Caterpillar or Wheel: The Eternal Dilemma

Caterpillar or Wheel: The Eternal Dilemma
The British Warrior infantry fighting vehicle equipped with Soucy rubber caterpillars is undergoing intensive tests to confirm the concept of using them on medium-weight armored vehicles


In the community of operators of armored vehicles, it seems that the debate about the relative advantages and disadvantages of wheels and tracks will never end. Take a closer look at the potential benefits that each type of mover provides.

The need for platforms that can move around terrain of any type and act on the battlefield in the same battle formations with heavy armored vehicles, as a rule, determines the installation of a caterpillar mover. At the same time, medium and light armored vehicles, which usually drive on roads and which must be airborne to accelerate deployment, are usually wheeled.

The selection problem is complicated in the case of medium-sized platforms. The mass of these machines is increasing due to changes in operational requirements, and depending on the technological development of tracks and wheels, which can improve performance and mitigate any shortcomings, each type of mover can get an advantage here.

Steel does not give up


Tracked systems dominate the market for armored vehicles heavier than 30 tons, and although steel tracks still dominate, manufacturers of composite rubber equivalents are trying to gain a foothold in this market. The development of steel caterpillars is mainly associated with weight reduction. This is achieved through the use of lighter materials that can withstand the forces acting on them. First of all, they can be obtained through the development of special grades of high-strength steel.

William Cook, commercial director of Cook Defense Systems (CDS), a steel track developer and manufacturer, said they offer lighter options for their customers, including the British Army. CDS also supplies all components that are somehow connected to the tracks themselves, including drive sprockets, steering wheels, track and support rollers, etc.

“If you look at the light armored reconnaissance vehicle of the British Army Ajax, you will see: the caterpillar that we currently supply is about 15% lighter than the one we originally offered. We achieved this through the use of special modern materials and modern design and manufacturing tools. ”

He explained:

“We also use advanced finite element analysis and advanced bench testing to ensure the reliability of our lightweight tracked vehicles throughout their planned life. By the finite element analysis, it is checked whether there is "unnecessary" mass, we test the prototype tracks for destruction on a specially constructed stand in order to make sure that they can withstand the operating conditions. "

In the mass production process, CDS provides high quality products and guarantees the absence of defects due to X-ray inspection of 100% of the tracks. The company also provides a complete set of tools for assembly and maintenance with relevant instructions, and also sends technical teams to military units that advise and assist the crews of vehicles.

Steel tracks can be in the variant with one or two fingers. The difference is that the tracks are connected by either one or two fingers. One-finger tracks weigh less and provide good grip, which is why they are more suitable for light vehicles. Two-finger tracks are heavier and more suitable for tanks, but do not always provide similar characteristics, while they are also more expensive.

In steel tracks, the fingers are usually rubberized, that is, covered with a small layer of rubber, and this determines the service life of the tracks. A caterpillar with two rubberized fingers wears out twice the amount of rubber. CDS has invested considerable efforts and resources in research and development in the field of special wear-resistant rubber compounds used for the manufacture of fingers, pads and cleaners.

“Improving the performance of rubber compounds is very important to extend the life of the track," Cook said. CDS has at its disposal a specialized laboratory for testing and quality control of rubber compounds at the track production plant, and also works closely with British universities to develop more flexible rubber compounds.

Recently, the company also invested $ 6,4 million in its UK operations with the goal of moving all metal components into production and reducing dependence on third-party parts supplies, including fingers and staples. This has improved the rhythm of deliveries of tracks to the British army of its own production, which is very important, because the tracks are a highly consumable component during military operations and are extremely necessary to maintain the performance of armored vehicles.

Cook said that if the operators of armored vehicles ultimately want to have “full combat capabilities,” they cannot abandon the steel tracks because they allow you to overcome the most difficult terrain, including marshy soil and mud slopes.

Regarding medium-sized armored vehicles by mass, where the competition between steel and rubber tracks is most acute, Cook noted: “There will always be users who want to use their vehicles in large-scale military operations and therefore they will need steel tracks, but there will also be those who want to use "their vehicles in operations where it is necessary to travel long distances on various types of roads, or in peacekeeping operations or in support operations for which rubber tracks are more suitable."

Cook emphasized that since CDS is independent of the control of any developer or manufacturer of armored vehicles, such as BAE Systems or Krauss-Maffei Wegmann, it can offer its tracked systems to any manufacturer. CDS is working with Singaporean ST Engineering on the Hunter BBM, in the Middle East to modernize Russian cars, Turkish Otokar on its Tulpar BMP and German Rheinmetall on the Lynx BMP as part of the Australian Land 400 program.


Photo: SOUCY
For a project for a British combat support armored vehicle, a new mortar installation based on RBSL's Warrior armored vehicle was equipped with Soucy rubber caterpillars

Bridging the gap


Meanwhile, the performance of composite rubber tracks is constantly improving. Manufacturers want to compete not only with steel tracks in the field of heavy and medium armored vehicles, they also compete with wheeled solutions. Calvin Sloan of Soucy, a Canadian rubber track company, said his company is involved in most armored vehicle programs, and this is due to the opportunities offered by this type of track. “A long-standing debate on the topic“ Which is better: a caterpillar or a wheel? ”Always flared up again when it came to the mobility of armored vehicles. While the wheels, in particular the 8x8 cars, perform better on the road than steel tracks, the rubber tracks fit well in the niche between the wheels and the tracks. ”

Sloan explained that the road characteristics of rubber tracks allow a greater total distance that almost coincides with the mileage of the wheels, since the average distances between the breakdowns of the armored vehicles are approximately the same, but if you take a heavier car, then the rubber tracks actually provide greater mileage between the breakdowns.

