Military Review

The first centuries of Christianity: the struggle of ideas and the formation of church organization

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More than 2000 years ago, a new teaching appeared in the far eastern province of the Roman Empire, a kind of "heresy of the Jewish faith" (Jules Renard), the creator of which was soon executed by the Romans by the sentence of the spiritual authorities of Jerusalem. All kinds of prophets, Judea was, in general, not surprising, heretical sects - too. But the preaching of the new doctrine threatened to exacerbate the already extremely unstable situation in the country. Christ seemed dangerous not only to the secular authorities of this troubled imperial province, but also to the members of the Jewish Sanhedrin who did not want a conflict with Rome. Both of them were well aware that the unrest in Judea, as a rule, took place under the slogans of universal equality and social justice, and Jesus' sermons, as it seemed to them, could serve as a catalyst for another rebellion. On the other hand, Jesus provoked irritation among the faithful Jews, some of whom might recognize him as a prophet, but not the Son of God. As a result, in exact accordance with the words of Jesus, the fatherland did not recognize its prophet, the successes of Christianity in historical it turned out to be minimal, and the death of the new messiah did not attract much attention of contemporaries not only in distant Rome, but even in Judea and Galilee. Only Josephus, in his work “Jewish Antiquities,” between things, reports of a certain Jacob, that he “was the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ”.



Josephus, illustration 1880


For the sake of justice, it should be said that another passage from this work (the famous “testimony of Flavius”) about Jesus says exactly what Christian philosophers of all times and peoples need and will need:
“At that time Jesus lived, a wise man, if you can call him a man at all. He did extraordinary things and was a teacher of people who joyfully perceived the truth. Many Jews followed him, as did the pagans. He was the Christ. And according to the denunciations of our most famous husbands, Pilate sentenced him to crucifixion, his former adherents did not turn away from him. For on the third day he again came to them alive, as prophets of God had predicted, as well as many other amazing things about him. "


Everything seems just wonderful, but the quoted passage has one single flaw: it appeared in the text of "Jewish Antiquities" only in the IV century, and even in the III century, the religious philosopher Origen knew nothing about such a brilliant proof of the coming of the Messiah .

The first Roman testimonies of Christ and Christians belong to Tacitus: in the first quarter of the 2nd century, describing the fire of Rome (according to legend, arranged by Nero in 64), this historian says that Christians were accused of arson and many were executed. Tacitus also reports that a man bearing the name of Christ was executed during the reign of Emperor Tiberius and the procurator Pontius Pilate.

The first centuries of Christianity: the struggle of ideas and the formation of church organization

Publius Coralius Tacitus


Guy Suetonius Tranquill, in the second quarter of the second century, wrote that Emperor Claudius expelled the Jews from Rome because they "organized a disturbance under the command of Christ," and under Nero many Christians who spread the "new harmful customs" were executed.

But back to the East. The traditionally troubled Judea was far away, but the Jews of Rome and other major cities of the Empire who were the first to suffer any anti-Roman appearance in Jerusalem were close. And therefore, the teachings of Christ, calling on believers not to actively fight the Romans, but to wait for the final judgment, which should destroy the power of the empire of the oppressors, were very favorably accepted in the Jewish diaspora (whose history dates back to the XNUMXth century BC). Some Jews of the Diaspora, who were not too strict about the precepts of Orthodox Judaism and were receptive to the religious movements of the surrounding pagan world, tried, thus, to distance themselves from the "violent" Jewish counterparts. But the idea of ​​monotheism, which remained unchanged, did not allow them to become completely loyal and safe admirers of the next religious cult for Rome, of which there were so many on the territory of the empire. But the preaching of Christianity turned out to be especially successful among proselytes (people who accepted Judaism of non-Jewish origin).

In the early Christian communities there was no single concept of faith and there was no unequivocal opinion about the rites to be observed. But centralized management did not exist yet, there were no doctrines, based on which it would be possible to establish which particular views were wrong, and therefore various Christian communities did not consider each other to be heretics for a long time. The first contradictions arose when I had to look for the answer to the question that concerns everyone: for whom is the kingdom of God promised by Christ available? Only to the Jews? Or do people of other nationalities have hope? In many Christian communities in Judea and Jerusalem, circumcision was demanded of converts — that is, become a Jew before becoming a Christian. The Jews of the Diaspora were not so categorical. The final split between Christianity and Judaism occurred in 132-135, when the Jewish Christians did not support the Son of the Star uprising - Bar-Kochba.

So, Christianity was separated from the synagogue, but still retained numerous elements of Judaism, especially the Jewish Bible (Old Testament). At the same time, the Catholic and Orthodox churches recognize the “true” canon of Alexandria, which contains 72 books, and the Protestant churches returned to an earlier canon - the Palestinian, which contains only 66 books. The so-called Vtorokanonicheskie books of the Old Testament, which are not in the Palestinian canon, Protestants belong to the Apocrypha (another version of their name - pseudo-epigraphs).

The Jewish roots of the new faith explain the rejection of icons, characteristic of the Christians of the first centuries of the new era (the law of Moses forbade the image of the Divine). As early as the 6th century, Gregory the Great wrote to Bishop Massilin: “We praise you for banning the worship of icons; for the same thing that you broke them, we blame ... It’s one thing to worship the picture, what you need to worship. "


Francisco Goya, "Pope Gregory the Great at Work"


In the national veneration of icons, elements of pagan magic were indeed present (and, to be frank, are present today). Thus, there were widespread cases of scraping off paint icons and adding it to the Eucharistic bowl, the “participation” of the icon as a receptacle at baptism. Attaching to icons was also considered a pagan custom, so it was recommended to hang them up in churches higher - in order to make access to them more difficult. This view was also shared by the adherents of Islam. After the final victory of icon-worshipers (in the 8th century), Jews and Muslims even called Christians idolaters. A supporter of the veneration of icons, John of Damascus, trying to circumvent the Old Testament ban on idolatry, said that in ancient times God was incorporeal, but after he appeared in the flesh and lived among people, it became possible to depict the visible God.


Holy Reverend John of Damascus. Fresco of the Church of the Virgin in the monastery Studenica, Serbia. 1208-1209 years


During the spread of Christianity beyond Judea, his ideas were critically analyzed by pagan philosophers (from the Stoics to the Pythagoreans), including the Hellenized Jews of the Diaspora. The works of Philo of Alexandria (20 BC - 40 AD) had a significant influence on the author of the Gospel of John and the Apostle Paul. Philo's innovative contributions were the idea of ​​an absolute God (while the Hebrews of the chosen people were discussed in the Hebrew Bible) and the doctrine of the Trinity: Absolute God, Logos (the high priest and firstborn son of God) and the World spirit (Holy Spirit). A modern researcher G. Getche, describing Philo's teachings, calls him "Christianity without Christ."


Philo of Alexandria


Various Gnostic teachings also had a great influence on Christianity. Gnosticism is a religious and philosophical concept designed for educated people brought up in Hellenistic traditions. Responsibility for all the injustices and misfortunes of the world Gnostic teachings laid on the demiurge ("craftsman"), not a very large demon, who created the world and created the first people as their toys. However, the wise Serpent enlightened them and helped to achieve freedom - for this the Demiurge torments the descendants of Adam and Eve. People who worshiped the Serpent, and God, who wanted to leave people in ignorance, was considered an evil demon, called Ophites. For the Gnostics, there is a desire to harmonize various pre-Christian ideas with the Christian idea of ​​soul salvation. According to their ideas, Evil belonged to the material world, society and the state. Salvation for the Gnostics meant liberation from sinful matter, which was also expressed in the rejection of the existing order. This often made members of the Gnostic sects opponents of the authorities.

