Military Review

Two faces of the catholic church. Francis of Assisi: a man "not of the world"

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Two faces of the catholic church. Francis of Assisi: a man "not of the world"

In the last article, we talked about Dominica Guzman, one of the anti-heroes of the Crusade against the Albigensians. He founded the monastic Order of “Brothers Preachers,” laid the foundation for the papal Inquisition, and was canonized by the Catholic Church in 1234. But at the same time he lived during this cruel time, who became one of the best Christians in all history of humanity. According to Chesterton, he "loved not humanity, but people, not Christianity, but Christ." His name was Giovanni Bernandone, but he went down in history under the name of St. Francis of Assisi.



St. Francis, fresco in the abbey of St. Benedict, Subiaco, Italy, 13th century

Opposite of Dominic Guzman


Information about his life, in addition to canonical sources, is known from stories collected by the monks of this order in the XIV century ("Flowers of St. Francis").


"Flowers of St. Francis", a sermon to the wolf

Two Lives of St. Francis ("Big" and "Small" legends) were written by Giovanni Fidanza, better known by the nickname given to him by Francis: blessing a sick boy brought to him, he said: “O buone venture!” (“Oh, happy fate! »)


Giovanni Fidanza (Seraphic Doctor Bonaventure), recognized as one of the "Teachers of the Church." The seventh successor of Francis, who was called the "second founder of the Order"

The future saint was born in 1181 (in 1182, according to other sources) in the Italian city of Assisi (the name comes from Mount Assi standing next to it), located in the historical region of Umbria. He was the only son of a wealthy merchant - a member of the guild of cloth dealers (the family also had two daughters).


Assisi on the map of Umbria and Umbria on the map of Italy


Modern Assisi

At baptism, he received the name Giovanni (Latin - John). Francis (more precisely, Francesco) is his middle name that his father gave him, either in honor of his beloved French wife, or because his trading activities were closely connected with France. Under the name Francis, this saint is known because the Voice, heard by him at first in a dream, and then before the Crucifixion, addressed him so. Since then, he himself began to call himself only by that name.

Like St. Augustine, Giovanni in his youth stood out little among his peers and even in the stories of this period of his life even the most reverential lives often use the epithets “loose” and “dissolute”. He did not even think of a spiritual career, thinking more about the military field. In 1202, Mr. Giovanni took part in the Assisi war with Perugia, during which he was captured, and spent in the local prison for about a year. Here for the first time the character of the future saint showed up: the other prisoners considered one of his unfortunate comrades as a traitor and a coward, and Giovanni was the only person who did not interrupt communication with an outcast.

Voice of Heaven


Returning home, Giovanni saw himself in a dream in the middle of a huge hall, the walls of which were hung weapons, and on each blade or shield was a sign of the Crucifixion. Someone invisible said to him: "This is for you and for your warriors."

At that time, the Neapolitan forces opposed the emperor’s army (Guelphs and Gibbelins, you remember), and he decided to join them.


Having told his parents that he would return as a hero, he left town on the same day, but he saw another dream on the road: “You did not understand the first vision,” said the Voice, “return to Assisi.”

Returning home meant shame, but Giovanni did not dare to disobey. He gave his armor, which were worth a fortune at that time, to the ruined knight.

One of his friends, paying attention to an unusual thoughtfulness, asked if he was going to marry? Giovanni answered in the affirmative, saying that he had already chosen "a wife of extraordinary beauty and righteousness." He meant poverty, but then, of course, no one understood him.

Soon before the crucifixion, he again heard a familiar voice calling him Francis: "Go and restore My House, which, as you see, is in decline."

Many scholars believe that the discussion was about the Catholic Church, but Francis decided that this “house” was the abandoned church of St. Damian, which he passed by during a recent pilgrimage to Rome. To fix it, the young man sold his horse and several rolls of silk from a family shop. This was the reason for his quarrel with his father, who was supported by Bishop Assisi, saying that good deeds are not done with the help of evil deeds. Giovanni returned the money and left home. Now he begged the townspeople for the stones that he carried on his shoulders to the dilapidated church in order to repair its walls. Francis then renovated two more chapels - St. Peter near Assisi and St. Mary and all the Angels in Porciunculus. Near the latter, he built a hut for himself, around which every year on the Trinity day his followers began to build huts - this was the beginning of the general capitals of the Order.

Tradition claims that, like Christ, St. Francis at the beginning of the journey chose 12 comrades, and one of them, like Judas of the New Testament, hanged himself - “it was Brother John with a Hat who put on a rope around his neck” (“First Flower” ) However, in reality, at first there were three of them: Francis himself, Bernard of Quintavalle, and the abbot of one of the local churches, Pietro. To understand the purpose and fate of each of them, Francis drew a cross on the Gospel and opened it three times at random: the lines that were opened were perceived as a prediction. The first passage spoke of a rich young man, a camel and a needle eye - and Bernard, a wealthy merchant and honorary citizen, gave his property to the poor. The second passage turned out to be Christ's advice not to take money, a bag, a change of clothes, or a staff - Pietro, a canon of one of the cathedrals in Catania, became a vagabond preacher, sacrificing his spiritual career. Francis got a text that said that anyone who wants to follow Christ must reject himself and bear his cross. Francis obeyed the command from above. “No one will call him a business man, but he was a man of action,” Chesterton will later say about our hero.

Francis of Sermon from Assisi


Since 1206, Francis walked around the country, delivering a sermon not only to people, but also to animals and birds. Not surprisingly, in 1979, John Paul II “appointed” him as the heavenly protector of ecologists.


Tapestry "St. Francis Preaches to Birds"

He achieved a meeting with the emperor only to ask him not to hunt larks, and "even had worms for love ... and he collected them from the road and carried them to a safe place so that travelers would not crush them." In stories about the miracles revealed by Francis, this saint never even ordered animals and birds, but only asked them, for example: “My little sisters, if you said you wanted to, let me tell you too.”

As an illustration of Francis’s humility, “The Seventh Flower” tells how one day, while fasting, he symbolically tasted bread - “so that he wouldn’t inadvertently stand up to Jesus Christ regarding fasting”. But, to be fair and impartial, one can also see carefully concealed pride in this desire to “voluntarily give up the primacy to Christ,” since the very idea that one can be on a par with the Savior of mankind is highly doubtful and absolutely unacceptable to any Christian.

Francis was also a poet (“the juggler of God,” as he called himself). He composed his simple poems and songs not only in the Umbrian dialect of the Italian language, but also in Provencal - the language of the troubadours, which at that time were burned by hundreds in southern France. In addition, Francis himself and his followers preached the renunciation of wealth, led a wandering lifestyle, so that the Inquisitors sometimes mistook the Minorite brothers for Cathars or Waldensians. As a result of this mistake, five Franciscans were executed in Spain. Some researchers consider it a miracle that the future saint was not burned during his travels. However, it is difficult to say how his fate would have been if he had been in Occitania at that time. There, the meeting of future saints (Francis of Assisi and Dominic Guzmán) might have looked quite different from what it was represented on this sculptural composition in the royal monastery of St. Thomas (Avila, Spain):


(The semi-legendary meeting of Francis and Dominic in 1215 in Rome was described in an article Dominic Guzman and Francis of Assisi. “Not the world, but the sword”: two faces of the Catholic Church).

And in Italy, at first, not everyone was touched by the sermon of a young ascetic. It is known that once he was beaten and robbed by robbers, and barely managed to get to the nearest monastery, where he washed dishes for a while in exchange for food. But gradually the situation began to change, rumors of the righteousness and even the holiness of Francis spread throughout the neighborhood. The saint of the future saint was astonishing and bribing everyone: “Everyone, from the pope to the beggar, from the sultan to the last thief, looking into dark glowing eyes, knew that Francesco Bernandone was interested in him ... everyone believed that he takes him to heart, but doesn’t put it on the list ”(Chesterton).


