Why did the Romanovs conclude a "obscene" Deulin ceasefire

Why did the Romanovs conclude a "obscene" Deulin ceasefire
Lisovchiki - participants in the raid Lisovsky. Painting by Polish artist J. Kossak


On December 11, 1618, a truce was signed in the town of Deulino near the Trinity-Sergius Monastery, which suspended the war of Russia with the Commonwealth for 14 years. It was one of the most shameful deals ever. history Of Russia. The world was bought at a high price - Smolensk, Chernihiv and Novgorod-Seversky and other Russian cities were inferior to the Poles.

Russian-Polish war


Polish gentry and magnates intervened in the affairs of the Russian kingdom from the beginning of the Time of Troubles. The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Vatican supported the impostor False Dmitry, who promised the Polish elite vast lands and a union of Orthodoxy with Catholicism (in fact, submission of the Russian church to Rome). The Polish gentry was promised land and Russian wealth. As a result, detachments of Polish magnates, gentry and adventurers actively participated in the Russian Troubles, robbed and smashed cities and villages. The Poles helped False Dmitry to seize the Russian throne.

After killing the impostor (How the False Dmitry I was killed) Poles actively participated in further events of the Time of Troubles. They fought on the side of the new impostor - the Tushino thief. Open Polish intervention began in 1609. Poles, taking advantage of the collapse of Russian statehood, were able to occupy vast Russian lands, after a long and heroic defense they took the strategic fortress of Smolensk (1609-1611). After the catastrophic defeat of the Russian-Swedish army in the battle near the village of Klushino (June 1610), Moscow was left without an army, and the boyars overthrew Tsar Vasily Shuisky (Heroic defense of Smolensk; Defense of Smolensk. Part 2; Klushinskaya catastrophe of the Russian army; How Russia almost became a colony of Poland, Sweden and England) The Boyar government (Semiboyarschina) in August 1610 signed a treacherous agreement, according to which the Polish prince Vladislav was invited to the Russian throne. The Polish garrison was introduced to Moscow. The traitor boyars minted a coin on behalf of the new king. However, the wedding of Vladislav to the kingdom did not happen. The Polish prince was not going to convert to the Orthodox faith.


Continuation of the Troubles


Only in 1612, the Second Zemstvo militia led by Minin and Pozharsky was able to liberate Moscow from the invaders. The public mind is dominated by the myth, formed by the historians of the Romanov dynasty, that the surrender of the Poles in the Kremlin was a turning point in the Time of Troubles or even its end. And the accession of Mikhail Romanov finally completed the Time of Troubles in the Russian state. However, in reality in 1613 the war only flared up with renewed vigor. The new Moscow government had to simultaneously fight with the Polish army in the west, the Cossacks of Ivan Zarutsky in the south (the chieftain planned to plant Marina Mnishek’s son on the Russian throne) and the Swedes in the north. The war also continued with gangs of thieves' Cossacks and Polish troops throughout the European part of the country. There was no clear front in this war. Cossack detachments repeatedly approached Moscow, breaking their camps near the capital. Only with great difficulty did the tsarist governors manage to defend Moscow and drive away the "thieves."

Only in 1614 did the dangerous rebellion of Zarutsky, threatening a new wave of Cossack-peasant war, be able to crush. Ataman was seized and taken to the capital:

"In Moscow, Comrade Zarutskovo is put on a stake, and Voronka (Ivan Dmitrievich - the son of False Dmitry II. - The author) is hung up, and Marina will die in Moscow."

In fact, the Romanovs hid the ends in the water, eliminating witnesses to the Troubles. And the murder of the 4-year-old (!) “Tsarevich” Ivan became a terrible sin on the Romanov’s house. The war with Sweden was unsuccessful and ended with the signing of the Stolbovsky Peace Treaty on February 27, 1617. Moscow returned Novgorod, Ladoga and some other cities, lands, but lost the fortresses Ivangorod, Yam, Oreshek, Koporye, Korela and access to the Baltic (they returned only under Tsar Peter the Great).

From the moment of the liberation of Moscow until the Deulinskiy truce, the war with Poland did not stop. The Russians in 1613 lifted the siege of the enemy from Kaluga, liberated Vyazma and Dorogobuzh, who surrendered to them voluntarily. Then the royal governors besieged the fortress of Belaya, and in August forced the Poles to surrender. After this, the siege of Smolensk began, but due to low combat efficiency, lack of forces, ammunition, provisions and opposition of the enemy, it was delayed. In November 1614, the Polish lords sent a letter to the Moscow government in which they accused Vladislav of treason and ill-treatment of noble Polish captives. But, despite this, the Poles proposed to begin peace negotiations. The Moscow boyars agreed and sent Zhelyabuzhsky as ambassador to Poland. These negotiations yielded nothing, resulting in a stream of mutual insults and accusations. The Poles did not want to hear anything about Tsar Mikhail Romanov. In their opinion, Michael was only the steward of Tsar Vladislav.


"The expulsion of the Poles from the Kremlin Pozharsky." Ernest Lissner, 1938

Lisovsky's hike


Alexander Lisovsky (previously one of the commanders of ratification of False Dmitry II, then went to serve with the Polish king) in 1615 made another devastating raid of the Polish cavalry across Russia in order to divert Russian troops from Smolensk. His squad (foxes) described a large loop around Moscow and returned to Poland. Lisovsky was a brave and experienced commander, his detachment consisted of selected cavalry (its number ranged from 600 to 3 thousand people). Among the foxes were Poles, representatives of the West Russian population, German mercenaries and thieves' Cossacks. In spring, Lisovsky besieged Bryansk, in the summer - captured Karachev and Bryansk. He defeated the tsarist army under the command of Prince Yuri Shakhovsky near Karachev.

After that, the Martha’s government (Mikhail Romanov himself was a dummy, so his mother, nun Martha, and then Father Fyodor Romanov, Patriarch Filaret, released by the Poles, first ruled for him) decided to send governor Dmitry Pozharsky against the foxes. The prince was an experienced and skilled commander, but was ill from previous wounds, that is, he could not fully pursue the enemy mobile army. In fact, the government of Mikhail Romanov was interested in disgracing Pozharsky, who until recently was a possible candidate for the Russian throne. June 29, 1615 Pozharsky with a detachment of noblemen, archers and a few foreign mercenaries (about 1 thousand soldiers), went to catch the foxes. Lisovsky at that time was sitting in the city of Karachev. Learning about the rapid movement of Pozharsky through Belev and Bolkhov, Lisovsky burned Karachev and retreated to Orel. Scouts reported this governor, and he moved to intercept the enemy. On the way Pozharsky joined a detachment of Cossacks, and in Bolkhov - the Tatar cavalry. Pozharsky’s detachment doubled its strength.

In August and September, Pozharsky’s detachment pursued the enemy with varying success, but could not defeat it. On the other hand, the Poles could not destroy the army of Prince Pozharsky near Orel. Then Pozharsky fell ill and transferred command to other governors. Without the prince, the imperial army collapsed to a large extent and lost combat effectiveness. As a result, the foxes continued their raid, took Przemysl, went to Rzhev, who had hardly defended the voivode Sheremetev, burned Torzhok, tried to take Kashin and Uglich, but even there the governors coped with their duties. Then the foxes no longer tried to attack the cities, but walked between them, devastating everything in their path. Lisovsky went between Yaroslavl and Kostroma to the Suzdal district, then between Vladimir and Murom, between Kolomna and Pereyaslavl-Ryazansky, between Tula and Serpukhov to Aleksin. Several governors were sent in pursuit of the enemy, but they only barren circled between cities, not finding Lisovsky. Only in December, Tsarist ratification of Prince Kurakin managed to impose a battle on the enemy in the area of ​​the city of Aleksin. But he retreated without significant losses. In early January 1616, the foxes tried repeatedly and unsuccessfully to take Likhvin, and then went to Smolensk, to their own.

Thus, Lisovsky managed to quite calmly leave for the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after an amazing and long-remembered raid around Moscow in the Russian state. This campaign showed the precarious situation of the then Rus. Lisovsky in Poland has become a symbol of elusiveness and invincibility. True, this lightning raid negatively affected the health of Lisovsky himself. In the fall of 1616, he again assembled a detachment to raid the Russian cities and villages, but suddenly fell off his horse and died. Lisovchikov was led by Stanislav Chaplinsky, another field commander in the former army of the Tushinsky thief (False Dmitry II). In 1617 Chaplinsky captured the cities of Meshchovsk, Kozelsk and approached Kaluga, where he was defeated by Pozharsky’s army.


Jozef Brandt. Foxers practicing archery. 1885

Moscow campaign of Vladislav


In the summer of 1616, Russia and the Commonwealth exchanged blows. The royal governors raided Lithuania, defeating the surroundings of Surezha, Velizh and Vitebsk. In turn, a detachment of Lithuanians and Cossacks operated at Karachev and Krom. They were chased by the Moscow governors, but without much success. Most Lithuanians went abroad.

