On the eve of the battle
While the Polish army got stuck at Smolensk, the Russian army under Skopin-Shuisky’s command achieved impressive success, defeating the Poles and Tushins in several decisive battles. 12 March 1610 of the year Skopin-Shuisky entered Moscow, met as a national hero. Part of the Tushino went to the False Dmitry in a new camp in Kaluga. The other part of the Tushins and Poles gathered near Volokolamsk, where they finally quarreled and fought, hetman Rozhinsky fell ill and died (he might have been beaten to death). And this camp also split. Some of them left unconditionally to serve the Polish king — chieftain Zarutsky with several thousand Cossacks, part of the Poles. Getman Sapieha chose an alliance with a False Dmitry. A part of the Polish forces led by Zborowski continued to bargain with the king because of salary, demanding 100 thousand zlotys.
The Poles and the Cossacks captured the cities of the Seversk land, which had previously supported False Dmitry II. The population of Starodub and Pochep was completely slaughtered during the battle. Kiev sub-class Ermine captured Chernihiv, completely plundered. Polish Bishop Sigismund expressed displeasure, because these cities and their population had to move to the Commonwealth. Therefore, Novgorod-Seversky was treated more gently, the townspeople capitulated under the terms of the “Smolensk articles” about Vladislav’s vocation. Gonsevsky starved out White.
Thus, despite the fact that Skopin liberated Moscow and the cities of the north, north-west and part of the center, the situation was still difficult. The false Dmitry created the second camp in Kaluga, broke with the main part of the Polish detachments and put forward a patriotic program, which greatly strengthened the camp of his supporters. The Polish army besieged Smolensk and seized the Seversk land, threatened to strike at Moscow. Various detachments and gangs trashed and plundered the Russian lands.
Therefore Skopin-Shuisky singled out the main threat - the Polish army, and began to prepare for the campaign against Sigismund. Deciding to wait out the spring thaw, Skopin conducted the exercises of his troops and sent the vanguard under the command of Grigory Valuev. The army continued to grow: from the northwest, Horn marched with 4, thousands of mercenaries, and Odadurov's Novgorod militia. Skopin sent Khovansky detachment to meet them. Together they defeated the Poles near Rzhev, the interventionists fled, many drowned in the Volga. True, those who were able to escape the river, revenged, set fire to Rzhev, and the townspeople, mostly women and children, were driven to the shore and, in full view, the Russian-Swedish troops were massacred in the most cruel way. After such Poles were not taken prisoner, they killed everyone.
Taking Zubtsov, the troops of Gorn and Odadurov joined the Valuev detachment and hit Volokolamsk, where the Polish-Cossack detachment (about 2 thousand people) was under the command of Mr. Rutskoi. Rutskoi began to retreat, but on the way he was ambushed and was defeated by Valuev. During the battle, the Metropolitan of Rostov and Tushino Patriarch Filaret Romanov was released from captivity along with some other notable captives who were negotiating with the Polish king about calling Vladislav Vladislav to Moscow. They were sent to Moscow, and Shuisky decided to close his eyes to Philaret’s obvious betrayal and announced the famous church hierarch a freed prisoner.
It's time to speak on the liberation of Smolensk, but April 23, a successful young commander Skopin-Shuisky, died after a short illness. Most historians suggest that he was poisoned by Tsar Vasily Shuisky and his medically incompetent brother, Dmitry Shuisky, who envied the relative popularity of their relative and were afraid of losing power in his favor. Therefore, 40-thousand the army was headed by Dmitry Shuisky. The death of Skopin most negatively affected the future of the Russian kingdom.
Having headed the army, Dmitry Shuisky began shuffling and divided forces. He recalled foreign mercenaries from the forward detachments to himself, and sent several thousand Russian warriors to the vanguard of Valuev. Meanwhile, the avant-garde of Valuev, according to the old, Skopinsky plan, built a fortress at Tsarev Zaymische and waited for the main forces. But they were slow between Moscow and Mozhaisk, expecting the same foreigners. And the mercenaries again made a fight, demanding money. Voevoda Shuisky wrote to the king, Tsar Vasily wrote to the cities, raising funds. Finally, he said that the army would go to Mozhaisk, and there would be a pay as well.
