise our "история"And our" historians ". It is clear that the winners write the story, but the question already arises: in general, who won? And where? When did the war end, after which the total census of history began?


The fact is that, in spite of all the attempts of introducing something into the constitution about the history and heritage, what they bring in, they will keep it. And they will bring in what they write. Including the brew of Solzhenitsyn, intensely canonized by modern power.

However, we have our own road, and we will follow it without looking at those who are interested in reading fairy tales about our past.

When writing the history of the appearance of the Tu-2 aircraft, it was impossible not to get into the sharaga, because it was from there that it (Tu-2) was rolled out. And there, in the material, I promised that I would return to the topic of scarab.

In general, the sharagi phenomenon is peculiar in itself. But I want to consider it, perhaps from an unconventional point of view.

There are usually two points. The first is from the fans of Solzhenitsyn and Radzinsky, which says that the bloody executioners Stalin and Beria drove engineers and designers to the Gulag in droves, and there they invented something.

Second: sharaga is evil, but evil is necessary in the spirit of the times. "There was such a time, otherwise it was impossible."

I do not really agree with both points of view, and here's why. Everything is simple with the followers of the Solzhenitsyn sect: they are plunged into the mud by facts and figures. With the Stalinists it is necessary more elegantly.

There is such an expression: "Winners are not judged." But, alas, it is completely inappropriate in our case, in the case of assessing the activities of Stalin and his associates, especially Beria, in organizing and implementing a powerful industrial upsurge of Soviet industry immediately before and during the Great Patriotic War.

If it were not for this colossal breakthrough in the industrialization of the country, we would never have defeated this European team (and it is known that America equipped herself in Hitler’s equipment in full), using the potential of industry throughout Europe, and not only it.

Stalin and his associates are the unconditional organizers of the Victory. Unconditional. But they were tried and convicted. Almost immediately after the death of Stalin. Yes, I can proudly say that not all in our country have adopted the decision of this “court”.

And the sharaga - it was an integral part of that jerk that broke the back of fascism.

The definition of sharagi is on Wikipedia, so, if it’s important for someone, there. Because, in my opinion, this is superfluous. Another question is whether these sharashki were a hard labor prison, where the criminal Stalinist regime exploited the slave labor of prisoners, or was it a way to mobilize the "unconscious" part of the scientific and technical intelligentsia to fulfill vital state tasks.

I would like to say a few words about the so-called scientific and technical intelligentsia. Should they be organized or not?

In general, the idea of ​​creating a sharag was quite good. It turns out that under Stalin the authorities were interested in the fact that a person of outstanding abilities could create, even after committing a crime and even shaking the term. Though not always, but at least in the notorious sharashka, the authorities provided real opportunities for this.

Why? Yes, everything is simple! Times were like that. And if there were no sharag, then designers, inventors, engineers would simply cut down the forest.

This is probably a secret for many, but if we are talking about aviation industry, the Sharag system was very useful there.

The fact is that in the 30s of the last century it was as if generally accepted in the USSR to “knock”. To a neighbor with his living space, to a colleague with his salary, and so on. With the help of tricks and denunciations, people made careers. Can't believe it? Well, of course, and more than five million denunciations in the FSB archive - how is it?

And in the aviation industry, this business generally bloomed in double color. After all, a timely written complaint allowed pushing your project around the competitor. And what is a completed project? Respect, money, orders ...

But the main thing is immunity to the fact that tomorrow they will believe complaints about you.

Therefore, they wrote all or almost all. More precisely, it’s easier to say who among the aircraft designers did NOT write denunciations. Personally, I have only two surnames: Grigorovich and Polikarpov. They were taken first. The rest is much in doubt.

Perhaps Yakovlev, who not only did the entire time of the deputy commissar beat off denunciations of himself, and who had his own ways to annoy his neighbor. Good, Mikoyan. With his top-level support ...

So in a sense, sharagi can be called an experiment for creative people, when a person is punished with imprisonment, but not excommunication from creativity.

Here, by the way, a vivid example is Polikarpov, who, by the will of Tupolev, was excommunicated from the design of aircraft and forced to deal with some trifle. So for Nikolai Nikolayevich sharaga with the ability to build airplanes was clearly more acceptable than working at the factory for some reason.

Moreover, engineers and designers did not work in basements. And in the same workshops, laboratories, design bureaus ... But under supervision. And did not sleep at home.

Well, of course, unpleasant. How unpleasant are the special effects associated with arrests, interrogations, and the investigation.

But excuse me, but where did the NKVD go? If denunciations, complaints, slander flowed like a river? You think about the figure of "five million." This is not just a figure, it is a worked denunciation. And how many were returned? And returned, especially clumsy and fantastic. Or ignored.

By the way, given how in the 30s literacy was the case ... In the republics of Central Asia, for example. There wasn’t much to go about; not everyone knew the letter. But where they knew - there they pulled themselves to the fullest.

Sometimes the effects were very peculiar. I don’t know who wrote to Polikarpov, hardly Tupolev himself, most likely someone from his subordinates, but Korolev is a classic of the genre. It is known who wrote on Sergey Pavlovich. It’s known why. Tukhachevsky’s guys did not agree with Korolev’s policies, and here is the result. Kostikov, who is the "kind of inventor" of Katyusha, wrote in Korolev and Langemak. The second was worth the life, the Queen was more fortunate. Judas No. 2, Kleimenov was not inferior to Kostikov.

But we can talk about the affairs of the RNII separately, there are enough materials.

Who said that in other industries it was different? I did not say. But in a dynamically developing aviation there were enough people who wanted to fight not with the Kuhlmann, but with anonymous letters.

By the way, not everyone was pressed on bald accusations. The very same Tupolev got a well-deserved attempt for causing economic harm to the country. Well, you must admit, if you were sent to buy equipment (for gold and currency) for subsequent licensed production, then at least you had to arrange everything humanly.

And Tupolev brought thousands of technical documents not only not translated, although the American side had to provide the translation at his own expense, so also in the inch system. That is, the documents brought by Tupolev had to be translated twice. Loss of time and money. Tupolev was "presented" quite rightly. Less had to go shopping.

I cannot but remain silent about the scandal that broke out in 1938. When the German magazine weapon"Published a series of articles on military aviation of the Soviet Union.

Ours also got acquainted with the publications, after which, I suspect, the NKVD officers were ready not only to leave designers on their kidneys with boots, but to strangle them in the workplace. The author of the articles, the major of the German Air Force Schettel, published secret data on the production of Soviet aircraft plants.

Shettel cited many facts in articles that directly testified to the fact that secret data easily flows abroad.

And here is what an interesting situation has turned out. Designers, instead of calmly and thoroughly working for the good of their native country, by hook or by crook try to grab privileges for themselves, for which they simply engage in denunciation of each other. And plus, in violation of the secrecy regime, they either simply divulge data on the Soviet military-industrial complex, or they do it for worse reasons. For money, for example.

By the way, this reigned not only in the aviation industry. In the Red Army and the Air Force, the situation was no better, as evidenced by numerous documents. Drunkenness, theft, denunciations have become commonplace.

Dear readers, did your hand reach for TT? There were plenty of documents confirming the mess in the army.

In industry too. Yes, in the USSR, where cadres decided everything, work with cadres was very active. The number of specialists with higher education grew at an impressive pace, from 233 in 000 to 1928 in 909. The only question is quality.

It is clear that in an agricultural country experts were taken from where? Right, from there. Where did, for example, come from the boy Seryozha Ilyushin, who worked as a digger at the construction of an airfield and who had been ill with a seen airplane for his whole life? From village. And, fortunately, his path was somewhat nontrivial, but ... However, everyone knows the biography of Ilyushin.

Well, it’s true that there was little to say for the soul of the technical intelligentsia from the nobility. Due to the knocking out and elimination of the nobility in Soviet Russia. Yes, and merchants, too, was over. So they took from where they could and brought up. And this, in my opinion, was a very confident move.

But in terms of education ... It was more difficult with ethics. Hence the rat fuss for a warm place, and thousands of denunciations. And the disclosure of state secrets.

And it turns out that we have a very luxurious situation. It seems that work is going on. Aircraft design, build, test. But: there is a shaft of denunciations, and half (or even more) of the designers must be put under investigation. And in the long run - send to build a canal or cut down a forest.

But who will be involved in the aircraft? Those who wrote the slogans? Maybe. But whoever writes good slander is unlikely to build airplanes well. And who does not write? Grigorovich? Well, for a long time he was alone in the hydroaviation. Mikoyan? Here he has nothing more to do with such relatives. Yakovlev? Well, with all the negativity to Alexander Sergeyevich, he knew how to build airplanes. Plus post hoo ...

The question is how much was written on them. Although I, Grigorovich was imprisoned.

And it is known who had a hand. V. B. Shavrov, a designer who worked under the leadership of Grigorovich.

“If Grigorovich was a pest, then he could not have done worse. He so decomposed the matter, having lost four years, deceiving the hopes placed on the department, that he deserves and deserved to be prevented earlier ... This [he] was promoted by the enormous reputation and authority enjoyed by Grigorovich, and even in tsarist times, several successful aircraft. The result is a complete crisis ... the achievements of the Division are zero. ” [From the denunciation of Shavrov.]
“About this time, it seems even back in August, the pleasant news of the arrest of Grigorovich came to us. The hateful manager, who was the cause of many unpleasant experiences, who spoiled me, you can say, a whole period in my life, finally sat down, and as if firmly ... "

Well, more or less with Shavrov everything is clear from his statements and memoirs. And what is the scammer famous for? Amphibious aircraft Sh-2, which was released in a series of 800 cars. Shavrov did not create it alone, but the co-author Corwin-Kerber was somehow planted ...

Actually, after the Sh-2, Shavrov didn’t notice anything anymore, wrote books, starred in the film, but did not build airplanes. Apparently, technical inspiration has ended. Or those who want to help him.

By the way, his statements may well become a picture for the era. Not always "testimony" was beaten out in the dungeons of the NKVD by executioners in uniform. Not always given under pain of arrest. On the contrary, they were often willingly given the very technical, in our case, and in the rest, both scientific and creative intelligentsia, which today the opponents of Stalin present as an innocent victim of the era.

Meanwhile, they didn’t really touch it. In sharaga TsKB-29 worked ... 316 specialists! These are all profiles: diesel engineers, tank builders, aviation and others. Three hundred and sixteen people.

Where are millions ... Where is the ruined intelligentsia ... Well, yes, Solzhenitsyn’s. But in reality - 316 people. That's the whole sharaga.

If you think that these are “the brightest minds” that the NKVD was hunting for, then you are mistaken. The NKVD did not hunt for anyone, they took it at the workplace, but mostly by the denunciation of their colleagues.

But there were exceptions. But don’t bother, it’s that exception.

Leo Landau, the future Nobel laureate, burnt in the manufacture of anti-Soviet literature. He compared Stalin and Hitler and called for the overthrow of power. Yes, maybe Landau didn’t compose everything, according to some sources, he only edited it all. But he worked for the execution, no? And even then, under the word Kapitsa and the intercession of Niels Bohr was released.

Try to compose a leaflet today that compares Putin with Paul Pot, Saddam Hussein or bin Laden and a call to overthrow. And then get caught with her. On the way to the Kremlin. I would love to hear your stories about the delights of democracy and other pleasures of life. Then, when you will be released.

Landau has only a consequence. Our aircraft designers have only a sharaga. Moreover, as soon as the aircraft projects turned into airplanes, amnesties, money, orders, letters of CEC and other pleasures began.

In general, there was a whip, but there was a carrot. Which of the OTB or TsKB-29 participants died poor, humiliated and forgotten? Petlyakov? Myasishchev? Tupolev? Korolev? Glush?

Was Beria a dumb executioner? Judge for yourself. Here are excerpts from a special message to Stalin dated 04.07.1939/XNUMX/XNUMX "On Specialized Prisoners Used in a Special Technical Bureau under the NKVD of the USSR."

“It is not advisable to resume the investigation of these cases and bring them to court in the usual manner, because, firstly, it will distract the arrested specialists for a long time from the design of the most important facilities and will actually disrupt the work of the Special Technical Bureau, and secondly, the investigation will not give essentially positive results due to the fact that the arrested, being for a long time in mutual communication during work, agreed among themselves about the nature of the testimony they gave during the preliminary investigation.