Inspired by the raid of Lisowski, the Poles decided to organize a big trip to Moscow, led by Prince Vladislav. However, the army was not entrusted to a single prince; the best Polish commander, the great Lithuanian hetman Jan Khodkevich, who had already led troops to Moscow in 1611–1612, led the army. In addition, the Sejm sent eight special commissioners with the king: A. Lipsky, S. Zhuravinsky, K. Plikhta, L. Sapieha, P. Opalinsky, B. Stravinsky, Ya. Sobieski and A. Mentsinsky. They had to ensure that the prince did not oppose the conclusion of peace with Moscow. After the capture of the Russian capital, the commissars had to ensure that Vladislav did not back down from the conditions worked out by the Sejm. The main conditions were: 1) the union of Russia and Poland into an indissoluble union; 2) the establishment of free trade; 3) transfer of the Commonwealth of the Commonwealth of Smolensk principality from Seversky land: Bryansk, Starodub, Chernigov, Pochep, Novgorod-Seversky, Putivl, Rylsk and Kursk, as well as Nevel, Sebezh and Velizh; 4) Moscow's waiver of rights to Livonia and Estonia. It is clear that strife and intrigue in the Polish command did not add combat effectiveness to the army.

The second half of 1616 and the beginning of 1617 passed in preparation for the campaign. There was no money in the treasury, so 11-12 thousand soldiers scored with great difficulty. It was mainly cavalry. In Lithuania, they even introduced a special tax for paying mercenaries. The Polish army consisted of two parts: the crown army under the command of Vladislav and the Lithuanian troops of the hetman Khodkevich. At the same time, a significant part of the crown army had to be sent to the southern borders due to the threat of war with the Turks. Meanwhile, in the western and southwestern parts of Russia gangs of thieves' Cossacks continued to ramp up, among which there were practically no real Don and Zaporozhye Cossacks. Many of them were delighted with the campaign and the new opportunity to "walk" in Russia. They joined the royal army.

In May 1617, the advanced Polish troops under the command of Gonsevsky and Chaplinsky released Smolensk. The Russian siege army led by Mikhail Buturlin left the fortifications near Smolensk and retreated to Belaya. Vladislav left Warsaw in April 1617, but circled Volyn to frighten Turkey. In summer, a significant part of the army had to be sent to the southern border in the army of the great hetman of the crown Zholkevsky because of the threat of war with the Ottoman Empire. Therefore, the prince returned to Warsaw for some time. Only in September Vladislav arrived in Smolensk, and Khodkevich’s troops approached Dorogobuzh. In early October, the voivode Dorogobuzh Adadurov sided with the Poles and kissed the cross to Vladislav as Russian Tsar. This caused a panic in Vyazma, local governors with part of the garrison fled to Moscow and the fortress was surrendered to the enemy without a fight. Obviously, this caused great enthusiasm in the Polish ranks. The Polish command, hoping to repeat the success of False Dmitriy in 1604, when he occupied Moscow without a fight, sent several voivods who came to the side of Vladislav, led by Adadurov, to the Russian capital to “seduce” Moscow people. But they were arrested and sent into exile.

The advanced Polish detachments reached Mozhaisk and attempted to take the city with a sudden blow. Mozhayskie governors F. Buturlin and D. Leontyev closed the gates and decided to stand to death. Reinforcements immediately sent to Moscow to help them under the command of B. Lykov and G. Valuev. On the enemy’s path, the Moscow government put up three rati led by D. Pozharsky, D. Cherkassky and B. Lykov. Some advisers to Vladislav proposed on the move to attack the poorly fortified Mozhaysk and the weak Russian army standing here. But time for a trip to Moscow was lost. Mercenaries and Polish gentry demanded money. The treasury was empty. Winter came, there was little provision. Cossacks, not seeing prey and money, began to desert. As a result, the Polish army stopped in the Vyazma area for "winter apartments".

Having received the news about the "seat" of Vladislav in Vyazma, the Seym sent a letter to the commissars with a proposal to start peace negotiations with Moscow. At the end of December 1617, the royal secretary Jan Gridic was sent to Moscow with a proposal to conclude a truce before 20 on April 1618, exchange prisoners and begin peace talks. Moscow boyars refused him. The Sejm decided to continue the fighting. Vladislav was returned to the units that had previously been sent to the southern border and transferred new forces at the head of Kazanovsky. As a result, the number of the Polish army was brought to 18 thousand people. In addition, the Poles were inclined to speak out against the Zaporozhian Cossacks led by Hetman Peter Sagaidachny.

In early June 1618, the Polish army launched an offensive from Vyazma. Khodkevich proposed to go to Kaluga to the lands less devastated by the war, so that the troops could find provisions. But the commissars insisted on marching to Moscow. But Mozhaisk was on the enemy’s path, where he stood with the army of governor Lykov. Fights for the city began in late June. The Poles stood under the city, but could not conduct a full siege. The Poles could not storm this relatively weak fortress due to the lack of siege artillery and the lack of infantry. But they were afraid to leave the Russian fortress in the rear. Fierce fighting near Mozhaisk lasted more than a month. Then the main forces of the Russian army under the command of Lykov and Cherkassky, due to lack of food, moved to Borovsk. At the same time, the garrison of Fyodor Volynsky was left in Mozhaisk. He repulsed enemy attacks for a month. September 16, without taking Mozhaisk, Vladislav spoke to Moscow. At the same time, part of the Polish-Lithuanian army, without receiving a salary, returned home or scattered to plunder the Russian lands.

As a result, about 8 thousand soldiers were brought to Moscow by Vladislav and Khodkevich. September 22 (October 2), the Polish-Lithuanian army approached Moscow, sitting on the site of the former Tushino camp. Meanwhile, the Cossacks of Sagaidachny broke through the weakened southwestern borders of the Russian state. The main forces of Moscow were connected by battles with the Polish army, so the Cossacks could not be stopped. The Cossacks took and plundered Livny, Yelets, Lebedyan, Ryazhsk, Skopin and Shatsk. The main part of the Cossacks scattered for the robbery, several thousand people Sagaidachny led to Moscow. Cossacks are located at the Don Monastery. The garrison of Moscow totaled about 11-12 thousand people, but mainly it was the city militia and the Cossacks. The main line of defense passed through the fortifications of the White City.

Khodkevich did not have artillery, infantry, or supplies for a proper siege. He didn’t even have the strength for a full blockade; reinforcements could enter the city and troops to go out for sorties. The prolongation of the operation led to the strengthening of the garrison; there was a threat of the emergence of strong Russian troops in the enemy rear. The troops were unreliable, standing still led them to rapid decomposition. Therefore, the hetman decided to take the city almost on the move. Only a bold attack could lead to success. On the night of October 1 (11), 1618, the Poles launched an assault. Zaporizhzhya Cossacks were to launch a distracting attack in Zamoskvorechye. The main blow was inflicted from the west on the Arbat and Tver gates. The infantry was to break open fortifications, take the gate and clear the way for the cavalry. A successful breakthrough of the Poles led to the blockade of the Kremlin or even its capture with the Russian government.

The assault failed. The Cossacks were not in a hurry to storm the fortifications. The defectors warned the Russians about the main threat and reported the time of the attack. As a result, the Poles came up against stubborn resistance. The assault on the Tver Gate choked immediately. The holder of the Order of Malta Novodvorsky made a break in the wall of the Earth City and reached the Arbat Gate. But the Russians made a sortie. The enemy attack was repelled. Novodvorsky himself was wounded. By evening, the Poles were driven out of the fortifications of the Earth City. The Poles did not have forces for a new assault. But the Moscow government did not have the resources to go on a decisive counterattack and push the enemy away from the capital, to expel the Poles from the country. Negotiations have begun.


Peter Paul Rubens. Portrait of Vladislav Vazy, 1624

"Bawdy" truce


Negotiations began on October 21 (31), 1618 on the Presnya River near the walls of the Earth City. The Polish side is forced to remove the demand for the reign of Vladislav in Moscow. It was about the cities that were supposed to go to the Commonwealth, and the terms of the truce. Both the Russians and the Poles rested. Therefore, the first negotiations yielded nothing.

Winter has come. Vladislav left Tushino and relocated to the Trinity-Sergius Monastery. The Cossacks of Sagaidachnogo went south, ruined the settlements of Serpukhov and Kaluga, but could not take the fortresses. From Kaluga, Sagaidachny left for Kiev, where he declared himself the hetman of Ukraine. Approaching the Trinity Monastery, the Poles tried to take it, but were reflected by artillery fire. Vladislav took the troops from the monastery 12 miles and set up a camp near the village of Rogachev. Poles scattered throughout the region, robbing the surrounding villages.

In November 1618, armistice negotiations resumed in the village of Deulino, belonging to the Trinity Monastery. From the Russian side, the embassy was headed by: the boyars F. Sheremetev and D. Mezetskaya, the deceased A. Izmailov and the clerks Bolotnikov and Somov. Poland was represented by commissars seconded to the army. Objectively, time worked for Moscow. The second wintering of the Polish army was even worse than the first: the troops did not winter in the city of Vyazma, but almost in an open field, the distance to the Polish border increased significantly. The mercenaries murmured and threatened to leave the army. Moscow at that time could strengthen the defense, the army. There was the prospect of the complete destruction of the enemy. At the same time, the foreign policy situation for Warsaw was extremely unfavorable. Poland was threatened with war by Turkey and Sweden (the war with the Turks and Swedes began in 1621). And in Moscow they knew about it. Also in Western Europe in 1618 the Thirty Years War began and the Polish king Sigismund immediately got into it. In conditions when the prince Vladislav could get stuck with the army in the Russian forests.

However, subjective factors interfered in the affairs of the Russian embassy. So, the leadership of the Trinity-Sergius Monastery, was not worried about the fate of the western and southwestern Russian cities, but was worried about the prospect of the wintering of the enemy army in the monastery area and, accordingly, the ruin of the monastery estates. And most importantly, the government of Mikhail Romanov and his mother wanted to free Filaret at all costs and return him to Moscow. That is, the Romanov government decided to make peace at a time when the Poles had no chance of taking Moscow and could lose the army from starvation and cold. In the face of the threat of war with Turkey and Sweden.

