Lisovchiki - participants in the raid Lisovsky. Painting by Polish artist J. Kossak
On December 11, 1618, a truce was signed in the town of Deulino near the Trinity-Sergius Monastery, which suspended the war of Russia with the Commonwealth for 14 years. It was one of the most shameful deals ever. history Of Russia. The world was bought at a high price - Smolensk, Chernihiv and Novgorod-Seversky and other Russian cities were inferior to the Poles.
Polish gentry and magnates intervened in the affairs of the Russian kingdom from the beginning of the Time of Troubles. The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Vatican supported the impostor False Dmitry, who promised the Polish elite vast lands and a union of Orthodoxy with Catholicism (in fact, submission of the Russian church to Rome). The Polish gentry was promised land and Russian wealth. As a result, detachments of Polish magnates, gentry and adventurers actively participated in the Russian Troubles, robbed and smashed cities and villages. The Poles helped False Dmitry to seize the Russian throne.
After killing the impostor (How the False Dmitry I was killed) Poles actively participated in further events of the Time of Troubles. They fought on the side of the new impostor - the Tushino thief. Open Polish intervention began in 1609. Poles, taking advantage of the collapse of Russian statehood, were able to occupy vast Russian lands, after a long and heroic defense they took the strategic fortress of Smolensk (1609-1611). After the catastrophic defeat of the Russian-Swedish army in the battle near the village of Klushino (June 1610), Moscow was left without an army, and the boyars overthrew Tsar Vasily Shuisky (Heroic defense of Smolensk; Defense of Smolensk. Part 2; Klushinskaya catastrophe of the Russian army; How Russia almost became a colony of Poland, Sweden and England) The Boyar government (Semiboyarschina) in August 1610 signed a treacherous agreement, according to which the Polish prince Vladislav was invited to the Russian throne. The Polish garrison was introduced to Moscow. The traitor boyars minted a coin on behalf of the new king. However, the wedding of Vladislav to the kingdom did not happen. The Polish prince was not going to convert to the Orthodox faith.
Continuation of the Troubles
Only in 1612, the Second Zemstvo militia led by Minin and Pozharsky was able to liberate Moscow from the invaders. The public mind is dominated by the myth, formed by the historians of the Romanov dynasty, that the surrender of the Poles in the Kremlin was a turning point in the Time of Troubles or even its end. And the accession of Mikhail Romanov finally completed the Time of Troubles in the Russian state. However, in reality in 1613 the war only flared up with renewed vigor. The new Moscow government had to simultaneously fight with the Polish army in the west, the Cossacks of Ivan Zarutsky in the south (the chieftain planned to plant Marina Mnishek’s son on the Russian throne) and the Swedes in the north. The war also continued with gangs of thieves' Cossacks and Polish troops throughout the European part of the country. There was no clear front in this war. Cossack detachments repeatedly approached Moscow, breaking their camps near the capital. Only with great difficulty did the tsarist governors manage to defend Moscow and drive away the "thieves."
Only in 1614 did the dangerous rebellion of Zarutsky, threatening a new wave of Cossack-peasant war, be able to crush. Ataman was seized and taken to the capital:
"In Moscow, Comrade Zarutskovo is put on a stake, and Voronka (Ivan Dmitrievich - the son of False Dmitry II. - The author) is hung up, and Marina will die in Moscow."
In fact, the Romanovs hid the ends in the water, eliminating witnesses to the Troubles. And the murder of the 4-year-old (!) “Tsarevich” Ivan became a terrible sin on the Romanov’s house. The war with Sweden was unsuccessful and ended with the signing of the Stolbovsky Peace Treaty on February 27, 1617. Moscow returned Novgorod, Ladoga and some other cities, lands, but lost the fortresses Ivangorod, Yam, Oreshek, Koporye, Korela and access to the Baltic (they returned only under Tsar Peter the Great).
