Military Review

How the Polish army stormed Smolensk

41
Assault Smolensk


After exploring the fortifications of Smolensk and discussing at the military council ways of mastering the fortress, hetman Stanislav Zolkiewski was forced to report to King Sigismund III that the Polish army did not have the forces and means necessary for assault: numerous infantry, siege artillery and appropriate supplies and equipment. He proposed to the king to confine himself to the blockade of the fortress, and to go to the capital of the Russian kingdom as the main forces.

However, the king considered retreat disgrace for himself. Leaving a strong fortress in the rear seemed dangerous, and it looked like a light, seductive prey. In addition, reinforcements arrived - 10 ths. Cossacks Olevchenko. On the side of the king lay chieftain Nalyvayko. For the excesses in the Vladimir region, the False Dmitry and the Tushino boyars were angry with him, and he went to the Polish king. Numerous Cossack troops almost did not participate in the siege, but flooded with gangs the western Russian counties, blocking all roads and thus creating the outer ring of Smolensk’s environment.

As a result, the king decided to seize Smolensk by all means and rejected the proposal of Zolkiewski. Fulfilling the royal will, hetman Zolkiewski ordered the storming of the fortress to begin on the night of September 25. It was planned to destroy the Kopytitsky (western) and Avraamiyevsky (eastern) gates with subversive shells and break through them into the Smolensk fortress. For the assault, infantry companies of the German and Hungarian mercenaries were allocated, and the best mounted hundreds were prepared to break through the gates. To distract the garrison was gun-gunnery around the perimeter of the fortress. She was supposed to create the appearance of a general assault on the Russian fortress.

Mikhail Shein provided for such a scenario, and all the gates of the fortress were previously covered with log cabins filled with earth and stones. This protected them from siege artillery fire and possible explosions. For the passage, narrow gaps were left, into which one person could pass, and it was easy to defend them with small forces (they later fell asleep). As a result, Polish sappers were able to destroy only the Avraamiev gate, but Polish troops did not receive a conditional signal and were discovered. The defenders of the eastern wall lit torches, saw the enemy and covered the order of artillery prepared for the attack. Polish forces, standing in tight rows, suffered heavy losses and withdrew. Thus, the night assault was foiled.

However, the Polish command did not abandon the assault. September 25-27 were fighting hard. The Poles moved the main direction of impact on the northern and western walls. The most fierce battle unfolded along the northern walls at the Dnieper and Pyatnitsky gates, and along the western wall - at the Kopytinsky gate. The attacks of the Poles were everywhere reflected, with significant losses for them. A major role in the success of the defense was played by the reserve created in time by Shein, who was quickly transferred to the most threatened sectors. In addition, the defenders of the fortress, reflecting the attacks of the enemy, at the same time improved the system of fortifications. The gaps were immediately repaired, the gates, without which it was possible to do, were covered with earth and stones, the log houses in front of the gates were covered with a fence with a guard.

After the failure of the assault, the Polish command did not abandon plans to capture Smolensk. The Poles decided in a short time to weaken the defense of the Russian fortress with the help of engineering work and artillery fire, and then begin a second assault. However, the effectiveness of the fire turned out to be low, the Poles had little artillery, and besides, they were low-powered cannons that could not bring serious damage to the powerful walls of the fortress. The fortress artillery of the Russian garrison fired a successful response fire, inflicted great damage to the Poles, disrupted engineering training. In this situation, Sigismund was forced to abandon the re-assault of the fortress, and from October 5 1609, the Polish army moved to the siege.

Shein mobilized the entire population of the city in November “for all the torch and the sacrum and for all the townships and the streets ... for painting on the city ... with every fight, and those people would stand in full and in their place with their fight without any reservations with great care on the lookout, and there will be no death penalty on the painting on the city, and that will be executed by death. "

How the Polish army stormed Smolensk

Source: E. A. Razin. History military art

Siege

The engineering work of the Poles was also not successful, although they were led by experienced foreign specialists. Under the foundations of the walls of the fortress were "rumors" - galleries intended for attacks outside the fortress and mine action. Voevoda Shein ordered to build additional "rumors", to strengthen intelligence on the approaches to the fortress. Russian warriors launched countermining work.