As a result of December 1 (11), a truce was signed in Deulino for a period of 1618 years and 14 months in Deulino. The Poles received the cities they had already captured: Smolensk, Roslavl, Bely, Dorogobuzh, Serpeysk, Trubchevsk, Novgorod-Seversky with districts on both sides of the Desna and Chernigov with the region. Moreover, Poland was given a number of cities that were under the control of the Russian army, among them were Starodub, Peremyshl, Pochep, Nevel, Sebezh, Krasny, Toropets, Velizh with their districts and counties. Moreover, the fortress passed with guns and ammunition, and the territory with residents and property. The right to go to the Russian state was received only by nobles with their own people, clergy and merchants. Peasants and townspeople remained in their places. Tsar Mikhail Romanov refused the title of "Prince of Livonian, Smolensk and Chernigov" and granted these titles to the Polish King.

The Poles promised to return the previously captured Russian ambassadors headed by Filaret. The Polish king Sigismund refused the title of "Tsar of Russia" ("Grand Duke of Russia"). At the same time, Vladislav retained the right to be called "the Tsar of Russia" in the official documents of the Commonwealth. The icon of St. Nicholas of Mozhaisk, captured by the Poles in 1611, was returned to Moscow.

Thus, the Time of Troubles in Russia ended in a very "obscene" world. The border between Poland and Russia moved far east, almost returning to the borders of the times of Ivan III. Russia has lost the most important strategic fortress in the western direction - Smolensk. The Commonwealth speech for a short time (before the capture of Livonia by the Swedes) reached its maximum size in its history. Warsaw retained the opportunity to claim the Russian throne. National interests were donated to the interests of the Romanov dynasty.

On the whole, a new war with the Commonwealth was inevitable in the future. Poland during the time of the Russian Troubles reached its maximum power, later it only degraded, which was used by Moscow (then Petersburg), step by step returning the West Russian lands to a single power, uniting parts of a single Russian people.
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  1. Same lech 22 January 2020 06: 09 New
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    Thank you Alexander for the interesting story of past years. hi ... the appetite and treachery of their ancestors among the Poles has been preserved to this day.
    And the topic of betrayal is very reminiscent of the 90s of the last century.
    1. Bar2 22 January 2020 08: 47 New
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      I never saw the name on the maps - Poland, always wrote polonium.


      But what is polonium? There is such a Russian word
      -fill-captive, capture.
      those. Polonia is a captured country, which is actually the case considering the Catholicism imposed on the Poles / Glades.
      Below is Russia, on other maps Chervonnaya Russia, Black Russia, Porussia, Borussia.
      1. Alexander Suvorov 22 January 2020 09: 24 New
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        Bar2 (Paul)
        I never saw the name on the maps - Poland, always wrote polonium.
        So you got with your alternative. On Polish maps, it is generally called Rzeczpospolita. And in general, for what period of history are you talking about. Maybe during the Sumerians, she was written as Polonius. And this nonsense
        But what is polonium? There is such a Russian word
        -fill-captive, capture.
        those. Polonia is a captured country, which is actually the case considering the Catholicism imposed on the Poles / Glades.
        Below is Russia, on other maps Chervonnaya Russia, Black Russia, Porussia, Borussia.
        even comment on reluctance. I respect Zadornov as a satirist, but as a historian, he is a complete ignoramus. And you there too. Already got ridiculous, imagining themselves historians who know hitherto unknown to anyone.
        1. Bar2 22 January 2020 09: 27 New
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          Quote: Alexander Suvorov
          So you got with your alternative.


          Well, do not go, just got it.
          Map of 1568 Paolo Farlani
          https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b52511358s/f1.item.zoom

          do not go to the Sumerians, otherwise it will make more noise in your head.
          1. Alexander Suvorov 22 January 2020 09: 41 New
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            Bar2 (Paul)
            Well, do not go, just got it.
            Do not print your nonsense, do not clog people with brains, then I will not climb.
            Map of 1568 Paolo Farlani
            So what? Who is this Paolo so I believe him?
            In general, find Polish cards and read what they call themselves.
        2. Bolo 22 January 2020 10: 44 New
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          Oh, I recognize this crazy, fit, hysterical ambition!
        3. vladcub 22 January 2020 12: 05 New
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          I agree: Zadornov is excellent material, and the historian is a big question
      2. alebor 22 January 2020 11: 11 New
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        Why be wise. In the Middle Ages, Latin was in fashion. Polonia is the Latin name for Poland. And the Latin name of Russia is Ruthenia. By the way, both of these names are present in the periodic table of the elements of Mendeleev, where one of the elements is named after Poland - polonium, and the other in honor of Russia - ruthenium.
        1. Bar2 22 January 2020 11: 15 New
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          Quote: alebor
          And the Latin name of Russia is Ruthenia.

          next to Polonium is written Russia, and not Ruthenium, the language of description is Latin.
          Perhaps Polonia is Polynia from the clearings, but also does not add up very much.
  2. Alexander Suvorov 22 January 2020 06: 26 New
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    On December 11, 1618, a truce was signed in the town of Deulino near the Trinity-Sergius Monastery, which suspended the war of Russia with the Commonwealth for 14 years. This was one of the most shameful agreements in the history of Russia. The world was bought at a high price - Smolensk, Chernihiv and Novgorod-Seversky and other Russian cities were inferior to the Poles.
    Where is olgovich, who always and everywhere screams about the infamous Brest peace? It turns out his adored Romanovs are disgraced abruptly. The conditions of the Brest peace did not last even one year, but let's say the same Smolensk could only be returned after 36 years.
    1. Nitochkin 22 January 2020 08: 26 New
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      Quote: Alexander Suvorov
      On December 11, 1618, a truce was signed in the town of Deulino near the Trinity-Sergius Monastery, which suspended the war of Russia with the Commonwealth for 14 years. This was one of the most shameful agreements in the history of Russia. The world was bought at a high price - Smolensk, Chernihiv and Novgorod-Seversky and other Russian cities were inferior to the Poles.
      Where is olgovich, who always and everywhere screams about the infamous Brest peace? It turns out his adored Romanovs are disgraced abruptly. The conditions of the Brest peace did not last even one year, but let's say the same Smolensk could only be returned after 36 years.

      And who are the Romanovs? How to start and end. The law of karma marks the cheesy.
    2. Olgovich 22 January 2020 09: 59 New
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      Quote: Alexander Suvorov
      Where is olgovich, who always and everywhere screams about the infamous Brest peace? It turns out his adored Romanovs are disgraced abruptly.


      The "obscene" truce of 1618 called only author of the article, specially provoking a conditioned reflex in the "Macedonian" to a sign word (like Pavlov’s dog).

      But Brest treason was called "obscene" EVERYTHING, incl. the Bolshevik traitors who signed it.

      And the reasons for this are obvious to those who know the history of their country more or less: the speech in 1618 was about the existence of Russian statehood in principle, for the purpose of the war of Poland was inclusion of Russia in the Commonwealth.

      Russia is ruined, no resources, no allies (to Poland nobody from the west does not come), no prospects, only hope for yourself. Therefore, this truce was necessary and was salvation: the statehood of the country has been saved!

      In 1918, Germany was already was doomed и активно уничтожалась с Запада союзниками и хотя брестское предательство оттянуло ее конец на полгода, но ни никак не спасло ее в итоге.
      Quote: Alexander Suvorov
      The conditions of the Brest peace did not last even one year, but let's say the same Smolensk could only be returned after 36 years.

      1. The Brest "world" was canceled by ANTANT, not the Bolsheviks, cut it on your forehead
      2. Smolensk was then returned after 36 years, and the RUSSIAN cities of Odessa, Nikolaev, Ekaterinoslav, Tiraspol, etc., etc. were lost for Russia, thanks to you, TILL TIME!

      НИКОГДА, ни после никаких войн с иностранцами, Россия не несла таких потерь, как после короткого правления ваших , приведших ее к сегодняшним the borders of the 17th century: from 1922 on 1940 g from Russia is stolen by your 4 million km2 lands!
      Chop it up on your nose with a knot! hi
      1. Alexander Suvorov 22 January 2020 10: 11 New
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        Olgovich (Andrey)
        The "obscene" truce of 1618 was called only by the author of the article, specially provoking a conditioned reflex among the "Macedonian" to a symbolic word (like Pavlov’s dog).
        Ooh, ward number 6 woke up ... laughing
        And the reasons for this are obvious to those who know the history of their country more or less: the speech in 1618 was about the existence of Russian statehood in the PRINCIPLE, because the purpose of the Polish war was to include Russia in the Commonwealth.
        History is distorted just by you and others like you. In 1918, the existence of Russia also hung in the balance. But it was not the Bolsheviks who brought it to such an existence, but your worthless tsar, and finally brought the country to disaster, the talkers from the interim government. The Bolsheviks had to save what else could be saved, chop it yourself at least on the forehead, and preferably on the fifth point, so it will be more accurate for you.

        The rest of the bullshit is even reluctant to comment!
        1. Olgovich 22 January 2020 11: 17 New
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          Quote: Alexander Suvorov
          ward number 6 woke up ..

          And why are you telling everyone about the awakening of your chamber? request
          Quote: Alexander Suvorov
          History is distorted just by you and others like you. In 1918, the existence of Russia also hung in the balance.