The creator of one of the Gnostic schools, Marcion (who was excommunicated by his father) and his followers denied the continuity of the Old and New Testaments, and Judaism was considered a worship of Satan. Apelles, a disciple of Marcion, believed that the One Principle, the Unborn God, created the two main angels. The first of them created the world, the second - the "fiery" - is hostile to God and the first angel. Valery Bryusov, who was brilliantly educated and famous for his erudition (whom M. Gorky called "the most cultural writer in Russia") knew about it. And that is why Andrei Bely, Bryusov’s rival in the love triangle, in the famous mystical novel is not just the angel Madiel — no, he is the “Fiery Angel”. And this is not a compliment at all, on the contrary: Bryusov directly tells everyone who is able to understand that his alter ego in the novel, Knight Ruprecht, fights with Satan - it is not surprising that he suffers a defeat in this unequal fight.


Illustration for the novel "The Fiery Angel": A. Belyi - Fiery Angel Madiel, N. Petrovskaya - Renata, V. Bryusov - Unhappy Knight Ruprecht


But let us return to the teachings of Apelles, who believed that the world as the creation of a good angel is blessed, but subject to the blows of an evil angel, whom Marcion identified with the Old Testament Yahweh. Even in the II. n er Marcion formulated more 10 differences between the god of the Old Testament and the gospel god:

God of the Old Testament:

Exhorts sex mixing and reproduction to the limits of the Ocumene.
He promises to reward the land.
Prescribes circumcision and murder of prisoners
Curses the earth
Repent that created man
Prescribes revenge
Allows usury
Appears in the form of a dark cloud and firestorm
Forbids to touch and even approach the ark of the covenant
(i.e., principles of religion are a mystery to believers)
Curse "hanging in a tree", that is, the executed

New Testament God:
Forbids even a sinful gaze on a woman
Promises to reward heaven
Prohibits both
Bless the earth
Does not change his sympathies to the person
Prescribes the forgiveness of the repentant
Prohibits misappropriation of unearned money
Appears in the form of unapproachable Light
Summons everybody
Godmother's death of god himself

Thus, Yahweh, the god of Moses, from the point of view of the Gnostics, is by no means Elohim, to whom the crucified Christ called. Christ, they pointed out, referring to the Jews, who called themselves "God's chosen people" and "children of the Lord," said bluntly:
"If God were your father, you would love me, because I came out of God and came ... Your father is a devil; and you want to fulfill your father’s lust. He was a murderer from the beginning and could not stand in the truth, because there is no in him is truth. When he speaks a lie, he speaks of his own, for he is a liar and the father of lies "
(John 8, 42-44).

Another evidence against the identity of Yahweh and Elohim is the fact that in the Old Testament Satan in the book of Job is in fact a trusted associate of God: by fulfilling the will of God, he puts the faith of unfortunate Job to the cruel test. According to the Apocrypha, Lucifer became Satan (Troublemaker), who, prior to indignation against God, carried out his instructions: by order of Savoaf, he settled in King Saul and made him "rage in his house," another time God sent him to "carry away the lies" of Israeli King Ahab to force him into battle. Lucifer (Satan) is named here among the "sons of God." But Christ in the Gospel refuses to communicate with Satan.

By the way, it is now considered a proven fact that Pyatniknikiy has four authors, one of whom is called Yakhvist (the text belonging to him is recorded in Southern Judea in the 9th century BC), the other is Elohist (its text is recorded later, in Northern Judea). According to the Old Testament, both good and evil, to the same extent, come from Yahweh: "He who creates light and creates darkness, makes peace and does evil - I, Yahweh, do this." (The Book of Isaiah; 45. 7; 44. 6-7).

But the Christian doctrine of Satan is still based on sources that are not canonical. The most important of them was the apocrypha "The Revelation of Enoch" (dated approximately 165 BC). A small quote:
"When people multiplied and began to give birth to daughters visible from themselves and beautiful faces, the angels, the sons of heaven, saw them, kindled to them with love and said:" Let's go, choose wives from the daughters of men and make children with them ... ".
They took wives, each of them of their choice, they came to them and lived with them and taught them magic, spells and the use of roots and herbs ... In addition, Azazel taught people how to make swords, knives, shields and armors; he also taught them to make mirrors, bracelets and jewelry, as well as to use blush, tint eyebrows, use precious stones of elegant appearance and color ... Amazarak taught all kinds of magic and use of roots. Armers taught how to stop the spell; Barcayal taught to observe the heavenly bodies; Akibiel taught signs and omens; Tamiel - astronomy and Asaradel - the movement of the moon. "


In the church dogma introduced the devil Irineus of Lyons (II century AD). The devil, according to Iriney, was created by God, as a bright angel who possesses free will, but rebelled against the Creator by virtue of his pride. His assistants, the demons of the lower rank, according to Irenaeus, evolved from the coexistence of fallen angels with mortal women. The first of the demons' mothers was Lilith: they were born from the cohabitation of Adam and Lilith, when he was separated from Eve after the fall into 130 years.


John Collier, Lilith, 1889


By the way, do you know why the Orthodox tradition requires women to cover their heads when entering the temple? The Apostle Paul (in 1-Corinthians) says:
"Christ is the head of every husband, the husband is the head of the wife ... every wife praying ... with her head open dismisses her head, for it is the same as if she were shaved (that is, a prostitute) ... not a husband from the wife, but the wife from the husband ... therefore the wife should have on her head a sign of authority over her, for an angel. "


That is, cover your head with a handkerchief, woman, and do not seduce angels in the church that look at you from heaven.

Tatian, a theologian of the second century, wrote that "the body of the devil and demons consists of air or fire. Being almost physical, the devil and his helpers need food."

Origen claimed that the demons "eagerly swallow" the sacrificial smoke. On the basis of the location and movement of the stars, they foresee the future, possess hidden knowledge that they readily discover ... Well, of course, for women, who else. According to Origen, demons are not subject to the sin of homosexuality.

But why did Christian theologians need the teaching of the Devil? Without his presence it is difficult to explain the existence of evil on earth. However, having recognized the existence of Satan, theologians faced another, perhaps the main contradiction of Christianity: if God, who created the world, is good, where did the evil come from? If Satan was created by a pure angel, but rebelled against God, then God is not omniscient? If God is omnipresent, is he present in the Devil, and therefore responsible for the activities of Satan? If God is omnipotent - why does he allow the evil activities of Satan? In general, it turned out that the Christian theory of good and evil has many paradoxes and contradictions that can make any philosopher and theologian crazy. One of the teachers of the church, the "angelic doctor" Thomas Aquinas, decided that a person, by virtue of his original sinfulness, cannot do good, worthy of eternal life, but can receive the gift of grace dwelling in him if he is disposed to accept this gift from God. But at the end of his life, he admitted that all his labors are straw, and any illiterate grandmother knows more, because he believes that the soul is immortal.


Angelic doctor "Thomas Aquinas


Pelagius, a British monk who lived in the 5th century, preached that the sinfulness of a person is the result of his bad deeds, and that means a good pagan is better than an evil Christian. But St. Augustine (the founder of Christian philosophy, 354-430) advanced the concept of original sin, thus declaring all pagans incomplete and justifying religious intolerance.


Sandro Botticelli, "St. Augustine", circa 1480, Florence


He also put forward the concept of predestination, according to which people are doomed to salvation or death, regardless of their actions, and according to God's prediction - because of his omniscience. (Later, Geneva Protestants, led by Calvin, recalled this theory). Gothshalk, a medieval theologian, did not stop at what he had achieved: having creatively developed the teachings of Augustine, he declared that divine providence was the source of evil. Johann Scot Erigen finally confused everyone, proclaiming that there was no evil in the world, offering to take even the most obvious evil for good.

The Christian theory of good and evil finally came to a standstill, and the Catholic Church returned to the teachings of Pelagius about the salvation of the soul by doing good deeds.

The doctrine of Satan, as it was said, was borrowed by Christian theologians from a non-canonical source - apocrypha, but the thesis on the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary was borrowed from the Quran, and relatively recently: as early as the XII century, St. Bernard of Clairvaux denounced the doctrine of the immaculate conception, considering it an unreasonable innovation.