Battle of Tsarev-Zaymischem (14-24 June 1610 g.)
Meanwhile, the Poles learned about the campaign of the Russian army to the rescue of Smolensk. Crown hetman Stanislav Zolkiewski, a good commander and an excellent diplomat, was sent to meet him. He was led by a small detachment - 6 thousand cavalry. Zolkiewski began to disseminate and promote the Smolensk agreement with the Tushino people. They say that the king did not come as a conqueror, but wants only to pacify poor Russia and is ready to give his son to the monarchs in exchange for the “thieves” and usurper Vasily Shuisky. The Polish command believed that the Zolkiewski detachment would be strengthened by those who had previously served the False Dmitry (Tushinsky thief). Indeed, the ataman Zarutsky arrived with the Cossacks, Mikhail and Ivan Saltykovs with a detachment of Russian Tushins. Poles Zborowski still bargained, demanding money for the service. But soon they joined Zolkiewski. Thus, the hetman Zolkiewski doubled the army to 12 thousand fighters.
Grigory Valuyev well learned the tactics of field fortifications and guards, thanks to which Skopin-Shuisky successfully fought against the formidable Polish cavalry, one of the best in Europe. His squad took defense in a well-fortified camp. Valuev, having received news of the approach of the Polish cavalry, decided to ambush the enemy. The road to Tsarev Zamishchu led through the dam, and he decided to trap the enemy on it. However, the enemy this time was more experienced. Polish intelligence found an ambush. The hetman pretended that he was not going to cross the dam in the evening, began to place his troops on the approaches to it. At night, the Cossacks made a detour and attacked the ambush. Valuev threw reinforcements into battle, but Zolkiewski had already thrown heavy cavalry over the dam. The Russians were crushed, and they retreated to the prison.
Attempts by Zolkiewski to take the fortified camp of the Russian squad for about 10 days were unsuccessful. Then the Polish hetman changed tactics. He walked around the camp of the Russian avant-garde under the command of Valuev and Yeletsky and located in its rear on Mozhaiskaya road, erecting roads, trenches and guards on the roads leading to the camp, in which he placed a hundred men of infantry and Cossacks. As a result, he cut off Yeletsky and Valuev from the communications that were used to transport food and the main forces of the Russian army. Valuev sent messengers for help to Dmitry Shuisky.
Thus, even before the start of a decisive battle, Zolkiewski was able to block the forward part of the Russian army and she was unable to take part in the main battle.
Attack of the banners of the winged hussars at the Battle of Klushin. Shimon Bogushovich painting
Battle of Klushin 24 June (July 4) 1610
A request for help found the Russian army in Mozhaisk. They brought money here, and furs to pay mercenaries. But Delagardi and Shuisky were greedy. Having learned about the proximity of the enemy, they decided to distribute their salaries after the battle, when the number of mercenaries diminished and the money saved to keep. Dmitry Shuisky made from Mozhaisk, turning right from the main road to get in touch with Valuev from the north, since all the roads to him from the south were blocked by Poles. On June 23 (July 3) he camped near the village of Klushino, where he was joined by Swedish troops led by Jacob DeLagardi. Allied commanders - Dmitry Shuisky, Jacob Delagardi and Evert Horn - hoped to attack Zolkiewski and unite with Valuev the next day.