“The 8x8 configuration as a whole has a total weight limit of about 35 tons; when you exceed it, you begin to lose mobility due to the size of the wheels and engine power, ”Sloan explained. - When this limit is exceeded and with the increase in the mass of the machine, the advantages of the caterpillar mover becomes more and more obvious. It is getting harder and harder to put forward arguments for 8x8 platforms, now composite rubber tracks are coming onto the stage and they will play their part up to about 47 tons. ”

Soucy is working on new brands of rubber compounds that will allow rubber tracks to work more efficiently on cars over 50 tons and will be able to challenge steel in the field of heavy armored vehicles. At present, Canada is undergoing operational tests of an obsolete Leopard 1 tank weighing approximately 42 tons, equipped with rubber tracks.

“We have chemists at the plant who work with different compounds and experiment with heat dissipation. These are complex substances, which is why others cannot make the right formula. It is not only about getting the caterpillar as a whole, but also about Kevlar fibers to prevent cracking of rubber and carbon nanotubes in combination with other chemicals to reduce heat and as a result increase durability ...
We experiment with this composition, derive the dependences on the mass of the machine so that it exactly matches it. As a rule, we make a truck from six different mixtures and then drive it on our Leopard test tank, analyze which segment works best and then take it and make a complete track out of it. Soucy is working on its latest formulations, which are specifically designed for machines weighing about 55 tons, and conducts tests to measure heat dissipation. ”

Sloan added that the company is located approximately two years from achieving practical results. Meanwhile, the target market for composite rubber tracks is medium vehicles weighing 35-48 tons. He noted that tracked platforms have better combat stability compared to explosive-sensitive wheeled vehicles, since a rubber track can absorb the blast wave. The probability of damage to steel tracks from an explosion is higher, while they create secondary damaging factors in the form of steel fragments.

According to Sloan, other advantages of rubber tracks include longevity, while rubberized steel tracks with glued rubber pads must be changed every 600 km. Steel tracks are also the cause of wear on drive wheels, sloths, track and support rollers, rubber pads, and of course the track links themselves. “With steel tracks, you are forced to change track rollers every 1500–2000 km, the same situation with rubber and rubber parts. The service life of the drive and guide wheels is 2000-3000 km, while for comparison, the rubber-rubber contact is much less destructive. "

The result of less wear and tear is a reduction in logistic support, which is another advantage along with a reduction in noise and vibration of up to 70%. Vibration can adversely affect combat systems, ammunition, electronics, and humans, as constant shaking over time leads to disastrous results. The use of rubber also reduces weight and improves fuel economy.

Competitive market


The company tested its composite rubber tracks on the British Army Warrior infantry fighting vehicle, initially to confirm the concept, and later as an offer for the Ajax program. At DSEI 2019, the company showed one of its mileage tracks and a new track on the Warrior for clarity. Sloan said the new tracks could be part of the Warrior BMP extension program if the Department of Defense wanted this, although no agreement has been received from him at this time. Rheinmetall BAE Systems Land (RBSL) uses Soucy rubber tracks on its Warrior mortar version for the British Armored Battlefield Support Vehicle program.

In September 2018, AS3 Redback vehicles from the South Korean company Hanwha Defense and Rheinmetall KF400 Lynx were selected as part of Phase 21 of the Australian Land 41 program for the new tracked infantry fighting vehicle. Soucy has its own rubber track for the AS21, and CDS has steel tracks for the Lynx. The wheeled platform was selected in an earlier Combat Reconnaissance Vehicle reconnaissance vehicle program, which turned out to be the Rheinmetall Boxer 8x8 APC.

The French army is often cited as an example of a military structure that replaced its tracked armored vehicles with wheeled ones, including medium armored personnel carriers and infantry fighting vehicles. This experience proved successful during operations in Mali, when wheeled armored vehicles and wheeled artillery were transferred to the capital of Senegal, Dakar, and then under their own power reached the Malian province of Gao.

Although not a single large army has followed the example of France, there is a clear tendency to purchase more mobile 8x8 wheeled vehicles of the middle weight category. Like Australia, the British Army chose Boxer for its Mechanized Infantry Vehicle program to replace the obsolete tracked FV430 armored personnel carriers.

Soucy installed its rubber track on the Malaysian army’s Adnan ACV-300 infantry fighting vehicle and, according to Sloan, they were approved by the United Nations for deployment in peacekeeping operations. The Soucy rubber track is also mounted on CV90s in two of the seven operating countries - Denmark and Norway.

Sloan emphasized:

“The question is whether tracks and wheels can work together in combined arms operations. With platforms with steel tracks, they will not be able to work together over long distances. It will be a logistical nightmare, but a composite rubber track closed the gap in opportunities. "

Another look


While CDS and Soucy see the great potential of tracked vehicle programs, wheeled armored vehicle manufacturers see the market a little differently. Peter Simson of Tyron Runflat said that there are only two large programs for tracked infantry fighting vehicles - the American Next Generation Combat Vehicle and the Australian Land 400 - while there are many programs for wheeled armored vehicles, for example, the British Boxer 8x8.