          Germany in no one eye I was not going to join Russia to myself в 1918 г, ни уничтожать русскую государственность, как это было в 1618 г в случае с Польшей. Дошло? no

          NOBODY destroyed Poland from the west in 1618, how did Germany in 1918 come? no
          Quote: Alexander Suvorov
          The Bolsheviks had to save what else could be saved

          1.ВСЕ независимости объявлены только ПРИ большевиках и на основании ИХ тупых декретов и признаны большевиками.

          2. WHERE русские Odessa, Uralsk, Nikolaev, etc., etc., "save"? Who cut them off from mother Russia?

          3. "Saved" Russia to ..... borders of the 17th century Only for.... 18 years: from 1922 to 1940r!

          Not a single external enemy could do this ...
          1. apro 22 January 2020 12: 41 New
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            Quote: Olgovich
            1. ALL independence declared only under the Bolsheviks and on the basis of their stupid decrees and recognized by the Bolsheviks.

            Do not tell me who signed the first Bolshevik peace with Germany?
          2. Vladimir_2U 23 January 2020 03: 31 New
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            Is Ogych able to understand the difference in the 14 years of the operation of one contract, and the less than one-year action of another? The answer is obvious.
          3. Grandfather Crimea 23 January 2020 13: 08 New
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            Темка серьёзная
            1. Grandfather Crimea 23 January 2020 13: 11 New
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              We are wise in hindsight. Lessons must be learned from history, not to humiliate one another
              1. Olgovich 23 January 2020 13: 23 New
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                Quote: Grandfather Crimea
                We are wise in hindsight. Lessons must be learned from history, not to humiliate one another

                Why "back"? And in 1917, the majority of Russia chose non-Bolshevik power in the popular elections.

                The fact that the bandit turned out to be stronger in the gateway does not make him right: he is still a bandit.

                PS look, HOW MUCH STORED territories of bandits in Russia for just 18 years (after the formation of the USSR):
                ("The National Economy of the RSFSR (1956) (Statistical Yearbook) State Statistical Publishing House, Moscow, 1957), to which you can only answer the empty BOLTOVNI: from the Collection:

                The territory of the RSFSR, 1922 .......20,8 million km2
                The same, 1940 ...............................16,8 million km "
                http://istmat.info/files/uploads/18147/narhoz_rsfsr_1956_predislovie_2.pdf
                1. Grandfather Crimea 23 January 2020 13: 29 New
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                  Согласен о бандите. Хорошо историю знают не многие. Я о том, что зная прошлое, не повторять это в наше время. А для этого надо извлекать уроки учась на ошибках.
                  1. Olgovich 23 January 2020 13: 33 New
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                    Quote: Grandfather Crimea
                    I about that knowing the past, do not repeat it in our time. And for this you need to learn from learning from mistakes.

                    I agree to 100% hi
        2. solzh 22 January 2020 11: 47 New
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          Quote: Alexander Suvorov
          The rest of the bullshit is even reluctant to comment!

          good correctly hi
          Quote: Olgovich
          1. The Brest "world" was canceled by ANTANT, not the Bolsheviks, cut it on your forehead

          Quote: Olgovich

          NEVER, after any wars with foreigners, Russia did not suffer such losses as after a short reign of yours, which led it to the present borders of the 17th century: from 1922 to 1940, 4 million km2 of land was STORED from Russia by yours!

          How everything is started ... Suvorov is right:
          Quote: Alexander Suvorov
          Ooh, ward number 6 woke up ...
          1. Olgovich 22 January 2020 12: 31 New
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            Quote: solzh
            Quote: Olgovich

            NEVER, after any wars with foreigners, Russia did not suffer such losses as after a short reign of yours, which led it to the present borders of the 17th century: from 1922 to 1940, 4 million km2 of land was STORED from Russia by yours!

            How it works

            Приведен ФАКТ из Soviet stat. collection ("NRussian Federation RSFSR (1956) (Statistical Yearbook) State Statistical Publishing House, Moscow, 1957) , на который вы можете ответить только empty CHAPTER:From the Collection:

            The territory of the RSFSR, 1922 .......20,8 million km2
            The same, 1940 ........................................16,8 million km "
            http://istmat.info/files/uploads/18147/narhoz_rsfsr_1956_predislovie_2.pdf


            Got it? no
            1. solzh 22 January 2020 13: 28 New
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              Quote: Olgovich
              Got it?

              It will never reach you. You simply do not want and cannot understand the simple thing. Namely, that the USSR was a single state based on the fragments of the former empire, which all sorts of whites had ruined. And therefore, the internal reorganization of administrative borders did not affect the common border of the USSR. And the fact that the USSR collapsed is the fault of various renegades and other dishonesty who took advantage of the Soviet opportunity, which gave the entire population of the USSR equal rights, to come to power and destroy the Great State. To the collapse of the USSR also had a hand in "their nobility" traitors from all sorts of rovs and other NTS.
              1. Olgovich 22 January 2020 13: 49 New
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                it
                Quote: solzh
                it doesn’t reach you either. You just do not want and cannot understand the simple thing
                -Russia today has the boundaries that you and only You cut her: in just 18 years, YOU stole from her 4 million km2 .
                Quote: solzh
                And so the internal reorganization of administrative borders

                Какие ...."административные" границы, невежда? Читатйе КОНСТИТУЦИЮ СССР и республик-это союз национальных STATESRepublic:
                Article 1. The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic is a socialist state

                "State"with his state Has it reached the borders? Attributes of the STATE-learn, finally! angry

                Если "все равно", то ПОЧЕМУ Одессу и пр. не оставили русской, а? А насиловали ее людей и миллионы русских людей Новороссии мовой и тупой вашей т.н. "ук.ристорией"?

                "Anyway," and the Ukr. Communists fought and swore with the RSFSR for every piece of land in the 1920s: they barely grabbed Taganrog from them and completely robbed them.

                Quote: solzh
                And the fact that the USSR collapsed, so this is the fault of various renegades and other dishonestyThat took advantage of the Soviet the opportunity

                1. What is this "system" that gives capabilities (!) ... dishonesty do ... whatever? belay WHO has laid this opportunity in the constitution? Who raised this unread? Let me remind you: besides you, no one ruled the country!
                2. "nothing to blame the mirror, if erysipelas"
                1. solzh 22 January 2020 14: 50 New
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                  Quote: Olgovich
                  What .... "administrative" borders, ignoramus? Reading the CONSTITUTION of the USSR and the republics is an alliance of national STATE republics:

                  I repeat for particularly clever personalities: the USSR was built on the ruins of an empire, which was destroyed by various kinds of "their nobles" blue blood. The USSR was created on the basis of a federation of peoples who dropped the yoke of the hated power of the capitalists and landlords. Thanks to federalization, the problems of interethnic inequality were resolved in the country. Only through federalization was it possible to avoid the complete collapse of the state, which the White Guards squandered and sold to the countries of their Entente.
                  Quote: Olgovich
                  If "all the same", then WHY Odessa and so forth have not left Russian, huh? And it was raped by people and millions of Russian people of Novorossia with your dumb and so-called "uk.storiyu"?

                  Rave. You carry complete nonsense.
                  Quote: Olgovich

                  1. What kind of "system" is this that gives opportunities (!) ... dishonesty to do ... WHAT?
                  The people's, Soviet system, for which people went to death, just to throw off the hated power of the whites. And it was built for people. And the people are not to blame for the fact that all these ghouls of the White Guards were repainted in order to destroy the USSR and throw off the power of the people.
                  Quote: Olgovich
                  Who raised this unread?

                  You and people like you.
                  Quote: Olgovich
                  2. "There is nothing to blame for the mirror, if the face is crooked"

                  Are you this to yourself and your kind?
                  Oh, and Alexander Suvorov is right in saying:
                  Quote: Alexander Suvorov
                  Ooh, ward number 6 woke up

                  You need to be treated, from your chauvinism and hatred of the Soviet people's power. Tell me, what personally offended you the people's power of the USSR? Did she take the property from you?
                  1. Olgovich 22 January 2020 15: 18 New
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                    Quote: solzh
                    I repeat for particularly clever personalities: the Soviet Union was built on the ruins of an empire, which was destroyed by all sorts of "their nobility" of blue blood.

                    FOR LEARNING: ALL independence declared only and so on AFTER THE THIEF on the basis of stupid so-called decrees of the so-called owls the so-called "authorities" are simply a FACT.
                    Quote: solzh
                    which was squandered and sold by the White Guards to the countries of their Entente.

                    liar, empty talker and ignoramus
                    Quote: solzh
                    Rave. You carry complete nonsense.

                    I bear the FACTS that you cannot refute: Quote: Olgovich
                    If it’s all the same, then WHY Odessa and so forth did not leave Russian, a? A millions of Russian people of New Russia raped her and your dumb so-called "uk.storiyu"?

                    Quote: solzh
                    People’s, Soviet system, for which people went for.

                    Do not BLOW, but answer:
                    What is this "system" that gives opportunities (!) ... dishonor to do ... whatever?!
                    Is this ... a "normal" system? belay
                    Quote: solzh
                    You and people like you.

                    lol laughing Ага: правили ЕДИНОЛИЧНО ВЫ, а воспитали.....мы: и это при всей вашей силе власти, силе государства , школы и пр.
                    Так чего вы, кстати, стоите тогда, ничего НЕ lol powerful lol and incapable, with all their power, losers? lol Shame .....
                    Quote: solzh
                    You treatment necessary, from your chauvinism and hatred to the Soviet, people's authorities.