From the moment of the liberation of Moscow until the Deulinskiy truce, the war with Poland did not stop. The Russians in 1613 lifted the siege of the enemy from Kaluga, liberated Vyazma and Dorogobuzh, who surrendered to them voluntarily. Then the royal governors besieged the fortress of Belaya, and in August forced the Poles to surrender. After this, the siege of Smolensk began, but due to low combat efficiency, lack of forces, ammunition, provisions and opposition of the enemy, it was delayed. In November 1614, the Polish lords sent a letter to the Moscow government in which they accused Vladislav of treason and ill-treatment of noble Polish captives. But, despite this, the Poles proposed to begin peace negotiations. The Moscow boyars agreed and sent Zhelyabuzhsky as ambassador to Poland. These negotiations yielded nothing, resulting in a stream of mutual insults and accusations. The Poles did not want to hear anything about Tsar Mikhail Romanov. In their opinion, Michael was only the steward of Tsar Vladislav.
Alexander Lisovsky (previously one of the commanders of ratification of False Dmitry II, then went to serve with the Polish king) in 1615 made another devastating raid of the Polish cavalry across Russia in order to divert Russian troops from Smolensk. His squad (foxes) described a large loop around Moscow and returned to Poland. Lisovsky was a brave and experienced commander, his detachment consisted of selected cavalry (its number ranged from 600 to 3 thousand people). Among the foxes were Poles, representatives of the West Russian population, German mercenaries and thieves' Cossacks. In spring, Lisovsky besieged Bryansk, in the summer - captured Karachev and Bryansk. He defeated the tsarist army under the command of Prince Yuri Shakhovsky near Karachev.
After that, the Martha’s government (Mikhail Romanov himself was a dummy, so his mother, nun Martha, and then Father Fyodor Romanov, Patriarch Filaret, released by the Poles, first ruled for him) decided to send governor Dmitry Pozharsky against the foxes. The prince was an experienced and skilled commander, but was ill from previous wounds, that is, he could not fully pursue the enemy mobile army. In fact, the government of Mikhail Romanov was interested in disgracing Pozharsky, who until recently was a possible candidate for the Russian throne. June 29, 1615 Pozharsky with a detachment of noblemen, archers and a few foreign mercenaries (about 1 thousand soldiers), went to catch the foxes. Lisovsky at that time was sitting in the city of Karachev. Learning about the rapid movement of Pozharsky through Belev and Bolkhov, Lisovsky burned Karachev and retreated to Orel. Scouts reported this governor, and he moved to intercept the enemy. On the way Pozharsky joined a detachment of Cossacks, and in Bolkhov - the Tatar cavalry. Pozharsky’s detachment doubled its strength.
In August and September, Pozharsky’s detachment pursued the enemy with varying success, but could not defeat it. On the other hand, the Poles could not destroy the army of Prince Pozharsky near Orel. Then Pozharsky fell ill and transferred command to other governors. Without the prince, the imperial army collapsed to a large extent and lost combat effectiveness. As a result, the foxes continued their raid, took Przemysl, went to Rzhev, who had hardly defended the voivode Sheremetev, burned Torzhok, tried to take Kashin and Uglich, but even there the governors coped with their duties. Then the foxes no longer tried to attack the cities, but walked between them, devastating everything in their path. Lisovsky went between Yaroslavl and Kostroma to the Suzdal district, then between Vladimir and Murom, between Kolomna and Pereyaslavl-Ryazansky, between Tula and Serpukhov to Aleksin. Several governors were sent in pursuit of the enemy, but they only barren circled between cities, not finding Lisovsky. Only in December, Tsarist ratification of Prince Kurakin managed to impose a battle on the enemy in the area of the city of Aleksin. But he retreated without significant losses. In early January 1616, the foxes tried repeatedly and unsuccessfully to take Likhvin, and then went to Smolensk, to their own.
Thus, Lisovsky managed to quite calmly leave for the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after an amazing and long-remembered raid around Moscow in the Russian state. This campaign showed the precarious situation of the then Rus. Lisovsky in Poland has become a symbol of elusiveness and invincibility. True, this lightning raid negatively affected the health of Lisovsky himself. In the fall of 1616, he again assembled a detachment to raid the Russian cities and villages, but suddenly fell off his horse and died. Lisovchikov was led by Stanislav Chaplinsky, another field commander in the former army of the Tushinsky thief (False Dmitry II). In 1617 Chaplinsky captured the cities of Meshchovsk, Kozelsk and approached Kaluga, where he was defeated by Pozharsky’s army.