“We see these needs due to the fact that military operations in settlements and quick maneuver operations are expected rather than a traditional war. Most of all, the flexibility of the wheels is suitable here, and not the slowness of heavy armored vehicles on tracks ”.

Simson said that when using Tyron compound rubber resistant inserts, the availability of theater equipment is currently growing and that wheeled combat vehicles and support vehicles have no shortcomings and meet FINABEL Agreement pneumatic tire test standards. This standard is a strict set of criteria that wheels with military-resistant military-grade inserts should meet for various injuries.

The use of self-supporting wheels is very important, they allow the machine to continue its task in case of damage or flat tire.

“An impenetrable wheel includes a bedlock - a locking device, a special element of the rim that does not allow the tire to come off the rim, which ensures full maneuverability”,


- said Simson.

“Central tire pressure regulation systems are contributing. On modern combat vehicles, they allow the driver, if necessary, to bleed air and re-inflate tires in order to maximize grip on sandy or soft soils, which further improves maneuverability and increases the likelihood of the task. Without the bedlock, the wheel will simply spin on the tire, effectively immobilizing the car. ”


According to Simson, reinforced rubber tire sidewalls or inserts also play an important role, as they absorb shock and shock from various obstacles in rough terrain and provide reliable tire fixation.

“Conversely, composite or plastic solid inserts do not absorb shock and in case of breakage can seriously damage the wheel and tire, this can lead to a complete loss of mobility. In addition, it is impossible to guarantee a secure fit with plastic or composite inserts, as they, unlike rubber inserts, do not provide the compression necessary to hold the tire in place. ”

Tyron’s All-Terrain Rubber Multi-Part (ATR-MP) inserts ensure tire retention, absorb shock and also reduce logistic load, since special mounting tools are not needed, that is, the tire can be replaced using standard tools. Simson noted that this was the reason why products with this technology are the company's most popular products.

ATR-MP insert is usually made of three parts, which are bolted to each other, ensuring a tight fit around the wheel. During installation, one of the tire beads is applied to the rim, then an impact-resistant insert is installed and finally a second bedlock is added. In the case of military-style wheels, the insert is usually made of two parts that are bolted together to ensure a secure fit. Composite inserts use a steel core to provide strength and rigidity, and the surrounding rubber ensures fixation and shock absorption.

“We also offer Tyron ATR-Carbon inserts that use carbon fiber instead of a metal base and some rubber. In this case, all characteristics are preserved, but the mass decreases by about 40%, "


- said Simson.

“For users of standard one-piece all-in-one-piece discs, Tyron has developed Tyron ATR-Custom technology. "This insert has all the advantages of Tyron ATR-MP technology, but consists of only two parts."


- he added.

At DSEI, the company introduced the Tyron ATR-SP (single-piece) solid rubber insert.


DCD Protected Mobility Springbuck 4x4 armored vehicle equipped with Tyron ATR high-speed wheels is being tested in South Africa

Expected Needs


Simson believes that due to the expanding market for wheeled armored vehicles, the demand for composite rubber inserts is correspondingly growing. Tyron also supplies products for Lugar and Milos armored vehicles from Yugoimlort, Springbuck and Mountain Lion vehicles from DCD Protected Mobility, Acmat Light Tactical Vehicle 4x4 and Timsah / Crocodile 4x4 Egyptian vehicle.

The French company Texelis, which manufactures the chassis of armored vehicles, believes that the French Scorpion program is a good example of the transition from tracked to wheeled vehicles. The main driver here is the need for increased mobility. This was announced by a company representative, noting that this transition is limited mainly to machines weighing less than 35 tons. The company received a contract to develop a Serval 4x4 machine for the French army.

According to Texelis, the increased mobility requirements of many armies are a reaction to the development of technologies such as swarm drones, artificial intelligence and continuous surveillance on the battlefield. The company representative added that in connection with the development of power transmission technologies, the wheels are becoming more reliable, "for example, complex suspension systems, centralized tire pressure regulation systems and technology for internal resistant inserts." This makes wheeled solutions more stable and adaptable to various conditions, including military operations in settlements. ”

Despite the growing competition from rubber tracks, wheels are still being considered as the preferred choice for armored vehicles that move mainly on roads, but as the mass of these vehicles increases, the problem becomes more acute. The representative of Texelis noted:

“Today, there are two rather acute problems: payload (due to booking kits plus more electronic and power generation equipment) and durability (compared to steel tracks).”

The debate about what is best for armored vehicles, a caterpillar or a wheel, will continue further, as there is growing competition in the market for medium-class vehicles by weight. Technological development makes it difficult to decide on the choice of one propulsion, but it is beneficial to the military, since the mobility of armored vehicles will improve in any case.
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  1. kashcheevo egg 20 January 2020 18: 05 New
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    Yes, and so it is. With barmales in the desert, it’s better on wheels, and in our autumn-spring thaw, no wheels will help, at least 3x3, even 4x4. Only caterpillars, after the column of technology all the roads to the trash will be ....
    1. Mavrikiy 20 January 2020 18: 19 New
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      You can only wish them: more than 2x2 with a weight of more than 20 tons.
    2. Proxima 20 January 2020 18: 26 New
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      A caterpillar is a caterpillar, a wheel is a wheel and they will never replace each other. Well, wheeled vehicles cannot move through wetlands - very small, for well-known reasons, the area of ​​contact with the ground. The same wheeled vehicles cannot overcome trenches and so on.
      1. Doliva63 20 January 2020 19: 43 New
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        Quote: Proxima
        A caterpillar is a caterpillar, a wheel is a wheel and they will never replace each other. Well, wheeled vehicles cannot move through wetlands - very small, for well-known reasons, the area of ​​contact with the ground. The same wheeled vehicles cannot overcome trenches and so on.