Meanwhile, the guilt of those arrested was confirmed during the preliminary investigation by personal confessions of those arrested, testimonies of accomplices (many of whom have already been convicted) and witnesses.

Based on this, the NKVD of the USSR considers it necessary:

1) arrested specialists in the amount of 316 people used at work in the Special Technical Bureau of the NKVD of the USSR, without renewing the investigation, bring to trial the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR;
2) depending on the severity of the crime committed, the arrested shall be divided into three categories: liable to conviction for a term of up to 10 years, up to 15 years and up to 20 years. ”

On the one hand, it’s kind of luxurious. No need to judge, by a military court for 10 years on the trunk, the most distinguished before 20 years. Ominously? Ominously. Whip.

But here he is, the “carrot”:

“... in order to encourage the work of arrested specialists in the Special Technical Bureau, to consolidate them in this work and to create an incentive for further work on designing the most important defense facilities, to grant the right of the NKVD of the USSR to apply to the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR for applying to convicted specialists who have shown himself at work in the Special Technical Bureau, both full parole and reduction of the sentence ”.

Well, actually ...

It was on this request in July 1941 that Tupolev, Frenkel, Chizhevsky and another 27 people who were involved in the creation of the 103-U / Tu-2 aircraft were released with a criminal record.

Is debatable? Yes, debatable. Many can say: but what, it was impossible to simply screw up everyone and make them do business? So this is exactly what the NKVD did. Just a matter of efficiency. To threaten with a finger and not to take strict measures - you know how it ends?

And this ends with the fact that a certain president shrugs his hands and says that nothing can be done with the millions of salaries of top managers, otherwise they will run away and there will be no one to work.

But Stalin did not want to scatter. And I didn’t want lawlessness. Because every cricket knew his sixth. And they could come for everyone. And to ask from everyone.

Poorly? Probably.

But now it’s good. They come, find boxes with gold, bags with millions, apartments. And they can’t do anything. Because it is not the 1937th year.

And after all, these gentlemen will not rush to the front. They will run to offshore and neutral territories if something happens. And now some of ours will say that they won’t leave. Will leave. Classics of the genre, but will leave.

Okay, back to the topic.

Considering that L.P. Beria was a very good organizer, everything was fine with his reporting. Flash drives were not lost.

Therefore, in the summer of 1944, all the departments and departments of the central apparatus of the NKVD of the USSR wrote reports on the work done during the war years. And the reports did not burn out, did not drown, and therefore today we can clearly imagine the picture of what was done by those who worked in the sharaga.

From the report of the OTB at the NKVD of the USSR.

For the period from 1939 to 1944 4th Special Department on the instructions of the Government and People’s Commissar of Internal Affairs Comrade Beria L.P. completed and delivered the following work:

1. Diving bomber Pe-2 (aircraft "100"). Project Manager Petlyakov V.M.
2. Front diving bomber Tu-2 (aircraft "103U"). Project Manager A. Tupolev
3. Long-range high-altitude bomber (aircraft "102"). Project Manager Myasischev V.M.
4. Aviation engines of the MB-100 type. Project Manager A. Dobrotvorsky
5. Aircraft jet engine RD-1. Project Manager Glushko V.P.
6. Armored turret BUR-10. Project Manager S. Lodkin
7. Universal 152-mm artillery system M-U-2 for coastal and railway installations. Project Manager Ikonnikov E.P.
8. Universal 130-mm artillery system B-2-L-M for ship and coastal installations. Project Manager V. Kudryashev
9. Upgraded 45-mm anti-tank gun M-42. Project Manager Tsirulnikov M.Yu.
10. Tank 45-mm gun VT-42. Project Manager Tsirulnikov M.Yu.
11. Regimental 76-mm gun sample 1943 OB-25. Project Manager Tsirulnikov M.Yu.
12. Case 152-mm gun BL-7. Project Manager Tsirulnikov M.Yu.
13. The submarine S-135. Project Manager Kassatsier A.S.
14. Long-range torpedo boat STKDD. Project Leader P. Hoinkis
15. Screw press - new equipment and technology for the production of nitroglycerin powders. Project Managers Sporius A.E. and Bakaev A.S.
16. Universal absorbers UP-2 and UP-4 for military gas masks. Development Manager Fishman Ya.M.
17. A new method of intensifying the tower process for the production of sulfuric acid. Project Manager Stupnikov S.D.
18. Small-sized army radio station type "Mars". Project Manager Vasiliev A.M.
19. Portable radio station type "Squirrel". Project Manager Vasiliev A.M.
20. The device of night battle PNB. Project Manager Kuksenko P.N.

In addition, the specialists of the 4th special department participated in the construction, installation, commissioning and organization of production of six new plants.

Probably, for such a shock work, all the members of the sharaga received new terms, were shot, drowned on a barge in the Moscow Canal?

Not at all.

For the successful work on the creation of new types of weapons and the conscientiousness and devotion shown to the cause, at the request of the NKVD of the USSR (!) 156 imprisoned specialists were released with a criminal record, 23 of which were awarded government awards.

After removing their criminal record, they returned the previous awards, which they were deprived of in court.

So, already in 1941, Beria applied to the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR for the return of orders, medals of the USSR and diplomas of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR to amnestied aircraft designers.

Separate objects developed in the 4th special department were recognized as outstanding, and their authors were awarded the Stalin Prize. The winners were Tupolev, Petlyakov, Charomsky.

Was it a contribution to the victory? Not? Well, you know better.

In general, in order to objectively answer the question about the role of scarabs, a serious study is needed. Not burdened by the attitude towards Stalin as a whole. But in general, such a not unique phenomenon as sharaga can be explained from several sides.

By the way, why not unique? But simply, who are interested, let him find out how the Americans furnished their "Manhattan Project." And find three differences with our sharaga.

Now about the rationale and explanation.

Option 1. Once some scientists and engineers committed the crimes under the Criminal Code and were convicted, they decided to use their labor in custody wisely, to the advantage of the state and himself, mitigating the conditions of serving the sentence.

We are not going to get into this matter much now, but Tupolev and Korolev received quite reasonably. One for a poorly completed task, the second for embezzlement.

Option 2. For scientists and engineers started business on purpose, in order to put in sharashka and make them do there the same thing that they did before. Type of salary savings.

It is doubtful. Just because the comrades of Soviet designers themselves did a good job of sending colleagues to the dungeons of the NKVD. I would say that they did well.

Option 3. Sharaga is a special form of R&D organization, which has its own advantages in terms of efficiency and secrecy.

Yes, it is quite. After all, free specialists worked in sharagi.

Here is an interesting photo where the organizer of the sharaga Menzhinsky was photographed, it seems, with the participants of the sharaga. Yes, the photo was taken there, and so the head of the OGPU was easily photographed with undershots. The photo was taken on the territory of the Butyrka prison, where TsKB-39 was organized. Tentatively - 1931.


So, among those indicated in the photo there is under No. 10 Aram Nazarovich Rafaelyants, a designer from the Yakovlev Design Bureau and the chief pilot of the same Yakovlev Design Bureau, Julian Ivanovich Piontkovsky (No. 6). These people were not among the specialists working in the sharaga, and were not subjected to any repression. They just testify that people who were not burdened with sentences and sentences were also attracted to work in the sharaga.

So personally, I am inclined to believe that the sharaga is still a closed design bureau, in which the same developments were carried out as in the wild. Only in enhanced secrecy mode and with those who either messed up or wrote a lot to.

Although it is quite possible to combine all the options. But I repeat, it is unlikely that the necessary engineers were specially planted. The salary in the sharaga was still paid, but as you can see from the photo, if you needed a special on the chassis or a test pilot, it was easier to borrow than to put them. I do not think that Yakovlev strongly resisted the request of Menzhinsky.

And yes, it’s clear that behind the photographer’s back there could be a platoon of OGPU employees with revolvers, but even in this case, people in the photo somehow do not look humiliated and clogged by criminals. Yes, it’s not pleasant. But not a zone with logging.

And the airship doesn’t look like a camp of many thousands, does it?

By the way, indeed, it is worth comparing with Manhattan. And at the same time and remember our closed city of chemical physicists.

Well, the last. The topic, perhaps, should not be closed. There will be a separate discussion about the Queen and his associates. It’s probably worth talking about who and when turned the sharaga of 316 people into a branch of the Gulag of 316 thousand people.

It is clear that now the Constitution will be made about the historical heritage. And they will guard and protect him.

So the question arises: who will inherit in history, those who are about 316 people, or those who are about 316 thousand and a million executed?

* * *


To whom it will be interesting about the merits of the employees of the sharaga, I recommend this: t A. Kokurin Organization and activity of 4 special departments of the NKVD-MVD of the USSR / Telescope: Scientific almanac. Special issue: Historical and archival restoration of the names and achievements of the Fatherland. - Samara: Publishing House "STC", 2008. - 192 p. - ISBN 978-5-98229-188-2. S. 58-66.
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  1. polar fox
    polar fox 26 March 2020 05: 37 New
    +5
    sharagi-prototype of "mailboxes".
    1. Aerodrome
      Aerodrome 26 March 2020 05: 41 New
      +7
      Aviasharaga: God's gift or the curse of Beria?
      though that, though another, the result is important, but he was. The USSR was a powerful aviation (including) power. as we see now, liberalism does not produce such a result.
      1. Basil50
        Basil50 26 March 2020 06: 15 New
        11
        You're right. Time was such that there was no time for persuasion. A result was required, not reasoning.
        Tupolev’s business trip to the USA and the results of the trip are indicative, it was then that this designer was driven into a tight framework for the execution of a state order. The situation was approximately the same with the SP Queen. They were FORCED to be great designers whom we remember and love. But they had criminal articles (even within the framework of current legislation).
        Even more revealing is the story of the creation of nuclear weapons. There were so many * theorists * who, moreover, who proved the impossibility of creating a nuclear bomb in the Soviet Union, also indulged in denunciations. This is me, including Sakharov and Landau, who, even against that background of outstanding self-lovers, stood out for their quarrelsomeness.
        About the same thing they did to the generals after the betrayal that opened in 1941, they were FORCED to become winners in that terrible war. That is why Zhukov and his accomplices participated in a military coup after the assassination of Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin. We were very afraid of the investigation that was conducted on military operations from 1941 to 1945
        1. chenia
          chenia 26 March 2020 10: 08 New
          +2
          Quote: Vasily50
          so was the case with the P Queen. They were FORCED to be great designers,


          It's right. Given the fact that, for example, Korolev was not a brilliant designer (but for example, Glushko was). Korolev was a great organizer.
          But he was forced to be

          Sakharov and about Landau, which even against the background of outstanding self-lovers stood out for their quarrelsomeness.

          The fate of Oleg Lavrentiev is indicative. How the lights made fun of him for letting them (academics and laureates) click on his nose.
          1. Procyon lotor
            Procyon lotor 26 March 2020 11: 25 New
            -1
            Some kind of perverted mentality. Everyone needs to be forced to do something! But not otherwise? Justify this with the fact that time was like that. With the same logic, you can justify Pol Pot and Hitler.
            1. Marine engineer
              Marine engineer 26 March 2020 12: 07 New
              +2
              “Some kind of perverted mentality. Everyone needs to be forced to do something! But not otherwise? Justify this with the fact that time was like that. ... "

              With a shortage of resources and time (the result was still needed “yesterday”), it was different.
            2. chenia
              chenia 26 March 2020 15: 12 New
              +2
              Quote: Procyon Lotor
              Some kind of perverted mentality. Everyone needs to be forced to do something!


              The Yankees could afford not to force (there were a lot of other incentives, and the initial base is an order of magnitude higher).
              And when the money is snatched from the people (otherwise it’s impossible, they didn’t lend us for such cases), and this money was “sawed” without the declared effect, someone should answer. And then the measure of responsibility was severe
              They have become richer (you can show off) have become more liberal and humane.

              By the way, what should you do with the current "effective managers"? Do you feel the difference?

              There is money, blessings flow, and the result?

              Can. what would become a brilliant designer just sharazhki (catalyst) and not enough?
            3. ser56
              ser56 26 March 2020 18: 32 New
              -1
              Quote: Procyon Lotor
              Some kind of perverted mentality

              and there is... request
        2. Dmitry V.
          Dmitry V. 26 March 2020 13: 12 New
          -8
          Quote: Vasily50
          it was then that this designer was driven into a tight framework for the execution of a state order.