Mickey Rourke as Francis of Assisi, 1989 film of the year

Francis and Pope Innocent III


Francis managed to get a letter of recommendation from Assisi Abbot Guido to Giovanni di Sao Paulo (Roman Cardinal St. Paul John), who arranged for him to meet with Pope Innocent III - thereby sending the crusaders to kill the Cathars of Southern France. Francis came to the pontiff with the charter of the new monastic Order written by him. The petitioner (unkempt, with a long beard and rags) impressed dad if he made one, then the most unpleasant one. Innocent mockingly advised him: “Go, my son, and look for the pigs; you seem to have more in common with them than with people. Wallow with them in the mud, give them your charter and practice them in your sermons. ”

Francis did so. All in the mud, he returned to dad and said: "Lord, I have fulfilled your order, hear now you are my prayer."

Tradition claims that Innocent III agreed now because he saw in a dream a beggar monk who supported the rickety Lateran Cathedral. But, most likely, intuition prompted Innocent that this strange guest was not so simple, and his preaching of asceticism and love for his neighbor should be used in the interests of the papal throne - otherwise in Italy a new dangerous heresy like the teachings of the Waldenses could arise. On the advice of the already mentioned Giovanni di São Paulo, Innocent in the 1209 year verbally approved the one founded by Francis in the 1207-1208 years. brotherhood of minority.

In the fall of 1212, Francis tried to convert Syrian Saracens to Christianity, but his ship crashed near the island of Slavonia. In 1213, he went to Morocco, but returned, ill on the way.

Saint Clara and the Order of the Poor Ladies


In 1212, the first woman joined the Franciscan movement - 18-year-old Chiara (Clara) Offreducci from a wealthy Assisi family, whom Francis helped to escape from home. Later, at the age of 21, she headed a nunnery, which was located in the house at the first church renovated by Francis (St. Damian). At the end of her life, due to illness, Clara could not participate in masses, but she was visited by visions in which she saw a mass on the wall of her room. On this basis, in 1958, Pope Pius XII declared her the patroness of television. She died on 11 on August 1253 of the year - the day after receiving the papal bull, which confirms the charter of the female monastic Order of the Poor Ladies (Poor Clarisse) that she wrote. In 1258, she was canonized. And in 1255 year in different countries there were already more than 120 monasteries of the Order of the Poor Clarisse.


Simone Martini Clara Assisi. Image in the Basilica of St. Francis, Assisi, XIV century


Basilica of Santa Chiara (St. Clara)


Cassock and mantle of St. Clara

The successes of Francis and the approval of the Order of Minority


In 1212, a fraternity of minority terciaries was formed, which could include lay people. And in 1216, the new pope Honorius III made an incredible gift to Francis: he granted indulgence to everyone who visited Porciunculu on August 2, a small Franciscan chapel located on a hill near Assisi (Assisi pardon). Since then, this pilgrimage has become a tradition, and the Porciunculus is now sheltered under the arches of the Basilica of St. Francis in Assisi (this is one of the six great churches of the Catholic Church).


Basilica of St. Francis, Assisi


Porciunculus in the Basilica of St. Francis

Interestingly, the hill at Porciuncula was previously called “Hellish”, since criminals were executed on it. But after the construction of the Sacro Convento monastery there (started in the 1228 year), the hill began to be called "Paradise."

Assisi, Monastery of Sacro Convento

The Basilica of St. Francis (the frescoes for which Giotto painted) was erected here, where in 1236 his body was transferred. Near the Basilica stands the equestrian monument to Francis, which causes some bewilderment. The fact is that in Italy there is a saying “Andare con il cavallo di San Francesco” - “ride a horse of St. Francis”. And she means “to walk” - like a saint and his disciples.


Monument to Francis of Assisi

But back in May 1217, when it was decided to organize the Franciscan provinces in Tuscany, Lombardy, Provence, Spain, Germany and France, where Francis's disciples went, and he intended to move to France, but he was dissuaded by Cardinal Ugolino di Senyi Ostiysky (Innocent nephew III), with whom he went to the Vatican.

Tradition says that in 1218, Cardinal Ugolino of Ostia (future pope Gregory IX, who canonizes both Francis and Dominic), invited them to unite their Orders into one, but Francis refused.


Pope Gregory IX

In that year, Francis' popularity in Italy reached its peak, he was met everywhere by real crowds of grateful listeners, patients were brought to him, some kissed the ground at his feet and asked permission to cut off a piece of his cassock as a relic. On the occasion of the 1219 Trinity of the year, around 5 thousand huts were built around Francis's hut (near Assisi) by his followers.

In 1219, Francis nevertheless made an attempt to convert Muslims, going to Egypt, where just at that time the crusader army besieged the port city of Damietta.


Siege of the Crusaders of Damietta

Here Francis went to the enemy camp, where, of course, he was immediately captured, but he was lucky - surprised by the fearless behavior of the strange "franc", the soldiers took him to the Sultan. Malik al Kamel received him quite favorably, but of course he did not want to renounce Islam, having promised only to graciously treat the captive Christians. With the crusaders, Francis was before the capture of Damietta. After visiting Palestine, Francis returned to Italy in 1220, where rumors had already passed of his death. While he “walked the world like God's forgiveness” (Chesterton), one of the “brothers” went to Rome with the charter of a new monastic Order, and Deputy Francis changed the charter of the Order and allowed to accept donations, because “it is not in human nature to refuse wealth” . Seeing in Bologna the rich building built for the Order, Francis asked: “Since when did they insult the Lady of Poverty?”

But to demolish this building, or abandon it, as you probably guessed, no one began.

In general, Francis now had no previous position and power in the Order, and never will be.

At a meeting of the members of the Order in Porziuncula and Vitsundin (1220 or 1221), 5000 brothers and 500 candidates, demonstrating all respect for their spiritual leader, demanded that the strict rules be relaxed. Unable to meet them or fight them, Francis ceded the post of head of the order to Peter Cattanei, who was replaced in a year by “brother Elijah”.

Francis no longer intervened in the administrative and business affairs of the Order, but he had not completely retired. In 1221, with his active participation, another branch of the Order was created - now it is called the Order of the Penitent Brothers and Sisters (Brothers and Sisters of Penance). It consists of people who cannot leave the World, but help the Franciscans and the Clarisse, and observe some restrictions: for example, they do not take up arms, do not participate in litigation. The charter of this Order was approved in the 1289 year.

Using his authority, in 1223, Francis wrote a new set of rules for his brothers, reducing the number of chapters from 23 to 12, which reaffirmed three vows - obedience, poverty, and chastity. In the same year, this charter was approved by Pope Honorius III.


Pope Honorius III


Giotto di Bondone, "St. Francis in front of the Pope. Approval of the Charter of the Order "

The already existing organization was now officially recognized by Rome and was called the Order of the Minorite Brothers, whose members were often called (and are called) Franciscans. He was led by a “general minister," who is often called a general.

In England, Minorites were also called "gray brothers" (by the color of their robes). In France - “cordelers” (because of the rope with which they were belted - corde, cordage). In Germany, they were “barefoot” (they walked in sandals on their bare feet). And in Italy - often just “brothers.”


The robes of the Franciscan observatory monk (those who defend the "right to be poor"). The Franciscan Brothers of the Lesser Conventional cassocks have gray or black


Two hands became the symbol of the new order: Christ (nude) and Francis (dressed in a habit - vestments of a minority monk), raised to the coat of arms of Jerusalem. The motto is the phrase "Peace and Good."


Coat of arms of the Franciscans in the Basilica of the Annunciation, Nazareth


Coat of arms of the Franciscan Order at the fifth stop Via Dolorosa, Jerusalem


Franciscan coat of arms in the convent of San Antonio de Padua, Gran Canaria

In the same 1223 year, Francis initiated the reconstruction of the Bethlehem environment in churches on the eve of Christmas and became the founder of the rite of worship of the Holy Nursery.

Vatican, St. Peter's Basilica, Christmas composition

Pyrrhic victory of Francis


Since Francis and his students condemned the money-grubbing of priests and church hierarchs and did not approve of the possession of material wealth by the Church, at first they were forbidden to preach to the laity. But soon this ban was lifted, and in 1256 the Franciscans got the right to teach at universities, while they were hired “out of competition”, which even caused a riot in France of other professors who were not members of this Order. At one time, the Franciscans were popular as confessors of the crowned persons of Europe, but were subsequently ousted from these posts by the Jesuits. More - more: Franciscan monks began to fulfill the duties of inquisitors in Wenssen, Provence, Forkalka, Arles, Embren, cities of central Italy, Dalmatia and Bohemia.