                    1. Tips of this kind, there, to the Soviets, yes.
                    2. "chauvinism" is where? belay
                    2. Hack on the forehead: PEOPLE have never chosen that power!
                    Quote: solzh
                    Tell me, what personally offended you the people's power of the USSR? Did she take the property from you?

                    The anti-people government brought to the Russian cross my people, in just 70 years of their rule, and the country to the borders of the 17th century. Got it?
                    1. solzh 22 January 2020 15: 51 New
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                      Quote: Olgovich
                      FOR LEARNING: ALL independence declared exclusively and only AFTER the thief on the basis of stupid so-called. decrees of the so-called owls the so-called "authorities" are simply a FACT.

                      Give at least one stupid decree.
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      liar, empty talker and ignoramus

                      You recall how Kolchak and Wrangel sold Russia the Entente? Or do you remember?
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      Do not BLOW, but answer:
                      What kind of "system" is this that gives opportunities (!) ... dishonesty to do ... whatever ?!
                      Is this ... a "normal" system?

                      Have you read my comment? It seems not. I repeat once again: This is a FOLK system! But the people are not to blame for the fact that the enemies of the people repainted and came to power.
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      Yeah: YOU ruled ONLY, and brought up ..... we: and all this with all your power of power, the power of the state, school, etc.
                      Так чего вы, кстати, стоите тогда, ничего НЕ могущие и неспособные, при всей своей власти, неудачники? Позорище

                      And where did you get the idea that we are losers? There are ours in the State Duma, but your traitors are not there. And about the edit. I already wrote that your beloved traitors repainted and came to power through lies and deceit. And as for the upbringing: those whom parents and schools brought up correctly, and most of them, they honor the history of their state, they honor the memory of the dead Red Army soldiers at the hands of parasites of the White Guards and who killed the people in civilian service in the Great Patriotic War, the German Nazis, and those who only pretended that he and his type are properly brought up, ordinary renegades, lied, lied about our country while being under NATO wings and inside the country. And even now, they continue to lie and they repaint again.
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      1. Tips of this kind, there, to the Soviets, yes.
                      2. "chauvinism" is where?
                      2. Hack on the forehead: PEOPLE have never chosen that power!

                      You don’t know anything about the elections. Well: Go to school to learn history.
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      The anti-people government brought to the Russian cross my people, in just 70 years of their rule, and the country to the borders of the 17th century. Got it?

                      This is what you wrote your lies and is the most chauvinism.

                      I would tell you a lot of other things, but I see no reason to continue the dialogue with you today.
                      1. Olgovich 22 January 2020 16: 12 New
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                        Quote: solzh
                        Give at least one stupid decree.

                        There was no dumber world in history: it led to a wild slaughter and unprecedented occupation of Russia.
                        Quote: solzh
                        You recall how Kolchak and Wrangel sold Russia the Entente? Or do you remember?

                        Remind unconditionally. Just not ordinary to the comrade
                        Quote: solzh
                        Have you read my comment? It seems not. I repeat once again: This is a FOLK system! But the people are not to blame for the fact that the enemies of the people repainted and came to power.

                        1. КТО сказал, что это..."народная" система? ЧТО с вами?
                        2. The "system" in which evil comes to power is ZERO
                        Quote: solzh
                        And where did you get that we are losers?

                        you asked ALL: country, people, army, finances, EVERYTHING! Got it?
                        Quote: solzh
                        And as for the upbringing: those whom parents and schools brought up correctly, and most of them, they honor the history of their state, those who only pretended to be their own and of the type correctly brought up, ordinary renegades, lied, lied about our country being under the wings of NATO and inside the country. And even now they continue to lie and they again repainted.

                        You are not tired of empty chat


                        Quote: solzh
                        You don’t know anything about the elections. Well: Go to school to learn history.

                        1. Once again: your advice, to the Council, in the same, yeah
                        2. Elections for your so-called "authorities" WAS NEVER, for you were MORTALLY afraid of them, underpants (They knew that they would throw it right away!)
                        Quote: solzh
                        This is what you wrote your lies and is the most chauvinism.

                        Go and learn WHAT it is, ignoramus
                        Quote: solzh
                        I would tell you a lot of other things, but I see no reason to continue the dialogue with you today.

                        Tired of you: no thoughts, no facts, one empty CHAW,
                      2. solzh 22 January 2020 17: 56 New
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                        Go to school to learn history.
                      3. solzh 22 January 2020 18: 23 New
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                        Quote: Olgovich
                        Remind unconditionally. Just not an ordinary kombredyatina

                        1) Kolchak recognized the independence of Poland and Finland. Kolchak also stated the following: “We are now ready to prepare decisions related to the fate of national groups: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, the Caucasian and Trans-Caspian nationalities, and look forward to a quick resolution of these issues, since the government now already provides autonomous rights for nationalities. and the nature of these autonomies must, of course, be determined separately each time. In the event of difficulties in resolving these issues, the Government will willingly take advantage of the peace-loving cooperation of the League of Nations.

                        2) In early 1920, General Denikin officially announced the recognition of Bessarabia as part of Romania.

                        3) In the fall of 1920, France promised to help Wrangel. Wrangel signed a convention on the transfer of France, in the event of the expansion of the territory controlled by his army, the management of all railways in the South of Russia, a quarter of coal production in the Donbass, three quarters of oil extracted in the South of Russia (without the Caucasus).

                        Enough with you? Or again, write that this is a combedyat without rebuttal?
                      4. Olgovich 23 January 2020 11: 09 New
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                        Quote: solzh
                        )Колчак признал независимость Финляндии.

                        Do not carry nonsense, ignoramus: A.V. Kolchak in a telegram to N.N. On May 26, 1919, Yudenich confirmed his previous position:
                        «Recognition of Finland's independence can only come from the Constituent Assembly. At present, no one is entitled to enter into a formal agreement on ethnographic issues on behalf of Russia ”

                        The same in Latvia.

                        And where is the sale? and to whom, by the way?
                        Quote: solzh
                        2) In early 1920, General Denikin officially announced the recognition of Bessarabia as part of Romania.

                        liar

                        Under the government of General A. Denikin, a Preparatory Commission for National Affairs was created. Her the Bessarabian department argued clearly and clearly historical, national and formal motives by which Romania tried to explain its claims to Bessarabia.
                        Quote: solzh
                        In the fall of 1920, France promised to help Wrangel. Wrangel signed a convention on the transfer of France, in the event of the expansion of the territory controlled by his army, the management of all railways in the South of Russia, a quarter of coal production in the Donbass, three quarters of oil extracted in the South of Russia (without the Caucasus).

                        Quote: solzh
                        France promised to provide Wrangel. Wrangel signed a convention on the transfer of France, in the event of the expansion of the territory controlled by his army, the management of all railways in the South of Russia, a quarter of coal production in Donbass, three quarters mined in the South of Russia

                        Bring a document, a chatterbox: archive storage number of the case, archive
                        Quote: solzh
                        Enough with you? Or again, write that this is a combedyat without rebuttal?

                        WHERE is the sale liar?

                        You have deprived Russia of FIVE million km2 is a fact visible in the window, look!
                      5. solzh 23 January 2020 11: 17 New
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                        I repeat, if you do not know basic things, GO TO SCHOOL TO LEARN HISTORY.
                      6. Olgovich 23 January 2020 11: 56 New
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                        Quote: solzh
                        I repeat, if you do not know basic things, GO TO SCHOOL TO LEARN HISTORY.

                        And you go to the school, a liar and an ignoramus: you have one chatter: no knowledge, no thoughts ...
        3. Vladimir_2U 23 January 2020 03: 35 New
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          Ольгыч! Как так? Почему ты не вспоминаешь "проданные большевиками" Норвегию, Шлезвиг-Голштейн, Дитмарс, Ольденбург?! Ведь это "исконно русские " земли!
          Obdorsky, Kondian, Vitebsk, Mstislavsky and all northern countries lord; and the sovereign of Iversky, Kartalinsky and Kabardinsky lands and regions of Armenians; Cherkasy and Gorsky princes and other hereditary sovereign and possessor, sovereign of Turkestan; Norwegian heir, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein, Stormarn, Dietmarsensky and Oldenburg and others, and other, and other

          Source: The full title of the Russian Emperor Nicholas II consisted of 113 words - Factrum
          1. Vladimir_2U 23 January 2020 03: 55 New
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            Quote: Vladimir_2U
            Why don't you remember

            Sorry, of course you are.
    3. Alexander Suvorov 22 January 2020 13: 30 New
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      Olgovich (Andrey)
      The fact is given from the Soviet stat. collection
      Again, you lie the bunkchrust. There is NO such data there!
      1. Olgovich 22 January 2020 14: 17 New
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        What are you lying, Macedonian, fi !:


        A source: "National Economy of the RSFSR (1956) (Statistical Yearbook) State Statistical Publishing House, Moscow, 1957

        http://istmat.info/files/uploads/18147/narhoz_rsfsr_1956_predislovie_2.pdf
        1. Alexander Suvorov 22 January 2020 14: 20 New
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          Why are you confusing the borders of the RSFSR with the borders of the USSR, Mr. Liar ?! Do not wash it like that, but you have to lie, right?
          1. Olgovich 22 January 2020 14: 37 New
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            Quote: Alexander Suvorov
            Why are you confusing the borders of the RSFSR with the borders of the USSR, Mr. Liar ?! Do not wash it like that, but you have to lie, right?

            belay fool lol
            I have already beaten THREE HOURS to you only about borders RSFSR:

            -Сначала, в 1918г, ваши "спасли" fool Russia from .... New Russia, Little Russia and Belarus,

            -затем, уже после образования СССР, после 1922 г, всего за 18 лет вы "спасли " fool her from ...4 million km2 ITS territory. what and have TODAY

            Got it, no? So ask your Macedonian neighbors. angry
            1. Alexander Suvorov 22 January 2020 14: 46 New
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              Olgovich (Andrey)
              I already beaten three hours I explain to you only about the borders of the RSFSR
              Those. You always compare RI with the RSFSR, and not with the USSR, but it’s not clear on what basis?
              -First, in 1918, yours "saved" fool Russia from .... New Russia, Little Russia and Belarus,
              That is what saved New Russia, and Little Russia, and Belarus. All of the territories you listed at the time of the beginning of August 1918 were under German occupation.