          Yeah - according to Pushkin: gave birth to a "hero" and by November 7 ...
          They were driven into time trouble and punished for failure to meet deadlines.
          1. Marine engineer
            Marine engineer 26 March 2020 14: 23 New
            +3
            “We were driven into time trouble and punished for failure to meet deadlines.”

            No need to tell nonsense, we are not TV. Tupolev was not punished for this.
        3. gsev
          gsev 26 March 2020 21: 44 New
          -3
          Quote: Vasily50
          The situation was approximately the same with the SP Queen. They were FORCED to be great designers whom we remember and love. But they had criminal articles (even within the framework of current legislation)

          Compare the Grabin Design Bureau, where no one was repressed and the situation in the aircraft industry or in shipbuilding, where there were repressions. Grabin, along with an accountant, managed to organize clandestine production and testing of his triplex guns by means of postscripts. 57 mm, 76 mm, 95 mm. Stalin and the military cut 57mm and 95mm. But ZIS-3 Grabin was able to do more than the whole of Europe under Hitler similar cannons. The airline industry at the beginning of the war in Spain looked good. If Tupolev, Petlyakov, Polikarpov and Bartini were not regularly distracted from designing the aircraft for interrogation and imprisonment, then by 1941 aircraft would have been created that would be of German quality, but technologically consistent with the capabilities of Soviet industry. For example, under Khrushchev, the USSR did not go to a costly race in the production of ships and strategic bombers, but threw forces into a missile race and ensured NATO and the USSR parity in mutual destruction. In addition, Tupolev’s release occurred after Navikov’s statement made to Stalin in person that Tupolev was an honest man and he was just slandered. Moreover, Novikov forced Stalin to admit that he also did not believe that Tupolev was a pest.
          1. abc_alex
            abc_alex 28 March 2020 22: 23 New
            +1
            Quote: gsev
            Grabin, along with an accountant, managed to organize clandestine production and testing of his triplex guns by means of postscripts. 57 mm, 76 mm, 95 mm. Stalin and the military cut 57mm and 95mm. But

            This is where you read such fiction? How do you imagine an "underground test" of an anti-tank gun? :)
            In fact, ZiS-2 Grabin did quite officially, albeit on an initiative basis, the project was financed by the People's Commissariat of Arms. Moreover, the process was long and not simple, since they could neither decide on the caliber, nor decide to make a cylindrical or conical barrel. Grabin received a full official tactical and technical task for the development of the project and the manufacture of a prototype of the 57-mm anti-tank gun on September 10, 1940.
            Do not confuse "underground" and "proactive". You apparently have a weak idea of ​​how the design activity was carried out in the USSR in the 30s. It was full of projects that started as an initiative of a group of individuals or work collectives.
            Moreover, Grabin didn’t have to go underground, he was quite in favor with the leadership of the USSR. It is known that the first field tests of the 57-mm gun ended poorly: due to an error with the choice of the steepness of the barrel, the accuracy of fire was low. Grabin himself gave an opinion on the causes and method of elimination, and he was given the go-ahead to start production even without repeated tests of the corrected barrel. They discontinued the ZiS-2 due to a problem with the production of ammunition for it. When the industry evacuated to the east started production, in July 1943 the gun was adopted again.

            If you are talking about the 95 mm F-28 cannon, then no triplex existed. There was a duplex - F-28 and 122-mm howitzer F-25 on one gun carriage. No 57 mm cannon was included with them. And personally, Stalin did not "hack to death" anything. The acceptance of the guns into service was carried out by the relevant departments, GAU in particular. They chose from different projects, besides the F-25, there were two more: M-30 and U-2. But Grabin stayed with his howitzer, he submitted the project to GAU in February 1938, and Petrov submitted his M-30 project in December 1937. Accordingly, by the spring of 1939, the M-30 was already undergoing military trials.


            The 122-mm howitzer F-25, developed by the plant No. 92 on its own initiative, is currently not of interest to the GAU, since the firing and military tests of the M-30 howitzer, which is more powerful than the F-25, have already been completed.

            GAU Decree March 23, 1939


            With ZiS-3, there was indeed a somewhat "underground" story. And its essence was that the army already had another divisional 76-mm Grabin cannon - the F-22 USV. It was produced from 1939 to early 1941, until the GAU stopped production due to the complete fulfillment of the order both for arming the existing units and for the mobilization reserve. But with the beginning of the war, there was an acute shortage of guns, and by the time of the battle for Moscow, it was urgently required to restore the mass production of 76-mm guns. And here, in fact, the "detective" happened. Grabin offered to put into production a new ZiS-3 cannon, arguing that it was simpler and cheaper. And Kulik categorically demanded that the production of the F-22 USV be restored (apparently, he burned out powerfully). As a result, Grabin did not give a damn about Kulik's demand and put the ZiS-3 into the series, only the muzzle brake was made in an experimental workshop. And again in vain you are rolling a balloon at Stalin, he actually gave Grabin car blanche by personally calling him. From Grabin's memoirs:

            - You are well aware that the situation on the fronts is very difficult. The Nazis are eager for Moscow. I beg you, do everything you need and give as many guns as possible. If for this you need to go for a decline in quality, go for it.

            And Grabin gave. For which during the war he received three orders of Lenin.

            So there is no need for historical myth-making.
            1. gsev
              gsev 28 March 2020 22: 36 New
              0
              Quote: abc_alex
              So there is no need for historical myth-making.

              How do you explain that about 2000 ZIS-3 guns were delivered to the front before a decision was made to accept them?
              1. abc_alex
                abc_alex 29 March 2020 02: 19 New
                +1
                I already explained. No? Ok, I repeat.
                GAU under the leadership of Kulik made a number of mistakes, as a result of which the Red Army in 1941 began to have problems with artillery. One such decision was the cessation of production of 76-mm guns in early 1941. We decided that was enough.
                By the fall of 1941, it became clear that it was not enough. A terrible strain began with artillery. Under these conditions, Kulik (who had already been removed from several posts at that time) demanded that Grabin restore the production of 76-mm F-22 USV guns.
                But at that time Grabin already had ZiS-3 ready. It was better and easier to manufacture, since it used the ZiS-2 carriage. Grabin told Kulik about this, offering to put the ZiS-3 on stream. But he rudely refused, literally saying something like: "Nobody needs your gun! Do what they say!"
                In response, Grabin silently sent Kulik to the forest and, together with the director of the plant, ordered not to make F-22 SPM, but ZiS-3. Putting a new barrel on the carriage. The logic was this:


                “But, Vasily Gavrilovich, the military representative will not accept her.”
                - And we, Amo Sergeevich, will take and knock on the military inspectors with bulk guns. They will never give up "live" guns. As far as I know, now all sorts of guns are fighting, which only can shoot. And we will offer first-class, much more advanced than the existing divisional ones.

                But such initiative could not last forever.
                Moreover, the GAU, notified by the representative of the military reception at the plant about the decision of Grabin, was silent.
                All decided Stalin's call, a quote from which I gave you. In this conversation, Stalin gave Grabin the task of restoring and increasing the output of 76-mm guns, taking any action, even down to reducing the quality of the products. That is, Stalin gave Grabin a carte blanche for the sake of increasing quantities guns.
                Therefore, the ZIS-3 went to the troops. Only it allowed to reconstruct production so that the plant increased production 5,5 times. At that moment, everyone was indifferent to what kind of gun the factory was making.
                Stalin, on the other hand, saw this gun and found out about the will of Grabin at a comparative show in January 1942.

                So, the reason that the ZiS-3 gun hit the front before it was put into service was that no one at the GAU wanted to take responsibility for receiving the gun.
                1. gsev
                  gsev 29 March 2020 14: 18 New
                  0
                  Quote: abc_alex
                  All decided Stalin's call, a quote from which I gave you.

                  In your long story, I saw confirmation of my words. That is, Kulik did not know that his order was canceled by Grabin, who loaded the machines and workers with the production of unaccounted goods, spent special steels on the production of non-existent parts in the planned production. As I understand it, Grabin did not seek to create a new gun, he simply took up the technology of the gun and, according to his calculations, realized that only by changing the design of the gun would he be able to increase the production of guns. I hope you understand that to increase the production of guns several times, this is not to organize the sewing of medical masks or fashionable jeans, to launch the production of automatic machines for bottling beer and soda. And Stalin demanded that his subordinates stop such a design itch. That is, Kulik and Stalin did not know for six months, and the NKVD did not report to them that hundreds of machine tools and workers were not working as planned, and steel was leaving to no one knows where. Grabin was helped out by the fact that his factory produced the guns the most, and some plants where Stalin's orders were sacredly executed were unable to organize the production of guns. The memoirs of a comrade Grabin tells how an old worker fell asleep in the workshop and was released from punishment for truancy. But then he was able to sharpen the broach so that the gun barrels could be made on a machine obviously not suitable for this. But the USSR and Stalin helped out. Approximately the same picture in the USA was with the production of escort aircraft carriers. There, American designers and manufacturers were given the right to change the requirements of sailors. As a result, the United States was able to paralyze the actions of the Japanese submarine fleet by numerous escort aircraft carriers, which broke plans for the Japanese to wage war. Moreover, going to Roosevelt with such proposals, the American industrialist did not risk finding himself in the Gulag.
                  1. abc_alex
                    abc_alex April 1 2020 22: 02 New
                    0
                    Quote: gsev
                    That is, Kulik did not know that his order was canceled by Grabin, who loaded machines and workers with unaccounted goods


                    And that was not important. On June 19, 1941, he was relieved of his post as head of the GAU KA and was engaged only in the assembly of new parts. But most likely he knew. The representative of the military acceptance reported to the GAU as soon as the ZiS-3 went off the assembly line. Just Kulik by that time was rapidly out of confidence. His career was rolling down and he, I suppose, was just scared to enter into conflict with Grabin, who was just a favorite. And in the GAU, whose representatives were present at the ZiS-3 tests, apparently they decided to just pray.

                    Quote: gsev
                    As I understand it, Grabin did not seek to create a new gun, he simply took up the technology of the gun and, according to his calculations, realized that only by changing the design of the gun would he be able to increase the production of guns.


                    No, not like that. Grabin is exactly what created a new gun ZiS-3. And put it on the conveyor. In general, he was very proud of this model and believed that after showing Kulik he would receive an order to produce this particular weapon. Kulik refused. Grabin did not give a damn about the refusal. And he began production. THEN there was a call from Stalin. And already then, already releasing the ZiS-3 instead of the F-22 USV, Grabin began to review the design, reduced the number of parts of the ZiS-2 and ZiS-3 by several times, reviewed the technology and increased the volume by 5,5 times.

                    Quote: gsev
                    I hope you understand that to increase the production of guns several times,


                    Sure. Therefore, the chairman of the regional defense committee, secretary of the regional party committee Rodionov also participated in the "conspiracy" of Grabin. And after a while Voroshilov was already on his side.

                    Quote: gsev
                    And Stalin demanded that his subordinates stop such a design itch.


                    Why do you think so? First, a significant part of Soviet technology in the 20s and 30s was the fruit of precisely the "design itch". And this was not stopped, but welcomed. Secondly, you just understand, in 1941 no one was puzzled what kind of gun the ZiS produced. And thirdly, where did you get the idea that Stalin knew about the history of the ZiS-3?

                    Quote: gsev
                    That is, Kulik and Stalin did not know for six months, and the NKVD did not report to them that hundreds of machine tools and workers were not working as planned, and steel was leaving to no one knows where.


                    Kulik by 1942 so powerfully and repeatedly screwed up that on February 16, 1942 he was put on trial, deprived of the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, three orders of Lenin, three orders of the Red Banner and other awards, deprived of the title of Marshal of the Soviet Union and removed from the Central Committee of the CPSU (b )
                    Stalin did not know, in the work of liberoids, he personally taxied everything in the country, up to the terms of spawning of sprats. In real life, the GAU was engaged in the production of guns and Stalin learned about ZiS-3 already from Grabin himself, when he decided to legalize his arbitrariness. The NKVD didn’t care about the type of guns at all. Who could figure out what the factory was doing? There is not one gun produced.
                    And the steel did not go "no one knows where". The guns went to the front in the required quantity and showed themselves excellently there.
                    Do you understand? There were no complaints to the plant and Grabin! He did what he promised.