But it was precisely these successes that became fatal to the great cause of Francis.

The tragedy of the life of Francis was that his many followers were not saints, but ordinary people, and did not at all want to be poor. While Francis was near, the power of his example infected people, but when he left the disciples, temptation immediately penetrated their hearts. During the life of Francis, the bulk of the monks abandoned his ideas. The seventh General of the Order, Giovanni Fidazza, became a cardinal in 1273, several bishops appeared in the leadership of the Order.

Probably, this was for the better: it is easy to assume that Italy would have been in bloom if there were enough of his students left after Francis' death, equally fanatically devoted to the ideas of “righteous poverty”, but less peace-loving. Recall the Dominican Girolamo Savonarola, who actually ruled Florence in 1494-1498: he invited women to cover their faces, like Muslim women, and instead of carnivals to organize processions of children collecting alms. In Florence, the production of luxury goods was forbidden and a “burning vanity” was arranged - paintings, books (including Petrarch and Dante), playing cards, expensive household items. Sandro Botticelli then personally brought unsold paintings to the fire. And Jean Calvin in Geneva, according to Voltaire, "widely opened the doors of the monasteries, but not so that all the monks would leave them, but in order to drive the whole world there." In “Protestant Rome,” priests regularly came to their homes to check if the nightgowns of their parishioners' wives were modest enough and to make sure there were no sweets in the kitchen. Children in Geneva at Calvinist were happy to report to insufficiently pious parents. In general, let the ascetics remain ascetics, and ordinary people, with all their advantages and disadvantages, ordinary people. It will be better for everyone.

Francis, apparently, at the end of his life had neither the strength nor the desire to defend his point of view. Back in the 1213 year, Count Orlando di Chiusi gave him Mount La Verna in the Tuscan Apennines at the Kazentin Valley (1200 meters high): “a heap of harsh rocks at the confluence of the Tiber and Arno,” Dante described it.

Francis set off on this mountain with only three satellites at the beginning of 1224, in the sky above La Verna he had a vision of a giant cross, after which stigmata appeared on his palms - bleeding marks from nails, signs of the five wounds of the crucified Christ.


Giotto di Bondone. "St. Francis Receiving Stigmata"

After this, his condition deteriorated sharply, he suffered from constant pain throughout his body and was almost completely blind. In September 1225, he last visited the monastery of Klara and the first church he repaired - St. Damian. This winter, Francis spent in Siena, from there he was transported to Cortona. Francis, who was already dying, was taken with great caution to Assisi - the companions were afraid of the attacks of traditional rivals from Perugia, who wished to take possession of the still living ascetic, so that later they could bury him in the cathedral of his city. In Assisi, Francis was settled in the bishop's palace, from where, before his death, he was transferred to Porciuncula.


Giotto di Bondone. "Mourning of St. Francis." Florence, Santa Croce Basilica, Bardi Chapel


Ryas Francis, who was on it at the time of death

Francis died on 3 on October 1226 at the age of 45.

Tomb of St. Francis in the crypt of the Lower Church of San Franchesko in Assisi

It is claimed that in the year of his death the number of monks of the Order of Minority reached 10 thousand people.

Francis was canonized in the year 1228. And already in September 1230, Pope Gregory IX in the bull “Quo elongati” declared that the “Testament” of the saint (with the requirement to remain poor) “has only spiritual, but not legal significance. To legitimize the numerous acquisitions of the Order, at the beginning of the XIV century its property was declared to belong to the Church, only provided by it to the Franciscans.

In 1260, Mr. Giovanni Fidanza (Cardinal Bonaventure), elected head of the Order, insisted on the so-called “Narbonne Constitutions”, which he condemned “excessive fascination with poverty,” at the General Capitul convened by him. It was also condemned by the prevailing opinion among some Franciscans that "teaching is worthless to ascend to holiness."


Vittorio Crivelli. Saint Bonaventure. Around 1500 year. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam

An opposition to innovations arose in the Order, which resulted in a movement of spirituals (mystical Franciscans). And since their protest inevitably took social forms (condemnation of greedy and unrighteous hierarchs), spiritualists were charged with the standard heresy charge. In 1317, Pope John XXII, in fear of excommunication, ordered them to submit to the authority of the main (conventional) wing of the Order. Many of them refused - they were called Fraticelli (“half-brothers”). In 1318 four of them were burned by the Inquisition, and in 1329, Pope John XXII completely excommunicated the “radicals” from the Church. How heretics of spiritualists were condemned until the year 1517, when Pope Leo X divided the Order in the Bull “Ite vos”: the Lesser Observant Brothers appeared (who defended their right to “be poor”) and the Lesser Conventional Brothers. And in 1525, part of the monks, under the leadership of Matteo Bassi, stood out in the Capuchin Order (“Lesser Brothers of Hermit Life”), which in 1528 was recognized as independent by Pope Clement VII.


The cassock of Capuchin monks.
It was easy to recognize capuchins by their pointed cap (it was for him that they got their name). Tradition claims that the monks of this Order were the first to add milk to coffee so that it cleanses the “sinful drink”: this is how the “cappuccino” appeared.


Only at the end of the 19th century did Pope Leo XIII achieve restoration of the unity of all these groups.

Part of the Franciscan Order are the Women’s Order of the Poor Claris and the Order of the Laity of St. Francis (tertiary), which even once included the French King Louis IX.

By the beginning of the 18th century, the Franciscan Order had in its submission 1700 monasteries in which 25 thousands of brothers lived.

Six Franciscans became popes (Nicholas IV, Celestine V, Sixtus IV, Sixtus V, Clement XIV, Pius IX).

The names of some Franciscans have remained in the history of science. Here are some of them.

Roger Bacon (nicknamed “The Amazing Doctor”), an Oxford professor, philosopher, mathematician and alchemist, invented a magnifying glass and lenses, with which he read and wrote in old age.


Roger Bacon, 16th century engraving

William Ockham, philosopher and logician, nicknamed the disciples "invincible." Among these students was the notorious Jean Buridan.


Bertold Schwartz is considered the European inventor of gunpowder.

Fra Luca Bartolomeo de Pacioli (1445-1517) was the founder of the principles of modern accounting, the author of the textbook of commercial arithmetic, treatises "The Sum of Arithmetic, Geometry, Relations and Proportions" and "On the Game of Chess", and many other works. His treatise, On Divine Proportion, was illustrated by Leonardo da Vinci (“with his indescribable left hand,” said Pacioli himself).


Leonardo da Vinci, illustration to Pacioli's treatise on the Divine section

Pacioli and da Vinci were friends, and in October 1499 of the year they fled together from Milan, captured by the troops of Louis XII.


Jacopo de Barbary. Portrait of Fra Luca Pacioli
Luca Pacioli in the robes of a Franciscan monk gives a geometry lesson

Pay attention to the face of the student Pacioli: we see very similar on the self-portrait, written by Durer in 1493 year:


A. Durer, Self Portrait

Albrecht Durer met with Jacopo de Barbari in Venice in the 1494-1495 years, and Pacioli in Bologna in the 1501-1507 years. In one of the letters of that time, Dürer wrote that he went to Bologna "for the sake of art, since there is a person who will teach me the secret art of perspective." Most likely, it is about Pacioli.

Bernardino de Sahagun became the author of the "General History of the Affairs of New Spain" - the first work narrating about the Aztecs and their culture. His fellow Antonio Ciudad Real compiled a six-volume Mayan dictionary.

Guillaume de Rubruck by order of the French King Louis IX in 1253-1255 He traveled from Akka (Acre, North Palestine) to Karakoram (through Constantinople and Saray) and wrote the book "Journey to the Eastern Countries."


Rubruk's travel map

45 Franciscans were canonized after being executed in Japan during the time of persecution of Christians in this country.

The Territories of the Order of Minority were Dante, Petrarch, Michelangelo and Rabelais.

Antonio Vivaldi was an abbot of a minority monastery in Venice, he began his musician career as a music teacher in an orphanage.

And the ranked Spaniard Himeles Malia Seferino (died in the 1936 year during the Civil War), was "appointed" by John Paul II as the patron of the gypsies.