              P.S. Himself fool fool fool
              1. Olgovich 22 January 2020 15: 28 New
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                Quote: Alexander Suvorov
                That is what saved New Russia, and Little Russia, and Belarus.

                So I say that the Bolsheviks "saved" (saved ) РОССИЮ от Новороссии, и Малороссии, и Белоруссии.

                And then they "saved" (saved) it from its own territories of 4 million km2.

                Let's you too save from yours: wallet, home, car?
              2. Alexander Suvorov 22 January 2020 15: 30 New
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                Olgovich (Andrey)
                Let us also save you from yours: wallet, home, car?
                I don’t know how it is from the wallet, but from the brain fool apparently the Bolsheviks apparently delivered you ...! laughing
              3. Doctor Evil 22 January 2020 18: 53 New
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                Quote: Alexander Suvorov
                Olgovich (Andrey)
                Let us also save you from yours: wallet, home, car?
                I don’t know how it is from the wallet, but from the brain fool apparently the Bolsheviks apparently delivered you ...! laughing

                Romanian monarchist included. A couple of days ago in an article about Warsaw drowned for the USSR.
    4. Vladimir_2U 23 January 2020 03: 36 New
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      The unworthy Olgych, a torch of tattered quotes.
  • chenia 22 January 2020 11: 04 New
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    You always have problems with adequacy.
    Writing--

    Quote: Olgovich
    In 1918, Germany was already doomed and actively destroyed from the West by the Allies


    And then unable to develop a thought?
    Any agreement could be signed with the Germans (it was not worth the paper on which it was written).
    But. the Bolsheviks won a time when both the Germans and the "allies" did not meddle in business.
    And in less than a year, this piece of paper was sent as intended.

    Quote: Olgovich
    from 1922 to 1940 from Russia it was STORED by your 4 million km2 of land!


    And Che, by 1945. Do not count, for 26 years, much has been returned.
    1. Olgovich 22 January 2020 12: 41 New
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      Quote: chenia
      You always have adequacy problems.

      You have them with a conscience:
      Quote: chenia
      Any agreement could be signed with the Germans (it was not worth the paper on which it was written).

      Because of this betrayals world war dragged on for another six months and died hundreds of thousands more
      Quote: chenia
      But. the Bolsheviks won a time when both the Germans and the "allies" did not meddle in business.
      And in less than a year, this piece of paper was sent as intended.

      1. They did not save their homeland, but the POWER seized from the people of Russia.
      2.Antanta sent. And she could not send!
      Quote: chenia
      Quote: Olgovich
      from 1922 to 1940 from Russia it was STORED by your 4 million km2 of land!


      And Che, by 1945. Do not count, for 26 years, much has been returned.

      So there is nothing to consider: stolen 4 million km2 in Russia from 22 to 40 years, and joined in 1946 ......0,1 млн km2: http://istmat.info/files/uploads/18147/narhoz_rsfsr_1956_predislovie_2.pdf

      Did you catch the difference?
      1. chenia 22 January 2020 16: 00 New
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        Quote: Olgovich
        Because of this betrayal, the world war dragged on for another six months and hundreds more thousands of people died


        Who started, let him fight

        Quote: Olgovich
        And she could not send!


        So wherever she could, there she was crap.

        Quote: Olgovich
        So there is NOTHING to consider: 4 million km2 were stolen from Russia from 22 to 40,


        From the beginning, I thought that a citizen of liberals had moved, and he only counted the RSFSR.
        And the Bolsheviks, the USSR, except for Poland and Finland (and they were already chopped off chunks, well, even for little things), the rest was returned. And the lost Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands in Hokkaido itself (that Nikolashka profiled) and also stuck Galicia. And if it’s about control, then he oversaw the whole of eastern Europe (now they are moaning about occupation.).
    2. Vladimir_2U 23 January 2020 03: 37 New
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      Quote: chenia
      And then unable to develop the thought

      You are joking? Olga and develop a thought? In one sentence? Good joke.
  • Astra wild 22 January 2020 17: 11 New
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    Ольгович, в чём с Вами соглашусь так это в том,что В. И.Ленин сам называл " похабным" Брестский мир, но этот мир тогда был вынужден. На сайте уже много об этом говорили
  • BAI
    BAI 22 January 2020 21: 00 New
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    1. Numerous epithets: "shameful", "humiliating" insufficient?
    2.
    And the reasons for this are obvious to those who know the history of their country more or less: the speech in 1618 was about the existence of Russian statehood in the PRINCIPLE, because the purpose of the Polish war was to include Russia in the Commonwealth.

    Yeah, look:
    1. BAI
      BAI 22 January 2020 21: 01 New
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      And we see:

      The Romanovs saved their dynasty, and everything else was secondary for them - a free bonus, so to speak, to justify their actions.
      1. Olgovich 23 January 2020 11: 15 New
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        Quote: BAI
        The Romanovs saved their dynasty

        STATE INDEPENDENCE saved: to read the cited by yourself-do not know how?

        The purpose of the war was from the side of Poland-DESTROYING the statehood of Russia.
        1. vladcub 23 January 2020 11: 52 New
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          Ольгович, вообще-то если задаться целью то Библию можно повернуть против Господа. Вы в книге находите одно, а ВАI другое. Такова жизнь
          1. Olgovich 23 January 2020 11: 59 New
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            Quote: vladcub
            Olgovich, actually, if you set a goal, then the Bible can be turned against the Lord. You find one in the book, and BAI another. That is life

            Why so? The book clearly says:
            "Strengthen the dynasty AND STATE AND NATIONAL INDEPENDENCE."


            And I completely agree with that! hi
  • Sergey S. 1 February 2020 02: 06 New
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    Quote: Olgovich
    The "obscene" truce of 1618 was called only by the author of the article

    Because no softer word was found.
    It was a terrible time.
    The princely elite repeatedly betrayed the people of Russia.
    Many times ...
    Summoned the Swedes against the Poles.
    Then she called the Pole to the Moscow throne.
    As a result, the Swedes - enemies of the Poles - chopped off the north-west of Russia.
    Then the Poles, and with them the Orthodox Cossacks (thieves) came already to directly pull the Russian lands.
    And these frank savages. Read Zagoskin, the author of the first historical novel. I am ashamed to repeat what the Russians allowed in their homes when the Poles came ...
    False Dmitry elevated Fyodor Romanov (Filaret) to the patriarchs, and he did not disdain this - he went down in history as a patriarch from under a mean hand.
    Затем на царство избрали представителя семибоярщины - подлой семьи Романовых, а потому, что московская знать боялась, что честный царь накажет за предательство...

    Whoever said anything, but during the Zemsky Cathedral, Prince of the Rurikovich clan Dmitry Pozharsky, the liberator of Moscow, could not leave the house. About three thousand thieves' Cossacks gathered under its windows ... And so the fateful cathedral passed without a single worthy contender.
    The vile beginners of the Romanovs also finished.
    As they once betrayed the Russian people, so were their closest nominees ...

    The mistakes of the Bolsheviks in this topic do not play any role.
    The Brest peace should be discussed in another topic.
    Here comes the trial of the vile traitors Romanovs and other traitors to the Time of Troubles.
  • Looking for 22 January 2020 14: 51 New
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    we are Great Russian liberalists. We don’t notice the "logs." Whether the matter is Bolshevik "specks". Here we are masters.
  • Timurleng 22 January 2020 06: 47 New
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    Well, probably then that there was no other way. Either war of attrition or shameful respite. Well, then they won back their own and even more
    1. Alexander Suvorov 22 January 2020 06: 58 New
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      Timurleng (Ivan)
      Well, probably then that there was no other way. Either war of attrition or shameful respite. Well, then they won back their own and even more
      So I write about that. But this is why the Bulk Khrusts allow the shameful respite for the Romanovs and do not allow the same for the Bolsheviks?
      1. solzh 22 January 2020 11: 51 New
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        Quote: Alexander Suvorov
        But this is why the Bulk Khrusts allow the shameful respite for the Romanovs and do not allow the same for the Bolsheviks?

        Well, how can you not understand a simple thing? laughing There are the Romanovs! And then the Bolsheviks, who robbed their favorite toy called the Russian people and gave the people education and freedom! wink
        1. Alexander Suvorov 22 January 2020 12: 20 New
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          solzh (Sergey)
          Well, how can you not understand a simple thing?
          Sergei hi , for I understand it, but it doesn’t reach some inadequate ones.
          And then the Bolsheviks, who robbed their favorite toy called the Russian people
          The paradox is that even the Bolsheviks didn’t even take it away, but they tried all sorts of different temporary ones, and even tried their own relatives.
          and gave people education and freedom!
          But this is actually sedition. According to the Olga people, the people need a tsar and a parish seminary with two classes of education. Moreover, education should consist of the “word of God” so that they do not know anything except prayers. For the thinking people is the death of the monarchy.
          1. bober1982 22 January 2020 14: 02 New
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            Quote: Alexander Suvorov
            the people need a king and a parish seminary with two classes of education.