                    Quote: gsev
                    Grabin was helped out by the fact that his factory produced the guns the most, and some plants where Stalin's orders were sacredly executed were unable to organize the production of guns.

                    And where did you get the idea that Stalin controlled what plant to produce which guns? Before the war, he did not delve into these matters, GAU was for this, Kulik and the People’s Commissar of Defense. Separate you from this strange notion that Stalin ruled and commanded everything. There was no such thing in the USSR. A mass of decisions and actions passed him, at the level of people's commissariats and special. committees. Often he was attracted already in conflict situations or when a volitional extra-systemic solution to the problem was required.
                    And Stalin did not order anyone to improve production methods. Someone was smart enough for this, but someone did not.
                    Grabin was a stubborn man and, by the way, independently put on the conveyor a gun not approved by the GAU before. And this is not what saved him. He was in excellent standing for tank guns and for ZiS-2. And Voroshilov was on his side.

                    Quote: gsev
                    Moreover, going to Roosevelt with such proposals, the American industrialist did not risk finding himself in the Gulag.

                    In the gulag? In public administration? Grabin did not risk it either. He is a constructor, not an official. And he had nothing to do with the NKVD. We kind of seriously exchange opinions, let's not be like.
                    Could plant. Could be removed from office.


                    T-bills decided: our factory to make guns in the old way.
                    In a difficult and completely hopeless mood, I left the Kremlin. I was not afraid of my own fate, which could turn out tragically. A return to the old drawings and old technology inevitably threatened not only with a sharp decrease in the production of guns, but also with a temporary cessation of their production in general. Now the country will really be left without guns!


                    In the USA, of course, everything was different. The country did not fight on its territory. And was not on the verge of defeat and destruction. If this happened, it is not known what would be there.

                    And, by the way, ZiS-3 was made without TTX from the military at all. Absolutely.
                    And Grabin risked not because he changed the technology. The risk was that Stalin had no idea that the ZiS-3 had already been fighting more than 1000 units in production and at the front for a year now. But because the matter looked like that Grabin at the time of the crisis at the front wants to REPLACE the mass-produced and stable design with ANOTHER, Do not replace the manufacturing method, but generally replace it. It’s like your example, the manufacturers did not change the way they manufacture ships, but in general they decided to do another instead of one project.

                    Something like that.
                    1. gsev
                      gsev April 2 2020 10: 06 New
                      0
                      Quote: abc_alex
                      And he began production. THEN there was a call from Stalin.

                      How easy it is to organize production! Since January 2020, when the coronavirus appeared in Russia, they have not been able to organize the production of masks in order to provide them with medical workers with their family members and cleaning women, who are now disinfecting transport facilities, for example, Sheremetyevo airport, without any protective equipment. the principle of the domain of the Great Leap Forward does not protect against coronavirus at the level of modern requirements. In China, now even the logistic managers for CNC and servo drives are puzzled by the search for manufacturers of meltblown nonwoven material for masks. And here during this time a gun was mastered, which can be attributed to the best examples of its time. The most interesting thing you write is, “The NKVD, in general, did not care about the type of guns. Who could figure out what they were doing at the factory?” I will assume that you are right, the NKVD was incompetent in technical matters. That is, you admit that by arresting Tupolev, Petlyakov, Landau, the NKVD was engaged in cases that should have been outside its field of activity?
                      1. abc_alex
                        abc_alex April 13 2020 19: 18 New
                        0
                        Quote: gsev
                        That is, you acknowledge that when arresting Tupolev, Petlyakov, the Landau of the NKVD was engaged in cases that should have been outside his field of activity?

                        Absolutely right! That is exactly what happened. The employees of the internal affairs bodies are not competent in nuclear physics, nor in rocket science, nor in chemistry or technology. This was the tragedy of the 37th. Often in the USSR there were one or two specialists in a certain field, and if one of them knocked on the other, the NKVD officers turned to the informer for expertise. There was simply no choice. It is the same now, only now the choice of experts is much wider. And then there were 10 of those rocketers across the country.
          2. Igoresha
            Igoresha 15 June 2020 12: 15 New
            -1
            For example, under Khrushchev, the USSR did not go to a costly race in the manufacture of ships


            Khrushchev well done, he sawed the construction of battleships and battleships and reduced the army by 5 million people
        4. Basil50
          Basil50 27 March 2020 04: 20 New
          0
          About comments
          We discussed Tupolev and KOROLEV, Sakharov and Landau, but Zhukov did not dare.
          Why?
  2. Pessimist22
    Pessimist22 26 March 2020 05: 48 New
    0
    There was a time like this and it was normal then, then now is the time and what is happening now is normal? Did I understand correctly?
  3. avia12005
    avia12005 26 March 2020 05: 59 New
    +8
    I would love to see how Chubais is engaged in nanotechnology in Sharaga.
    1. Vladimir_2U
      Vladimir_2U 26 March 2020 06: 24 New
      +1
      Quote: avia12005
      Chubais in Sharaga deals with nanotechnology
      At least some sense from him will be, in your opinion? In the scientific and industrial sense. )))
      1. avia12005
        avia12005 26 March 2020 06: 48 New
        +4
        Broom, to collect nanoparticles, can, and okay)))
        1. Akuzenka
          Akuzenka 26 March 2020 19: 17 New
          0
          Again MEGA exposers looking from the west. When will you understand? Under capitalism, it DOESN’T HAPPEN differently !!!!!!!!!
      2. Rostislav
        Rostislav 26 March 2020 10: 08 New
        0
        Does not steal budget money on fake developments, - financing of real production improves.
    2. Tochilka
      Tochilka 26 March 2020 09: 29 New
      +2
      No. This kyle and coal to chop. For life.
      1. Akuzenka
        Akuzenka 26 March 2020 19: 20 New
        +1
        Oh oh. Dreams, dreams, where is your sweetness ?! Really - sheer muck! Imagine. Capitalists, seriously and for a long time. Without blood they won’t leave, it will be necessary to fill the whole country with blood, for the sake of power and money. Really did not think ?!
  4. Amateur
    Amateur 26 March 2020 06: 05 New
    -1
    Well, why in a very interesting and competent article this paragraph:
    Try writing a leaflet today that compares Putin with Paul Pot, Saddam Hussein or Bin Laden and the call for overthrow. And then get caught with her. On the way to the Kremlin. I would love to hear your stories about the delights of democracy and other pleasures of life. Then, when you will be released.

    It seems that Mr. Skomorokhov only watches "Russia 1" on TV, and does not read comments on the Internet, even on VO.
    1. Akuzenka
      Akuzenka 26 March 2020 19: 21 New
      0
      This is Skomorokhov.
  5. alekc75
    alekc75 26 March 2020 06: 06 New
    +1
    do not run away, there is every opportunity not to give. You only need to have the will to give the order!
  6. svp67
    svp67 26 March 2020 06: 26 New
    +2
    By the way, not everyone was pressed on bald accusations. The very same Tupolev got a well-deserved attempt for causing economic harm to the country. Well, you must admit, if you were sent to buy equipment (for gold and currency) for subsequent licensed production, then, at a minimum, you had to arrange everything humanly.
    He sat down to business, but why did you have to sew a policy for this? Yes, for a similar case, Korolev suffered as well, misuse of state funds.
    Speaking of him, calling "Judas" under the number 1 and 2, somehow they forgot about the very difficult relationship between the Queen and Glushko, the latter, under what number did he have?
  7. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 26 March 2020 06: 34 New
    +3
    Thank you for the article.
    Aviasharaga: God's gift or the curse of Beria?
    I would not be surprised if it became a salvation for some designers and specialists, in the camps, very probably deserved, they would simply be "eaten".
    there were very few technical intelligentsia from the nobility. Due to the knocking out and dropping out of the nobility in Soviet Russia
    It’s very controversial, the nobles didn’t really engineer, the classic is that ship mechanics, for example, to the last peers gentlemen, did not consider the hereditary officers of the imperial fleet.
  8. DMB 75
    DMB 75 26 March 2020 06: 36 New
    10
    These were forced measures. You can argue about the Stalinist repressions as much as you like, but one thing is clear - the Soviet government was not a suicide. Anticipating the imminent beginning of a great war, the Soviet Union mobilized all available resources to prepare for it. Scientists were not thoughtlessly abandoned to rot in the camps, but were involved in the general system forging the Victory Arms. They got the opportunity to create amazing and complex machines, to do what they were born for. The Soviet government appreciated their merits - everyone was liberated and then built into the Soviet scientific elite.
    1. Dmitry V.
      Dmitry V. 26 March 2020 13: 08 New
      -3
      Quote: DMB 75
      These were forced measures.


      Bredyatina.
      How many designers were in the US?
      How many designers sat in Germany?

      Sharaga - miscarriage of the repressive system, forced to fear, hunchbacked by scientists and engineers.
      1. ser56
        ser56 26 March 2020 18: 33 New
        -1
        Quote: Dmitry Vladimirovich
        force for fear, hunchbacked by scientists and engineers.

        namely - therefore, not optimal technical decisions were made, but safe solutions for the sitters ... hi
      2. Campanella
        Campanella 28 March 2020 10: 25 New
        0
        It is interesting how you would drag a country into a hostile environment, a shortage of money, the formation of state institutions, the internal political struggle and a host of other problems related to the formation and development of the state.
      3. Alecsandr
        Alecsandr 3 May 2020 13: 27 New
        0
        And you read how the Americans sat on the project in Los Alamos. In the book "Mr. Feyman, you are kidding" everything is beautifully written. It was almost a prison too.
  9. siberalt
    siberalt 26 March 2020 06: 43 New
    15
    In 1937, my father worked as the head of the territorial water inspection of the NKVD, lived with his family in Stalingrad. Once his deputy, by the name of Zasyadkin, told him that it was not enough to shoot Tukhachevsky, but it was necessary first to hang him by the balls and set his head on fire. To which his father replied that our punishment system rejects torment and torture. He immediately received a denunciation from the deputy to the authorities, and a month later he was convicted by a military court under Art. 57 p. 10, as sympathetic to the enemies of the people without the right to correspond. True, they gave him below the lowest limit - 4 years in the camps. Felled a forest in Komi, as a foreman, then as a foreman. He was released on June 21, 1941. Since on Saturday he and the other liberated were unable to get rations and civilian clothes (to the nearest settlement about 40 km through the forest), they remained to wait at the fence on Monday. And there is a war, they left everyone on the rakonvoyka until further notice. And it turned out - until the spring of the 42nd. He spent the war in Stalingrad, was not allowed to go to the front. He extinguished fires after bombing as the head of a paramilitary fire brigade. The wife considered that he was dead, got along with another. After the war, the father took his son and went to his parents in Altai. But life was twisted. The enemy of the people was not hired anywhere in his specialty (engineer of water transport (Leningrad), the school of the Central Technical Committee of the NKVD (Moscow)), even after rehabilitation and restoration in the party. However, he never complained about the government and the party. He said - that was the time. But someone still has the desire to "hang by the balls"
    1. polar fox
      polar fox 26 March 2020 07: 35 New
      +3
      Quote: siberalt
      In 1937, my father worked as the head of the territorial water inspection of the NKVD, lived with his family in Stalingrad. Once his deputy, by the name of Zasyadkin, told him that it was not enough to shoot Tukhachevsky, but it was necessary first to hang him by the balls and set his head on fire. To which his father replied that our punishment system rejects torment and torture. He immediately received a denunciation from the deputy to the authorities, and a month later he was convicted by a military court under Art. 57 p. 10, as sympathetic to the enemies of the people without the right to correspond. True, they gave him below the lowest limit - 4 years in the camps. Felled a forest in Komi, as a foreman, then as a foreman. He was released on June 21, 1941. Since on Saturday he and the other liberated were unable to get rations and civilian clothes (to the nearest settlement about 40 km through the forest), they remained to wait at the fence on Monday. And there is a war, they left everyone on the rakonvoyka until further notice. And it turned out - until the spring of the 42nd. He spent the war in Stalingrad, was not allowed to go to the front. He extinguished fires after bombing as the head of a paramilitary fire brigade. The wife considered that he was dead, got along with another. After the war, the father took his son and went to his parents in Altai. But life was twisted. The enemy of the people was not hired anywhere in his specialty (engineer of water transport (Leningrad), the school of the Central Technical Committee of the NKVD (Moscow)), even after rehabilitation and restoration in the party. However, he never complained about the government and the party. He said - that was the time. But someone still has the desire to "hang by the balls"

      it looks like the fate of my grandfather’s brother ... the deputy prosecutor in the military prosecutor’s office was in Tashkent ... they gave 10 charges of embezzlement to the boss ... after 2 years the boss was arrested and shot. The grandfather didn’t appeal ... construction, construction. ..He built them Lenin foreman ... the system never scolded, although life was not honey.
    2. Looking for
      Looking for 26 March 2020 15: 39 New
      -3
      how old are you? what are you composing fairy tales !!!
  10. kalibr
    kalibr 26 March 2020 07: 27 New
    -7
    Roman always writes great!
  11. Nitarius
    Nitarius 26 March 2020 07: 37 New
    -9
    We are not going to get into this matter much now, but Tupolev and Korolev received quite reasonably. One for a poorly completed task, the second for embezzlement.
    And the author then how to know)))? he that reality sat with them)?
    1. chenia
      chenia 26 March 2020 09: 57 New
      +6
      Quote: Nitarius
      And the author knows how


      These data are known. Just the research institute has filled up all the programs. Only 82 mm and 130 mm missiles with ocher dispersion were created. Spending a bunch of money. Well, they began to write to each other (search for the culprit).
      By the way, Kostikov created the "Katyusha" as an installation (which was mined in the initial period, so that the enemy would not get it, and not shells, the Germans were better in this regard).
      Well, about Tupolev too.
      1. Sergey Valov
        Sergey Valov 26 March 2020 15: 24 New
        +2
        Quote: chenia
        so that the enemy does not get

        What was missing - the rails? wink
        1. chenia
          chenia 26 March 2020 18: 42 New
          0
          Quote: Sergey Valov
          What was missing - the rails?