Among other well-known Franciscans, one can recall the legendary brother of Took - one of the most famous and popular associates of the equally legendary Robin Hood.


Louis Reid, “Robin Hood, Little John and Brother Took”, illustration 1912

One of the heroes of Shakespeare’s tragedy “Romeo and Juliet” is Lorenzo’s brother, the monk of the Verona Franciscan monastery of Sen Zeno, and Wilhelm of Baskervilsky is the protagonist of Umberto Eco’s novel “The Name of the Rose”.

At present, there are about 18 thousand members of the Order of Minorites; Franciscans retain their influence in many Catholic countries. The heirs of the impoverished Francis own considerable property, have their own universities, colleges and publishing houses.


Franciscan Monastery in Hvar, Croatia


Franciscan Monastery in Pinsk, Belarus

The monks of this Order live and preach in Europe and Asia, in the Americas, in Africa and Australia.
Author:
Articles from this series:
Ryzhov V.A. The Holy Inquisition
Ryzhov V.A. The first centuries of Christianity: the struggle of ideas and the formation of church organization
Ryzhov V.A. Dominic Guzman and Francis of Assisi. “Not the world, but the sword”: two faces of the Catholic Church
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  1. Same lech
    Same lech 9 December 2019 06: 03
    +1
    Well, the saints and got to VO what
    Thanks to the author for an interesting article on this side of the faith of the old Europe in God ... but I would like to know more about the military side of the matter .... the participation of the monks in campaigns and raids on their neighboring states, as well as their participation in the Inquisition.
    1. Aerodrome
      Aerodrome 9 December 2019 06: 17
      +6
      Quote: The same LYOKHA
      Well, the saints and got to VO

      I saw only one worthy out of the whole crowd - "Brother Tuka" .. a drunkard and a libertine ... a good man was probably yes drinks
    2. VLR
      9 December 2019 06: 20
      +9
      On the participation of monks in military campaigns and in the affairs of the Inquisition - in a previous article about Dominica Guzman.
      And in the article "Holy Inquisition" (links at the end of this article).
      And also in articles about the spiritual and chivalric orders:
      "The Rise and Fall of the Templars".
      "Hospitallers. Loud Glory and Life After Death".
      "Teutonic Order. Dogs-knights on the roads of war".
      And also "Children's Crusades".
    3. kalibr
      kalibr 9 December 2019 08: 27
      +1
      Alexey! Order and buy my book "The Crusaders". Series "The first complete encyclopedia" Everything is there. And you don't have to wait for the articles to be released ... and their whole war is in full view!
      1. Same lech
        Same lech 9 December 2019 08: 58
        +3
        Thanks for the information. hi
    4. Bar2
      Bar2 9 December 2019 08: 48
      -11
      -Italy -and_Talia i.e. narrowed, like Antalya, as well as the Atlantic. This new knowledge does not fit into the official point of view of the Olympics, but into another reality, you should judge. This is the name of the Po River, which was crossed by Julius Caesar, in the 17th century in 1672. it was called Tartaro, i.e. tartar river.



      But what was the name of the city of Perugia? In the 19th century it was called
      -Perusia, i.e. Russian city.



      this is a small part of toponyms in Italy with other names. As you can see, everything has been replaced.
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 9 December 2019 10: 41
        +12
        Quote: Bar2
        -Italy -and_Talia i.e. narrowed

        That is, "waist" means "narrow" ... Probably, the name "Rosalia" translates literally as "Russian slender" ... feel
        Nonsense. Another amateur linguistics from people without imagination and creativity.
        Here's how to really understand all this.
        In the word "Italy" the demonstrative pronoun "this" is obviously traced - "this is Alia". But what is "Alia"? There are two versions of the origin of the root of this word.
        The first - the most obvious, "Alia" is "Aria", that is, the country of the Aryans. "Gift of the Aryans" - "dardaria" - "Tartaria" - everything fits together. Thus, according to this version, the name "Italy" clearly indicates to us that it was founded by our Aryan ancestors.
        The second version is not so obvious, but precisely because of its non-obviousness and paradoxicality, it deserves special attention. The fact is that the latest research in the field of new chronology has shown that "alia" means nothing more than "scarlet", scarlet means red, and red means Rosso, any Italian will tell you this. The circle is complete. Scarlet = Rosso, ItAliya = This is Aliya = This is Russia. Checkmate, Silencers!
        There is a third option, simplified, but can simplicity and strength?
        According to this version, the word "Italy" is translated from the Old Russian language, which was used by our ancestors until the XNUMXth century, as "Russian land". The Russian language is rich and powerful, flexible and imaginative. To designate the concept of "Russian land" in it from time immemorial, a variety of phrases have been used, Italy is just one of them, along with words that mean the same thing as England, France, Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Portugal and others ... All these names mean only one thing - "Russian land", which only emphasizes the greatness and diversity of the Russian language, capable of finding such different figurative expressions for the same concept.
        In the latest version, besides its simplicity, its versatility bribes. Taking it as the main one, we forever get rid of the need to look for even minimal phonetic matches in the words of different languages ​​and go straight to the point - everything around is Russian, just the richness and variety of the Russian language are such, and there are so many words in it that Russians can afford for the same phenomena to use completely different words.
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 9 December 2019 11: 14
          +9
          that Russians can afford to use completely different words for the same phenomena.

          I’ll continue: yeah, and the uniqueness of Russian obscene literature is that it is suitable for designating completely different concepts and phenomena in exactly the same words, depending on intonation. So the rules? drinks Michael, I gathered my entire vocabulary into a fist! request
          Valery pleases with articles. The topics are not hackneyed, I am very happy when such articles appear on the VO. I bow to him! hi
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 9 December 2019 12: 55
            +7
            Quote: Pane Kohanku
            Valery pleases with articles

            Indeed, here with my linguistic exercises (which I consider deeper and more subtle than what Fomenko offers us), I completely forgot to thank the author.
            Valery, thanks. hi
            Ask the editor to correct the mistake in the chapter on Clara of Assisi:
            In 1238 she was canonized.

            In 1258, and it turns out that she was recognized as a saint even during her earthly life. smile
            And so the article is of high quality, solid. I knew little about Francis of Assisi, because religion is not my sphere of interest, so, insofar as, but now I will know a little more. The contrast between Francis and Dominic Guzman deserves some attention, but it seems to me that the main conclusion that can be drawn from reading their biographies and deeds is as follows: regardless of the fact that both Orders founded such different personalities, who set themselves such different goals and using such different means, already under their closest successors everything was leveled, came to the same denominator about the Franciscan order was not much different from the "dogs of the Lord." Two branches of one CJSC, the meaning of which is to bring more funds to the pope's treasury, simultaneously improving their own financial situation, nothing more.
            1. VLR
              9 December 2019 13: 09
              +6
              Good afternoon, Mikhail, thanks for the "fresh look", the typo has been corrected.
          2. bubalik
            bubalik 9 December 2019 15: 19
            +8
            Pane Kohanku (Pane Kohanku)
            ,,, monks ,, what they are such monks feel
            ,,, fundamentalists claimed that the monk’s poverty is recognized by the fact that he wears a shorter robe. This new church fashion was dangerous. The question immediately arose: should the shortened cassock stop on the calves or on the knees? request The small but radical minority of the Franciscans - the fracicelli, in order to remake the poverty of other monks, declared themselves supporters of the mini.

            They shortened the monastic cassock to the ass! lol
            Here the Dominicans no longer endured. As a first warning to all the mods from the Order of St. Francis, they burned 114 Franciscans at the stake of the Holy Inquisition. negative
            1. bubalik
              bubalik 9 December 2019 15: 28
              +8
              Do not see him the Most High until
              until heresy hits a hundred thousand arrows,
              And until the monk erects a bonfire
              a hundred thousand souls, and a hundred thousand bodies.
              (C)
            2. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 9 December 2019 15: 58
              +7
              Sergey, are you ... seriously ??? belay I swear, I didn’t know about this, I thought - a joke! good
              They shortened the monastic cassock to the ass!

              no, I read that Luther used the flaws of the priests' sexual life to the full extent in revealing sermons (it was really difficult to hide the ulcers from syphilis earned by prayers and repentance), but such a fashion ... wassat Maurice Druon puts in the mouth of the Cardinal of Perigord the word about the shame of short cloaks, not even covering the fifth point .. probably they somehow thought it, just three hundred years later than Assisi .. what
              Here the Dominicans no longer endured.