        Excellent wheeled machinery moves through wetlands. And the armored personnel carrier trenches pass normally. But I saw how the T-64 sits in the snow in winter. It all depends on the crew.
        1. raif 21 January 2020 02: 32 New
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          you just don’t have to trick your grandmother! to put the tank on the belly - it must be ABLE! but an APC stuck on a low wall or in a trench is a very common picture.
          1. ProkletyiPirat 21 January 2020 10: 25 New
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            1) you should always remember the main gasket between the steering wheel and the seat, because of which you can get stuck anywhere and any way, even where it seemed impossible in principle ...
            2) what you describe about getting stuck in a wheeled vehicle doesn’t apply to the wheels alone, but to the transmission, or rather to its traction, and more precisely to its “starting traction” or “starting impulse” or “starting curve” "and its distribution by movers. In short, this impulse must be very high and have fuses so as not to break the power nodes, but 99,999% of manufacturers do not worry about this ...
          2. Doliva63 21 January 2020 19: 02 New
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            Quote: raif
            you just don’t have to trick your grandmother! to put the tank on the belly - it must be ABLE! but an APC stuck on a low wall or in a trench is a very common picture.

            In both cases, the problem is the crew, agree? So keep your grandmother laughing drinks
            Out of 10 years of service, I was a tanker for 4 years, and 6 years on an armored personnel carrier and infantry fighting vehicles. It was when a tank that sat in a swamp in the autumn was left there until spring. It was when an armored personnel carrier, which had sat down in a swamp, was pulled out by four infantry fighting vehicles. Everything was. Everything (or almost everything) depends on the crew. Who knows, he does not judge so categorically.
    3. Gray brother 20 January 2020 18: 35 New
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      Quote: kashcheevo egg
      With barmales in the desert, better on wheels

      Only it is better not to go into the sand - it is fraught.
  2. gridasov 20 January 2020 18: 10 New
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    Scientific thought is still at an impasse and does not realize that the essence of the wheel is in endless contact with the surface. The caterpillar is a derivative of the wheel distributing the load on the surface. But! The wheel always forms an endless cycle of motion and changes in the density of hydro-gas-dynamic flows, which are the parameters of the medium or space. Therefore, working with the density of variable processes in an environment or space opens up unimaginable opportunities for the development of the entire civilization of mankind.
    1. Mavrikiy 20 January 2020 18: 35 New
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      What you deigned ........, this is not a scientific thought, but Chamber No. 6. For the movement on wheels occurs on the ground, with all its diversity, through rolling friction. The movement on the tracks occurs in the same way, with the help of rolling, but along the track, with a stable coefficient of rolling friction and with a stable specific pressure on the ground.
    2. Cryvedco 20 January 2020 18: 39 New
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      Well, you need to drink so much ...
      1. gridasov 20 January 2020 18: 51 New
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        Yes, okay. I, by my Russian nature, if I had been under a shirt, I would have said much more in a different tone.
    3. mark1 20 January 2020 18: 49 New
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      Glad to see you! I have not read your comments for a long time. At least increase the mood. hi
      1. gridasov 20 January 2020 19: 19 New
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        Actually, six against two. My rating is not so bad today.
    4. Aviator_ 20 January 2020 19: 15 New
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      For a long time you were gone, congratulations on the release! It's boring here without you! You give "unimaginable opportunities for the development of the entire civilization of mankind" !!
    5. businessv 20 January 2020 20: 44 New
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      Quote: gridasov
      Therefore, working with the density of variable processes in an environment or space opens up unimaginable opportunities for the development of the entire civilization of mankind.

      This is what you gave, my friend! drinks
    6. pmkemcity 21 January 2020 07: 47 New
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      Scientific thought is still at an impasse and does not realize that the essence of the wheel is in endless contact with the surface.

      And among the "tankers" there are philosophers!
  3. NEXUS 20 January 2020 18: 13 New
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    Caterpillars, wheels ... I’ve been thinking for a long time, why not an air cushion? I understand that cars weighing 30 tons or more will require a large engine or even one for the air cushion. Plus, the instability of motion control and the very difficulty of controlling an air cushion machine Today there is a place to be. But ... technology does not stand still. And against the obvious disadvantages, there are no less obvious advantages of an air cushion.
    In my opinion, even in the USSR they tried to make a hovercraft if my memory serves me right.
    1. gridasov 20 January 2020 18: 26 New
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      There is no need to even try to fantasize. You just need to organize the process of transferring information from one to another. Tanks above the surface with a much larger mass without noisy engines is only a private solution to the application of hydro-gas dynamic flow control technology.
      1. NEXUS 20 January 2020 18: 34 New
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        Quote: gridasov
        Tanks above the surface with a much larger mass without noisy engines is only a private solution to the application of hydro-gas dynamic flow control technology.