El Greco, "Saint Bernard of Clairvos"


This dogma was also condemned by Alexander of Gael and the "seraphic doctor" Bonaventure (the general of the monastic Order of the Franciscans).


Vittorio Crivelli, Saint Bonaventure


The debate continued for many centuries, only in 1617, the Pope Paul V forbade publicly refute the thesis of the Immaculate Conception. It was only in 1854 that Pope Pius IX finally confirmed this dogma with the bull Ineffabius Deus.

George Healy, Pius IX, portrait


By the way, the dogma of the ascension of the Virgin to heaven is officially recognized by the Catholic Church only in 1950.

The Gnostic trend in Judaism was the Kabbalah ("The teaching received according to tradition"), which emerged in the II-III centuries. AD According to Kabbalah, the purpose of God-created people is to improve to its level. God does not help his creatures, for “help is the infamous bread” (sop): people must achieve perfection on their own.

In contrast to the Gnostics who were trying to understand and logically resolve the rapidly accumulating contradictions, the Christian writer and theologian Tertullian (around 160 - after 222), argued the idea of ​​powerlessness of reason before faith. That he owns the famous phrase: "I believe, for it is absurd." At the end of his life, he became close to the Montanists.


Tertullian


The followers of Montana (who created his teaching in the first century AD) led an ascetic life and preached martyrdom, wanting to "help" bring the end of the world closer - and, therefore, the kingdom of the Messiah. They have traditionally been in opposition to the secular authorities and the official church. Military service was declared incompatible with Christian dogma.

There were also followers of Mani (born at the beginning of the III century), whose teaching represented the synthesis of Christianity with Buddhism and the Zarathustra cult.


The inscription reads: Mani, the Messenger of Light


The Manichaeans recognized all religions, and believed that the Forces of Light through them periodically sent their apostles to Earth, including Zarathustra, Christ and Buddha. However, only Mani, the last in the series of apostles, was able to bring people real faith. Such "tolerance" to other religious teachings allowed the Manichaeans to disguise themselves as believers of any denomination, gradually taking away their flock from representatives of traditional religions - this was what caused such hatred for Manicheanism from both Christians and Muslims, and even from the "correct" Buddhists. In addition, the clear and open rejection of the material world brought cognitive dissonance into the minds of ordinary sane citizens. People, as a rule, were not against moderate asceticism and reasonable limitations of sensuality, but not to the same extent to strive to destroy this whole World, which was viewed in the Manifest, not just as an area of ​​struggle between Light and Darkness, but was considered the Darkness, which captured particles Light (human souls). The elements of Manichaeism have long been preserved in Europe in such heretical teachings as Pavlikianism, Bogomilism, and the Cathar movement (the Albian heresy).

People tend to lead to a common denominator all religions. As a result, after several generations, Christians began to bless killings in war, and fans of the cruel and merciless Apollo appointed him the patron saint of virtue and fine arts. Of course, they don’t ask permission from their God to sell "tickets to heaven" and sell "tickets to heaven" from their God. And they are not interested in whether their patrons need saints whom they impose on their own will and understanding. And yet the ministers of all religions without exception with extraordinary piety and unconcealed servility belong to earthly rulers and state power. And in Christianity, it was gradually the directions that were inclined to adapt religion to the goals of the ruling classes. This is how the church appeared in the modern sense of the word, and an authoritarian church organization appeared in a number of countries instead of democratic communities. In the 4th century, Arius tried to oppose the rationalism of his doctrine with the mysticism of church dogmas (“Mad people who fight against me, take to interpret nonsense”) - began to assert that Christ was created by God the Father, and, therefore, is not equal to him. But times have already changed, and the dispute ended not with the adoption of a resolution condemning the apostate, but with the poisoning of a heresiarch in the palace of Emperor Constantine and cruel persecutions of his supporters.


Arius, heresiarch


The emergence of a single church allowed to unite the teachings of different communities. The basis was taken direction, headed by the Apostle Paul, which was characterized by a complete break with Judaism and the desire to compromise with the authorities. In the process of the formation of the Christian church, so-called canonical writings were created, which were included in the New Testament. The process of canonization began at the end of the II century AD. and ended by about IV century. At the Nicene Council (325), more than the 80 Gospels were considered for inclusion in the New Testament. The holy books of Christianity were the 4 Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, John), the Acts of the Holy Apostles, the 14 Epistles of the Apostle Paul, the 7 Collegiate Epistles and the Revelation of John the Theologian. A number of books did not fall into the canon, among them the so-called Gospels of Jacob, of Thomas the Blessed, of Philip, Mary Magdalene, etc. But the Protestants in the XVI century. denied the right to be considered "sacred" even by some of the canonical books.

It should immediately be said that even those recognized as canonical Gospels could not have been written by the contemporaries of Christ (and, especially, by his apostles), since contain many factual errors that are recognized by Catholic and Protestant historians and theologians. For example, Mark the Evangelist indicates that a herd of pigs grazed in the land of Gadarinskaya on the shores of Lake Genisaret - however, Gadara is far from the lake of Gennesaret. The meeting of the Sanhedrin could hardly have been held in the house of Caiaffa, especially in the courtyard: there was a special room in the temple complex. Moreover, the Sanhedrin could not make a trial either on Easter Eve, or on a holiday, or throughout the next week: to condemn a man and crucify him at that time meant the whole world to commit a mortal sin. An outstanding Protestant biblical scholar, a professor at the University of Göttinging, E. Loze discovered violations of the Sanhedrin court procedure in the 27 Gospels.

By the way, in the New Testament there are books written before the Gospels - these are the early messages of the Apostle Paul.

The recognized canonical Gospels were written in Koine, a variant of the Greek language common in the Hellenistic states of the heirs of Alexander the Great (diadochi). Only with regard to the Gospel of Matthew, some researchers make assumptions (not supported by the majority of historians) that it could be written in Aramaic.

The canonical Gospels were written not only at different times, but also intended to be read in different audiences. The earliest of them (written between 70-80 AD) is the Gospel of Mark. Modern studies have proven that it was the source for the Gospels of Matthew (80-100 AD) and Luke (about 80 AD). These three gospels are usually called "synoptic".

Mark's Gospel is clearly written for non-Jewish Christians: the author constantly explains Jewish customs to the readers and translates certain expressions. For example: "they ate bread with unclean, that is, with unwashed hands"; "Ephphatha told him, that is, open up." The author does not call himself, the name "Mark" appears only in the texts of the III century.

The gospel of Luke (whose author, incidentally, admits that he did not witness the events described - 1: 1) is addressed to people brought up in the traditions of the Hellenistic culture. After analyzing the text of this Gospel, the researchers concluded that Luke was not a Palestinian or a Jew. In addition, judging by the language and style, Luke is the most educated of the evangelists, and may have been a doctor, or had something to do with medicine. Starting from the 6th century, they begin to consider him the artist who created the portrait of the Virgin Mary. The gospel of Luke is usually called social, since it retains a negative attitude towards wealth characteristic of early Christian communities. It is assumed that the author of this Gospel used a document that did not come down to our time, containing the preaching of Jesus.

But the Gospel of Matthew turned to the Jews and created either in Syria or in Palestine. The name of the author of this Gospel is known by the message of Pappius - the disciple of the Evangelist John.

The Gospel of John deserves special attention, since in form and content it is very different from synoptic. The author of this book (his name is called Iriney in his work Against Heresies - 180-185, he also reports that the Gospel was written in Ephesus) are not interested in the facts, and he dedicated his work exclusively to developing the fundamentals of Christian teaching. Using the concepts of the teachings of the Gnostics, he constantly enters into polemics with them. It is believed that this Gospel was addressed to the rich and educated Romans and Greeks, who were not sympathetic to the image of a poor Jew reading sermons to fishermen, poor and lepers. Much closer to them was the doctrine of the Logos - the mysterious power emanating from the inscrutable God. The time of writing the Gospel of John dates back to about 100 (no later than the second half of the 2nd century).