16 January 1610, the Russian miners got to the Polish undermining and destroyed the enemy who was there, and then blew up the gallery. Some military historians, for example, E. A. Razin, believe that this was the first underground battle in military history. 27 January Smolensk miners won another victory over the enemy. The Smolensk warriors installed a powerful pishchal in the gallery this time and loaded it with a core with a “stinking” composition (saltpeter, gunpowder, sulfur, vodka and other substances). The tunnel was blown up. Soon Smolensk could blow up another Polish mine, proving the futility of waging a mine war against them. Thus, the Russian warriors won the underground war of the winter of the 1609-1610 years.

At the same time, when there was an underground war, the Russian garrison made attacks, in which hundreds of warriors participated, not giving the Polish army a quiet living. Also, the attacks were made in order to get water in the Dnieper (it was not enough in the fortress, or the quality of the water was low), and in the winter for firewood. So, during one of the sorties, several Smolensk citizens moved by boat across the Dnieper, quietly made their way into the Polish camp, captured the royal banner and returned safely to the fortress. At the same time, a partisan struggle unfolded in the Smolensk region, which is not surprising, given the customs of the armies of the time - the supply at the expense of the local population (actual robbery), looting, violence against people. Partisans strongly interfered with the enemy, attacking his foragers, small units. An outstanding Russian commander Skopin-Shuisky helped in the organization of the partisan movement. He sent military specialists to Smolensk to organize sabotage war and disorganize the enemy’s rear.



Klushinskaya catastrophe and its impact on the defense of the Smolensk fortress

The siege of Smolensk shackled a large part of the Poles' army, which allowed Skopin-Shuisky to accomplish a number of victories, vast areas in the north-west of the Russian state were cleared of the enemy, and the Tushinsky camp of Lzhedmitry II was eliminated. In March, 1610 was able to free the capital from the siege. Subsequently, Skopin’s detachments smashed several Polish and Tushino detachments and freed the road to Smolensk.

Thus, you can speak at Smolensk. All conditions were created: a strong army was formed; crushed by the auxiliary forces of the enemy; Smolensk road cleared. However, Skopin died suddenly (apparently, he was poisoned). Dmitry Shuisky, a talentless one, was appointed commander-in-chief of an excellent army created and trained by Skopin. According to Polish data, under the authority of Shuisky there were 40 thousand Russian soldiers and 8 thousand mercenaries of Delagardi. According to other sources, the Russians were 20-30 thousand. Mercenaries - 7-8 thousand people.

24 June (4 July) 1610, near the village of Klushino, the troops of Shuisky were attacked by the army of Hetman S. Zolkiewski. According to various data, the Polish army numbered from 7 to 12,5 thousand people, and consisted practically of the same cavalry and had no artillery. However, the relatively small Polish army defeated the numerically superior Russian-Swedish army of Shuisky and Delagardi. One of the main reasons for the decisive defeat was the fatal mistakes of the Russian commander, who placed the infantry troops behind the regiments of the noble cavalry, but without cover by field fortifications. The unpreparedness of the Russian-Swedish army to the battle also played its role. Not all the troops managed to take part in the battle, Shuisky did not have time to pull the 18 guns he had with him to the battlefield.

Mercenaries and Russian cavalry withstood the first attacks of the winged hussars of Zolkiewski. A persistent battle lasted for several hours. However, in the end, the noble cavalry overturned by the Poles fled and overturned their infantry on the way. Most of the troops fled through the forests, Shuisky with several thousand archers and artillery confused and sat down in the camp, refusing to continue the struggle. Delagardi mercenaries (mostly French and Scots), realizing that the battle was lost, changed the Russian. They began negotiations with Zolkiewski. A part went over to the side of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the rest were promised free passage for the promise of no longer fighting against Sigismund III in the Russian kingdom. Seeing the departure of the Swedes, the remaining Russians fled. In addition, after learning about the defeat of the main army, blocked before Tsarevo Zamische, before the battle, another part of the Russian army (detachments of F. Yeletsky and G. Valuev, about 8 thousand people) folded weapon and moved to the side of the Poles.

Thus, the Russian army ceased to exist. The Swedes after Klushinsky defeat went to the north, received reinforcements and began to seize the Novgorod land. The Polish army was significantly strengthened by the mercenaries who had transferred to the service of Sigismund, the Russian troops, who swore allegiance to Prince Vladislav. Following the defeat in Moscow, Vasiliy Shuysky was overthrown (he was tonsured as a monk) and the temporary boyar government of Semiboyarshchina was formed (“Bolar power”), which, in fear of Falsdmitry II and not being able to retain power on its own, swore to Vladislav and let in Moscow Zolkiewski army. However, Smolensk, and in the absence of hope for outside help, continued to resist until the summer of 1611.