        Of course. In general, what I said about the air cushion then ... the wheel has been many thousands of years and, in fact, the tracks also work thanks to the wheel. We cannot take a qualitative step in evolution in general, using old inventions.
        Whether this is an air cushion, or some kind of levitation generator, maybe something else ... the wheel, I'm sure this is not a solution, but only stamping on a place that has been going on for more than a thousand years.
        1. gridasov 20 January 2020 18: 48 New
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          Everything is much simpler than many complicate. The mechanism of movement of air flows creating variable regions of high and low pressure affect the systemic processes of transformation of atomic-molecular interactions. Therefore, no fantasies or thoughtless thoughts. Everything is obvious and quite simple. But for this you need not be a rabid refutation or a fanatic of dogma. We need people with a sober and sound mind. Of which there are a lot, and it is in Russia and precisely in the scientific environment that is capable of perceiving this
        2. Roman070280 22 January 2020 13: 32 New
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          Well, flying tanks have already existed for a long time .. They are called helicopters ..
          What else needs to be invented ??)
          1. NEXUS 22 January 2020 17: 11 New
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            Quote: Roman070280
            Well, flying tanks have already existed for a long time .. They are called helicopters ..
            What else needs to be invented ??)

            Compare the cost of say the Ka-52 and T-90 and it may come to you that this is not the same thing.
            And you can’t put a 125 mm cannon on the helicopter. Tell me, does the helicopter have rockets? At what price in comparison with the shell and how many pieces?
            1. Roman070280 23 January 2020 15: 06 New
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              Compare cost
              And where does the cost ??

              perhaps it will reach you that this is not the same thing at all.

              It seems like they originally wanted "something fundamentally new" .. therefore, it’s not at all the same ..
              If Che - a horse is also more expensive than a tractor .. but a tractor cart with a fundamentally different traction ..))
          2. gridasov 25 January 2020 22: 27 New
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            In this case, it implies the movement of heavy equipment spring-loaded with an air cushion and not a long take-off to overcome obstacles. This technology is applicable to any surfaces. A helicopter is an aircraft for high altitudes and speeds much higher. For above-ground equipment, propellers and air blowers are located in closed cavities from below. For helicopters, the propulsors are located differently.
      2. Firelake 25 January 2020 18: 01 New
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        And when will there be an anti-gravity engine that will work due to the interaction of magnetic fields?
    2. Mihail2019 20 January 2020 19: 12 New
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      Yeah! And this bandura will eat fuel, if not in itself !!!
      For simply hanging a body under the Earth’s gravity conditions at least requires the same energy consumption (assuming an efficiency of 100%) as a constant acceleration with a magnitude of 9,8 m / s'2 of the same body in space.
      1. gridasov 20 January 2020 19: 22 New
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        alas! We are talking about the new principles of energy transformations in new engines, which do not give an increase in fuel consumption. These are the key elements of the new technology.
        1. Mihail2019 20 January 2020 19: 49 New
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          That is, about pseudoscience fiction, right? laughing
          Okay, okay, I agree - sometimes you just have to dream up.
          But what if?! About antimatter, too, did not suddenly find out. At first there was a pure game of the mind - and then on you, and the truth - there is an antiproton!
          1. gridasov 20 January 2020 19: 50 New
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            Yes, damn it like two fingers on the asphalt. Or someone thinks that I cannot distinguish white from black.
            1. Mihail2019 20 January 2020 20: 02 New
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              And how cool it would be - really new physical principles that promise new horizons for man! What are the caterpillar wheels ?! Give teleportation!
              Only, I’m afraid, a person will again “imprison” all this under the destruction of his own kind ..
              1. alstr 21 January 2020 14: 15 New
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                Ekranotank needed. There will be a super tank. He flew over the trench - everything in the trench was deaf. )))))
                And shooting on the go is easier - it does not shake.
                and the fact that underfoot does not really interfere. And about ATGMs and Granotometam in general it will be difficult - they are not designed for such speeds.

                JOKE!!!
    3. kpd
      kpd 20 January 2020 22: 50 New
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      Even if you do not touch on weight restrictions, increased fuel consumption, problems with ditches and uneven ground surfaces and problems with compensation for recoil from a shot of a weapon. Just imagine - a hovercraft tank is HIDDEN advancing towards the enemy ...
    4. Oleg_p 21 January 2020 04: 47 New
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      Because COSOGOR! And quite often, and the airspace on the slope is a madhouse in the cube, even in terms of controllability
    5. Mavrikiy 21 January 2020 16: 23 New
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      Quote: NEXUS
      In my opinion, even in the USSR they tried to make a hovercraft if my memory serves me right.
      Does not change, "Technique-youth." repeat
      Quote: NEXUS
      I understand that cars weighing 30 tons or more will require a large-sized engine and even more than one for an air cushion. Plus, the instability of traffic control and the very difficulty of controlling an air cushion machine today is the place to be.

      Nonsense, all of these issues are resolved in the Navy. fellow
      Another thing, restrictions on the scope, in terms of relief, slopes, gully, gullies. Tanks in the mountains clumsy, and how? What about forests? But with good speed in the swamps, fields, virgin snow, lakes, rivers, (sand) are solid pluses. fellow
      1. Roman070280 22 January 2020 13: 38 New
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        Another thing, restrictions on the scope, in terms of relief, slopes, gully, gullies. Tanks in the mountains clumsy, and how? What about forests? But with good speed in the swamps, fields, virgin snow, lakes, rivers, (sand) are solid pluses. fellow


    6. adept666 22 January 2020 12: 06 New
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      I think for a long time, why not an air cushion then?