However, the Poles did not wait until the enemy attacks them. Having learned that the enemy is standing in the 30 version of Tsarev-Zaimischa, Zolkiewski decided not to wait for the Russians to approach and to pre-empt them with a sudden blow. He left a small part of his troops for the blockade of Tsarev-Zaymische (several thousand Cossacks, carts, gunners and attendants), so that she portrayed the visibility of the whole army, and with selected cavalry, a small number of infantry and 2 guns headed for Klushin. The military council, initially convened by Zolkiewski, could not reach a definite decision: it seemed equally dangerous to wait for the enemy near Valuev, and go forward with insufficient forces, leaving a fortress with a large garrison in the rear. After all, Valuev, if he had learned about the departure of the main forces of Zolkiewski, could have broken his barrier and the Polish troops were between two fires. Zolkiewski, however, decided to strike first and made a bold and risky plan, planning to defeat the superior forces of the enemy with an unexpected night strike.
According to Polish data, Shuisky had up to 40 thousands of Russian soldiers and 8 thousands of mercenaries (Swedes, French, Germans, etc.) of an auxiliary Swedish corps under the command of J. Delagardi. According to other data, Russians were from 14 to 30 thousand people with 18 guns plus 5-7 thousand foreigners. Under Zolkiewski, there were about 12-13 thousand people, and some of the troops were occupied by the blockade of the Valuev camp near Tsaryov-Zaymische. As a result, Zolkiewski had a battle core of selected heavy cavalry, and he had little infantry and artillery.
Thus, the Russian-Swedish army had a serious numerical advantage, and numerous infantry and artillery. Using Skopin’s tactics, it was possible to stop the attack of enemy cavalry on field fortifications with the help of infantry and artillery. And then overturn the upset and bloodless enemy with cavalry. However, Shuisky missed the opportunity to defeat a strong but small enemy.
Firstly, the Russian-Swedish command showed surprising carelessness, being confident in the superiority of its troops, and did not send reconnaissance detachments. Knowing about the small forces of the hetman, the Russian and Swedish commanders were confident of victory. On the eve of the battle, Delagardi boasted to Shuisky that he would give the captive Zolkiewski a sable coat, in memory of the fact that Zolkiewski himself, having taken Delagardi captive earlier, presented him with a trot. As a result, at dawn, Zolkiewski stepped out of the forest to Klushin and attacked the Russian-Swedish army that was not expecting an attack. However, Zolkiewski's cavalry greatly stretched out on bad forest paths and more than an hour passed before it concentrated on the attack, which saved the Shuisky army from lightning defeat. The surprise attack of the enemy led to the fact that the Russian army could not use the existing artillery.
Secondly, the Russian-Swedish command made a fatal mistake when it abandoned Skopin’s tactics. The infantry was stationed behind the cavalry, but without cover by strong field fortifications. As a result, when the noble cavalry faltered and ran, then she trod down her infantry and the battle was lost.
Third, foreign mercenaries, when the smell of fried, betrayed the Russians and went over to the side of the Poles. The bet on mercenaries did not justify itself. They fought for money and were not going to fight on the principle of "stand to the death."
Contrary to Zolkiewski's expectations, the first attacks of the Polish heavy cavalry did not reach their goal. For several hours there was an equal struggle and the outcome of the battle was unclear. Only after 10 cavalry attacks did the Poles break through the line of the Russian-Swedish army. The noble cavalry overturned by the Poles crushed their infantry. Was injured advanced governor Vasily Buturlin. A significant part of the troops fled through the forests. Meanwhile, his infantry approached Zolkiewski and, with guns, fire and a decisive attack, they overturned the remaining Russian-Swedish forces. Most of the troops were defeated and fled, the smaller part with Dmitry Shuisky sat down in the camp and was not active.
The battle was finally lost after the betrayal of a part of the mercenaries (French, English and German regiments). Shuisky, in a desperate attempt to preserve the loyalty of hired soldiers, ordered the Swedes to distribute money, but the English and French mercenaries, outraged that they did not have a turn, raised a riot, ransacked his carts, and then began to rob the Russian wagon train. In the end, Delagardi concluded an agreement with Zolkiewski, having obtained from him the right of free passage of Swedish soldiers on neutral terms. The remaining mercenaries went over to the side of the Polish king. Shuisky himself fled in panic, leaving all his riches.