Polish commander of the beginning of the XVII century, the great hetman and Chancellor the great crown Stanislav Zolkiewski

The fall of the Russian stronghold

The position of Smolensk was hopeless, but neither the lack of outside help, nor the siege, nor hunger and disease broke the courage of the Russian people. While the forces of the defenders dried up, and there was no help, more and more reinforcements arrived to the Polish army. In the spring of 1610, under the fortress, Polish troops arrived, who had previously served the second impostor. Significant forces came from the Commonwealth. The number of landsknechts - German mercenaries increased. In total, the army received 30 thousand reinforcements and siege artillery. Then the Polish army intensified when the Russian army was defeated at Klushin. But the garrison was not going to surrender, all the attempts of the Poles to persuade Smolyan to surrender were not successful.

In July, the Polish army resumed active engineering work on 1610, while the resulting siege artillery and walling machines began to be used simultaneously. Polish engineers laid the trenches and began to move to the tower at the Kopytitsky gate. The garrison led trenches to counteract the advancement of the enemy and the Russian warriors destroyed part of the moves of the enemy. Although the Poles did reach the tower, all attempts to break through its powerful foundation did not lead to success. By July 18, having concentrated almost all their siege artillery here, the Poles were able to make a dent. 19 July morning Polish army went on a decisive assault on the fortress, which lasted two days. Demonstrative actions were conducted on the entire front of the fortifications, and the main blow, by the forces of German mercenaries, was carried out in the area of ​​the Kopytitsky gate (from the west). But the defenders, despite his desperate efforts of the enemy, repelled the assault. The decisive role was played by reserve units, which were brought into battle in time. 11 August defenders of the fortress repelled the third big assault. The Polish army lost up to 1 thousand people only killed.

The new Moscow government (Seven Boyarshchina) sent Shein an order to surrender the city to the Polish king. However, Shein, on his own initiative, refused to comply with this order, which was also supported by the townspeople. The angry Sigismund III gave the Smolensk three-day ultimatum on pain of death to surrender the city, but after the deadline Smolensk responded with a successful foray, undermining the battery of the Riga cannons, which they undermined. This forced the king to demand new cannons from Slutsk and provided Smolenians with another two months of respite. November 21 garrison repelled the fourth assault. The main role in repelling the enemy was again played by the reserve. The Polish army suffered significant losses and again moved to the siege, not taking active steps.

Winter 1610-1611 It was very difficult for the Russian fortress. The hunger and the epidemics that weakened people were joined by the cold; there were not enough people to go out for firewood. There was also a shortage of ammunition. As a result, by the beginning of the summer of 1611, only about 200 fighters, who were capable of holding a weapon in their hands, remained alive in the fortress garrison. This number was barely enough for perimeter surveillance. Each warrior had to watch the 20 — 30-meter section of the fortress wall. There was no more reserves. Of the residents of the city, no more than 8 thousand survived, who were on the verge of survival.

Apparently, the Poles did not know about the catastrophic position of the garrison, and the assault would have started earlier. The Polish command took the decision on the fifth assault only after one defector from the fortress, a certain Dedeshin, spoke about the plight of Smolensk. He pointed out the weakest point of defense of the fortress in the western part of the Smolensk wall. In recent days, before the decisive assault, the Polish army subjected the fortifications to powerful shelling. But its efficiency was still low, it was possible to break a small gap only in one place.

In the evening of June 2, the last assault on the city began. The Poles were able to blast down part of the wall. Through the breach, the Poles broke into the city. At the same time in another place, the German mercenaries climbed the stairs to that part of the fortress wall, which even at night there was no one to protect. A handful of Smolensk defenders headed by voivod Mikhail Shein gave the final battle to the enemy, trying to stop the enemy from breaking through. Several dozen Russian soldiers in a fierce battle with the enemy killed almost everything.