      Have you ever driven a hovercraft, or at least steered it?
  4. Kuroneko 20 January 2020 18: 25 New
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    Quote: NEXUS
    Caterpillars, wheels ... I’ve been thinking for a long time, why not an air cushion?

    Now imagine that you, hovering above the ground, are trying to give a burst of a cannon in a direction that does not coincide with the course of movement ...
    1. NEXUS 20 January 2020 18: 29 New
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      Quote: Kuroneko
      Now imagine that you, hovering above the ground, are trying to give a queue from an autocannon ...

      I repeat, there are a lot of minuses, including how to stabilize the platform with a return of several tons. But ... for some reason I think that this is much more promising than wheels that are not one thousand years old.
      1. Kuroneko 20 January 2020 18: 32 New
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        Quote: NEXUS
        But ... for some reason I think that this is much more promising than wheels that are not one thousand years old.

        Well, wait for the first mass appearance of combat lasers with compact power plants, and even then you can think about a hover platform. Not earlier.
      2. gridasov 20 January 2020 19: 29 New
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        all right! In this case, the problem of using the potential of the air and water environment is solved. And of course, and I'm sure the new technology will pull up new types of weapons. I do not spread about this yet. But this should everyone mean that working with the density of energy processes expands the possibilities of creating new substances. After all, talking about the mover is only a special case of applying a newly organized physical process. I would even note that the new principles of organizing the physical process are primarily of scientific importance, which expands the possibilities of developing new areas in science, but also of great importance in the use of new methods of analysis of capacious and highly potential physical processes.
    2. Pavel57 20 January 2020 20: 33 New
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      Hovering above the ground, coughing scary.
      1. pmkemcity 21 January 2020 07: 50 New
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        Hovering above the ground, coughing scary.

        The main thing in the tank is not to eat peas before the fight. And in a flying tank, this will affect not only the microclimate, but also the orientation in space.
  5. Amateur 20 January 2020 18: 35 New
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    Caterpillar or Wheel: The Eternal Dilemma

    These are different movers for different road surfaces and operating conditions. Lada on the tracks will be worse than the standard, and MTLB on wheels will get stuck in the first puddle. Universal propulsion is always worse than specialized. An example is Christie's wheeled-tracked tanks. As for the metal or rubber-cord track, again you should look at the scope. In a metal caterpillar interrupted by a shell or a mine, it is enough to replace several tracks, which in principle is a “trifling matter”. And try to grow a rubber-metal or rubber-cord caterpillar - it is unlikely to succeed in the field. So they do not need to be opposed, but must be used in those mechanisms for which they are optimal.
    1. Mihail2019 20 January 2020 20: 10 New
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      In principle, an operational option may be to cut out a damaged portion of the track, followed by inserting a piece of the same tape of the desired length. It is clear that you will have to hang up the docking nodes at the ends of the tapes and the resource will be several times less than the original tape, but nevertheless, the possibility of repair is quite real. Including in the field.
      1. Mihail2019 20 January 2020 20: 14 New
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        They carry out operational repairs of conveyor belts of bulk materials in production. "Quickly, quickly, normal repair then, now if only the process technology did not get up !!!"
      2. Oleg_p 21 January 2020 04: 52 New
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        And the resource, and the maximum speed, and maneuverability - when a rubber-composite track breaks (so in the article, not my term), everything is "down the drain." All that remains is to get to the base doshkandybat and then quietly. Impossible to fight :(
    2. Vikxnumx 21 January 2020 09: 02 New
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      And try to grow a rubber-metal or rubber-cord caterpillar - it is unlikely to succeed in the field.

      But the bourgeoisie do not consider options for combat damage!
      There are not only explosions, but a collision with ragged iron can so come back ...
  6. Gray brother 20 January 2020 18: 36 New
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    All issues are easily resolved using specific ground pressure. Everything has its place.
    1. Masha 20 January 2020 19: 00 New
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      Everything has its place.

      To each his own field ... activities ...
  7. karabass 20 January 2020 19: 02 New
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    Yes, all this is nonsense! World conspiracy! We are fooled by a global government! The ingenious Danelia showed us all 30 years ago that caterpillars, wheels, and others, NOTHING compared to the gravitsappa! BUT! the global lobby and world government do not allow to introduce it (gravitsappu) on our tanks! Bastards! Because after its installation, the T - 72 will replace ALL submarines, aircraft, ships and all generals!
    1. pmkemcity 21 January 2020 07: 52 New
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      Because after its installation, the T - 72 will replace ALL submarines, aircraft, ships and all generals!

      T-72 without a tranculator - money down the drain.
  8. Mihail2019 20 January 2020 19: 07 New
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    Squeezing from advertising booklets of the respective companies, each of which is fighting for a piece of "defense" cake.
    All such "advanced" ones, there’s nowhere to put any prints, but in fact - no real technological breakthroughs .. Just an adjustment to the specific conditions and specific requirements of a particular customer.
    Simply put - "water" and a talking room from marketers. Type of our Elon, light Mask.
  9. Doliva63 20 January 2020 19: 29 New
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    Quote: kashcheevo egg
    Yes, and so it is. With barmales in the desert, it’s better on wheels, and in our autumn-spring thaw, no wheels will help, at least 3x3, even 4x4. Only caterpillars, after the column of technology all the roads to the trash will be ....