Jozef Brandt. Foxers practicing archery. 1885
Moscow campaign of Vladislav
In the summer of 1616, Russia and the Commonwealth exchanged blows. The royal governors raided Lithuania, defeating the surroundings of Surezha, Velizh and Vitebsk. In turn, a detachment of Lithuanians and Cossacks operated at Karachev and Krom. They were chased by the Moscow governors, but without much success. Most Lithuanians went abroad.
Inspired by the raid of Lisowski, the Poles decided to organize a big trip to Moscow, led by Prince Vladislav. However, the army was not entrusted to a single prince; the best Polish commander, the great Lithuanian hetman Jan Khodkevich, who had already led troops to Moscow in 1611–1612, led the army. In addition, the Sejm sent eight special commissioners with the king: A. Lipsky, S. Zhuravinsky, K. Plikhta, L. Sapieha, P. Opalinsky, B. Stravinsky, Ya. Sobieski and A. Mentsinsky. They had to ensure that the prince did not oppose the conclusion of peace with Moscow. After the capture of the Russian capital, the commissars had to ensure that Vladislav did not back down from the conditions worked out by the Sejm. The main conditions were: 1) the union of Russia and Poland into an indissoluble union; 2) the establishment of free trade; 3) transfer of the Commonwealth of the Commonwealth of Smolensk principality from Seversky land: Bryansk, Starodub, Chernigov, Pochep, Novgorod-Seversky, Putivl, Rylsk and Kursk, as well as Nevel, Sebezh and Velizh; 4) Moscow's waiver of rights to Livonia and Estonia. It is clear that strife and intrigue in the Polish command did not add combat effectiveness to the army.
The second half of 1616 and the beginning of 1617 passed in preparation for the campaign. There was no money in the treasury, so 11-12 thousand soldiers scored with great difficulty. It was mainly cavalry. In Lithuania, they even introduced a special tax for paying mercenaries. The Polish army consisted of two parts: the crown army under the command of Vladislav and the Lithuanian troops of the hetman Khodkevich. At the same time, a significant part of the crown army had to be sent to the southern borders due to the threat of war with the Turks. Meanwhile, in the western and southwestern parts of Russia gangs of thieves' Cossacks continued to ramp up, among which there were practically no real Don and Zaporozhye Cossacks. Many of them were delighted with the campaign and the new opportunity to "walk" in Russia. They joined the royal army.
In May 1617, the advanced Polish troops under the command of Gonsevsky and Chaplinsky released Smolensk. The Russian siege army led by Mikhail Buturlin left the fortifications near Smolensk and retreated to Belaya. Vladislav left Warsaw in April 1617, but circled Volyn to frighten Turkey. In summer, a significant part of the army had to be sent to the southern border in the army of the great hetman of the crown Zholkevsky because of the threat of war with the Ottoman Empire. Therefore, the prince returned to Warsaw for some time. Only in September Vladislav arrived in Smolensk, and Khodkevich’s troops approached Dorogobuzh. In early October, the voivode Dorogobuzh Adadurov sided with the Poles and kissed the cross to Vladislav as Russian Tsar. This caused a panic in Vyazma, local governors with part of the garrison fled to Moscow and the fortress was surrendered to the enemy without a fight. Obviously, this caused great enthusiasm in the Polish ranks. The Polish command, hoping to repeat the success of False Dmitriy in 1604, when he occupied Moscow without a fight, sent several voivods who came to the side of Vladislav, led by Adadurov, to the Russian capital to “seduce” Moscow people. But they were arrested and sent into exile.
The advanced Polish detachments reached Mozhaisk and attempted to take the city with a sudden blow. Mozhayskie governors F. Buturlin and D. Leontyev closed the gates and decided to stand to death. Reinforcements immediately sent to Moscow to help them under the command of B. Lykov and G. Valuev. On the enemy’s path, the Moscow government put up three rati led by D. Pozharsky, D. Cherkassky and B. Lykov. Some advisers to Vladislav proposed on the move to attack the poorly fortified Mozhaysk and the weak Russian army standing here. But time for a trip to Moscow was lost. Mercenaries and Polish gentry demanded money. The treasury was empty. Winter came, there was little provision. Cossacks, not seeing prey and money, began to desert. As a result, the Polish army stopped in the Vyazma area for "winter apartments".