Despite the stalemate, Smolensk did not surrender, they continued to fight in the city, a fierce battle on the streets went all night. The last stronghold of defense was the Assumption Cathedral on the Cathedral Hill, in the basements of which were stored stocks of gunpowder. About 3 thousands of people, mostly old men, women and children, sheltered there. When the last defenders of the Cathedral Hill fell in battle with the enemy, the Smolensk citizens set fire to the powder cellar and blew themselves up together with the enemies so as not to be captured by the cruel enemy. Unknown Russian patriots preferred death to captivity ...

Wounded Shein, entrenched with a handful of warriors in one of the fortress towers, the Poles captured and subjected to brutal torture. During the interrogation, the courageous commander was asked who advised him and helped him stay in Smolensk for so long? To which he replied: "No one in particular, because no one wanted to give up." Shein was sent to Lithuania. There he was held in chains for nine years.


Kopyten tower

Results

20-month unprecedented defense of Smolensk ended on a high note. The Russian garrison fought to the end, having exhausted all defensive capabilities. What the enemy could not do, made hunger, cold, and disease. The Russian garrison fell in battle entirely, out of tens of thousands of city dwellers, several thousand people survived, sick and completely exhausted. Smolensk was an example of all of Russia, how to fight the enemy - to the last, even without hope of success.

The defense of Smolensk once again showed the heroism and self-sacrifice that the Russian people, who had risen to fight with the enemies, are capable of. The heroes of Smolensk became an example for the whole Russian kingdom, including the warriors of the First and Second militias. In all corners of the Russian land, anxiety and pain followed the course of the struggle for the Smolensk fortress. So, the heroic defense of Smolensk set as an example to his warriors voivod Dmitry Pozharsky.

Unfortunately, in modern Russia, the image of the heroic Smolensk, its governor, defenders and residents is almost unknown. Although the heroic defense of Smolensk is worthy of big historical films, serials. And the images that Smolensk gave us can help in the patriotic education of the younger generations. But, the current leaders of the "culture" prefer to shoot pro-American "pop", aimed at fooling, westernizing and decomposing young people.

In the military-strategic sense, the long defense of Smolensk played a big role in the future fate of Russia. The Smolensk garrison, residents of the city for almost two years bound the main forces of the enemy's army, thwarted the plans of the Polish leadership for the lightning campaign and the occupation of the vital centers of Russia. And this created the conditions for a successful national liberation struggle of the Russian people against the interventionists. They fought and died for good reason. Sigismund used all available financial and material resources to form a large siege army. The Polish army was drained of blood (having lost up to 30 thousand people) and was not able to throw at Moscow. Sigismund III did not dare to immediately go to the Russian capital in order to strengthen the local Polish garrison and led the troops to Poland, where they were disbanded. To march on Moscow in 1612, he was forced to use the Lithuanian troops of Hetman Hodkiewicz, himself speaking only in the fall of 1612, could not take Volokolamsk and was forced to turn back. Smolensk itself again became part of the Commonwealth and was returned to Russia in 1654 year.

From the point of view of military art, the defense of the Smolensk fortress is a classic example of the defense of a fortified position. It should be noted that Smolensk’s good preparation for defense helped its relatively small garrison without any outside help, relying only on its own strength and resources to successfully withstand the 4 assault, a significant number of small attacks, siege numerically, professionally and technically superior army of the enemy. The garrison not only beat off assaults, but also actively counterattacked, was able to deplete the forces of the Polish army so much that even after the capture of Smolensk, the Polish army lost its offensive power.

Russian warriors showed a high level of military art. This was manifested in the high activity of the garrison, the stability of the defense, the skillful use of artillery, the victory in the underground war against Western military specialists. The command of the fortress skillfully used the reserve maneuver, continuously improving the defense of Smolensk during the conduct of hostilities. The garrison showed high morale, courage and ingenuity until the very last moments of defense. As a result, the fall of the fortress was caused not by the mistakes of the garrison, but by the complete exhaustion of its forces (there was simply no one to fight) and the weakness of the government of Vasily Shuisky, the lack of talent of a number of royal military leaders who could not unblock the besieged fortress.
Author:
Articles from this series:
Troubles

Folk hero Kuzma Minin and Smoot
How the False Dmitry I was killed
How suppressed the uprising Bolotnikov
How the False Dmitry II tried to take Moscow
The ruin of the Russian land. Heroic defense of the Trinity Monastery of St. Sergius
Skopin-Shuisky's hike: the battles of Torzkom, Tver and Kalyazino
How did the Polish invasion begin? Completion of the liberation of Moscow by the army of Skopin-Shuisky: the battle on the Karinsky field and near Dmitrov
The heroic defense of Smolensk
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  1. Sergey-8848
    Sergey-8848 21 July 2016 06: 46
    +14
    The heroic defense of Smolensk 1610-11 a worthy book by Vladimir Medinsky (not a minister at that time) is dedicated "Wall".
    1. Aleksander
      Aleksander 21 July 2016 08: 59
      +20
      Quote: Sergey-8848
      The heroic defense of Smolensk 1610-11 a worthy book by Vladimir Medinsky (not a minister at that time) is dedicated "Wall".