    He exploited both wheels (8x8) and tracks. I didn’t notice any particular difference. Well, unless the caterpillars slide more in the mountains, and in the swamp, when you sit on your belly, the wheels are weaker. And along the tank track, where the tank passed, you drive normally on wheels. But - wheels are always faster and more reliable on asphalt, for example. Wheels are more universal. But only if we are talking about armored personnel carriers, everything that is harder should be considered separately for your theater.
    1. gridasov 20 January 2020 19: 41 New
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      It is surprising that hovercraft are not being developed in the aspect that this air cushion itself needs to be replaced by .... Then it becomes possible to create a denser air environment under the apparatus, and therefore increase the total mass. But the pressure air flow also changes its tension. In other words, less effort and energy consumption. In combination with the new engines, this is an order of magnitude more active controllability. I repeat that the designers have no idea whatsoever about the concentration of flows and their increase not only in kinetic parameters, but also in the potential energy of the flow. It consists of air and water
      1. Doliva63 20 January 2020 19: 47 New
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        Quote: gridasov
        It is surprising that hovercraft are not being developed in the aspect that this air cushion itself needs to be replaced by .... Then it becomes possible to create a denser air environment under the apparatus, and therefore increase the total mass. But the pressure air flow also changes its tension. In other words, less effort and energy consumption. In combination with the new engines, this is an order of magnitude more active controllability. I repeat that the designers have no idea whatsoever about the concentration of flows and their increase not only in kinetic parameters, but also in the potential energy of the flow. It consists of air and water

        How will an air cushion armored personnel carrier predict a wire fence, for example?
        1. gridasov 20 January 2020 20: 27 New
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          So you yourself and focus on such a possibility. Modern ships on the Airbag can not do this, but on new principles it is no problem and in general the flight of ekranoplanes becomes also more stable and manageable. Why? Because the local area with increased pressure is created not by injection into a large cavity, but by the creation of the lifting force of the longitudinal stream that transforms the flow vector to the surface perpendicular to the surface, but due to the centrifugal rotations of many jet streams. It seems to me that my complexity and veil are already possible replace with one word. Remember how the microstructure of the surface of the wing of small insects is arranged. He wrote about this, but did not emphasize Grebennikov either.
        2. Ua3qhp 20 January 2020 20: 29 New
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          Above the wire fence
        3. Petrol cutter 20 January 2020 21: 03 New
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          Not well (if everyone got into such wilds and fantasies), an air cushion is created not only by the so-called flexible fencing (in the common people "skirt"). There are other options for creating a VI. For which the "thorn" will not be a global problem.
          But at this stage, all this is so ... "In the order of delirium" ... Let's offer an armored ekranoplane ... We must put engines with a variable thrust vector on it. And the question about the harp / wheel will be closed by itself.
  10. Sapsan136 20 January 2020 20: 04 New
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    Tracked vehicles are superior to wheeled vehicles in cross-country ability, and in war it is almost always off-road ... Rubber tracks are a bad idea, as they are fire hazard and prone to cuts, which negatively affects their strength
    1. gridasov 20 January 2020 20: 35 New
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      In general, the new technology can be applied as an additional method and method of self-removal from swamps and swamps. Hybridization can take place precisely for expanding potential opportunities for expanding transport capabilities when moving on a march at high speed along broken roads or without them at all or in separate difficult conditions.
  11. iouris 20 January 2020 20: 13 New
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    The topic is relevant, taking into account the emergence of new materials and technologies. But to answer these questions, military doctrine is needed.
  12. gridasov 20 January 2020 20: 50 New
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    Lastly, I’ll try to describe in a nutshell the essence of the new method. Why is a monolithic hydrodynamic flow potentially weaker than the total sum of jets forming the same total lift? All because flow is a process in an inextricable elastic medium. And if we begin to form a linear flow vector, then a closed cycle is necessarily formed through rotation or vice versa. In general, as in a glass of water. When stirring a spoon with sugar, we should see that the process of rotation along the periphery raises water. But in the center it forms a linear vector down. So in a large monolithic flow there are radial flow velocities and there are linear ones. By simply pumping air without taking into account the movement of air, we spend an incredible amount of energy without using either kinetics or potential flow possibilities. With small but commensurate jet streams, we more easily create a change in the flow vectors from longitudinal to vertical.
  13. spectr 20 January 2020 21: 09 New
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    Judging by the number of new wheeled vehicles being developed, the wheels are still winning.
    1. pmkemcity 21 January 2020 07: 56 New
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      Judging by the number of new wheeled vehicles being developed, the wheels are still winning.

      This is a "wheeled" mafia! They want to plant us on amphetamines. I swear!
  14. Saxahorse 20 January 2020 22: 50 New
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    The review was good, thanks to the author!