In a cruel and merciless world, the preaching of mercy and self-denial in the name of higher goals sounded more revolutionary than the calls of the most radical rebels, and the emergence of Christianity became one of the most important turning points in world history. But even the sincere followers of Christ were only human beings, and the attempts of high-ranking leaders of the Church to arrogate to themselves the monopoly right to the ultimate truth cost mankind a great deal. Having attained recognition from the authorities, the hierarchs, over time, with the most peace-loving and humane religion surpassed their former persecutors in cruelty. Church leaders forgot the words of John Chrysostom that the flock should be fed not with a fiery sword, but with paternal patience and fraternal caress, and Christians should not be persecutors, but persecuted, since Christ was crucified, but not crucified, was beaten, but not beat


Andrei Rublev, John Chrysostom


The true Middle Ages did not come with the fall of Rome or Byzantium, but with the introduction of a ban on freedom of opinion and interpretation of the foundations of Christ’s teaching to everyone. Meanwhile, many religious disputes may seem baseless and absurd to a person living in the twenty-first century. It is hard to believe, but only in 325 by Christ at the Nicene Council Christ was recognized by God, and with a small margin of votes (at this Council, the unbaptized emperor Constantine was granted the rank of deacon so that he could attend the meetings).


Vasily Surikov, "The First Ecumenical Council of Nicaea," painting 1876


Is it possible at the Church Council to decide from whom the Holy Spirit comes - only from God the Father (Catholic point of view) or also from God the Son (Orthodox dogma)? Did God the Son exist forever (i.e., is he equal to God the Father?) Or, being created by God the Father, is Christ a creature of a lower order? (Arianism). Is God the Son "one-sided" God the Father, or is he only "Comparable" to him? In Greek, these words are distinguished by just one letter - “yot”, because of which the Arians argued with Christians, and which entered the sayings of all countries and peoples (“do not retreat one iota” - in Russian transcription these words sound like " homous "and" homius "). Does Christ have two natures (divine and human - orthodox Christianity), or only one (divine - monophysites)? The authorities had tried to solve some questions of faith with their sole decision. The Byzantine Emperor Heraclius, who dreamed of reuniting Monophysitism with Orthodoxy, proposed a compromise - the doctrine of Monothelitism, according to which the incarnate Word has two bodies (divine and human) and one will - divine. The system of "deadly sins" was developed by the learned monk Evagrius of Pontus, but the next "classifier" - John Cassian, excluded "envy" from this list.


Evagrius of Pontus, icon



John Kassian Roman


But Pope Gregory the Great (who called these particularly highlighted sins "mortal") did not suit. He replaced “prodigal sin” with “voluptuousness”, combined the sins of “laziness” and “despondency”, added the “vanity” sin to the list, and again included “envy” in it.

And this is not counting the other less significant issues that Christian theologians have faced. It was in the process of understanding and trying to find a logically consistent solution to all these problems in the Christian environment that numerous heretical movements began to appear. The official church failed to find answers to the tricky questions of the heresiarchs, but with the help of the authorities she managed (for the sake of preserving the unity of the believers) to brutally crush the dissenters and approve canons and dogmas, a simple discussion of which soon became considered a terrible crime both in the West and in the East. Even the reading of the Gospels was forbidden to the laity both in the West and in the East. That's how things were in Russia. The first attempt to translate the New Testament into modern Russian, undertaken by the Polish order of Abraham Firsov, the Polish order in 1683, failed: on the orders of Patriarch Joachim, almost the entire print run was destroyed and only a few copies were saved with the note: "Do not read to anyone." Under Alexander I, the 4 Gospel (1818) and the New Testament (in 1821) were finally translated into Russian - much later than the Quran (1716, translated from French by Peter Postnikov). But the attempt to translate and print the Old Testament (they managed to translate 8 books) ended with the burning of the entire edition in 1825.

Yet the church could not maintain unity. Catholicism led by the Pope proclaimed the priority of spiritual power over secular, while Orthodox hierarchs put their authority at the service of the Byzantine emperors. The split between Western and Eastern Christians already in 1204 was so great that the conquerors of Constantinople, the Crusaders, declared the Orthodox to be such heretics, that "God himself is sick." And in Sweden in 1620, a certain serious research was conducted by Some Bothvid on the topic “Are Russians Christians?”. The Catholic West dominated over the centuries, with the blessing of the Pope, the young aggressive states of Western Europe pursued an active expansionist policy, organizing crusades against the Islamic world, now against the Orthodox "schismatics", then against the pagans of northern Europe. But the contradictions were tearing apart the Catholic world. In the 13th century, crusaders from northern and central France and Germany destroyed the heretic Cathars, the spiritual heirs of the Manichaeans. In the 15th century, the Czech Hussite heretics (who demanded only equality of the laity and priests) repelled five crusades, but split into parties that clasped among themselves: taborites and orphans were destroyed ready for an agreement with the pope Uraquists. In the XVI century, the Reformation movement split the Catholic world into two irreconcilable parts, which immediately entered into long and bitter religious wars, which resulted in the emergence of Protestant church organizations independent of Rome in a number of European countries. The hatred between Catholics and Protestants was such that once the Dominicans who paid one pirate for the liberation of three Frenchmen to one of the Algerian beys 3 000 piastres for the liberation of three Frenchmen were free because they were a protest in a burst of generosity.

The church (both Catholic, and Orthodox, and various Protestant trends) was by no means limited to control over the consciousness of people. The intervention of higher hierarchs in big politics and in the internal affairs of independent states, and numerous abuses contributed to discrediting the high ideas of Christianity. The payment for them was the fall of the authority of the Church and its leaders, who now surrender one position after another, cowardly refuse to accept the provisions and instructions of their sacred Books and do not dare to protect principled clergymen who in the modern Western world are persecuting the "politically correct and intolerant" quotes of biblical texts .
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Articles from this series:
Holy Inquisition (V.Ryzhov)
"I myself decide who is a witch in my land." Vedovskie processes in the Protestant world (V. Ryzhov)
Great split. Price standoff (V.Ryzhov)
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  1. Korsar4
    Korsar4 11 March 2019 04: 55
    +7
    Interesting. But it reminds a conversation of Berlioz with Ivan Bezdomny.
    1. Boris55
      Boris55 11 March 2019 07: 46
      +5
      Bulgakov remembered? The quintessence of his novel The Master and Margarita:



      On this topic. Jews did not write the Bible. The recognition of Jesus by God occurred after his death in 325 years, by simple vote. Areans opposed to this were cut out by Christians in the second cathedral. So began their bloody journey to conquer the World.

      They used to carry the word of God, today - democracy, and the goals are the same - to enslave the entire planet.
      1. Ingvar 72
        Ingvar 72 11 March 2019 08: 35
        +3
        Quote: Boris55
        On this topic.

        The topic is interesting, but the author ran through the tops. There is a very interesting book on this subject - "Early Christianity: Pages of History", author Sventsitskaya Irina Sergeevna. There the topic is revealed in much more detail. hi
        1. Nick_R
          Nick_R 11 March 2019 09: 53
          -1
          More than 2000 years ago, a new teaching appeared in the far eastern province of the Roman Empire, a kind of "heresy of the Jewish faith" 

          That is, according to the author, Christianity was born when Jesus was only 19 years old from birth? After such a blunder, interest in the article is immediately lost.
      2. Mikhail Matyugin
        Mikhail Matyugin April 5 2019 16: 26
        -2
        Quote: Boris55
        The recognition of Jesus by God occurred after his death in 325 years, by simple vote.

        Don't talk nonsense, but rather read the "New Testament of our Lord Jesus Christ".

        Ordinary people can only WORD raise from the dead (the daughter of Jairus and other cases) and transform into completely new bodies that have already begun to decompose? (as St. Lazarus the Four-Day)

        Can they create new organs from a simple pinch of dust, including one as complex as the human eye? (how Jesus Christ gave new eyes to the blind man)

        Just touching them can heal from diseases from which people have suffered for decades? (the case of a wife who just came unnoticed)
    2. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 11 March 2019 15: 54
      +7
      Quote: Korsar4
      Interesting. But it reminds a conversation of Berlioz with Ivan Bezdomny.