          Sleepers!
  12. Charlie
    Charlie 26 March 2020 07: 40 New
    +2
    Quote: kalibr
    Roman always writes great!

    Not always, as it turned out. In this case, he wrote a lot of dick
  13. rocket757
    rocket757 26 March 2020 07: 58 New
    0
    This is our story that left a mark in almost every family ... just remember and not repeat the mistakes of the past.
  14. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 26 March 2020 08: 12 New
    +3
    intercession of Niels Bohr

    Kapitsa fussed over Landau, but what side was Niels Bohr here?
    And more about sharagi. About a year ago I tried to publish my article "America is the homeland of the sharag" on VO, the article was rejected without explanation. It outlined the history of the creation of the American aircraft engine "Liberty" in 1917, for its creation engineers worked in a completely barracks (sharazh) position for six months. The motor is good.
    1. Dmitry V.
      Dmitry V. 26 March 2020 13: 04 New
      0
      Quote: Aviator_
      on a completely barracks (sharazhny) position six months


      Do not confuse the barracks (military) and prison (with the restriction of freedom and prosecution) - absolutely incomparable motivation.
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 26 March 2020 18: 43 New
        +2
        The life of the sharag workers differed noticeably for the better from that of a prisoner - even the chief designers (who were prosecuted) had quite comfortable working conditions, and ordinary engineers had no previous convictions, there were no court cases against them.
    2. mister-red
      mister-red 26 March 2020 21: 56 New
      +2
      Quote: Aviator_
      Kapitsa fussed over Landau, but what side was Niels Bohr here?

      This is a historical fact. Landau had an internship with him. When he was arrested, Bohr wrote a letter to Stalin in his support.
    3. gsev
      gsev 26 March 2020 21: 56 New
      -2
      Quote: Aviator_
      It outlined the history of the creation of the American aircraft engine "Liberty" in 1917, for its creation engineers worked in a completely barracks (sharazh) position for six months.

      Physicist Feynman was drafted into the army and worked on an artillery fire control device. In the service, no one humiliated or shuffled him like Tupolev. Nobody claims that in Russia, the fighters Alpha and Vityaz are in a daze. Although I think that their burdens of discipline are tougher than those of Feynman in his design bureau. Read in Feynman’s memoirs how he mocked or poked fun at U.S. state security officials as he participated in the development of nuclear weapons.
  15. Free wind
    Free wind 26 March 2020 09: 06 New
    0
    I probably disagree about the publication of articles about Soviet factories and aviation. I disagree with the NKVD. The Germans knew everything about aviation, they shot down I-16s and I-15s in Spain, well, they probably studied it, had to study it. They knew the technical data of the aircraft perfectly, they knew on whose basis the engines were built, they knew who they were bought from. By the engine numbers and the years - months of release, you can determine the production capacity of the plant. It is quite possible to determine the level of production based on the condition of spare parts. And the Japanese threw in information. Yes, even by sound, you can determine which engine is worth. Interestingly, they brought downed Messers from Spain to us for study?., I did not come across information anywhere, and if this was not, then in the NKVD someone could have been strangled for this. Or like now. ours "has no analogues in the world", why should we study foreign, especially fascist.
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 26 March 2020 18: 48 New
      0
      In 1940, during a brief cooperation with Nazi Germany, the Tevosyan delegation purchased a number of samples of German military equipment - Me-109, Yu-88, Yu-87, He-100 (at that time a record speed), He-111. All of them were tested in the just-created (1940 g) full-scale wind tunnel T-101 TsAGI (the size of the working part is 24x12 m). All the features of piloting vehicles were studied before the war.
      1. Free wind
        Free wind 26 March 2020 20: 37 New
        -2
        Of course I read about it, Aerodynamics, it is certainly beautiful. . It’s just interesting for me to know why the wreckage of downed aircraft was not studied, aerodynamics is one thing, and even the technical characteristics of the aircraft provided to you. But warplanes are much more different! They had to be studied. At least a propeller group. Their engines, what they are capable of, with their engines, what weapons they have. why all this has not been studied.
        1. Aviator_
          Aviator_ 26 March 2020 21: 12 New
          0
          Well, first of all, why did you decide that the wreckage of the downed aircraft was not studied? I read the material where the analysis of combat damage of aircraft (in relation to air defense) was carried out, where it was written how many hits and what caliber, and where it led to fatal damage. As for the engines, Major General Ivan Fedorovich Petrov (later the first rector of MIPT) was in 1940 the head of the aviation group in Tevosyan's commission. He left his memoirs, where he wrote that after the delivery of German cars to us (this was facilitated by the ace of the PMV Udet), the commission was closed to the aircraft engine factories of Nazi Germany, and it was not possible to obtain samples of the engines. I had a note based on I.F. Petrova in the magazine "Tekhnika-Molodyozhi" 10 years ago, it was called "Does Comrade Stalin know that Petrov started at TsAGI?" By the way, Ivan Fyodorovich was one of those sailors who stormed the Winter Palace in 1917.
  16. Free wind
    Free wind 26 March 2020 09: 18 New
    -3
    By the way, Soviet pilots encountered the Japanese in China. and shot down the same zero, in 39-40 even the wreckage could teach something, but this was not done.
  17. Tochilka
    Tochilka 26 March 2020 09: 21 New
    0
    The paragraph about the president shaking hands is excellent!
  18. smaug78
    smaug78 26 March 2020 09: 43 New
    -1
    Quote: Nitarius
    the second is for embezzlement.

    True, the main article was 58
  19. vnord
    vnord 26 March 2020 10: 00 New
    +3
    Quote: svp67
    He sat down to business, but why did you have to sew a policy for this?

    He also drew attention a long time ago ... A lot of economic affairs were attributed to espionage and politics .... One could see the installation that the Soviet man could not steal, probably only a spy and traitor ..
    1. Basil50
      Basil50 26 March 2020 12: 32 New
      0
      Need to know.
      There is a sort of people who like * blue thief * just can not steal. They definitely need to bring at least some ideology (excuse) under theft.
      Most of all, the Starostin brothers became famous for this. They were very talkative and could not steal without ideas. They stole impudently and meanly, with the denunciations and the setup of the innocent
  20. Vadim777
    Vadim777 26 March 2020 10: 05 New
    -6
    But excuse me, but where did the NKVD go? If denunciations, complaints, slander flowed like a river?
    "shta, again the moral suffering of the executioners from plastic cups?" The answer to this question about "where the NKVD is going" is simple from the times of Peter the Great - "the first whip to the informer"
  21. Pavel57
    Pavel57 26 March 2020 10: 08 New
    -2
    Often the tasks of the Sharagas were set by non-professionals - we recall the distant 4-motor diving bomber.
    1. sevtrash
      sevtrash 26 March 2020 11: 13 New
      +3
      This was a task not only for Tupolev; Heinkel, for example, was also engaged in it. And more successfully.
      1. Pavel57
        Pavel57 26 March 2020 14: 37 New
        +1
        What mass Henkel dive was used in 2MB?
        1. sevtrash
          sevtrash 28 March 2020 15: 43 New
          0
          If you add "mass" to the characteristic, is that something else? Add more, for example, stratospheric, jet, atomic, etc. The same will happen.
  22. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 26 March 2020 10: 59 New
    -4
    "Was Beria a stupid executioner?" ////
    ----
    Of course not. Beria was a smart executioner.
    1. apro
      apro 26 March 2020 13: 07 New
      +1
      Quote: voyaka uh
      Of course not. Beria was a smart executioner

      And he executed a lot?
      1. Pavel57
        Pavel57 26 March 2020 14: 36 New
        0
        Was he an executioner? He stopped Yezhovsky repressions and pardoned in 1953, which is not unique, but a fact.
      2. gsev
        gsev 26 March 2020 22: 00 New
        -2
        Quote: apro
        And he executed a lot?

        In which country, under which head of state security did so many subsequently rehabilitated be repressed?
  23. ghby
    ghby 26 March 2020 11: 10 New
    +1
    In the early 2000s, at work, I talked with one grandmother, who during the Great Patriotic War was called up and sent to guard the "sharazhka" TsKB-29 after the latter was evacuated to Omsk. She was then about 19 years old. She spoke positively about those who worked in the little nest, said that they were better fed there than those who guarded them. Remembered AN Tupolev, she remembered him: "he walked in his black leather coat, was polite, treated her to sweets."
  24. fk7777777
    fk7777777 26 March 2020 11: 19 New
    -1
    I would agree with the author’s opinion if he wrote this article from the camp mining uranium, and his family would simply be destroyed, just for the slightest private property. And so to write that they say good fellows well done ruining so many people, sending families with children to camps, and covered all this with patriotism.
    1. iouris
      iouris 26 March 2020 17: 47 New
      +2
      Quote: fk7777777
      so to write that they say good fellows fellows ruined so many people, sending families with children to camps, and covered all this with patriotism.

      This is history. The history of your country should be known and understood. There is no other story. One way or another, we are the beneficiaries of the Stalin-Beria economic system, and so far we have not had another system. The modern economic model, based on the privatization of the Stalin-Beria economic system, began to collapse yesterday.
      If you are a patriot of another country, then write that you evaluate the history of this country from a hostile position, because our country does not and cannot have friends.
  25. iouris
    iouris 26 March 2020 11: 21 New
    +3
    "To calm the heart", call it - "Campus".
  26. Tochilka
    Tochilka 26 March 2020 11: 27 New
    +2
    It became interesting what kind of submarine S-135 developed by Kassatsier. So he was the main submarine of the A615 project. And the S-135 is an American plane. It would be necessary to correct, otherwise absurdity.
  27. Sergey Mikula
    Sergey Mikula 26 March 2020 12: 04 New
    +8
    I wonder how Russian aircraft designers like Sikorsky, Seversky, Kartvelli could prove themselves without "sharashki"? How did they differ in human terms from Tupolev, Polikarpov, Kalinin, Korolev? Why didn't they become "enemies" of the American people? Maybe all the same in the "conservatory" that something was wrong?
    1. Pavel57
      Pavel57 26 March 2020 16: 16 New
      0
      Everyone uses two tools - a carrot and a stick. Someone has a sweeter gingerbread, someone has a tougher stick.
    2. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 26 March 2020 18: 57 New
      0
      Sikorsky, who is now fashionable to pray, went completely broke twice - the first time during the Great Depression of 1929, the second time in 1939, when he was ruined by Consolidated. Since he was already a well-known designer, he was given the opportunity to deal with helicopters that were not needed by anyone then, which suddenly showed themselves well in Southeast Asia. If such a theater was on our front, then Kamov would have significantly bypassed Sikorsky in his designs, but the entire separate correction squadron of the Kamov autogyros was knocked out during the Smolensk battle in 1941. Therefore, we found ourselves in the role of catch-up, when helicopters showed their high efficiency already in the Korean War.
      1. Sergey Mikula
        Sergey Mikula 26 March 2020 21: 08 New
        +1
        Sikorsky, in whom it is now fashionable to pray, was completely ruined twice

        And how many times did he sit for the fact that he was "completely ruined"?
  28. Dmitry V.
    Dmitry V. 26 March 2020 13: 01 New
    +2
    In general, the idea of ​​creating a sharag was very good. It turns out that under Stalin, the authorities were interested in the fact that a person of outstanding abilities could create, even after committing a crime and even skipping a term.