      There is also a wonderful book Kargalov "Generals of the 17th century" which tells about the governor Shein, the siege of Smolensk and Skopin-Shuisky, who was ready to lift the siege from Smolensk.

      Honor and glory to fellow countrymen-Smolyans who defended the Russian land!

      Excellent article!
      1. Artyom
        Artyom 21 July 2016 19: 46
        +5
        Warrior City (Leonid Trump)
        Smolensk! When from the top of our day
        I’m looking at these construction sites, towers, chapters,
        I can not help but think about yours
        stories simple and stately.
        For centuries, midnight burst of lightning
        flashed on the Dnieper slopes
        big-eyed loopholes
        and ribbed helmets of the bastions.
        Not once, not two choked
        other people's swords over the moats of the serfs -
        not crushed by the crusaders of all time
        from the face of the earth is your holy name.
        You got up again, looked from high steeps,
        dashing fire has been lashed many times,
        you are the phoenix, the shield of Russia, the key city,
        you are a symbol of our Russian military glory.
        No wonder the enemy, approaching barely,
        ran into a straight and impudent blow,
        because the first cry is that behind Moscow,
        sounded here, in the battle of Smolensk.
        Steel went to steel, wall went to the wall,
        behind a flurry, a flurry of fierce attacks,
        and the image of General Lukin
        resembled the features of Bagration.
        Soldier trihedral bayonet
        there was a formidable volley of “Katyusha” given to help,
        to any partisan regiment
        attributed was dashing Denis Davydov.
        The enemy was on our flies every day,
        with your lead punishing proporot,
        Stood among the burned villages
        burnt but fighting city.
        Standing-unconquered, uneasy
        stood-strong and past and future,
        stood with the dedication of that
        which is so inherent in Smolensk ...
  2. quolta
    quolta 21 July 2016 07: 02
    +19
    It is nice to read such articles about your hometown. I also read Medinsky’s book and the pshek’s in general near Smolensk are not lucky either the siege of 20 months, then Katyn, or a plane crash of the presidential plane
    1. uskrabut
      uskrabut 21 July 2016 10: 46
      +9
      Maybe they don’t need to go to Smolensk? Generally! The energy there is anti-Pshekovo!
    2. xan
      xan 21 July 2016 11: 55
      +3
      Quote: Quantu
      It is nice to read such articles about your hometown. I also read Medinsky’s book and the pshek’s in general near Smolensk are not lucky either the siege of 20 months, then Katyn, or a plane crash of the presidential plane