      I agree, colleague smile hi
      It is difficult to say what exactly let down Ivan Nikolayevich — whether the imaginative power of his talent or complete unfamiliarity with the question he was going to write on — but Jesus in his image turned out quite like a living, though not attractive character. Berlioz wanted to prove to the poet that the main thing is not what Jesus was like, bad or good, but that Jesus, as a person, did not exist at all in the world, and that all the stories about him are mere fabrications, the most ordinary myth.

      At the risk of getting hit by a tram, although they don’t walk with us (maybe because I’m so brave smile ), I nevertheless express my full and unconditional agreement with Comrade Berlioz. smile
      I generally liked the article, given the amount of knowledge that I have on this topic, it was interesting to read and, in general, the author’s view of Christianity, in any case in that part of the article, I am ready to share.
      However, I want to note that to raise such a topic as the history of early Christianity and try to present it in one article - the idea seems to be too bold. In this volume of text it is hardly possible to fit even the main points alone, the arguments of the same place will no longer remain. The author went the other way - tried to reduce the number of theses, because of this, the article was somewhat, in my opinion, superficial, which, nevertheless, does not detract from its other merits, which I, first of all, consider the author’s lack of bias as religious as well as anti-religious.
      For me, whether there was a historical prototype of a mythological character named Jesus, even if there was one, it is unlikely that he has any real resemblance to the biblical Jesus. The main thing to understand is that along with the doctrine from which Christianity later came, or rather, from which it was later derived, at that time there were still many different teachings that did not differ much from it, and the fact that they are now forgotten is just a historical pattern, since "must only one to stay. " And why exactly this "one" is a largely random and therefore insignificant question.
      The main purpose of religion is to serve the current government, Christianity coped with this task better than others, responded faster and more flexibly to changes in society and managed to win the competition from the remaining religious teachings, although it differed slightly from them. History has a lot of examples of the struggle of all against all for a prize, as a result of such a struggle, as a rule, not the strongest and most worthy, but the most flexible, able to change and adapt, win. And lucky, without this in any way.
      I am waiting for who will be the first to remember the "Gospel of Aphranius". In my opinion, a wonderful piece. smile
  2. Andrey Sukharev
    Andrey Sukharev 11 March 2019 06: 24
    +1
    As for Josephus Flavius ​​- it seems to have already been proved that this is an ancient fake?
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 11 March 2019 07: 10
      +1
      Yes. The real passage is the first. About the brother of Jesus, who was "called the Messiah."
  3. Krasnodar
    Krasnodar 11 March 2019 06: 51
    -1
    a new teaching, a kind of "heresy of the Jewish faith" (Jules Renard), whose creator was soon executed by the Romans on the verdict of the spiritual authorities of Jerusalem

    The Romans did not execute Senedrin at the verdict. The Sanhedrin executed himself - the brother of Jesus - Jacob the Righteous, stoned. In addition, the Jews did not judge Christ - they only interrogated and then handed them over to Pilate. Crucified him for separatism. As a contender for the Messiah - the king of Judea, who will free the country from foreign conquerors.
    On the other hand, Jesus caused irritation among the faithful Jews, some of whom might recognize him as a prophet, but not the Son of God

    All Jews consider Gd to be their father. The concept of "Son of God" Christianity borrowed from Greek theology.
    The prominent Protestant biblical scholar, professor of the University of Göttingent E. Loze discovered 27 violations of the Sanhedrin's judicial procedure in the Gospels

    The plains found more than 70 violations, so the Jews call it interrogation of Jesus
    But the Gospel of Matthew is addressed to the Jews and created either in Syria or in Palestine. The name of the author of this gospel is known from the message of Pappius, a disciple of the evangelist John

    Definitely not in Palestine - in Judea, about “the beating of babies in Bethlehem was not heard, and Herod died four (according to some sources, two) years before the birth of Christ. Most likely, it was written for the Hellenized and not particularly knowing their history and religion Jews.
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 11 March 2019 07: 33
      +2
      This version is at variance with Church Tradition and Scripture.
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 11 March 2019 07: 35
        +4
        Naturally, it diverges. Moreover, in Judea itself, the crucifixion of Christ was not particularly noticed, but the stoning of his brother almost caused a popular uprising.
        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 11 March 2019 07: 38
          +2
          Therefore, it is hardly correct to bring a host of evidence.

          And tempt each other in the first week of Great Lent.
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar 11 March 2019 07: 42
            +1
            Easy fasting to you and do not take my writings as something that refutes your religion. This is my analysis of the article - no more.
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 11 March 2019 07: 45
              +2
              Thank you.

              A topic because of which passions can easily flare up.
              1. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar 11 March 2019 07: 50
                +3
                Well yes. There are special literature and sites for this. Who cares - he can go by himself. Posting it on this site is a mistake.
          2. Olgovich
            Olgovich 11 March 2019 07: 54
            0
            Quote: Korsar4
            And tempt each other in the first week Great Lent.

            Totally agree.
    2. Tarhan
      Tarhan 11 March 2019 10: 31
      +2
      Any Faith denies Knowledge, because Today you can only believe by blinding and rejecting high school textbooks.

      The Jew Yehushua, in Greek is pronounced Yeshua, in Church Slavonic Jesus. Decided to become the king of Judea in the wake of a religious outburst. Therefore, he called himself the Messiah, the Anointed One to the throne.

      But according to the Old Testament, on which Jesus relied, the prophet Elijah should first appear, who did not die at one time, but is in the bosom of God. So he came down and had to point to the Messiah with his voice and finger. But Elijah did not appear before Israel, which is why the Jews are waiting for the coming of the Messiah, which Elijah points to, so far. That is why the Jews in the time of Jesus wondered - If Jesus is the Messiah, then where is Elijah.

      And this, only according to the later priests, Jesus carries Peace. At the same time, priests at all times hid truth before the flock.

      - Do not think that I have come to bring PEACE to the earth;
      I did not come to bring peace, but a SWORD;
      - For I came to divide a man with his father,
      and a daughter with her mother, and a daughter-in-law with her mother-in-law.
      - And the enemies of man are his household.
      Chapter 10, verses 34, 35, 36. Matthew.

      The Sanhedrin judged Jesus not because he was God, but because he was an impostor, Under the cover of religion, who wanted to become king. Jews did not accept Jesus, not because he was God, but because he was an impostor.

      “Then again the Jews seized stones to beat him.”
      - I have shown you many good deeds from My Father;
      for which of them do you want to stone Me?
      - The Jews answered Him: we do not want to stone you for a good deed, but for blasphemy and the fact that you, being a MAN, MAKE YOURSELF GOD.
      Chapter 10, verses 31, 32, 33. From John.


      For the ancient Jews, the Old Testament was not only a spiritual testament, but also a constitution of statehood and a criminal code. Jesus did not provide clear proofs of his God's chosenness, and not clear ones either. And according to the "constitution" and "criminal code" he doomed himself to death. God is Yahweh, and therefore the Christian God, to the Jews.

      Deuteronomy. Chapter 18, verse 20.
      - But a prophet who dares to speak in My name is
      which I did not command him to speak, and who will speak in the name of other gods, put such a prophet to death.

      Those who today blindly believe, reducing themselves to God's servants, the saying of Jesus is fully suitable for them.

      - Blessed BEGGARS BY THE SPIRITfor theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
      Chapter 5, verse 3. From Matthew.

      Jesus of all people wanted to make Beggars of the Spirit, but ENLIGHTENMENT did not allow this.
      1. Tarhan
        Tarhan 11 March 2019 10: 55
        +6
        Question. Why do I operate on primary sources?