              I will not let any cadence into the monastery! angry
            3. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 9 December 2019 16: 09
              +3
              Here the Dominicans no longer endured.

              By the way, great material for your new article ... hi drinks
          3. Bar2
            Bar2 10 December 2019 08: 49
            -1
            Quote: Pane Kohanku
            I’ll continue: yeah, and the uniqueness of Russian obscene literature is that it is suitable for designating completely different concepts and phenomena in exactly the same words, depending on intonation. So the rules?


            no, not like that, on the contrary, the Russian language is rich, and this means that one phenomenon is described in Russian in SEVERAL words. Some Russophobes are here.
        2. sivuch
          sivuch 9 December 2019 12: 11
          +7
          But the words Aliyah did not come up with the most obvious interpretation. Come to our Ashdod region, here they will immediately explain to you. In Hebrew Aliya, i.e. ascent / ascent means the arrival of Jews from the countries of dispersion in Israel. Accordingly, eris, i.e. descent - movement in the opposite direction.
          That's where there is scope for research.
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 9 December 2019 13: 05
            +6
            Quote: sivuch
            But the words Aliyah did not come up with the most obvious interpretation.

            Well, this is obvious to you. For me, Hebrew is also close, as, for example, Swahili, that is, no way. But I do not like the course of your thoughts categorically. What do you want to take from Russia the original Russian lands of Italy in favor of Israel? Will not work!
            Stand up as one
            Let's say: "We won't give it"!

            smile
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 9 December 2019 13: 39
              +6
              What do you want to take from Russia the original Russian lands of Italy in favor of Israel? Will not work!

              - Yes, understand him, hope-King, no wonder ... They Neapolitan Kemsky volost is required. what
              - Yes, let them take it, to your health!
              laughing
        3. Bar2
          Bar2 9 December 2019 14: 25
          -6
          Quote: Trilobite Master
          That is, "waist" means "narrow" ... The name "Rosalia" is probably translated literally as "Russian slender" ..


          you, as a trilobite for what you will not undertake always get trilobite.

          where there at the word rosalia saw slim?

          Quote: Trilobite Master
          The word "Italy" obviously contains the demonstrative pronoun "this" - "this is Alia". But what is "Aliya


          again it doesn’t work. If your _this _, this_tha_, then such a fantasy is at the level of an illiterate cheburek who has come over.
          words and other toponyms in Tula / waist
          -Vistula river in Poland, now called the Vistula.
          -bushing-inner part
          -Tula - a hidden city
          -Casket-se tulka i.e. where they hide.
          -the back of the head, hidden behind the gun the back of the gun
          rear rear
          -Talas- river, hidden river
          Toulouse / Toulon is a city of Cathars in Occitania.
          Athlete Tightened
          Well and of course Italy / Antalya / Atlantic - this is geographically observed - constricted objects.
          Those. everything is in Russian.
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 9 December 2019 15: 16
            +4
            Quote: Bar2
            everything is in Russian.

            I will continue:
            Bottle - thump the rear, i.e. secretly.
            The body is the rear, that which is hidden under clothing.
            Colleagues, join me, the main thing here is to find the sounds "t" and "l" and that there should be a vowel between them, although not necessarily, and interpret it appropriately. It is interesting!
            The word "pit" is "cat-lovan" (a device for catching cats) or "ko-tulo-van" ("which tulips water", because "van" is an Old Russian word meaning "water"), what do you think?
            What is the origin of the word "coupon", "adit", "table", "chair", "steel", "style", explain someone ...
            For example, I was convinced that Toulon is a Russian city, simply, unlike Tula, where there were many women, it was dominated by the male population. But they were walking around (hiding, don’t think bad!) Both equally willingly.
            True, the question arises: what is the origin of the word "molest" - "molest", "molest" or "melt"?
            In short, there are many questions ... But if we take it together, we will be able to advance science today (which one? - the next question) to unattainable heights.
            And I ask you, colleagues, do not put Bar2 cons today. He’s funny, trying to entertain us ...
            1. Undecim
              Undecim 9 December 2019 15: 52
              +5
              It would be interesting to hear the version of the linguist Bara2 about the word (the site for some reason does not write the name of the city in France) "to ... he ... home".
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 9 December 2019 16: 45
                +7
                It would be interesting to hear the version of the linguist Bara2 about the word

                I've found another word!
                The word "pit" is "cat-lovan" (a device for catching cats)

                Michael in the wilds of linguistics completely forgot about folklore! request This is from the Old English "Cat Love Ann" - "Cat-loving Ann", according to legend, rushed after a stray kitten into a hole dug for the construction of the Tower under Edward II Burnt. hi drinks Vladislav and Sea Cat will confirm. soldier upset the British after that began to call the pits under the foundations .... crying
                1. Trilobite Master
                  Trilobite Master 9 December 2019 18: 34
                  +4
                  Quote: Pane Kohanku
                  "Cat Love Ann" - "Cat Love Ann"

                  Nikolay, where is Russian Tartaria here?
                  No, that will not do. You forgot that all linguistic research should lead to the same conclusion - all languages ​​except Russian are the essence of spoiled Russian. All geographical names throughout the world, including Lake Titicaca, are distorted Russian words.
                  So, Nicholas, doing further scientific research, remember the leading role of the proletariat, pah, that is, the Russian superethnos (I remembered the old joke) in world history. Take the BAI example - below. This scientific study meets all the requirements of scientific patriotism (if we consider Nagiyev Russian smile ).
                  And as in the same joke - do not forget about the prospect! laughing drinks
                  1. Pane Kohanku
                    Pane Kohanku 9 December 2019 19: 55
                    +5
                    So, Nicholas, doing further scientific research, remember the leading role of the proletariat, pah, that is, the Russian superethnos (I remembered the old joke) in world history.

                    especially important thoughts I ... will highlight in the text .... what
                    all languages ​​except Russian are the essence of spoiled Russian.

                    it’s so very close to agree to the point of absurdity that all nations except the Russians are spoiled Russians. request I think such a theory has a bunch of admirers! wink After that, Michael, we will only have to create our own religion (most importantly - with miracles!) - and voila, "Messiah Koresh" is crying nervously on the sidelines! laughing
                    1. Trilobite Master
                      Trilobite Master 9 December 2019 22: 52
                      +1
                      Quote: Pane Kohanku
                      all nations except Russians are the essence of spoiled Russians

                      I thought about it. But "everything" doesn't work. Someone had to spoil them, that's the point. There is, of course, a certain people capable of occupying this historical niche, you understand what kind of people chosen by God I am talking about ... laughing But this means that we must put them on a par with the superethnos, albeit with the opposite sign, and this should not be allowed. Superethnos must be inaccessible - this is a must.
                      No, everything is much simpler here. It’s just those nations that are not superethnos - they, how to say it, well ... are not capable of great things. It did not work out for them to assimilate the wisdom of the great Tartarians, only the tops were seized. And when the Tartarians were tired of educating them, stupid, because they didn’t go to the horse, they left the reels completely, distorted all the knowledge gained, changed their names and forgotten their benefactors. But the inferiority complex remained and was transformed into hatred of everything light and progressive, that is, to us. Well, here they were just lucky - we had a flood, well ... that's all. The Romanovs came all burned, rewritten, and now only Fomenko with an enlightened mind comprehended the truth.
                      By the way, I’m wondering: will Fomenko and Klesov ever write a joint work on history? And then they somehow so cautiously bypass each other, do not argue, although there is something ... Maybe they are really preparing some kind of joint project?
                  2. Hantengri
                    Hantengri 9 December 2019 20: 33
                    +3
                    Quote: Trilobite Master
                    All geographical names throughout the world, including Lake Titicaca, are distorted Russian words.