Having received the news about the "seat" of Vladislav in Vyazma, the Seym sent a letter to the commissars with a proposal to start peace negotiations with Moscow. At the end of December 1617, the royal secretary Jan Gridic was sent to Moscow with a proposal to conclude a truce before 20 on April 1618, exchange prisoners and begin peace talks. Moscow boyars refused him. The Sejm decided to continue the fighting. Vladislav was returned to the units that had previously been sent to the southern border and transferred new forces at the head of Kazanovsky. As a result, the number of the Polish army was brought to 18 thousand people. In addition, the Poles were inclined to speak out against the Zaporozhian Cossacks led by Hetman Peter Sagaidachny.
In early June 1618, the Polish army launched an offensive from Vyazma. Khodkevich proposed to go to Kaluga to the lands less devastated by the war, so that the troops could find provisions. But the commissars insisted on marching to Moscow. But Mozhaisk was on the enemy’s path, where he stood with the army of governor Lykov. Fights for the city began in late June. The Poles stood under the city, but could not conduct a full siege. The Poles could not storm this relatively weak fortress due to the lack of siege artillery and the lack of infantry. But they were afraid to leave the Russian fortress in the rear. Fierce fighting near Mozhaisk lasted more than a month. Then the main forces of the Russian army under the command of Lykov and Cherkassky, due to lack of food, moved to Borovsk. At the same time, the garrison of Fyodor Volynsky was left in Mozhaisk. He repulsed enemy attacks for a month. September 16, without taking Mozhaisk, Vladislav spoke to Moscow. At the same time, part of the Polish-Lithuanian army, without receiving a salary, returned home or scattered to plunder the Russian lands.
As a result, about 8 thousand soldiers were brought to Moscow by Vladislav and Khodkevich. September 22 (October 2), the Polish-Lithuanian army approached Moscow, sitting on the site of the former Tushino camp. Meanwhile, the Cossacks of Sagaidachny broke through the weakened southwestern borders of the Russian state. The main forces of Moscow were connected by battles with the Polish army, so the Cossacks could not be stopped. The Cossacks took and plundered Livny, Yelets, Lebedyan, Ryazhsk, Skopin and Shatsk. The main part of the Cossacks scattered for the robbery, several thousand people Sagaidachny led to Moscow. Cossacks are located at the Don Monastery. The garrison of Moscow totaled about 11-12 thousand people, but mainly it was the city militia and the Cossacks. The main line of defense passed through the fortifications of the White City.
Khodkevich did not have artillery, infantry, or supplies for a proper siege. He didn’t even have the strength for a full blockade; reinforcements could enter the city and troops to go out for sorties. The prolongation of the operation led to the strengthening of the garrison; there was a threat of the emergence of strong Russian troops in the enemy rear. The troops were unreliable, standing still led them to rapid decomposition. Therefore, the hetman decided to take the city almost on the move. Only a bold attack could lead to success. On the night of October 1 (11), 1618, the Poles launched an assault. Zaporizhzhya Cossacks were to launch a distracting attack in Zamoskvorechye. The main blow was inflicted from the west on the Arbat and Tver gates. The infantry was to break open fortifications, take the gate and clear the way for the cavalry. A successful breakthrough of the Poles led to the blockade of the Kremlin or even its capture with the Russian government.
The assault failed. The Cossacks were not in a hurry to storm the fortifications. The defectors warned the Russians about the main threat and reported the time of the attack. As a result, the Poles came up against stubborn resistance. The assault on the Tver Gate choked immediately. The holder of the Order of Malta Novodvorsky made a break in the wall of the Earth City and reached the Arbat Gate. But the Russians made a sortie. The enemy attack was repelled. Novodvorsky himself was wounded. By evening, the Poles were driven out of the fortifications of the Earth City. The Poles did not have forces for a new assault. But the Moscow government did not have the resources to go on a decisive counterattack and push the enemy away from the capital, to expel the Poles from the country. Negotiations have begun.
Peter Paul Rubens. Portrait of Vladislav Vazy, 1624
Negotiations began on October 21 (31), 1618 on the Presnya River near the walls of the Earth City. The Polish side is forced to remove the demand for the reign of Vladislav in Moscow. It was about the cities that were supposed to go to the Commonwealth, and the terms of the truce. Both the Russians and the Poles rested. Therefore, the first negotiations yielded nothing.