        Answer. At one time, I decided to find the way to God. To any god. That is, to understand the Divinity of the Universe. I studied thoroughly the Old Testament, the Gospels, the Qur'an. And I found that there is NO Logic, Truth, Good in them. There is only the voice of Myths, Legends, Biases that do not correspond to the Knowledge, Science, Humanity of today.

        I suppose that many of the visitors to this page, believing in God, did not disclose the original sources themselves.
        1. Tarhan
          Tarhan 11 March 2019 11: 06
          +2


          And Elijah will indicate with his own anointing of the Messiah. People were perplexed.
          “If Jesus is the Messiah, then where is Elijah?”
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar 11 March 2019 14: 34
            +3
            Tarkhan, Gd is one for all - a rational force that rules the world. People go to him in different ways. Through Moses, Mohammed, Jesus. But, in any case, the main thing is the struggle against one's own egoism. By the way - Big Jihad Muslims are actions aimed at overcoming one’s own shortcomings. Quoting from the memory of one of the interpreters of the Koran - “the biggest Jihad is when you get up at night to straighten your blanket to your child.”
            1. Tarhan
              Tarhan 11 March 2019 16: 34
              +9
              Gd is one for all - the rational power that rules the world. People go to him in different ways. Through Moses, Mohamed, Jesus.

              DO NOT ACCEPT.
              If God is one, then what is the bloody rivalry between Judaism, Christianity, Islam and for millennia. With a sea of ​​blood, with an ocean of maternal and orphan tears, with mountains of sorrows in the past and future. And even if God is, then he is hateful, cruel, vindictive.
              Why in the center of a serene, paradise life, in the thickets of Eden put a tree of knowledge of Good and Evil? He wanted to check the obedience of Adam and Eve, so he created them perfectly, it is not befitting a master to knowingly make a marriage. After all, God knew that Eve would pick the fruit, he knew that Adam would bite him, if he didn’t know then he wasn’t God. After all, God is omnipotent, omnipotent, omniscient. Knew and placed, knew that they would rip off, knew that for this he would mock humanity forever and ever. He who does not know Good and Evil is It, indifferent to grief and joy, happiness and unhappiness, day and night. Yes, having thrown a penny, mankind needs to erect the most ambitious monument to the Serpent on Olympus of gratitude.

              For me personally, the abstracted concept of God is associated with an all-encompassing, complete ABSOLUTE. ABSOLUTE, who knows EVERYTHING - existing and bearing. Absolute knowing everything BEFORE and knowing everything AFTER. Therefore, God is wholly omniscient, and from here is unlimited ALMIGHTY. And only for this reason God cannot desire anything. Absolute KNOWLEDGE quenches KNOWLEDGE. ABSOLUTE KNOWLEDGE cannot have the boundaries of the UNKNOWLEDGE.

              God does not need your sufferings, for he already knows their END.
              God does not need your PRAYERS, for he already knows the ANSWER to them.
              God does not need your PURPOSES, for he already knows their RESULT.
              God does not need your REPENTANCE, for he already knows your subsequent Thoughts.
              God does not need your LIFE, for he already knows your DEATH.

              IN CONCLUSION I will say - I also BELIEVE holy.

              I believe in the ONE, and not the only.
              EVERYTHING KNOWLEDGE, not all-knowing.
              EVERYTHING MIGHTY, NOT ALMIGHTY.

              Which in every one of us.

              I BELIEVE IN HUMAN MIND.
              1. Tarhan
                Tarhan 11 March 2019 17: 07
                +8
                Quoting from the memory of one of the interpreters of the Koran - “the biggest Jihad is when you get up at night to straighten your blanket to your child.”

                The Quran is not a single logically related book. Its ayats were created over 23 years, to the need of emerging problems in the formation of the ummah of Islam. Therefore, the Qur'an itself is unconnected, fragmentary with a mass of repetitions of the same. To this single book over the millennia, the commentators of the Qur'an came up with a lot of interpretations both to the ayahs themselves and to many lines. And that’s all to give some kind of connectedness. And these interpretations, at the moment, thousands of volumes and absolutely not all of them correspond to each other. Everyone interpreted as he could and as he wanted, depending on which foot he got up from. If you want to understand these interpretations, then break the bones of the skull into fragments and melt your brain.

                Jihad is not a war for the defense of the Faith, as the mullahs present to us. This is a war for the seizure of foreign territories, for prey, for forcing others to their worldview. Covering the child is a disguise for the true purpose of jihad.

                Jihad itself began with the Medina, then it was not yet called jihad. Started with the medina. In those days, half of the Medina was Jewish tribes. They did not accept that the Arab foreigner had appropriated their faith to himself and began to teach the Jews how to worship Yahweh properly. Companions of Muhammad expelled from the Medina two Jewish tribes, according to the present, with confiscation of property. A third tribe was destroyed, and women and children sold into slavery.

                150 km from the Medina was the oasis of Khaibar inhabited exclusively by Jews. Muhammad attacked them too. Captured the huge booty of hardworking and thrifty Jews. It was from here, satisfied with the bloody booty, Muhammad deduced the incarnation of Jihad.

                Surah 7.
                Ayat 4.
                And how many cities have We destroyed!
                Our anger befell them at night time,
                Ile in the afternoon nap.
                Surah 47.
                Ayat 4.
                So when you meet the infidels in battle,
                Cut off the neck of the head *
                When do the main suppression,
                (Take them captive) hold tight ...
                Surah 28.
                Ayat 58.
                Oh, how many villages we destroyed,
                What proudly rejoiced in the abundance of their lives!
                And their dwellings are semi-desert,
                And We are the heirs (to everything they entertained).

                And until now, the Arabs are singing at anti-Israeli demonstrations - “Khaibar, Khaibar, Yaya Yahud, Jaish-Muhammad Saya-ud” (Khaibar, Khaibar, oh Jews, Muhammad’s army will return).

                How can you believe God who promises.

                Surah 77.
                Ayat 16.
                Really (for this evil) We did not ruin
                The peoples of many past years?
                Ayat 17.
                After them
                We will send the next generation.
                1. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 11 March 2019 18: 42
                  +2
                  It's about Little Jihad. )))
                  The conquest of Dar el Harb, that is, countries / cities where it is forbidden to preach Islam, whose inhabitants captured the former Muslim territories or are hostile to the faithful.
                  From the fact that the Arabs yell at the demonstrations, I liked the following:
                  Saddam Hussein, ya Habib, Udrub Udrub Tel Aviv - Saddam Hussein, beloved, bomb, bomb Tel Aviv
                  Or is it: Falastyn Bladna
                  Ul Yahud Klabna
                  Palestine is our Motherland - our dogs are Jews!
                  Balyad - in Arabic Homeland, Earth. Balyadi - my homeland, Bladna - our homeland)))
                  Only in the word is our Motherland in Arabic and replace it with the I - the site does not miss the correct pronunciation of this word.
                  1. Tarhan
                    Tarhan 12 March 2019 07: 39
                    +2
                    It's about Little Jihad.

                    "Small" Jihad is an invention of interpreters in order to somehow ennoble the Koran. There is one hypostasis of Jihad - capture of prey and compulsion. Here is an example of a quirk of the interpreters of the Quran.

                    Surah 47.
                    Ayat 4.
                    So when you meet the infidels in battle,
                    Cut off the neck of the head *
                    When do the main suppression,
                    (Take them captive) hold tight ...