                    But why is Titicaca distorted? Earlier, when the time came, weaning the Russian baby from the breast, the Russian mother, coming to the shore of the sacred lake, clearly explained to him that the titi are now kaka. Children remembered that. Where is the distortion here?
                    1. Kirill Dou
                      Kirill Dou 9 December 2019 20: 59
                      0
                      laughing laughing or maybe it came from the folk fun of the maidens of the Rus tribe - with fun and sonorous laughter breastfeeding rush into the pit with manure, healing the Earth Force and Cosmic Energy of the Russian Supetetnos?
                      1. Hantengri
                        Hantengri 9 December 2019 21: 29
                        +1
                        Quote: Kirill Dou

                        or maybe it came from the folk amusement of the maidens of the Rus tribe - with fun and sonorous laughter threw themselves into the pit with dung,

                        You Russ with the Germans do not smear one manure! It was customary among the Germans (Angles, Saxons, and other nurmans) to smear with bear feces in order to adopt a festive appearance. And representatives of Superethnos always kept themselves in sterile cleanliness: they went to the bathhouse, washed their hands before eating (wiped them with 40% C2H5OH solution) and even cursed, only in places that were strictly reserved for this. laughing
                    2. Trilobite Master
                      Trilobite Master 9 December 2019 22: 56
                      +2
                      Quote: HanTengri
                      Where is the distortion here?

                      I agree, a bad example. Titicaca is, of course, purely in Russian. But everything else is obvious distortion. laughing
                      1. Hantengri
                        Hantengri 9 December 2019 23: 18
                        +2
                        Quote: Trilobite Master
                        But everything else is obvious distortion.

                        Certainly! The vile Masters of the West have spoiled the Russian words deliberately, with a great strain of evil will. And with Titicaca they got a bobble. They didn’t know, mediocrity, that apart from the usual, adult Russian language, there was also “childish” Russian. tongue
                      2. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 10 December 2019 10: 52
                        +5
                        And with Titicaca they got a bobble. They didn’t know, mediocrity, that apart from the usual, adult Russian language, there was also “childish” Russian.

                        That is, the Athenian tyrant Pisistratus on "children's Russian"was a very bad person? what And Menelaus was a scandalous huckster, and always publicly cursed about the price of half a barrel of olives? "("Bark at me"?) request drinks
                2. The comment was deleted.
                  1. Pane Kohanku
                    Pane Kohanku 9 December 2019 20: 12
                    +4
                    Immediately stop spoiling the true Russian linguistics, meowbritish meowing!

                    Igor, I still haven’t remembered how Troy was burned by invaders who came from the West only because it was the third Slavic city (Tro - I). Instead of it, Novgorod was built, away from the warlike carriers of Western ideas, and the real Trojan Priam turned into the mythical Perun, from the word "shove" - ​​all his belongings were on him right up to the shores of Batushka-Volkhov, poor fellow ... request and Rurik appeared afterwards! drinks
                3. bubalik
                  bubalik 9 December 2019 20: 08
                  +3
                  ,,, cats were considered an attribute of heretical beliefs, and especially black cats. In them, the Inquisition saw the very embodiment of Satan am
                  1. Pane Kohanku
                    Pane Kohanku 10 December 2019 12: 19
                    +2
                    In them, the Inquisition saw the very embodiment of Satan

                    - So, Vanek .. Now you will praise Mamon .. King Herod .. Simon the sorcerer .. and Lucretius Borgia ..
                    - I won’t b ...

                    (film "Monk and the Devil", dialogue between the Demon and the Monk). Sergei, you could really write a cycle about the peculiarities of the then religion! drinks
            2. Bar2
              Bar2 10 December 2019 09: 00
              +1
              Quote: Trilobite Master
              I will continue:
              Bottle - thump the rear, i.e. secretly.
              The body is the rear, that which is hidden under clothing.



              again you did not succeed, you are not a linguist, but a propagandist i.e. one step there.
              not the body, but
              -torso-our ancestors always wore belts, so again the meaning
              - The trunk is tightened or hidden, because a person wears clothes and hides the trunk. Related concepts.
      2. BAI
        BAI 9 December 2019 13: 10
        +9
        Perusia, i.e. Russian city.

        In a distant forest tract, in a secret temple, the ancient Rus worshiped the god Tarifishche and their high priest was Dmitry Nagiyev. And he ordered Tarifische Nagiyev to go down the speech to the steppe and settle there. And the steppe received the name Nogai, which is a distorted Nagiyevskaya. This, in turn, is an absolute proof that the ancient inhabitants of the steppes and the inhabitants of the northern forests of ancient Russia are one people "Urus-Nogais". Lord, am I really the only one so smart and the others don't see the obvious thing?
        1. kalibr
          kalibr 9 December 2019 13: 55
          +6
          Quote: BAI
          Lord, am I the only one so clever and the rest do not see the obvious thing?

          They see, of course. Laughed heartily
      3. Golovan Jack
        Golovan Jack 9 December 2019 15: 11
        +3
        Quote: Bar2
        As you see everything

        Mask i know you wink

        Ryabtsev made a professional cartographer along with A.T. Fomenko, such a calculation, set out to determine whether modern large cities lie in circles and, if so, what is the CENTER for these circles? The problem was solved positively, and the center was not Rome, not Istanbul and not Athens, but the center of the city OWNING THE WORLD i.e. VLADIMIR ...




        Everything was already there. Buddy laughing
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 9 December 2019 18: 54
          +3
          Yeah, and you, too, in the past tense. hi
          1. Golovan Jack
            Golovan Jack 9 December 2019 20: 38
            -2
            Quote: Sea Cat
            Yeah, and you too in the past tense

            I, uncle, are in the present. And I didn’t drink the Brudershaft with you, and I’m not going to. Is the hint clear? wink
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 9 December 2019 22: 22
              +2
              Of course it’s clear. I love you too. love
              1. Golovan Jack
                Golovan Jack 9 December 2019 22: 29
                -2
                Quote: Sea Cat
                I love you too

                And I, my friend, are indifferent to you. I'm sorry request
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 9 December 2019 23: 19
                  +2
                  What can you do ... It always happens, unrequited love, but sincere. love
                  1. Golovan Jack
                    Golovan Jack 9 December 2019 23: 23
                    -2
                    Quote: Sea Cat
                    It always happens, unrequited love, but sincere

                    Do not be sad - ... hope and wait (s) laughing
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 9 December 2019 23: 24
                      +2
                      Well, yes, "All life is ahead." (FROM) wink
                      1. Golovan Jack
                        Golovan Jack 9 December 2019 23: 25
                        -5
                        Quote: Sea Cat
                        Whole life ahead...

                        ... the remaining laughing
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish 9 December 2019 23: 26
                        +2
                        Who knows what we were measured ... neither you nor me. request
                      3. Golovan Jack
                        Golovan Jack 9 December 2019 23: 28
                        -3
                        I guess about what

                        On this fun note, I propose to finish. And yes - I’m still indifferent to you request
                      4. Catfish
                        Catfish 9 December 2019 23: 36
                        +2
                        And yes - I’m still indifferent to you request

                        Then why all this "concert"? Your logic seemed to be in order, well, in spite of the rest. smile
                      5. Golovan Jack
                        Golovan Jack 9 December 2019 23: 43
                        -3
                        Quote: Sea Cat
                        Then why all this "concert"?

                        I love ping-pong, panimaish ... ball to the left - ball to the right ... laughing
                      6. Kirill Dou
                        Kirill Dou 11 December 2019 02: 41
                        0
                        "I ran after you for three days and three nights to say. How indifferent you are to me" (c) laughing
                      7. Catfish
                        Catfish 11 December 2019 12: 58
                        +1
                        Somewhat unexpectedly, but very nice. smile drinks
                      8. Kirill Dou
                        Kirill Dou 12 December 2019 15: 13
                        -1
                        Quote: Sea Cat
                        Then why all this "concert"? Your logic seemed to be in order, well, in spite of the rest.

                        My quote was about this)
        2. Bar2
          Bar2 9 December 2019 22: 20
          +3
          Quote: Golovan Jack
          Quote: Bar2
          As you see everything

          Mask i know you wink

          Ryabtsev made a professional cartographer along with A.T. Fomenko, such a calculation, set out to determine whether modern large cities lie in circles and, if so, what is the CENTER for these circles? The problem was solved positively, and the center was not Rome, not Istanbul and not Athens, but the center of the city OWNING THE WORLD i.e. VLADIMIR ...