    And in the comments pleased with the ideas, unless the walkers forgot to discuss. :)
  15. voyaka uh 20 January 2020 22: 52 New
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    In today's AI debate, gridasov defeated people by battle.
    Bravo to science! good
    Moreover, he won soberly. If he still succumbed,
    would have won by knockout am
    1. Svarog51 21 January 2020 05: 25 New
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      Well, if you pour a liter of cognac into the winner’s cup, then he will explain more about the gravitsapu. wink
      Alexey hi
    2. adept666 22 January 2020 12: 01 New
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      Moreover, he won soberly. If he still succumbed,
      would have won by knockout

      Before the start of the fight laughing
  16. Picus 21 January 2020 03: 14 New
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    If you combine several handouts, you get smart articles?
    Sorry, could not resist.
  17. Nikolaevich I 21 January 2020 03: 17 New
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    Well, arguing! Indeed, as in the cartoon: "Wings ... legs ..."! Well, the wheels and tracks aren’t fond of, or they aren’t determined, then there are other propellers ...: rotor auger, for example, ali LKG propulsion ... walking mechanisms ... Choose, while it's cheaper! fellow
    1. Svarog51 21 January 2020 05: 27 New
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      Nikolaevich hi As soon as we get the anoptanium, we immediately plump the anti-gravity. Why trifles then? yes
      1. Nikolaevich I 21 January 2020 09: 48 New
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        I wish you good health, Seryoga! soldier Indeed ... what am I doing? request Even 42g. cognac with "pessimism" on 35g. pulls! stop
        1. Svarog51 21 January 2020 09: 59 New
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          Indeed ... what am I doing?

          "Here you go!" (from)
  18. Morris812 21 January 2020 07: 47 New
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    Somehow, commentators miss the phrase that the wheels make sense up to 35 tons by weight)))
  19. Elturisto 21 January 2020 09: 31 New
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    I was pleased with the design of the leading star of Warrior. Only the finished nerd could offer such a design, when the hitting the obstacle the teeth break off.
  20. gridasov 21 January 2020 10: 31 New
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    In general, it is important to note that the difficulty in perceiving the task of replacing wheels and tracks with an air stream does not cancel the process of searching for new ideas. And here it is important to note that the path to anti-gravity technologies lies precisely through the processes of creating highly polarized surfaces that interact with these gravitational forces. It is not difficult to transform air, water, liquid metals in confined spaces into flywheels with very strong concentrated potential on the precession axes. It is also important to understand that in modern engines, thrown air masses are not used. In this case, a huge part of the kinetic energy can be returned to the cyclic process and again converted into useful energy. I haven’t yet designated the potential energy received. Besides, I think that people are working in this direction. After all, they note the work of Rolls Royce to create a power plant in the core of the turbine rotor. In our country, this design has long been comprehended and is ready for implementation
    1. Petrol cutter 21 January 2020 21: 37 New
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      And this is an interesting thought. Personally, I didn’t even think about it. In fact.
  21. prodi 21 January 2020 15: 19 New
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    the wheel’s capabilities are clearly not used up, almost everything’s caterpillar capabilities
  22. Taoist 21 January 2020 21: 08 New
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    in short, until the gliders appear and will suffer ...
  23. Smirnov Mikhail 22 January 2020 15: 36 New
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    The author has a mistake, the type of mover there is the same - contact with the surface as a way of interacting with the environment. It is through it that the machine goes into motion (moves from point A to point B). Since this type is no different from drawing, and nobody canceled the friction with the accompanying ones, either wheels or tracks (or skis, by the way) are used. Which not only reduce the area of ​​contact with the surface, but also minimize friction (skid as little as possible). Because the energy of the engine is spent not only on moving, but also on interacting with the environment. Accordingly, to minimize friction is to maximize useful work. So that the car does not drag, but rolls on the surface. Further disputes begin, how to roll better? Caterpillar or wheel? This dispute goes from the need to move the machine on surfaces of various types. Say, the useful work of a wheel on hard surface and soft (viscous) will differ in size. And this means that fuel consumption, travel speed, wheel life, and so on will differ. Where does the dilemma come from? From the desire to have a universal mover, that is, do not give a damn about the type of interaction with the environment as a whole, or the type of surface in particular. So that the mover on the surface with any coefficient of hardness gives maximum useful work. That, in general, does not give a damn about the laws of physics, since the dilemma revolves around tracks / wheels whose work does not just depend on the type of surface. On the contrary, the caterpillar / wheel is derived from the type of surface as a rational compromise. Does the dilemma have a solution? No, in principle .. There will always be a surface where the wheel will stall, or the use of a track will be irrational.

    And the second mistake of the author is the thesis that the mobility of machines will improve due to competition. The caterpillar / wheel is a specialization, and competition is an oversupply. There may be competition within the specialization, but not between. What type of propulsion will give maximum mobility? And what is generally understood by mobility? Moving speed? If mobility is understood as the ability to quickly change the trajectory of movement by 90 degrees, then the most optimal here is a limb, not a caterpillar / wheel, and a step, not a drag. How can competition within specialization lead to a radical change in the way we interact with the environment? Yes, there is a desire to seize the market through universalization and, roughly speaking, to squeeze out the wheels with caterpillars or caterpillars with wheels. But the production of limbs or caterpillars / wheels is completely different. Different machines and equipment, different technologies, different specialists. It is expensive, and the parties strive to overcome the market by spitting on physics, rather than inventing new opportunities. Where is the military good here?
    1. gridasov 25 January 2020 22: 41 New
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      For the military, it’s useful in the effectiveness of the method for performing a particular task. It is also the simplicity and quality factor and versatility of the fuels used. Therefore, in fundamental matters, I am talking about electric drives. Why? Because electric cars, namely the engine - generator are components integrated with the propulsion. Starting energy storage devices for such technologies are very low-power and are only devices that initiate work. I note once again that electric machines operate on completely new coil-free induction elements with an external rotor - one for the generator and engine as a drive for the propulsion device.