            Such educational institutions never existed, you have confused elementary schools at the parishes of the Russian Church, with its higher spiritual educational institutions.
  • Nitochkin 22 January 2020 08: 25 New
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    The whole truth about the Romanov clan)) They threw the Poles to the "grandmother"))
    1. Okolotochny 22 January 2020 14: 24 New
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      Listen, stop inserting videos of specialists from all over the world. As you look, there are a LOT of specialists in politics, economics and history on the Internet. And what is interesting, there are those that broadcast all their "expert" opinions on all topics.
      1. Nitochkin 22 January 2020 14: 45 New
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        Quote: Okolotochny
        Listen, stop inserting videos of specialists from all over the world. As you look, there are a LOT of specialists in politics, economics and history on the Internet. And what is interesting, there are those that broadcast all their "expert" opinions on all topics.

        Pyzhikov is not special. Everything in the world, he’s specifically special. on the history of Russia, doctor of historical sciences, professor.
        1. Okolotochny 23 January 2020 12: 20 New
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          One stroke - every historian can have the same document - a fact (historical) is interpreted in his own way - by the way, there are an example of this in comments. Pact of 1939, Brest Peace, etc.
          1. Tuzik 24 January 2020 05: 35 New
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            What is wrong with additional information on the topic? I do not understand those people who minus the person who just added the info.
            1. Nitochkin 24 January 2020 07: 48 New
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              Quote: Tuzik
              What is wrong with additional information on the topic? I do not understand those people who minus the person who just added the info.

              What Pyzhikov says does not fit into the Procrustean bed of their beliefs, based on the false fabrications of Miller and Karamzin)) They really pierce their eyes))
              1. Tuzik 24 January 2020 13: 09 New
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                Ну так в таком случае, логично писать: Пыжикову минус, он такой сякой, я с ним не согласен по этому и по этому. А не в стиле это тут не надо, потому-что оно мне не нравится, минус тебе, а не Пыжикову.
          2. Sergey S. 1 February 2020 02: 25 New
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            Quote: Okolotochny
            One stroke - every historian can have the same document - a fact (historical) is interpreted in his own way - by the way, there are an example of this in comments. Pact of 1939, Brest Peace, etc.

            It certainly is.
            But this is not about historians with a reputation as scientists.
            This is about historians - politicians, the interpreters of which have come to their advantage. And more often in favor of bastards, who for the time being can only buy votes, publications, speeches, gigolos ....
  • Operator 22 January 2020 10: 54 New
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    Где дом Романовых (который отстоял русскую государственность в 17 веке и расширил границы России от Вислы до Тихого океана в 18-20 веках) и где Самсонов? bully
    1. Olgovich 22 January 2020 11: 22 New
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      Quote: Operator
      Where is the house of the Romanovs (which defended Russian statehood in the 17th century and expanded the borders of Russia from the Vistula to the Pacific Ocean in the 18-20 centuries) and where is Samsonov?

      I especially liked this author passage:
      used Moscow (then Petersburg), step by step returning the West Russian lands to a single power, uniting parts of a single Russian people

      Those. The Romanovs signed the "obscene truce", but they returned the lands, united the parts of the Russian people and built the largest country in the world, not they, but ... obscure impersonal Moscow and Petersburg lol laughing
    2. solzh 22 January 2020 11: 53 New
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      Quote: Operator
      Where is the house of the Romanovs

      Where, where ... Tama! laughing
  • alebor 22 January 2020 11: 20 New
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    Very biased article. Do you see the Romanovs to blame for the "obscene" loss of Smolensk and Chernigov! It is easy to blame, not taking into account the catastrophic state of the ravaged long-standing Troubles of the country. But why not the author remember how, having gained strength, the same Romanovs not only returned Smolensk with Chernigov, but also recaptured all Russian lands from the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and then Poland itself was “obscene” attached to their empire.
  • Senior seaman 22 January 2020 11: 22 New
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    1) What kind of "Romanovs" made a "obscene world"? There were exactly two active Romanovs in Moscow at that time. This is a young and inexperienced Misha Romanov and his uncle Ivan Nikitich, with whom his nephew, by the way, had a nasty relationship. Even at the Council, Ivan Nikitich was an opponent of his election, advocating the calling of the Swedish prince Karl-Philipp. So, the Zemsky Sobor ruled in Moscow, which was sitting almost continuously until 1622.
    And the fact that the opinion of the nun Martha was interesting to someone outside the female half of the palace I do not even want to comment.
    2) You can lament about the "shameful world" and about the problems of the Commonwealth and its army, but the truth is that Poland and Lithuania could put up such ten armies without straining too much. And the fact that the Sejm will refuse to finance them is written with a pitchfork on the water.
    But Russia was really ruined. And the troops put up by her were really the last. And absolutely any defeat would inevitably be a disaster. That is, the world that the Russian government made was absolutely justified and extremely necessary.
    3) Hope in Sweden ... Actually, at that time, the Poles beat the Swedes in the tail and mane and hoping otherwise would be crazy. Young Gustavus-Adolf had not even begun to create his future army, which would bring him glory in the fields of the Thirty Years War. And even then, he will defeat the Poles in a siege of fortresses and the like, but in field battles everything will not be so rosy at all.
    4) The author casually mentioned the betrayal of the governor Adadurov ...
    So, it was not the Poles who persuaded him to surrender, but the Russians themselves. A relative of the former Tsar Shuisky and ... Smolensk hero Shein. Which did not languish in the dungeon at all, as some think, but sat in a dignified and noble manner in the Duma of Vladislav. And when the author will (and he, smells my heart, will!) Moan about the governor who was innocently executed after an unsuccessful war, let him recall this fact from his biography.
    5) The unfortunate Vorenka, of course, I am sorry. But we must remember the situation. The Polish aristocrat did not hesitate to give birth to him from the twice dead man and declare him the rightful heir to the throne, although at one time she had the opportunity to return home and live happily ever after. This is, first and foremost, her sin. Her and the boundless ambitions of a seedy noblewoman.
    By the way, the gallows did not help, and after two decades, another "miraculously saved" appeared on the horizon. Jan Faustin Luba.
    And finally, the last. A lot can be said about Mikhail Romanov. But the main result of his reign is that he left his successor in a country in much better condition than he accepted.
    To me, as a person who remembers Gorbachev’s rule, this seems to be the main thing.
    1. vladcub 22 January 2020 15: 07 New
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      Kamrad "sailor" shows that you read Platonov: "the sovereign’s mother ruled only the palace and supported not his kingdom, but his kind"
      1. Senior seaman 22 January 2020 19: 05 New
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        Alas for me, dear colleague, but no. But I shoveled a lot of other literature before making up my mind. And I must say that the nun Martha understood the “support of the clan” very interestingly. It is not without her help that the Saltykovs upset Mikhail’s first marriage.
        1. vladcub 23 January 2020 12: 00 New
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          Tell me where to read about Shein, Adadurov?
          1. Senior seaman 23 January 2020 15: 47 New
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            Pancake. For the first time, one of my colleagues on Samizdat suggested when I worked on “Guns of King Johann” and the source, even kill, I don’t remember.
            But if it suits here: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/gosudarev-dvor-korolevicha-vladislava-vazy-v-1617-1618-gg/viewer
    2. Dart2027 22 January 2020 20: 21 New
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      Quote: Senior Sailor
      The unfortunate Vorenka, of course, is a pity to me. But we must remember the situation. The Polish aristocrat did not hesitate to give birth to him from twice the deceased and declare him the rightful heir to the throne

      This passage in the article
      the murder of the 4-year-old (!) “Tsarevich” Ivan became a terrible sin on the Romanov dynasty
      amused the most.
  • Luty 22 January 2020 12: 30 New
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    Вовсе не похабный мир. Ресурсы были исчерпаны.посмотрел бы я на тех кто попробовал бы воевать больше 10 лет.А то критиковать всегда находятся любители ,а вот трезво оценить возможности тут не очень.
  • vladcub 22 January 2020 13: 45 New
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    "were interested in compromising Dmitry Pozharsky" I imagine the picture: Mikhail or his mother gathered the boyars say: "Pozharsky must be dishonored" and let Lisovsky beat him up.
    If you follow the logic of Samsonov, then Michael 1 wanted the Poles to kick him out of the Kremlin as a kitten, and Lisovsky could
  • vladcub 22 January 2020 15: 26 New
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    Если внимательно прочесть и подумать то Самсонов сам практически ответил :"зачем Романовы заключили "похабное"Деуленское перемирие"? Какое образование было у Михаила и в каком окружении он воспитывался? А окружающая среда много значит.( Читайте: Пиаже, Ювинга) .Из кого состояла Боярcxкая Дама? Едва ли не половина вчерашние предатели и вы хотите, чтобы они были патриотами? Не смешите мои портянки!
    It is also surprising that they resisted.
    Кто мог поручиться,что ,Ададуроа только один?
  • Seal 22 January 2020 16: 38 New
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    Quote: Bar2
    next to Polonia is written Russia, not Ruthenium
    There is also Rossia.
  • Seal 22 January 2020 16: 42 New
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    Quote: Luty
    Resources have been exhausted.
    Так ведь и польские тоже.Одна Цецорская битва полякам чего стоила.
    The remnants of Zholkevsky’s troops were completely defeated, and the 72-year-old hetman himself was killed. His head as an honorary trophy was delivered to Istanbul. The Tatars and the Turks arrived in time got huge trophies and many prisoners. The winners took all the artillery and still a huge Polish convoy
    And then the Khotyn war with Turkey began. Well then, the Ottomans helped us.
    1. Senior seaman 22 January 2020 19: 08 New
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      Quote: Seal
      One Tsetsorskaya battle to the Poles what it cost.