    Did he commit a crime?
    Or is it all his fault that, as a result of low experience and knowledge, he gave out wishful thinking?
    That the prospective development did not become a masterpiece - this is the general practice of designing - one successful one for several samples. Even in aviation abroad in the 30s, for 5-6 competing prototypes, the best was adopted.
    Something after Stalin — the mass landings of engineers and scientists stopped — didn’t it become worth punishing?

    It was after Stalin that the USSR approached technical parity with the world's leading technical leaders.
    And sharashka not needed
    Sharashka did not work efficiently - a man of intellectual labor, works much more productively not for fear, not for material interest - he is interested in the process of discovering and achieving a new one.
    At least in KBM everyone did not work for ranks and orders.
  29. Undecim
    Undecim 26 March 2020 13: 05 New
    +3
    Reading such articles, one wonders whether someday history will become just history, and not endless "tearing off the veils" and a continuous series of "exposures" of some hard workers from history by others. It seems that this process will never stop.
    So the author had two options. The first is simply to describe the work of the "sharag" as a certain historical fact that took place in a certain historical period.
    And second, to mention the sharaga in passing, and focus on the "refutations" and "revelations" created by the same propagandists from the history of "stories".
    However, the disclosure due to a completely weak knowledge of the issue did not work out at all. Rather, even a shortcut.
    The author for some reason began in 1937 and Beria. Meanwhile, it is necessary to start from 1930 and Berries. It was in 1930 that the creation of the sharag began.
    And the heyday of the creation of these same sharags reached not before the war, but after the war, already in the early fifties. Well, in 1953 the era of sharag ended.
    According to the author’s logic, for 23 years the best representatives of the Soviet technical and scientific intelligentsia had to be kicked into productive work, otherwise she (the technical intelligentsia) instead of creating technology and scientific discoveries devoted time to intrigues, squabbles and denunciations of one another.
    The question arises, what kind of intrigue did the USSR get that could only work productively in prison?
    And in 1953 all this intrigue suddenly reforged and began to fulfill its duties without having to go to jail. And pretty well done, by the way.
    Korolev sent the first man into space with his comrades and without sharaga. And Tupolev worked quite productively "at will". And a lot of other scientists and designers.
    And in 1991, the intelligence was reforged again, scored on everything and now everyone needs to go to sharagi again, because in many directions they have already rolled back by 1930.
    Maybe the question is still not in intrigue?
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 26 March 2020 13: 36 New
      +1
      "Well, in 1953, the era of sharags ended." ///
      ----
      The brutal stupid dictatorship ended - sharazhki ended. And space exploration began.
      1. iouris
        iouris 26 March 2020 16: 30 New
        +1
        Quote: voyaka uh
        Brutal stupid dictatorship ended

        Cruel, but not stupid, which is confirmed by the transition to space exploration.
  30. Engineer
    Engineer 26 March 2020 13: 21 New
    +9
    Eh, Comrade Stalin was unlucky with the people, even the gentlemen of the Order of Lenin almost begin to spy on the damned West, simultaneously making money (according to Skomorokhov) and engaging in terrorism (according to the investigation’s version)
    Enough already? How can you hide behind patriotic rhetoric and at the same time spit on the graves of the true creators of victory?
    By the way, not everyone was pressed on bald accusations. The very same Tupolev got a well-deserved attempt for causing economic harm to the country. Well, you must admit, if you were sent to buy equipment (for gold and currency) for subsequent licensed production, then at least you had to arrange everything humanly.

    Oh really?
    ... At present, evidence has been received from the arrested Nekrasov and Walter, incriminating Tupolev as one of the leaders of terrorist activities in the counter-revolutionary Cadet-Fascist organization that existed in Moscow and called itself the Russian-fascist party. Tupolev was arrested on October 21.10.37, 3. He was awarded 29 Orders of Lenin, Orders of the Red Star and the Red Banner of Labor. The son of a landowner. The head of the design bureau of NAGI, deputy director of TsAGI, lives: 33 Kalyaevskaya street, apt. XNUMX.
    Tupolev grouped anti-Soviet people in TsAGI, created an anti-Soviet organization and took up wrecking work in the aviation industry:
    - recognized the conduct of wrecking on the construction of the DBA aircraft, delays in the construction of stratospheric aircraft along DB-2, RD, VIT, DB-3, I-21, PB, SB, DMP;
    - admitted that he thwarted Gromov’s flight to establish a range, thwarted in 1935 the government’s planned flight of Levanevsky through the North Pole to America, and in 1937, a number of wrecking acts led to the death of the crew of Levanevsky’s plane while flying to America through the North Pole. In 1924 he was recruited by Morgulis for espionage in favor of France. While in Paris in 1935, he personally transmitted espionage information about fighter planes and light bombers to French Minister of Aviation Denin.
    At the interrogation on 23.11.38/XNUMX/XNUMX, Tupolev refused testimony regarding espionage.

    So, Tupolev was arrested not for some financial deeds, but for "terrorism", "counter-revolution" and "sabotage" and espionage in favor of France.
    Particularly chic is the disruption of Gromov’s flight on an airplane of his own design. It is generally necessary not to be shell-shocked, but lobotomized on the whole head in order to seriously take such accusations.
    1. Elturisto
      Elturisto 26 March 2020 17: 38 New
      -2
      What does it mean for its design? The design is developed by the designer's design bureau and the design bureau of the plant, using the technical task of the customer and the existing production and scientific backlog. Nothing fundamentally new, Tupolev personally did not invent. The usual careerist and the bastard.
  31. Dmitry V.
    Dmitry V. 26 March 2020 13: 23 New
    0
    By the way, indeed, it is worth comparing with Manhattan.


    Scientific and engineering staff lived in individual homes

    We went to work in their cars

    here, apparently, their kidneys were beaten off - from this, American scientists smile so


    Our nuclear engineers were provided with similar conditions in the 60s.
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 26 March 2020 19: 01 New
      +2
      Not in the 60s, but in the 40s, it was under such conditions that our first RDS-11 at 1 kT was made in KB-20
    2. chenia
      chenia 26 March 2020 19: 26 New
      +2
      Quote: Dmitry Vladimirovich
      Our nuclear engineers were provided with similar conditions in the 60s.


      Opportunities have appeared, and conditions have appeared.
      By the way, scientists and designers, it was the elite, and they lived even better (in relative terms). than these foreign guys (what is a car and a plywood house ?, it is in the states and a seedy manager from a cardboard factory could have it).

      It is one thing when you tear off the penultimate shirt from the people, and give it to the elite. And those having promised, do not give out anything. And then the demand is different. While the GIRD (a group of scientists working for nothing) was Korolev, Langemak and Glushko no one touched. And as soon as the research institute was formed with good funding (under the promised programs), the auditor came in with a gun.

      They began to live richer, and even by reprimand they could get off.
      And believe the West when they come back (or when the profit is excessive) they quickly forget about morality.
  32. ccsr
    ccsr 26 March 2020 13: 45 New
    +1
    Author:
    Roman Skomorokhov
    I cannot but remain silent about the scandal that broke out in 1938. When the magazine "German weapons" published a series of articles on military aviation of the Soviet Union.
    Ours also got acquainted with the publications, after which, I suspect, the NKVD officers were ready not only to leave designers on their kidneys with boots, but to strangle them in the workplace. The author of the articles, the major of the German Air Force Schettel, published secret data on the production of Soviet aircraft plants.
    Shettel cited many facts in articles that directly testified to the fact that secret data easily flows abroad.
    ..... And plus, in violation of the secrecy regime, they either simply divulge data on the Soviet military-industrial complex, or they do it for worse reasons. For money, for example.

    I think the author is mistaken about the role of designers in the leak of information abroad, because he underestimates the capabilities of German intelligence in those years, which were then the best in Europe in terms of agent quality and equipment. And the appearance in the journal of an article about aviation in the USSR most likely resembles an analytical review of several sources of information, including from other countries. By the way, design bureaus as a rule do not devote themselves to plans for the production of military equipment, so the leak could occur in a completely different place, including, for example, due to the lack of ZAC telephone systems.
    In general, the article is very interesting and informative, especially for those who like to lie about the Gulag and the tens of millions in them sitting.
  33. Dmitry V.
    Dmitry V. 26 March 2020 13: 49 New
    +1
    All these stories and songs about the "usefulness" of the sharag are nonsense.

    The main reason for the lag, of course, was not the lack of a concentrated base, but the absence of the possibility of creativity in a country where only the state can give permission for creativity.

    Since in the absence of private property, the state monopolized technical creativity and only the state could act as a customer for technical developments.
    And initiative and proactive development could go under the article and went under the article "sabotage", theft - depending on the "bravado" of the investigator.

    For example:
    In 1937, the KhPZ, among many enterprises and organizations, was swept by a wave of struggle against "enemies of the people." The prologue to this was a letter from the military representative P. Sokolov to the narcotic K.E. Voroshilov "about the vast majority of" former people "in the leadership of the tank department of the plant."

    And what did the "snitches" do at the KhPZ?

    The "wreckers" were charged with a full set of charges: K. Chelpan was accused of "disrupting the government assignment for the production of diesel engines" and "deliberate organization of diesel defects", G. Aptekman was arrested, recalling the breakdowns during tests, which served as confirmation of its "wrecking" activity, A. Firsov went along with him.
    Together with everyone, the chief engineer of the KhPZ F.I. Bream "rendered machines unusable", chief metallurgist A.M. Metantsev and many others, "recruited" by the director of the KhPZ I. Bondarenko, the list of charges to which included almost all conceivable and inconceivable atrocities - from "dulling vigilance" to "organizing an explosion at the plant" ...
    Trashutin and Stepanov (the last two, however, were released in 1939) went to the prison in a "locomotive". Firsov, before his release, arrived at work under escort!


    That is, one "proactive fool" - mowed down the engineering staff of the plant!
    It is not for nothing that the proverb says: "Do not be afraid of a fool - be afraid of an initiative fool!"

    The first prison design bureau in human history was organized in December 1929. The heads of the OGPU came up with a brilliant idea: why, instead of sending the arrested to Solovki and starving them there, not to force them in prison conditions, under the watchful eye of state security guards build engines and planes?
    ... "Only conditions of work in a militarized situation are capable of ensuring the effective activity of specialists in counterbalance to the demoralizing situation of civilian institutions," the deputy chairman of the OGPU G. Yagoda wrote later in a letter to Molotov.
    The idea of ​​our dear OGPU was brilliant! Surprisingly, this is a fact, Russian engineers and scientists, as well as the entire working people, worked in prison conditions even more productively than in freedom! The fact of the previously unheard-of pace of technical development in the world (in the conditions of a "prison country") amazed all contemporaries.


    D. A. Sobolev
    REPRESSION IN THE SOVIET AIRLINE INDUSTRY
    http://old.ihst.ru/projects/sohist/papers/sob00v.htm
  34. Dmitry V.
    Dmitry V. 26 March 2020 13: 53 New
    0
    The first prison design bureau in the history of aviation was organized in December 1929. It was located "at the place of residence" of the prisoners - in Butyrka prison. Two rooms for work were equipped with drawing boards and other necessary drawing accessories. The new organization was given a high-profile title - Special Design Bureau. The executive director was appointed an employee of the OGPU Goryanov.

    Soon the prisoners were visited by the head of the Air Force J. I. Alksnis and gave them the task - by March 1930 to design a fighter with an air-cooled engine, not inferior in characteristics to the best foreign models. Grigorovich was appointed the chief designer, Polikarpov was his deputy.


    V. B. Shavrov recalled:

    The GPU, which landed a lot of senior engineers and technical workers, decided to take on the pilot construction of the aircraft. Like, in this situation there will be no wrecking. The head of the Central Clinical Hospital was the two-thrombus hebeust, above it was the three-thrombus, and above this - the four-thrombus. Above is Berry, and above Berry is Menzhinsky. There were also lower ranks.