          Everything was already there. Buddy laughing


          with history you, as a local "historian" have a problem, yes it's me, but on this site I've been on this site for a long time, much more than all of you from this subsection, I started as Horde and remember Alexander Romanov and VAF, and Asket , a professor may be older, but he is not in history.
          I’ve been here for a long time, the site was very popular at first, some topic about the Tatar Mongols gained over 10 thousand. replicas, but the admins pissed it down, which is a pity. To read. what was going on in the minds of people of that time is interesting.
          Regarding the history, it can be said that apart from the forcibly attracted opinions, there is no one left here, the forum has degenerated. According to the profile, there is nothing to talk about, and as for historical subjects, it is interesting to observe the work of Alexander Samsonov, he is moving, but he won’t come to the opinion that history is completely FALSE and the biggest falsification is the falsification of chronology.
          1. bubalik
            bubalik 9 December 2019 22: 41
            +4
            some kind of topic about the Tatar Mongols scored for 10 thousand. replicas
            ,,, well, you bent it from the heart. Even in '14 in connection with events in Ukraine, well, there were a maximum of 500 comments in the article, and 10 thousand on a historical topic request ?
            1. Bar2
              Bar2 9 December 2019 22: 44
              +2
              Quote: bubalik
              Well, you drove it from the heart. Even in '14 in connection with events in Ukraine, well, there were a maximum of 500 comments in the article, and 10 thousand on a historical topic


              I say the forum has degenerated ...
            2. VLR
              10 December 2019 11: 45
              +3
              Yes, no, there were articles with more than 500 comments. I have only one - "Agony. Was the abdication of Nicholas II voluntary" - 705 (by the way, I did not participate in the discussion of this article). There were other authors too - but I can't name the exact names.
              1. bubalik
                bubalik 10 December 2019 11: 46
                +3
                [right] [/ right]hi well not 10. thousand No. Bar 0 probably made a mistake.
                Art. "Why did they create a fake about the" Mongol "invasion of Rus" - more than 1000 comments.
                1. Bar2
                  Bar2 10 December 2019 12: 44
                  +2
                  Quote: bubalik
                  Well, not 10. thousand bar 0 probably made a mistake.


                  for 1000 comments admins would not twitch.
          2. Hantengri
            Hantengri 9 December 2019 23: 42
            +1
            Quote: Bar2
            the biggest falsification is the falsification of chronology.

            Interestingly, and what is this falsification?
      4. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 9 December 2019 15: 44
        +6
        "-Perusia, ie Russian city" ////
        -----
        And the word "cowards" also needs to be deciphered? Clearly - the traditional ancient clothes of the Rus.
        And why forget-me-not is so called, you know? no? - aah!
        Because: not behind the booth. Do you understand what you were doing "behind the booth"? wassat
        How many more glorious discoveries are being prepared for us by the language of Pushkin and Tolstoy!
      5. Bar2
        Bar2 10 December 2019 09: 05
        +1


        Ortona did not immediately pay attention to the east coast of Italy i.e. the Horde city, on other maps and the sea there was called the Orton Sea, now called the Aegean Sea.
    5. Bar2
      Bar2 9 December 2019 09: 06
      -7
      about the Karakorum, what kind of map is this leading to the Karokorum, if they cannot find this Karokorum, who drew it from? question to the author of the article.
    6. Bar2
      Bar2 9 December 2019 09: 25
      -6


      Siege of the Crusaders of Damietta

      nothing like an illustration. The Crusaders are all beardless, bezshodny, but in skirts. I showed the same image in England, there were also English without pants and skirts, so the story fits in the old images, but the forum (not forum users) is not liked.
  2. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 9 December 2019 06: 49
    +1
    I looked through the article obliquely, no offense to the author, but the topic of the article was terribly far from the general focus of VO.
    1. VLR
      9 December 2019 06: 53
      +6
      After the story of the Albigensian Wars and Dominique Guzman, it would be unfair not to tell about the contemporary and antipode of Saint Dominic - Francis. Therefore, we got paired articles - "Two faces of the Catholic Church".
      1. Vladimir_2U
        Vladimir_2U 9 December 2019 07: 34
        +2
        Why not read it? It is stated interestingly, rich illustrations, moreover, I heard something about the Albiguian heresy, it is interesting to learn more in detail.
        1. VLR
          9 December 2019 07: 43
          +6
          In 2004, within the framework of one discussion, my article "This terrible heresy of the Cathars" was published in the journal "History".
          You can view:
          https://his.1sept.ru/2004/09/15.htm
          1. Vladimir_2U
            Vladimir_2U 9 December 2019 14: 52
            +3
            Yes, I read it, although it’s not mine, but it’s just interestingly written, thanks.
        2. kalibr
          kalibr 9 December 2019 13: 52
          +1
          Vladimir, then you are in the hands of my book "The Crusaders" (otherwise the circulation is almost over) and a series of articles on VO "Heresy of the Cathars, Castles of the Cathars." And that "something" for such an intelligent and knowledgeable person is bad manners.
        3. Bar2
          Bar2 10 December 2019 09: 19
          +1
          Quote: Vladimir_2U
          Why not read it? It is stated interestingly, rich illustrations, moreover, I heard something about the Albiguian heresy, it is interesting to learn more in detail.


          they don’t study history in articles. Here he brought Ryzhov a map of travel to Karokorum, like this city was actually located where this map says, but in fact there is no such city in these places, archaeologists did not find it.
          Or the engraving "the siege of the crusaders ...", but the crusaders, which are not medieval, but antique, in dress, so I recommend you the work of the historians Fomenko-Nosovsky about Qatar, there is a lot of unknown and interesting.
          http://chronologia.org/tabov/25.html#clear
          1. Vladimir_2U
            Vladimir_2U 10 December 2019 09: 55
            +1
            Weapons, helmets, armor on the engraving of any kind, but not antique. Already for this my knowledge is enough. I think the artist, depicting the event, copied from what was at hand, then they did not bother with historical details at all.
            1. Bar2
              Bar2 10 December 2019 12: 43
              +1
              Quote: Vladimir_2U
              Weapons, helmets, armor on the engraving of any kind, but not antique.


              the fact is that antiquity is anti-reality, it did not exist at all and what kind of weapon there was is certainly not known, but the fact that the "antique" Romans walked without pants is a feature of the OI. In the Middle Ages, everyone already walked in pants on the OI, but judging by this picture, no.

              Quote: Vladimir_2U
              I think the artist, depicting the event, copied from what was at hand, then they did not bother with historical details at all.


              Well, yes, a widespread excuse of all the Traditions, they say, the artists did not see any Chinese, so they painted them like the Jews, although such a phenomenon as the Great Silk Road of the GSP was precisely from ancient times, so many people had to see these ancient Chinese, or, for example, Bergeret's "Alexander introduces Kalmyks and Cossacks to Napoleon." And the Kalmyks there are not Kalmyks, not Mongoloids, and like the same artist Bergeret did not see these Kalmyks himself, although he was a contemporary of Napoleon.
              So obsolete rebuffs are not accepted.
              1. Vladimir_2U
                Vladimir_2U 10 December 2019 12: 47
                0
                I don’t follow the flight of your thoughts, so I don’t know what OI is.
                Quote: Bar2
                Well, yes, a common excuse for all tradikov, they say artists are not seen by any Chinese
                Modern cinema also does not particularly bother with historical details, and there are a lot of netradiks there.
                1. Bar2
                  Bar2 10 December 2019 12: 53
                  +2
                  Quote: Vladimir_2U
                  I don’t follow the flight of your thoughts, so I don’t know what OI is


                  official story
    2. kalibr
      kalibr 9 December 2019 08: 24
      +5
      To read materials of this quality obliquely is the same as peeing against the wind. This is education, the development of intelligence, which people really lack for us!
      1. Vladimir_2U
        Vladimir_2U 9 December 2019 08: 48
        0
        Indeed, Shpakovsky’s article is quite another matter: superficial, tendentious, without any analysis of both motives and circumstances, often with an admixture of stupidity and lies, and certainly with suppression of uncomfortable facts. Here, his articles can be safely read diagonally, this will not affect the comfort of urination.
        1. kalibr
          kalibr 9 December 2019 13: 48
          0
          Quote: Vladimir_2U
          superficial, tendentious, without any analysis of both motives and circumstances, often with an admixture of stupidity and lies, and certainly with suppression of uncomfortable facts.