      It just happened in 1620.
      1. Seal 23 January 2020 18: 00 New
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        That is yes. Something I forgot. If you would know then .....
  • Astra wild 22 January 2020 17: 21 New
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    Quote: Operator
    Где дом Романовых (который отстоял русскую государственность в 17 веке и расширил границы России от Вислы до Тихого океана в 18-20 веках) и где Самсонов? bully

    Samsonov on the site, and the Romanovs in history
  • Astra wild 22 January 2020 18: 02 New
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    "the murder of the 4-year-old" prince "became a terrible sin at the Romanov dynasty;" killing a child is always a grave sin, but in fairness: the death sentence to "Voronenka" - not son Romanov personally pronounced on Mnishek, Zemsky Sobor of the then parliament.
    Уважаемые коллеги, вы во много раз больше меня знаете историю, но даже я помню,что фактически НИ ОДНОГО ОТВЕТСВЕНОГО РЕШЕНИЯ без Земского Собора тогда не принимали.
    Почему же тогда Самсонов, если он ДЕЙСТВИТЕЛЬНО ИСТОРИК "забывает" влажные моменты?
    Mikhail Romanov, as they say: "the hero is not my novel," but I was not too lazy and looked at the assessments of historians: Klyuchevsky, Kostomarov, Ishimova and Platonov distinguish such a trait from Mikhail as kindness. But Morozova believes that Mikhail was able to rally statesmen, maneuvered between the various political interests of the groups, and this shows that Mikhail was not stupid
  • Astra wild 22 January 2020 18: 29 New
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    "правительство Михаил Романова и его матери желали любой ценой освободить Филарета" а вот тут у меня сомнерия, что все желали . Скорее всего это хотел Михаил,как сына его понять можно, а другие вряд-ли. Какое образование было у Михаила если он читать почти не умел. Естественно опытным интриганам предпочтительнее малограмотный юнец(сколько ему тогда было около 20 ?) или суровый мужик, который на сквозь видел всех интриганов,по моему вывод очевиден. Теперь по поводу матери:в ту пору женщины были бесправны, а потому сомневаюсь, чтобы она жаждала получить" мужеву плётку" я как женщина скажу: мы можем изворачиваться и лгать, но НИКОГДА ДОБРОВОЛЬНО НЕ ПОЖЕЛАМ плеть! Я конечно не утверждаю,что Филарет в прямом смысле её плетью охаживал, но ей было вольготнее без него
  • Dmitry Igorevich 22 January 2020 19: 19 New
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    After the murder of the impostor (How False Dmitry I was killed), the Poles actively participated in the subsequent events of the Time of Troubles. They fought on the side of the new impostor - the Tushino thief.

    False Dmitry 1, False Dmitry 2 and the Cossack surname is on K, now I don’t remember which one is all the Tsar of Moscow, Ivan Dmitrievich, the penultimate of the Rurik family.
    They called him by different names because each time the Romanovs announced his murder. But they killed him only after a third attempt, like Cossack K. Then they hanged his four-year-old son, Ivan Dmitrievich. The last of the Rurikovich.
    The reign of the Romanovs began with infanticide, and it ended with infanticide.
    Thus, the Time of Troubles in Russia ended in a very "obscene" world

    Russia, this is Little Russia. Great Russia is not Russia, it is Muscovy (Moscow kingdom). Therefore, the turmoil ended in Russia (in Little Russia) and in Muscovy (Great Russia).
    The Commonwealth speech for a short time (before the capture of Livonia by the Swedes) reached its maximum size in its history.

    Well it is more like Yes. The Tsars of Moscow logically left only the metropolitan lands of Ancient Russia (without the western colonies). Those. those lands where the ancient Rusich lived.
    And the lands of Litvin and other western colonies of Ancient Russia, the Commonwealth (one of the parts of which was Lithuania) took away. And what is surprising and wrong here?
    Stole something, no matter when, return it.
    1. vladcub 23 January 2020 08: 41 New
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      Dmitry Igorevich, "Cossack K" was not. There was a "thief" Vaska Zarutsky, and Zarutsky was NOT Rurikovich.
      False Dmitry 1, even indirectly, could pretend to be "Tsarevich Dmitry", while Marinka recognized others as a "saved husband"
      1. Dmitry Igorevich 23 January 2020 10: 17 New
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        Quote: vladcub
        There was a "thief" Vaska Zarutsky

        Yes, yes, just the “Cossack Zarutsky” (as well as both “False Dmitry”) is Tsar Dmitry Ivanovich. He himself had never called himself “Cossack Zarutsky,” the Romanovs called him that.
        Quote: vladcub
        and Marinka recognized others as a "saved husband"

        In addition to the "Marinka" Dmitry Ivanovich admitted Tuev Huch people. Since this person was public and so many people saw him live.
        His mother also recognized him.
        On the third attempt, the Romanovs still killed him.
        1. vladcub 23 January 2020 12: 13 New
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          In this case, instead of False Dmitry 1 and 2 killed doubles?
          1. Dmitry Igorevich 23 January 2020 14: 14 New
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            Quote: vladcub
            In this case, instead of False Dmitry 1 and 2 killed doubles?

            In general, it is not clear who. The corpses of the "impostors" that the Romanovs presented were impossible to identify. A DNA examination was not done then.
            1. vladcub 24 January 2020 17: 09 New
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              Вообще-то Лжедмиитриев народу предъявлял не Михаил Романов и тем более не Филарет, а по поводу ДНК согласен: его не было.
              It would be gorgeous: wave there to run the DNA. My bastard from: "Wait for me" and DNA: so touching
  • Ryaruav 22 January 2020 19: 52 New
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    Lyakhov wet mercilessly Romanov-Mares rogues but the exception of Peter the Great and then the German whores to the throne who do not have well, absolutely no rights, and this bitch supposedly great etoz picul painted it, and so until the end of her problem the life of the Russian language did not learn
    1. vladcub 23 January 2020 11: 19 New
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      About Peter I recommend reading Buganov: "Peter the Great and his time"
  • stroybat ZABVO 22 January 2020 20: 23 New
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    "In Moscow, Comrade Zarutskovo is put on a stake, and Voronka (Ivan Dmitrievich - the son of False Dmitry II. - The author) is hung up, and Marina will die in Moscow."
    That is, they hung a 4 year old.
    Yeah!
    And what is interesting, and now there are those on "such"!
    1. Nitochkin 23 January 2020 03: 31 New
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      Quote: stroybat ZABVO
      "In Moscow, Comrade Zarutskovo is put on a stake, and Voronka (Ivan Dmitrievich - the son of False Dmitry II. - The author) is hung up, and Marina will die in Moscow."
      That is, they hung a 4 year old.
      Yeah!
      And what is interesting, and now there are those on "such"!

      Yes, a dime a dozen such nonhumans. The same hoe. They are like a mirror of what individuals in human guise can do for the sake of power and money.
  • BAI
    BAI 22 January 2020 20: 28 New
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    This was one of the most shameful agreements in the history of Russia. The world was bought at a high price - Smolensk, Chernihiv and Novgorod-Seversky and other Russian cities were inferior to the Poles.

    And no one accuses the world of Romanov.
    For how much shit they poured on the Bolsheviks for the Brest Peace.
  • The comment was deleted.
  • Nitochkin 23 January 2020 04: 17 New
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    Which animal was considered the historical symbol of Russia and how was it treated until the XNUMXth century? With what help did the Nikonian church strengthen its position in Russia? What significance did the canonization of saints have for the royal family? Who was canonized and advertised by the ruling stratum? Why didn't the Romanovs bear the bear?
    Why did the people honor him? Why were the bears banned from driving through the streets? How was the bear connected with the human soul and ancestors? What place does the symbol of Russia occupy in the lives of saints? Doctor of Historical Sciences, professor of Moscow State Pedagogical University Alexander Pyzhikov tells who and why the Russian people considered saints.
  • ANB
    ANB 24 January 2020 00: 43 New
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    Quote: Olgovich
    Stolen by your 4 million km2 of land!


    Your
    who is this? If Yeltsin and his colleagues, then this is not
    our
    .
  • Seal 24 January 2020 10: 30 New
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    Quote: Astra wild
    the death sentence to “Voronenka” - not to his son Mnishek was personally pronounced by Mikhail Romanov, the Zemsky Sobor of the then parliament.
    I would like to see something in the confirmation. Best protocol of the meeting of the Zemsky Sobor:
    "Present" - (list of attendees).
    "Listened" - "On the punishment of the son of the thieves tsarina Maria Mnishek."
    "Decided" - "Hang the son of the thieves tsarina Maria Mnishek."
    “For” - unanimously.
    Or was someone opposed there? Or maybe abstained?

    And it’s somehow sad.
    Unknown remained the formula of the prosecution, the verdict, the composition of the judges. It is unclear what specific crime could have been incriminated to a three-year-old child. In addition, that this child could become an occasion for trouble in the foreseeable future. Many of these “iron masks” languished in prisons around the world. But the royal "bastards" were not executed only because they were born. In Russia, monastic cells served for this purpose. In the end, they would send a killer or something, and in the morning they would announce that "the baby accidentally stabbed himself with a knife," as it had already happened once.