    The GPU decided to gather at factory No. 39 all those who worked for Richard, Polikarpov, Bartini1. And above all, an extensive work plan of the Central Design Bureau was drawn up. And this plan was based on the following assumption: Tupolev’s prototype aircraft was under construction for four years, and we will build in three weeks. We have three hundred people in the state, so let’s drop everyone on one task in order to quickly complete it. The Central Design Bureau is a powerful organization that, leaning with forces on any task, will be able to quickly complete it. The GPU was convinced that this is how it will be.

    Some of the people in the Central Clinical Hospital were free, and some were “arrested”. We, free, were subordinate to the latter, although they lived in custody and could not even leave the factory. The arrestees were our superiors, and above them - the GPU, which constantly intervened in everything (cited in [3, p. 125]).


    D. A. Sobolev
    REPRESSION IN THE SOVIET AIRLINE INDUSTRY
    1. Dmitry V.
      Dmitry V. 26 March 2020 13: 56 New
      -1
      The hopes placed on the Central Design Bureau did not materialize. Creating a good aircraft is not laying a channel, here the result is not determined by the number of working hands, but by the knowledge and talent of individual specialists and skillful general management. In 1931, the I-Z fighter, the TS-1 attack aircraft and a number of aircraft were built at the Central Design Bureau. But they did not have much success.

      After completing work on the I-5 fighter, the Political Administration decided to encourage the arrested aircraft designers, reducing their sentence. So, by the verdict of the OGPU Board of March 18, 1931, Polikarpov was replaced with the death penalty by 10 years in prison camps, with a suspended sentence. Soon, the leadership of the USSR finally replaced anger with mercy towards the scientific and technical intelligentsia from the “former”, realizing that without genuine specialists, the economy could not be raised. In his keynote speech, “New Environment - New Tasks of Economic Construction,” Stalin said: “If during the period of the defeat of wrecking, our attitude to the old intelligentsia was expressed mainly in the policy of defeat, now, during the period when this intelligentsia turned towards the Soviet regime, our attitude to her should be expressed mainly in the policy of attracting and caring for her ”[4, p. 1].

      Five days later, on July 10, 1931, Pravda published a decree of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR, according to which the prisoners of the "internal prison" TsKB-39 were released.

      D. A. Sobolev
      REPRESSION IN THE SOVIET AIRLINE INDUSTRY
      1. Dmitry V.
        Dmitry V. 26 March 2020 14: 01 New
        0
        However, the lull did not last long. In 1937, another wave of repression rose, much more powerful and bloody than before. The signals for the start of a new war with their own people were the decisions of the February-March plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU (B.). Immediately after the plenary session of the People’s Commissar of Defense Industry, M. S. Rukhimovich was instructed to prepare an action plan “to expose and prevent sabotage and espionage” [6, p. 108]. The total search for “enemies of the people” began at military factories, in scientific and experimental design organizations, including enterprises in the aviation industry. The latter paid close attention: in the skies of Spain, our planes were weaker than the latest German fighters and bombers, and this, according to the NKVD, could only happen through the fault of wreckers working according to the teachings of Western intelligence.

        The search for "internal enemies" in the aircraft industry has been very fruitful. The Chekists and their voluntary assistants from among the most “conscious” Soviet citizens had something to be proud of.

        To imagine the scale of the repression that hit the aircraft industry, I’ll cite another document. According to the report of the Moscow Regional Directorate of the NKVD at Aviation Plant No. 24 (powerful engines of A. A. Mikulin's design were produced there) in 1937 there were:
        5 spy terrorist and sabotage-wrecking groups were discovered and eliminated, with a total of 50 people, of which:

        1. The anti-Soviet Trotskyist right-wing group comprised of the former plant manager, Maryamov, and the technical director, Kolosov.

        2. Japanese intelligence spy group of 9 people.

        3. German intelligence spy group of 13 people.

        4. French intelligence espionage group of 4 people.

        5. A 15-member terrorist and espionage-sabotage group of Latvian intelligence, created and led by a member of the Latvian fascist organization, ex. deputy factory director number 24 Gelman.

        Trotskyite Tarakhtunov, the head of the technical sector of the Quality Control Department of the plant, was also arrested, in the case of which an investigation is underway with the expectation of opening work organized by the Trotskyists at the plant.

        The plant is still clogged with anti-Soviet socially alien and suspicious elements of espionage and sabotage. The available accounting of these elements according to official data alone reaches 1000 people.

        So initiative fools, replenished groups of sharashka.
        1. Dmitry V.
          Dmitry V. 26 March 2020 14: 29 New
          +1
          In the years 1937-1938. were shot Director of TsAGI N. M. Kharlamov, Head of TsAGI 8th Division V. I. Chekalov, Deputy Head of TsAGI Training Department E. M. Furmanov, Head of Division of 1st (Aviation) Main Directorate of the People’s Commissariat for Defense Industry A. M. Metlo , Director of Plant No. 24 I. E. Maryamov, Director of Plant No. 26 G. N. Korolev, Deputy Head of the Planning and Technical Department of Plant No. 156 K. A. Inyushin, Director of NII-3 (Rocket Research Institute, in which future academicians C worked P. Korolev and V. P. Glushko) I. T. Kleimenov, Technical Director of this organization G. E. Langemak. In October 1938, seven months after the arrest, the creator of the first Soviet serial passenger aircraft, a prominent aircraft designer K. A. Kalinin, was shot dead in the dungeons of the Voronezh ONKVD. The accusation was standard for 1937 - “anti-Soviet activity and espionage”. The closed court session of the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court lasted only 10 minutes, there was no defense counsel, no witnesses. The sentence was executed immediately after the meeting.


          In 1938, from waiting for their fate in prisons, the arrested "enemies of the people" began to form design teams, which, under the protection of the NKVD, were supposed to work for the good of the country's defense. They existed within the Department of Special Design Bureau of the NKVD, in October 1938 renamed the 4th Special Department of the NKVD.

          ... The NKVD considered it expedient to use the creative potential of "enemies of the people." To begin with, experts were gathered in a small camp near Moscow, near the village of Bolshevo. It was a sorting center, from where people were sent to various design bureaus created under the auspices of the NKVD. In addition to aviation engineers, specialists from submarines (Kassatsner and Dmitrievsky groups), torpedo boats (Brzezinski group), and artillery weapons and ammunition (Berkalov group) were there.

          The number of the Bolshevik colony was constantly replenished: .. Famous scientists: the German political emigrant mathematician K. Szillard, professor of physics Yu. B. Rumer, and specialist mechanic corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences A. I. Nekrasov (the last He was arrested as an American spy: being part of a delegation of Soviet aviation experts in the United States, he got into a car and spent some time in an American hospital, where, according to the NKVD, he did not fail to take advantage of the convenient situation to transmit classified information to the Americans) All of them were joined to a group of aviation specialists to work as a “settlement and theoretical center”. In April 1939, A. N. Tupolev, the “leader of the anti-Soviet wrecking organization and French intelligence agent,” was brought from Butyrka prison, and in 1940, S. P. Korolev, a “participant in the Trotskyist wrecking organization” who was not killed during the year of his stay in Kolyma, was miraculously brought. .


          Pay attention to the absurdity of the accusations - it is difficult for an investigator with 3-4 grades of education to accuse the accused of a more or less thoughtful accusation.
          The lack of education of the investigator was offset by the sophistication of obtaining evidence from the accused.
          1. Igoresha
            Igoresha 26 March 2020 18: 34 New
            +1
            hard for an investigator with 3-4 grades
            "Evidence could not be found because the enemies of the people destroyed them" (c)
  35. A. Privalov
    A. Privalov 26 March 2020 14: 03 New
    +4
    I have seen even cooler arguments on this topic. Like, all these inmates were simply blessed with power. Instead of rolling a trolley, waving a pickaxe, felling wood, or, in general, taking a walk to the Butovo landfill, they were doing what they loved. Yes, these "scientists", they are knocked on their heads. Family and freedom even interfere with them. And in sharashkas, they were not distracted by either grumpy wives or snotty kids, they worked for the good of the Motherland to their full satisfaction. Without problems with equipment, without searching for the necessary materials - everything was immediately delivered to them on demand. Here are the results, just a list, speak for themselves ...
    Well, maybe someone was a bit hurt, tormented, working with the genitals clamped in the doorway, the stump is clear, not easy, but this method, as it turned out, was very helpful in increasing labor productivity. Well, of course, there was such a time, otherwise it was impossible. For then, all the sufferers were showered with all sorts of goods - apartments, cars, summer cottages, unprecedented mortals ...
  36. Dmitry V.
    Dmitry V. 26 March 2020 14: 49 New
    +3
    And Tupolev brought thousands of technical documents not only not translated, although the American side had to provide the translation at his own expense, but also in the inch system. That is, the documents brought by Tupolev had to be translated twice. The loss of time and money. Tupolev was "presented" quite rightly.

    Nonsense from the amateur in technology.
    They could provide the documentation as it is, if the supplier is not able to organize the translation, especially the conversion of inch to metric - there are no integer numbers - there are always simplifications - 19,1 mm American inch bolt, how to translate to metric? round to 20 mm? and rivets? And the sheets of duralumin? - This is bloody bullshit - the accusation is sucked from the finger.
    But in aviation it is not so simple - where to put a tenth of a millimeter in standard sheet or channel rentals? Will rounding go overweight or drop in strength?
    Therefore, it is necessary to recount the designs - and this is a huge job and the Americans have correctly refused.
    And this is not Tupolev's fault - this is the brainlessness of the leadership, who does not understand that not everything can be bought.
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 26 March 2020 19: 08 New
      +1
      The translation of inch sizes into metric and the conversion of the apparatus to our strength standards were made by V. M. Myasishchev after landing Tupolev. The value of purchasing a license for the production of DC-3 was that an absolutely new for the USSR plazo-template method of manufacturing aircraft was purchased. DC-3 was produced from mid-1938 under the brand name PS-84, later under the brand name Li-2. A total of 4863 copies were produced.
      1. Dmitry V.
        Dmitry V. 27 March 2020 10: 01 New
        0
        Quote: Aviator_
        The translation of inch sizes into metric and the conversion of the apparatus to our strength standards were made by V. M. Myasishchev after landing Tupolev


        Just about this - recalculation of the DC-3 design into the metric system and in general in aviation is an extremely difficult and time-consuming thing, requiring a thoughtful engineering approach and recalculating the entire airframe to local materials.
        In general, this is the buyer’s problem, if he works in a different system like his industry. Therefore, inch sizes have never been recounted.

        My father flew on Li-2 until the mid-50s, so far the operating manuals have been preserved.

        I am importing a Chinese copy of the caterpillar D7H - two sets of tools - an inch and a metric one.
        Because some sizes remained unchanged from the American original — the most critical units, metric honor — which were not difficult to replace — and this bulldozer has been manufactured in China for 22 years and the plant has an excellent design department that could recount the design - but not does this, not optimally - this work will not pay off.
  37. Dmitry V.
    Dmitry V. 26 March 2020 15: 10 New
    0
    Meanwhile, they didn’t really touch it. In sharaga TsKB-29 worked ... 316 specialists! These are all profiles: diesel engineers, tank builders, aviation and others. Three hundred and sixteen people.

    Where are millions ... Where is the ruined intelligentsia ... Well, yes, Solzhenitsyn’s. But in reality - 316 people. That's the whole sharaga.

    The author also did not understand the issue. Only for air sharaga:

    The new organization was named TsKB-29 NKVD. About 200 “enemies of the people” were gathered there (but in reality, the “cream” of Soviet science and technology: 17 chief aviation designers, two of them are future academics, 15 corresponding members and doctors of sciences, 12 chiefs of design teams) About 1000 freelance designers worked with them, paradoxically, being subordinate to “pests” and “spies”.

    Recalls L. L. Kerber:
    We were awakened at 7 in the morning, time until 8 was allotted for cleaning the bedrooms, washing, shaving, physical exercises, etc. From 8 to 9 there was breakfast, after which work until one in the afternoon, when we went to dinner. From 2 to 7 again work, then rest until 8, dinner and free time until 11, when the lights were off. The check was carried out at night, in the beds when we were sleeping.