                    The asterisk is the interpretation of this ayat by the zealous interpreters of the Koran, who can twist, for the sake of Vera, and not so.
                    Interpretation:
                    “Islam strictly defines the essence of warfare, which boils down to the following: a war can be fought only when aggression starts from the side, orthodox is by no means allowed to start aggression first. There is no motive to start aggression. Territorial claims, economic benefits, the struggle for power - all these are transient, worldly affairs, alien to the holy war of Jihad waged in order to establish the religion of God the One only in response to the aggression of the infidels. "

                    Yeah. And what to do with the Arab Caliphate that arose by conquering the countries and peoples of the Near and Middle East, the Caucasus, Central Asia, North Africa, and southwestern Europe with a sword. Where Islam was forcibly implanted either with a sword, or with economic sanctions, and local beliefs were uprooted. And along with beliefs and peculiar views on the world and being. Or are these the peoples of Central Asia, having made thousands of kilometers of transitions, attacked the faithful Arabs of Muhammad to take away the longed-for sands of Arabia from them? Yes, the peoples of Central Asia and their sands had nothing to do with, not that they could capture other sands thousands of kilometers from their homeland. The peoples of Central Asia are still tormented with these sands; they still did not have enough to suffer with other people's sands. Or is it the French and Spaniards, dissatisfied with their being which their god predetermined for them, rushed to search for the Righteous and his truth. Seeking French crossed the Pyrenees and, connecting with the yearning Spaniards, overcame Gibraltar, went through all of Africa and submitted obediently to Arabia to be approved by the religion of God the One. Everything happened just the opposite. It was Muhammad who proclaimed jihad and, using the swords of the holy war, Islam was promoted to Central Asia through the Middle East and to South-Western Europe through Africa, to the Pyrenees. It was with the help of swords that Islam took root in what is now Jordan, Palestine, Syria, Iran, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Central Asia.
                  2. Mikhail Matyugin
                    Mikhail Matyugin April 5 2019 16: 37
                    0
                    Quote: Krasnodar
                    Or is it: Falastyn Bladna
                    Ul Yahud Klabna
                    Palestine is our Motherland - our dogs are Jews!
                    Balyad - in Arabic Homeland, Earth. Balyadi - my homeland, Bladna - our homeland)))

                    Exactly ! In general, the Arabic language has many words that seem to be borrowed from the Russian obscene.
              2. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar 11 March 2019 18: 28
                +3
                The rivalry is between religions - a product of human hands, the task of which is to divide people - not to unite.
                Gd endowed man the right to choose - i.e. created it in his own image and likeness. Therefore, it is impossible to foresee anything here; there simply exists a certain algorithm of actions of a higher power in a given situation.
                1. Trilobite Master
                  Trilobite Master 11 March 2019 21: 01
                  +3
                  Quote: Krasnodar
                  The rivalry is between religions - a product of human hands, the task of which is to divide people - not to unite.

                  God
                  Quote: Krasnodar
                  One for all, quite right.

                  The reason for religious discord -
                  Quote: Krasnodar
                  Roughly - power and money.
                  Control of the masses. Providing offspring.

                  Funny.
                  I do not like theological disputes - in due time I ate them like Vereshchagin black caviar, but I cannot resist here. smile
                  One god for all created everything, including people, and then divided them according to ethnic (Babylon) and religious principles, so that ... what? If I am created "in the image and likeness" I must somehow understand the logic of the creator.
                  If we have a certain number of religions equal to n, then at a minimum, religions in the number of n-1 will be false. Is man endowed with the right to choose in order to choose this uniquely true one? Does this mean that those who choose the wrong will subsequently be punished? Does everyone have the opportunity to choose? There are national traditions ...
                  Suppose I am endowed with absolute knowledge and know exactly what religion is true. How do I treat others professing?
                  The list of questions can go on indefinitely, to argue, too, until the fight and even to the total mutual minus of each other. smile
                  I thought for a long time how all these issues can be reconciled with one concept. And I came up with, or rather understood. I made a theological discovery. For this, it was enough to put oneself in the place of the Creator, to get used to his role. I managed to do this more or less by watching a large aquarium in my friend's house. I remembered how he bought it, how he chose sand and grass for him, how he bought an aerator, how he populated different fish ... He built a world for them, then populated it. Ask why he needed it? I asked, he answered me: "It was boring." Then he got married, a daughter was born - a girl so combative, curious, while she was from three to five fish life was hard. Now they have peace again. Sometimes someone dies, he is eaten or the owner of the aquarium catches the corpse, a new one comes to replace the one who left, in short everything is like in life. Do you know what is the difference between this aquarium and us? The fact that its owner does not have a sense of humor, or rather, it is poorly developed. Therefore, this aquarium is calm and measured, timely feeding, cleaning and water replacement.
                  Perhaps I am wrong, you can correct me, but in my opinion, no serious theologian has ever investigated the possibility of the Creator's sense of humor. And why? After all, a person has it, which means that God must have it. And how cool this sense of humor will explain everything at once! "The ways of the Lord are inscrutable" ... No, it's just his jokes.
                  My sense of humor is much more developed than that of the owner of the aquarium, and the sense of responsibility is much less. And I understand that if I were the Creator, I would probably lead the process in the created world somewhere as well as guide us. I forgot somewhere, I scored somewhere, I washed it down somewhere, then I remembered, soaked up some joke, like a kettle in an aquarium, looked at how they ran, laughed, closed the lid and forgot again. The main thing is not to forget to pull out the boiler. smile
                  In general, different languages, religions, black, white, long-necked, long-nosed, striped, spotty, volatile and creeping - why are they? The answer is one - for fun. Everything is for fun and we are all for fun.
                  In connection with the foregoing, I propose to laugh, have fun and perceive everything that happens with humor, thus making the Creator happy, for He likes it. Because if He gets bored, another "boiler" awaits us. laughing
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 11 March 2019 21: 21
                    +2
                    The first thought is the title of Jack London's story "When the Gods laugh."

                    The second "Surat coffee house". Leo Tolstoy included it in the "Reading Circle".

                    It’s difficult, yes, probably, and there is no need to justify faith from the position of pure reason.

                    And there is little chance that something will now bring an argument to convince an adult opponent with the prevailing belief system.
                    1. Krasnodar
                      Krasnodar 11 March 2019 21: 53
                      +1
                      Quote: Korsar4
                      The first thought is the title of Jack London's story "When the Gods laugh."

                      The second "Surat coffee house". Leo Tolstoy included it in the "Reading Circle".

                      It’s difficult, yes, probably, and there is no need to justify faith from the position of pure reason.

                      And there is little chance that something will now bring an argument to convince an adult opponent with the prevailing belief system.


                      Why is this needed? Believe it? So believe in Health. The main thing is to be a good person. And that’s all.
                  2. Krasnodar
                    Krasnodar 11 March 2019 21: 48
                    0
                    laughing good Yes, the model of the aquarium is interesting)).
                    I think that Gd is a universal mind endowed with unlimited power. Scored, washed down - not about him. It's just that we are not a fig, not fish, but ciliates, shoes, endowed, however, with the right to choose. Including religion - but it mainly comes down to tradition and worldview. Those. it's all peripheral, secondary. And most importantly - we have the right to choose between good and bad in terms of our concepts, knowledge and belief in actions. So - Gd, in my opinion, created such an automatic mechanism - you do a lot of good - you rushing, not in this reincarnation (I believe in them, not from Buddhism, but from Kabbalah - I’m the Jew laughing), so in the next one you’ll be born in chocolate - such as Aspen-Monte Carlo: or dad is the creator of Facebook (she was a Philippine peasant, he was an Israeli Israeli soldier) that the mother is an inherited mother, and to be the king of the gambling business (again, you have the right to choose subsequently with a coconut, having caught a heart attack during an orgy under an African-American, you increase family capital and happily marry a model - not a catwalk, no, fu). And you do something bad - even if you rush into this life, you will be born in the next gilgul neshamot at best an AIDS-infected baby in a starving African country torn by the Civil War.
                  3. Mikhail Matyugin
                    Mikhail Matyugin April 5 2019 16: 42
                    0
                    Quote: Trilobite Master
                    He built the world for them, then populated it. Ask why he needed it? I asked, he answered me: "It was boring."

                    Incidentally, this is true, not only you or me, but very many people, including theologians, think so.

                    Quote: Trilobite Master
                    In general, different languages, religions, black, white, long-necked, long-nosed, striped, spotted, flying and creeping - why are they? There is only one answer - for fun.
                    Not quite, just besides the Creator, another force working on our aquarium, called Satan, is also trying to scoff at what is, and in every possible way to ruin our world.