Winter has come. Vladislav left Tushino and relocated to the Trinity-Sergius Monastery. The Cossacks of Sagaidachnogo went south, ruined the settlements of Serpukhov and Kaluga, but could not take the fortresses. From Kaluga, Sagaidachny left for Kiev, where he declared himself the hetman of Ukraine. Approaching the Trinity Monastery, the Poles tried to take it, but were reflected by artillery fire. Vladislav took the troops from the monastery 12 miles and set up a camp near the village of Rogachev. Poles scattered throughout the region, robbing the surrounding villages.
In November 1618, armistice negotiations resumed in the village of Deulino, belonging to the Trinity Monastery. From the Russian side, the embassy was headed by: the boyars F. Sheremetev and D. Mezetskaya, the deceased A. Izmailov and the clerks Bolotnikov and Somov. Poland was represented by commissars seconded to the army. Objectively, time worked for Moscow. The second wintering of the Polish army was even worse than the first: the troops did not winter in the city of Vyazma, but almost in an open field, the distance to the Polish border increased significantly. The mercenaries murmured and threatened to leave the army. Moscow at that time could strengthen the defense, the army. There was the prospect of the complete destruction of the enemy. At the same time, the foreign policy situation for Warsaw was extremely unfavorable. Poland was threatened with war by Turkey and Sweden (the war with the Turks and Swedes began in 1621). And in Moscow they knew about it. Also in Western Europe in 1618 the Thirty Years War began and the Polish king Sigismund immediately got into it. In conditions when the prince Vladislav could get stuck with the army in the Russian forests.
However, subjective factors interfered in the affairs of the Russian embassy. So, the leadership of the Trinity-Sergius Monastery, was not worried about the fate of the western and southwestern Russian cities, but was worried about the prospect of the wintering of the enemy army in the monastery area and, accordingly, the ruin of the monastery estates. And most importantly, the government of Mikhail Romanov and his mother wanted to free Filaret at all costs and return him to Moscow. That is, the Romanov government decided to make peace at a time when the Poles had no chance of taking Moscow and could lose the army from starvation and cold. In the face of the threat of war with Turkey and Sweden.
As a result of December 1 (11), a truce was signed in Deulino for a period of 1618 years and 14 months in Deulino. The Poles received the cities they had already captured: Smolensk, Roslavl, Bely, Dorogobuzh, Serpeysk, Trubchevsk, Novgorod-Seversky with districts on both sides of the Desna and Chernigov with the region. Moreover, Poland was given a number of cities that were under the control of the Russian army, among them were Starodub, Peremyshl, Pochep, Nevel, Sebezh, Krasny, Toropets, Velizh with their districts and counties. Moreover, the fortress passed with guns and ammunition, and the territory with residents and property. The right to go to the Russian state was received only by nobles with their own people, clergy and merchants. Peasants and townspeople remained in their places. Tsar Mikhail Romanov refused the title of "Prince of Livonian, Smolensk and Chernigov" and granted these titles to the Polish King.
The Poles promised to return the previously captured Russian ambassadors headed by Filaret. The Polish king Sigismund refused the title of "Tsar of Russia" ("Grand Duke of Russia"). At the same time, Vladislav retained the right to be called "the Tsar of Russia" in the official documents of the Commonwealth. The icon of St. Nicholas of Mozhaisk, captured by the Poles in 1611, was returned to Moscow.
Thus, the Time of Troubles in Russia ended in a very "obscene" world. The border between Poland and Russia moved far east, almost returning to the borders of the times of Ivan III. Russia has lost the most important strategic fortress in the western direction - Smolensk. The Commonwealth speech for a short time (before the capture of Livonia by the Swedes) reached its maximum size in its history. Warsaw retained the opportunity to claim the Russian throne. National interests were donated to the interests of the Romanov dynasty.
On the whole, a new war with the Commonwealth was inevitable in the future. Poland during the time of the Russian Troubles reached its maximum power, later it only degraded, which was used by Moscow (then Petersburg), step by step returning the West Russian lands to a single power, uniting parts of a single Russian people.