Battle plan near the village of Klushino 24 June 1610 of the year. Source: E. A. Razin "History military art "
In the evening of the same day, Zolkiewski returned from Klushin to Tsarev-Zaymshchu. Yeletsky and Valuev, who, sitting in a prison, did not even notice the absence of the main Polish forces, for some time did not believe in the defeat of the army of Dmitry Shuisky. Only after Zolkiewski presented noble captives to them, they surrendered the fortress without resistance and swore allegiance to King Vladislav. They set the following conditions: not to impose Catholicism in Russia; enter Moscow to Moscow without violence and destruction; to fight together with the Russians against the “Kaluga Tsar” of False Dmitry II and lift the siege of Smolensk. After that, Yeletsky went to the royal army near Smolensk, and Valuev joined Zolkiewski in his march on Moscow.
The remnants of the Russian army fled, and it actually ceased to exist. And the Zolkiewski army was strengthened by several thousand former Delagardi mercenaries who had transferred to the service of Sigismund III, and Valuev's eight-thousand army who had sworn allegiance to prince Vladislav after the defeat of Dmitry Shuisky. Zolkiewski removed the threat of Smolensk deblockade, the fortress was doomed to collapse due to the depletion of all resources. The Poles opened the way to Moscow, which there was no one to defend.
The Swedes began an open intervention in the north, seizing the Russian lands. Delagardi with a small detachment went north. There, receiving reinforcements, he began an open seizure of Russian territories, gradually approaching Novgorod. The Swedish general acted in full accordance with the instructions given to him by 30 June 1609 by King Charles IX. The Swedish king informed Delagardi that if the Poles won victories "in the war with the Russians, then he should try harder than ever to retain Novgorod in his power - is it pleasant to the Russians or not." Having seized Ladoga and besieged Korela (fortress fell 2 March 1611), the Swedes besieged Novgorod in early June 1611. 16 July Novgorod fell.
Klushinskaya disaster led to the fall of the regime of Tsar Vasily. 17 July after news of the death of the army near the village of Klushino, Tsar Vasily was overthrown and tonsured as a monk. To power had the boyars government - Seven Boyars. The government included seven boyars — Prince F. I. Mstislavsky, Prince I. M. Vorotinsky, Prince A. V. Trubetskoy, Prince A. V. Golitsyn, Prince B. M. Lykov, I. N Romanov, and F. I. Sheremetev. The new Moscow government tried to control the Russian state independently, but in the face of the threat from the Polish army of Zolkiewski and the danger of an uprising in the capital, it took a pro-Polish, opportunistic position.
In August, the Poles of Zolkiewski came to Moscow and the boyars government went to the direct betrayal of Russian national interests. "Seven Boyarschina" issued a famous decree not to elect representatives of the Russian clans as tsar, the consequence of which was the recognition by the sovereign of the son of the Polish king Vladislav. Then the "Bolar power" surrendered the enemy to Moscow itself. On the night of September 21 1610, the troops of Hetman Zolkiewski were brought into it. Seven Boyars was afraid of the people's anger and let foreigners in to protect them from the citizens. From that moment on, both in the capital and in the country, resistance to the policies of the Moscow boyar oligarchs began.
Klushinskaya catastrophe of the Russian army
- Alexander Samsonov
- Articles from this series:
Folk hero Kuzma Minin and Smoot
How the False Dmitry I was killed
How suppressed the uprising Bolotnikov
How the False Dmitry II tried to take Moscow
The ruin of the Russian land. Heroic defense of the Trinity Monastery of St. Sergius
Skopin-Shuisky's hike: the battles of Torzkom, Tver and Kalyazino
How did the Polish invasion begin? Completion of the liberation of Moscow by the army of Skopin-Shuisky: the battle on the Karinsky field and near Dmitrov
The heroic defense of Smolensk
How the Polish army stormed Smolensk
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