    Closer to war, the working day was extended to 10 hours, and from the spring of 1941 to 12. They fed well enough, for breakfast - kefir, tea, butter, porridge; two-course lunch and compote; for dinner - a hot dish, kefir, butter, tea. For those who worked after dinner at 10 o’clock in the dining room brought yogurt and bread.

    The isolation of prisoners from the outside world was well thought out. And day and night, we were always under a watchful eye. Two guards guarded us - inside professionals - jailers from Butyrok, outside - the NKVD troops. [10, p. 44–45]
    1. Dmitry V.
      Dmitry V. 26 March 2020 15: 26 New
      -2
      The “special contingent” at the plant in Tushino was 65 people. Among them were A.D. Charomsky, one of the founders of the Central Institute of Aircraft Engine Building (TsIAM), the former deputy head of the TsIAM for scientific and technical matters, the creator of the theory of the jet engine, Professor B. S. Stechkin, and the former chief designers of engine plants A.M. .Dobrotvorsky, M.A. Kolosov, A.S. Nazarov, a prominent metallurgist who helped Tupolev in the creation of his first aircraft, Professor I.I. Sidorin. The rocket engine specialist V.P. Glushko was brought straight from prison.

      If the "free" had questions, they called the head of the special prison and, on his instructions, the guard led the prisoner to the production department.
  38. dgonni
    dgonni 26 March 2020 15: 51 New
    +2
    Somehow I talked with one grandfather, and he communicated well under the admiral's gull with Tupolev himself, as he said. Not verbatim of course. In general, Tupolev moved such a thought for a seagull. What did they say when Beria came to the leadership of the NKVD, having seen that the predecessor had so much fun poisoning and harassing the engineers, he decided to close them in places under supervision so that everyone would not be poisoned. This is literally Tupolev and said grandfather.
    According to the same Tupolev, if you wanted something, any lunch from the restaurant would be kind and given out. So with sharaba everything is very ambiguous. Looks like a squabble at the top and provoked the affairs of engineer spies. And if not from that pack, then voila, please bring down the forest.
    In general, Tupolev spoke about Sharaga very kindly, for a seagull then.
    1. Igoresha
      Igoresha 26 March 2020 18: 42 New
      0
      when Beria came to the leadership of the NKVD
      upon reading the article, this idea also occurred to me, the NKVD officers so exposed the conspiracies that they could destroy the Soviet aircraft industry in the bud, and Beria had to limit the manic inclinations of subordinates in this way.
      And then with the death of Stalin and repression ended, is it really a coincidence? )))
    2. Dmitry V.
      Dmitry V. 27 March 2020 10: 18 New
      0
      Quote: dgonni
      In general, Tupolev moved such a thought for a seagull. What did they say when Beria came to the leadership of the NKVD, having seen that the predecessor had so much fun poisoning and harassing the engineers, he decided to close them in places under supervision so that everyone would not be poisoned.


      This is bullshit.
      He could just give an order - not to touch scientists and engineers.
      It is clear that until the call of the party came to the NKVD and became firmly established in the leadership - there were already much more intelligent and reasonable people, the small fry with three classes of education were fully fulfilling their base aspirations - to put an order bearer, an honored person with education - but there is nothing more pleasant for a small, insignificant man - a certain way of exaltation.
  39. Dmitry V.
    Dmitry V. 26 March 2020 15: 52 New
    0
    In 1937, a large group of torpedo weapon engineers was repressed, and the management team was shot.
    We entered the war without surprises for the enemy in torpedo weapons. We had neither contactless fuses, nor homing systems. Paper priorities do not count. The ET-80 electric traceless torpedo will enter the fleet in limited quantities, and only 16 of them will be shot during the entire war. We will shoot first with single torpedoes, then with a time interval. Only in 1943, the fleet began to receive upgraded course instruments, providing volley firing ...That is what the excessive suspicion and despotism of 1937 cost..

    Captain 1st Rank Gusev Rudolf Alexandrovich "Such is the torpedo life"
    1. Elturisto
      Elturisto 26 March 2020 17: 27 New
      -3
      Rather, talk about German, Japanese, English and American electric torpedoes, homing, equipped with non-contact fuses, and so on ... Cap once Gusev is another patented, anti-Soviet bastard ...
  40. Alt-right
    Alt-right 26 March 2020 17: 22 New
    +1
    What has this roaming game forgotten in the weapons section? For Ren-TV fans, is there a "history" section? Where is the administration looking at?
  41. ser56
    ser56 26 March 2020 18: 30 New
    +1
    In fact, the anthem of the sharaga! It seems that the author does not understand that this is a hymn to slave labor, only in the intellectual sphere ...
    And the thesis - a lofty goal justifies the means is not new, only it always leads authors and followers to terror ...
    It would be nice for the author to remember that Solzhenitsyn, who he did not like very much, worked in a sharaga and knew the system from the inside ... request
    And what Polikarpov preferred - you can learn from his words about his experiences after the execution of him ... Let us say this - God forbid the author to be in such a situation ... in short - there are enough fools in Russia Great ... request
    1. Alecsandr
      Alecsandr 3 May 2020 14: 02 New
      0
      But now free labor for 15000 rubles. And the results 0
      1. ser56
        ser56 3 May 2020 21: 03 New
        0
        Quote: Alecsandr
        But now free labor for 15000 rubles

        Are you talking about your salary? hi I sympathize, recommend learning something ... repeat
        1. Alecsandr
          Alecsandr 3 May 2020 21: 09 New
          0
          Namely, such a salary is offered to young specialists even in the military-industrial complex
          1. ser56
            ser56 3 May 2020 21: 13 New
            0
            Quote: Alecsandr
            Namely, such a salary is offered to young specialists even in the military-industrial complex

            we have other amounts in the Urals ... wink
            1. Alecsandr
              Alecsandr 3 May 2020 21: 48 New
              0
              Well then, I'm sorry if I'm lying
    2. Alecsandr
      Alecsandr 3 May 2020 14: 09 New
      0
      And do not touch Solzhenitsyn. He, sitting in Vermont, urged a bomb to be thrown at his former compatriots
      1. ser56
        ser56 3 May 2020 21: 04 New
        0
        Quote: Alecsandr
        Sitting in Vermont, he urged a bomb to be thrown at his former compatriots

        they didn’t even keep you in sharash, but you come out with hatred of Russia! request and if they held it? hi
        1. Alecsandr
          Alecsandr 3 May 2020 21: 12 New
          0
          And I didn’t say that it’s good. Such were the times and such were the morals. But our grandfathers need to take off their hats. They are worthy of respect.
          1. ser56
            ser56 3 May 2020 21: 45 New
            0
            Quote: Alecsandr
            But our grandfathers need to take off their hats. They are worthy of respect.

            grandfathers were different, some worthy, others not ... it has always been and will be ... request
  42. Akuzenka
    Akuzenka 26 March 2020 19: 13 New
    +1
    And yes, it’s clear that behind the photographer’s back there could be a platoon of OGPU employees with revolvers, but even in this case, people in the photo somehow do not look humiliated and clogged by criminals. Yes, it’s not pleasant. But not a zone with logging.
    Just look at their cheeks! Comrades did not starve. "Roman Skomorokhov" is clearly a group of authors. Differing opinions on related topics. Looks like the real "merged" and the brand is being exploited.,
  43. Very smart Chukchi
    Very smart Chukchi 26 March 2020 20: 25 New
    +3
    Very instructive article. The Stalin-Beria affair lives and wins! How can one despise his people so much that they would write a whole treatise with the goal of proving that even the most educated part of it is one that can only be useful when they put a yoke on it and drive it to a stall ?! The author’s arguments have convincingly refuted by other commentators, although this is pointless. Particularly smiled comparison sharagi with Los Alamos.
  44. wooja
    wooja 27 March 2020 00: 32 New
    0
    the author is in many respects right ... but the brutal cadre hunger must be emphasized ... no matter how the Bolsheviks spread rot, there were almost no technical intelligentsia in the country ... as well as the military ... the monarchy still dispersed everyone Before World War I, before it the damned 1% of the US population was Russian-speaking, we don’t talk about Europe, the army’s career in the Empire was unpopular ..., Tukhachevsky bluntly declared his genius ...., the command of the Red Army - wartime officers ..., in terms of quality, repressions did not play any role, well, the quality and morale of fresh personnel left much to be desired, Lavochkin and Mikoyan lived at Polikarpov’s design bureau .... they cut the budget and places even then, the quality of the NKVD was also doubtful flowed everywhere ..., the author is very politically correct .....
  45. vitaly rusanov
    vitaly rusanov 27 March 2020 16: 37 New
    0
    great article good
    1. agond
      agond April 6 2020 12: 56 New
      0
      And where did she come from the dislike of scammers and informers, and just when a subordinate complains about his boss, commander, serf on the master, serf on the master, this always provokes a negative reaction from the gentlemen, and how he dared the subordinate to the superior !!!, and the fact that the complainants pointed out real facts and often signed is hushed up, although the anonymity of the source of information, if it does not cancel the reality of the event itself, is secondary and therefore should not be a reason for ignoring the fact and hushing up.
      And according to sharashka, the first "sharashka" was not invented here, but in the United States during the First World War, when the leading engine engineers were locked in a hotel to create a radial engine for the aircraft, which they coped with in three months
  46. Alecsandr
    Alecsandr 3 May 2020 13: 52 New
    0
    Sharaga is the best way to achieve a good result. Sit a bunch of professors next to each other and force them to discuss some problem. And what we hear "Colleague, you are wrong" Everyone will defend their point of view and, as a result, will not come to any common opinion. They hang the sword of Damocles NKVD immediately find a common language and there is a mutual understanding. As a result, you get exactly what you need.
  47. Jacques sekavar
    Jacques sekavar 12 May 2020 00: 10 New
    0
    Aviasharaga: a gift of God or a curse of Beria? "

    Without a drop of doubt, one of the many merits of Lavrenty Pavlovich Beria, among others, was the leadership of the NKVD and the MGB, the creation of the GULAG, where bandits and embezzlers, pests and presumptuous officials, millions of traitors who sided with the Nazis and fought against the USSR in the ranks of the ROA and others formations, work on the atomic project and many others.
    By the way, sharagi are closed cities, still exist today fenced by signaling systems and protected by the National Guard, and denunciation has various reasons and has always been everywhere in any organization and in production.
  48. RoTTor
    RoTTor 19 May 2020 22: 47 New
    0
    Regarding dishonest and simply mean methods of eliminating competitors, even potential, Tupolev was an unrivaled champion.
    With that structure of their design work in the NKAP of the USSR, he was the most important type.
    For example, the brilliant designer Kalinin, because he works in the same field of heavy machines.
    He took advantage of the catastrophe of the stunning Kalinin machine and played on his biography the royal and hetman officer, and brought him under execution.
    There are other examples that are not bloody, including Bartini, Myasischev, Arkhangelsk, intrigued against Ilyushin. Mikoyan and Yakovlev, of course, did not arise.
    He got into a sharashka when these of his arts surfaced along with the harm that they brought.

    I know this not from humiliation or the media: almost a dozen relatives worked from the late 30s until retirement with Tupolev, Mikoyan, Ilyushin, TsAGI, LII. at Korolev’s, at the Moscow Aviation Institute, not the latest employees
    1. tima_ga
      tima_ga 14 June 2020 22: 45 New
      0
      Tupolev, undoubtedly, is a good specialist, an excellent organizer, but also an intriguer! In later years, he and Sukhoi led an undercover game, did not allow him to get into the topic of strategists with his hundred. Yes, the plane was super advanced, expensive and too heavy for a withering Power, but perhaps now we would have not Tu-160, but Sotka with a powerful modernization potential ...
  49. tima_ga
    tima_ga 14 June 2020 22: 36 New
    0
    A good, thoughtful article with facts and conclusions. I will add about the merit and awards: for example, the talented designer of the art systems of the Barber companions in 1946 was awarded the Stalin Prize for his work in the Sharaga. After the war, he worked as chief designer at the Perm Engineering Plant, then professor, head. Departments at the Perm Polytechnic. And there are many such examples.
    The thought of the current high-ranking effective manager and whip for them is very busy ...
  50. Andrei Nikolaevich
    Andrei Nikolaevich 19 June 2020 12: 59 New
    0
    History is a selling girl of politics. Who knows what reality and objective prerequisites are? ..