          But how well they read and see how popular they are both on sites and in magazines? Perhaps this is because everyone around ... is not smart. A smart one is only you. But then write something of your own ... it will be interesting how you will avoid all this.
    3. Aerodrome
      Aerodrome 9 December 2019 08: 40
      +1
      Quote: Vladimir_2U
      Diagonally scanned the article.
      not diagonally? what wink
      1. Vladimir_2U
        Vladimir_2U 9 December 2019 08: 54
        +3
        It is possible and diagonally, but diagonally Orthodox. )
        1. Aerodrome
          Aerodrome 9 December 2019 09: 16
          +1
          Quote: Vladimir_2U
          It is possible and diagonally, but diagonally Orthodox. )

          I agree however .. yesbut I have an argument with Orthodoxy. Shot there are suspiciously few Russians.hi
    4. Olgovich
      Olgovich 9 December 2019 09: 46
      +1
      Quote: Vladimir_2U
      Looked obliquely article no offense to the author, but the topic of the article is very far from the general focus of VO.
      So, like, he insulted the author and, without even realizing it, ran on. request

      The article is very interesting, thanks to the author. Maybe it should be divided into two parts. hi
      1. Vladimir_2U
        Vladimir_2U 9 December 2019 10: 20
        +1
        Quote: Olgovich
        I looked through the article obliquely, no offense to the author, but the topic of the article was terribly far from the general focus of VO.
        So, like, he insulted the author and, without even realizing it, ran on

        The author of the article was so "offended" that he recommended me a couple of his articles. But such things cannot reach Olgych, he only reads what is beneficial to him.
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 9 December 2019 21: 13
          +2
          Vladimir 2u?
          Explain my friend, what is the point on your part to seek a squabble and dare forum users?
          And to do it is left and right !!!? I don’t even stutter about the beat ......
          Alas, the presence in the network resources of pseudo-anonymity and impersonality forms a feeling of impunity and impudence in people with low social responsibility! Moreover, I noticed that the more a person on a branch “skits”, the more he, as it were to put it mildly, “has problems of a personal and professional plan”. So Vladimir "U2" sea to you sympathy! If you achieve anything, come "boast"!
          By the way, if there is a desire to criticize the work of the Author, at least
          “Dip a pen in ink,
          Put a thought on paper
          Read it with soul
          Convince a neighbor nearby
          Trembling before the crowd
          Take to the podium proudly
          Tell your idea »
          Regards, Kote!
          1. Vladimir_2U
            Vladimir_2U 10 December 2019 03: 46
            +1
            Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
            pseudoannanimacy
            To the person who wrote this, it makes no sense either to explain.
  3. tlauicol
    tlauicol 9 December 2019 07: 09
    +4
    if this flea fanatic defeated luxury and beauty - now there would not be that Italy that we know. So what .. to the Francis pigs
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 9 December 2019 08: 40
      +3
      In the Christian religion there is a good "safety valve" for such cases - one of the deadly sins called "pride." Under his auspices, a century and a half later, the church persecuted flagellans.
  4. kalibr
    kalibr 9 December 2019 08: 23
    +3
    Valery! Very good stuff. Content, manner of presentation, logic of presentation - everything is fine !. You are just great!
    1. Aerodrome
      Aerodrome 9 December 2019 08: 41
      +2
      Quote: kalibr
      Valery! Very good stuff. Content, manner of presentation, logic of presentation - everything is fine !. You are just great!

      work is good ... heroes are "devils" mostly! yes
  5. bober1982
    bober1982 9 December 2019 09: 04
    -1
    I also read the article in passing, diagonally, the illustrations are good.
    Francis was in a terrible demonic charm, and all his sermons and his imitation of Christ Himself are absurd, this is a common eccentricity. He was not familiar with the covenants and teachings of the Holy Fathers, he never had a spiritual mentor, in his youth he was distinguished by dissipation, then he fell into "holiness", that is, he changed one extreme to another.
    He imagines himself equal to God.
  6. Moskovit
    Moskovit 9 December 2019 09: 19
    +4
    Thanks to the author for the material. There is an interesting film by Franco Zaferelli "Brother Sun, Sister Moon" just about Francis's youth. War and captivity were one of the important factors that influenced the spiritual revolution of the young guy. Therefore, the material is just appropriate for VO).
  7. Hantengri
    Hantengri 9 December 2019 09: 34
    +4
    Someone invisible said to him: "This is for you and for your warriors."

    “You did not understand the first vision,” said the Voice, “return to Assisi.”

    Since 1206, Francis walked around the country, delivering a sermon not only to people, but also to animals and birds.

    Yes, there was a time ... The peasant's roof seemed to be flowing not like a child! And, after all, how many people have infected with his "cockroaches", with the full connivance of the hierarchs! And now I would "preach" quietly in the hospital, away from mentally unstable fellow citizens ...
    1. bober1982
      bober1982 9 December 2019 09: 53
      +2
      Quote: HanTengri
      far from mentally unstable fellow citizens ...

      Mentally stable just determined immediately that trouble happened with Francis.
      After all, how is it taught (balanced) - that the more one draws closer to God, the more he considers himself a sinner, and on the contrary, the more he moves away, the more he does not notice his own sins.
      Indeed, at the death of Francis, he forgave everyone his sins and forgave everyone, he did not apologize himself, thereby identifying himself as a righteous man.
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 9 December 2019 21: 16
        +4
        I’ll throw two theses; I don’t know which one is closer to the truth:
        Everyone goes crazy in their own way.
        Each has its own road to God.
        Regards, Kote!
  8. Kirill Dou
    Kirill Dou 9 December 2019 10: 22
    +2
    Thanks for the interesting article! Always interested in the history of the Catholic Church in all its complexity and diversity.
  9. Basil50
    Basil50 9 December 2019 11: 26
    +3
    Any religion has an analogue with computer games.
    Both here and there a conditional reality in which you need to believe. They used to make people believe, those who doubted were destroyed. The difference between computer games and religion is only in violence, in games violence is still imaginary, without real destruction of players. But real money has to be spent in games and on faith in God. The money goes to pump heroes or to buy a new game. It is required to keep priests-monks in the church, and to upgrade monasteries and temples, and even more money is spent on all kinds of confirmations of the existence of God, in order to * strengthen faith *, since the Lord himself does not seek to confirm his own deeds and confirm those who doubt.
    Too much in common in games and faith in God. Do not find?
  10. Operator
    Operator 9 December 2019 12: 06
    +9
    The Catholic Church (including all its monastic orders) does not have long to live - after the expected recognition of unconventional marriages by the Roman pontiff, Catholics will cease to be Christians and become sodomites.
  11. Vilensky
    Vilensky 9 December 2019 12: 55
    -2
    St. Ignatius (Brianchaninov) (+ 1867): "Like Monpas, Francis d'Asiz, Ignatius Loyola and other ascetics of Latinism, recognized as saints in his depths, achieved the strongest demonic charm in hermitage."
    "Engage yourself in reading the New Testament and the Holy Fathers of the Orthodox Church (by no means Teresa, not Francis and other western crazywhom their heretical Church passes off as saints) ".
  12. Undecim
    Undecim 9 December 2019 12: 59
    +5
    William Okkan is a philosopher and logician, nicknamed the disciples "invincible."
    Here the author was a little mistaken. William of Ockham. It is he who owns the well-known methodological principle "Occam's razor" today: "" What can be done on the basis of fewer assumptions should not be done on the basis of more. "
    By the way, he was also accused of heresy and hid until the end of his life in Munich.
    1. VLR
      9 December 2019 18: 30
      +5
      This typo was also corrected.
  13. Grim Reaper
    Grim Reaper 11 December 2019 08: 03
    +1
    Thanks. Very interesting
  14. aesculapius
    aesculapius 23 January 2020 05: 36
    0
    The main thing is not written - that their faith is futile and their labors are wasted - heretics