      In Smolensk, the Russian armies united, but Napoleon was unable to win. At 41st Hitler was stopped there for the first time. From the film "Formula of Love" the hero of Farada: "I understand that all foreigners in Russia will die near Smolensk."
      Why did some rest and fight not for life but for death, while others gave up and went to the service of False Dmitry and the Poles? The confusion and vacillation of central authority, to put it mildly, is not very authoritative. It is correct that the king Shuisky was tonsured, it was him who poisoned Skopin, could not establish a dynasty. In my opinion, Skopin had to finish Shuisky, despite the possible next mess, he needed to understand that the tsar would not forgive the return of the throne from the commander’s hands. All trouble Troubles in the weak central authority and especially the wretched personality of the king himself. Skopin would be strong.
    3. FM-78
      FM-78 21 July 2016 14: 08
      +1
      Pshekam is generally unlucky in this world.
      1. andrew42
        andrew42 21 July 2016 14: 34
        +9
        Yes, Poles from the road in the 10th century lost their way. The core of the Slavic lands became an anti-Slavic warlike sh..hoy. Sorry for being rude. After the time of Boleslaw the Brave, Catholicism to the Poles removed the patrimonial memory completely.
      2. T-73
        T-73 21 July 2016 16: 56
        +2
        + nothing to add
    4. T-73
      T-73 21 July 2016 16: 53
      +1
      Lucky one who is lucky. But this is not about Pshekh. Ask the Pskov people. As they gave the trends - it still is
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 21 July 2016 07: 39
    +10
    Smolensk land .. sent a detachment for the Minin and Pozharsky Militia ..
  4. Korsar4
    Korsar4 21 July 2016 07: 40
    +9
    Fyodor Kon built well. Every city has its own glory. But the "key city", perhaps, one.
  5. Kenneth
    Kenneth 21 July 2016 07: 48
    0
    Interestingly Razin and other Soviet historians heard about the mine war during the siege of Constantinople
  6. igordok
    igordok 21 July 2016 07: 55
    +6
    Thank you.
    On many ancient European maps, Smolensk is called -Smolenscium. Cool, somehow solid, like a chemical element.
    The defense of Pskov, again from the Poles, in 1580-1581. it was also difficult and it was not necessary to count on outside help. But managed to survive.
    Mikhail Shein provided such an option for the development of events, and all the gates of the fortress were covered in advance by log cabins filled with earth and stones.
    In Pskov, the gates were never walled up; they preferred active defense. Yes, and the gate was tricky, with a hitch. Although in the defense of the 1580-1581, the gates did not particularly help.

    1. igordok
      igordok 21 July 2016 07: 58
      +6
      An interesting French drawing about the defense of Pskov. In Yandex translation - Terrible Ivan.
      1. igordok
        igordok 21 July 2016 12: 44
        +2
        Hooray-ahhhhh!
        The images restored during editing were restored to the VO. Thank. Sorry for the take picture, but in the morning there was no first picture. fellow
    2. igordok
      igordok 21 July 2016 09: 50
      +5
      Quote: igordok
      Mikhail Shein provided such an option for the development of events, and all the gates of the fortress were covered in advance by log cabins filled with earth and stones. In Pskov, the gates were never walled up; they preferred active defense. Yes, and the gate was tricky, with a hitch. Although in the defense of the 1580-1581, the gates did not particularly help.

      Although
      On October 25, the Russians made a sortie and captured the banner of the infantry regiment of the headman of Sandetsky. A symbolic but enjoyable achievement.

      Taken from http://historicaldis.ru/blog/43217671568/Geroicheskaya-oborona-Smolenska-1609---
      1611-gg? Tmd = 1

      P.S. While looking for information for comment, you find for yourself quite a lot of new information, not even related to the article. Thank.
  7. moskowit
    moskowit 21 July 2016 08: 12
    +9
    Thanks to the author for articles related to the "Military Archive" topic. I always read with great pleasure. The material is capacious, informative, with an objective presentation of historical facts ...
  8. Nicola Bari
    Nicola Bari 21 July 2016 08: 25
    +9
    Great article. It is a pity that this does not spread more widely - there is something to be proud of, there is something to learn.
  9. Andrey160479
    Andrey160479 21 July 2016 09: 22
    +6
    Thanks to the author, I learned a little new about my hometown.
  10. Alexey-74
    Alexey-74 21 July 2016 09: 29
    +5
    Glory to Russian weapons !!! Smolensk - our western fortress has repeatedly blocked the path to the conquerors.
  11. Black cat
    Black cat 21 July 2016 09: 50
    +4
    Thank you so much for the article! Hope to continue.
  12. thinker
    thinker 21 July 2016 11: 16
    +5
    And the images that Smolensk gave us can help in the patriotic education of the younger generations. But, the current figures of "culture" prefer to remove the pro-American "pop", aimed at fooling, Westernization and corruption of youth.
    There are cultural figures without quotes. Watch the new cartoon "Fortress: With Shield and Sword" (2015) about the events described.
    http://kino-filmi.net/5232-krepost-schitom-i-mechom-2015.html
  13. kenig1
    kenig1 21 July 2016 12: 08
    +2
    Was in Smolensk once in 1993, the amazing beauty of temples and churches. I remember the horse’s wall (if I’m not mistaken) and the legend about the note-prediction walled up in this wall.
  14. Trapperxnumx
    Trapperxnumx 21 July 2016 12: 11
    +5
    But in fact it turns out that if there had not been this heroic defense, there would have been no success of the people's militia ...
  15. moskowit
    moskowit 21 July 2016 12: 23
    +1
    A small remark ... Unfortunately, the author does not indicate the sources that he used to write the article. Sometimes, the material presented, for a deeper understanding, requires a wider base of the information field ...
  16. certero
    certero 21 July 2016 18: 00
    0
    The defense of Smolensk is undoubtedly a feat. Only, like every feat, it is a consequence of someone's sloppiness or inability. The walls around the city were built shortly before the events, but for some reason, according to the old standards, already outdated by then. The Italian new fortification, where high walls, vulnerable to cannon fire, replaced low and thick casemates was already known and applied. Build these fortifications around Smolensk, and the Poles under them would break off. Moreover, with such a talented governor at the head of the defense.
    1. xan
      xan 22 July 2016 19: 55
      +4
      Quote: certero
      The defense of Smolensk is undoubtedly a feat. Only, like every feat, it is a consequence of someone's sloppiness or inability. The walls around the city were built shortly before the events, but for some reason, according to the old standards, already outdated by then. The Italian new fortification, where high walls, vulnerable to cannon fire, replaced low and thick casemates was already known and applied. Build these fortifications around Smolensk, and the Poles under them would break off. Moreover, with such a talented governor at the head of the defense.

      Firstly, it’s not always someone’s feat due to sloppiness of some, it’s enough to shine with commonplace,
      secondly, low and thick casemates were used not by Italians, but by Frenchman Vauban 150 years later than the builders of Smolensk; low casemates are easy to take in battle with melee weapons,
      third and foremost - Smolensk fell not from the influence of the enemy, but from the depletion of the garrison due to a long siege. What are the claims to the fortress when there are defenders in it, one per 50 meters of the wall?
  17. tiaman.76
    tiaman.76 21 July 2016 18: 18
    +4
    an unprecedented defense of Smolensk .. an indicator of the Russian spirit .. until the end to defend their homeland .. until the last breath .. despite the betrayal of the boyars of leaders from Moscow who conspired with the invaders
    1. NordUral
      NordUral 5 October 2016 17: 11
      0
      Exactly! Boyars are the headache of our country at all times. Ours is not an exception, rather the opposite.
  18. although
    although 21 July 2016 18: 53
    +2
    As for going to the cinema, this is not entirely true, the cartoon is sincere and even 3D "Fortress with a shield and a sword" is called ...
  19. slavick1969
    slavick1969 21 July 2016 19: 21
    +1
    it is a pity that little is said about these Heroes in modern Russia
  20. Kaetani
    Kaetani 23 July 2016 09: 04
    0
    Thanks to the author. It’s great to discover new pages. There is even a feeling of guilt that I did not know about this before. I sincerely want to see the Historical canvas in all cinemas of the country But with free and compulsory entry of children to the session. I want whole classes to go to him. And let the suffering and heroism of the Russian land and the people living in it see and know.
  21. Kaetani
    Kaetani 23 July 2016 09: 07
    0
    The flag of Matrasia crawled out somehow I don’t understand ....
    1. NordUral
      NordUral 5 October 2016 16: 49
      0
      Don’t you use a VPN for an hour? Any flag can come out there. Like mine now. Although my flag is one - red, Soviet.
  22. 2005 Aleksey
    2005 Aleksey 23 July 2016 12: 18
    +1
    To be honest, all of Belarus was part of Russia. yes. Until it was captured by the Lithuanian prince Algerd in the XNUMXth century.
  23. 2005 Aleksey
    2005 Aleksey 23 July 2016 13: 02
    0
    Error in the XNUMXth century
  24. dvg1959
    dvg1959 23 July 2016 21: 53
    +4
    Smolensk suffered greatly from the attacks of the Poles repeatedly, but always heroically won. I bow to the exploits of the inhabitants of this city.
  25. Jääkorppi
    Jääkorppi 1 August 2016 12: 27
    0
    If not, it would be nice to put a monument to Mikhail Shein !!
  26. NordUral
    NordUral 5 October 2016 16: 47
    +1
    But, the current figures of "culture" prefer to remove the pro-American "pop", aimed at fooling, Westernization and corruption of youth.
    For this, these figures from "culture" must be leaned against the wall.
  27. NordUral
    NordUral 5 October 2016 16: 52
    +1
    Thank you for a trip to Smolensk Time of Troubles! More to such publications. And it’s too painful a situation evoking analogies - they always betray their own.