                    By the way, it is precisely this that easily explains the existence of terrible creatures in the history of the Earth that were destroyed by catastrophes (especially since Dennitsa, according to some ideas, was a kind of Archangel the Keeper of our planet).

                    PS That's what happens when a theological article is published on the Military Review ...
                2. Tarhan
                  Tarhan 12 March 2019 07: 59
                  +1
                  Gd gave a person the right to choose

                  Mankind has always had a choice as a hypostasis, even before God. From the very beginning, people had a choice between Evil and Good, Dark and Light, Cold and Warm. The priests attributed this purely human to God, and now they are inflating it as alms.

                  The words of the greatest English poet of the 19th century, Percy Shelley, rationalist and romantic, thinker and artist, 1792-1822 are relevant here:

                  - Not God created man - MAN HAS CREATED GOD.

                  It was MAN when in the early millennia, in the absence of Knowledge and Enlightenment, attributed the power of Nature (waterfalls, lightnings, mountains) to fictitious and called it fictitious God.

                  Shelley also said:
                  - If it is impossible to prove the existence of God, then it is pointless to believe in him.

                  those. created it in his own image and likeness.

                  This always frustrated me. If God created Adam in his own image - That ...?!?!?!
                  Why does God need genitals, because they are needed not only for urination. After all, God alone lives in heaven. Or all the same, someone is driving there in heaven. This is such a lack of agreement, inconsistency, absurdity.
                  1. Krasnodar
                    Krasnodar 12 March 2019 22: 25
                    0
                    Tarkhan, Gd is power, energy, mind. Man is an animal with intelligence, mortal and in the image and likeness of God - the right to choose. And the genitals of Adam with the advent of Eve became necessary not only for urination laughing
                3. Antares
                  Antares 12 March 2019 22: 20
                  0
                  Quote: Krasnodar
                  the product of human hands, the task of which is to separate people - not to unite in any way.

                  people themselves are different, because they live in different conditions * (climate) and are formed accordingly.
                  All people see everything through themselves, and therefore in different ways. Until we learn how to transfer images directly from the brain to the brain, we can interpret everything in our own way.
                  1. Krasnodar
                    Krasnodar 12 March 2019 22: 26
                    0
                    And when we learn - everything will become much worse laughing
                    1. Antares
                      Antares 12 March 2019 22: 32
                      0
                      Quote: Krasnodar
                      And when we learn - everything will become much worse laughing

                      oh well, this is possible in a single network. But! The stimulus for development will be lost. However, we will already be a single organism (and there will be very little "bio" in our organism)
                      But the difference in views provided us with such a palette that you don’t know in your whole life.
                      And the word "worse" will not apply. There will simply be a different form.
                      1. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 12 March 2019 22: 35
                        0
                        Not lost. The incentive for development is competition and survival. Competition will move into the field of knowledge and the power of imagination, and it will become more difficult to survive in society.
                      2. Antares
                        Antares 12 March 2019 22: 41
                        0
                        Quote: Krasnodar
                        The incentive for development is competition and survival. Competition will move into the field of knowledge and the power of imagination, and it will become more difficult to survive in society.

                        so the whole society will be a single organism - a picture of one will be a picture of everyone. We will no longer be people, but part of the body. Biological needs will cease to be first. And now our brain serves the body. And the body has millions of years of evolution. I was more interested in Lilith than in the intricacies of the aggressive development of a global corporation. laughing
                        Although the desire to survive will be even in this single organism. Nature will never leave us alone.
                      3. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 12 March 2019 22: 44
                        0
                        Apparently yes.
            2. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 11 March 2019 18: 23
              +3
              I agree. "God is one. Providers are different." "Lucky twist brings most of the blanket."
              That's all and turn.
              1. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar 11 March 2019 18: 44
                +2
                One for all, quite right.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 11 March 2019 19: 02
                  +2
                  Otherwise, the question is: what the hell is that ???
                  1. Krasnodar
                    Krasnodar 11 March 2019 19: 13
                    +4
                    Roughly - power and money.
                    Control of the masses. Providing offspring.
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 11 March 2019 19: 21
                      +3
                      "Vanity around the sofa". "Life is a disease of matter"
                      And mind - and even more so!
                      1. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 11 March 2019 19: 24
                        +2
                        Heh. Mind. )))
                        Perception is subjective. I love small brunettes - they are more comfortable and better in bed. Most love tall blondes - why - figs knows him - mind games laughing
                      2. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 11 March 2019 19: 48
                        +1
                        These are common Negroid genes. White means beautiful!
                        Brown hair is my karma! I tried to change my fate, no, damn it, the curve, all one, taxied!
                      3. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 11 March 2019 20: 05
                        +1
                        Karma, makhtub ... in my plan, genetics coincided with the worldview (or vice versa - the latter is a function of heredity) - I am a rational Jew laughing Shaw profitable, then like it.
                      4. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 11 March 2019 21: 17
                        +1
                        Malinin will have to quote:

                        "May God find Christ alive,
                        Let not in a man's, so in a woman's face. "
                      5. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 11 March 2019 21: 57
                        +1
                        Christ, in terms of the cornerstone of Christian philosophy, is personal salvation. I agree with Malinin. )))
                      6. Antares
                        Antares 12 March 2019 22: 45
                        0
                        Quote: Krasnodar
                        Perception is subjective. I love small brunettes - they are more comfortable and better in bed. Most love tall blondes - why - figs knows him - mind games

                        The white model blonde is a replicated brand of the ideal of the female.
                        The practicality of choice does not matter. We want an ideal * (even if not ours but common)
                        Although other models are convenient for pairing, we are still looking for a universally recognized ideal as a treasure. What to do with it is the second question. But to find and not give up is driving such a layer of consciousness and the global economy. That we can’t stop. laughing
                      7. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 12 March 2019 22: 58
                        0
                        laughing After some experience with the models of this brand, I realized the following - it is best to drink with them. )) And they are cool listeners laughing
    3. Mikhail Matyugin
      Mikhail Matyugin April 5 2019 16: 33
      0
      Quote: Krasnodar
      The plains found more than 70 violations, so the Jews call this the interrogation of Jesus

      However, despite the illegality of this court, even under Jewish law, the result was the one that its leaders needed - the death sentence of the Messiah, the Son of God (whom the Jews simply stubbornly did not recognize and still do not recognize, waiting for 2000 years for someone otherwise). Only a few members of Sanhedrin opposed (according to various estimates from 2 to ten).

      Quote: Krasnodar
      Definitely not in Palestine - in Judea about “the beating of babies in Bethlehem was not heard,
      And what, a complete set of all documents of that era has been preserved? I personally know about the fact that after the Jewish wars in Jewish society, not only some historiographic or unnecessary especially demographic writings were not preserved, but there was a shortage of even documents confirming the ownership of land and property (not to mention the terrible wave of both forced and forced -voluntary migration of Jews from Palestine as a result).
  4. bober1982
    bober1982 11 March 2019 07: 43
    -8
    Well, the author composed nonsense, exactly on the first day of Lent, apparently not by chance, this is not even commented on.
    V. Ryzhov, remove the rascal picture of Lilith, this is indecent.
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 11 March 2019 07: 46
      +2
      It was really not correct to print this in your post.
    2. VLR
      11 March 2019 08: 47
      +14
      Dear Vladimir:
      Firstly, it is not nonsense, if you do not agree with something, write what exactly it is and try to argue your position,
      secondly, the time of publication does not depend on me,
      thirdly, about Lilith - this is not a "dirty picture", but a classic painting by the famous English Pre-Raphaelite painter, whose works adorn the best galleries in the world, his wife and daughter were also artists, and his son was the British ambassador to Norway. This trend is characterized by bright rich colors, a reliable depiction of nature, an orientation towards the art of the Middle Ages and the early Renaissance, the cult of female beauty, the main themes of the paintings are the Middle Ages, the works of Shakespeare and Dante, the theme of Christ. The demand to "remove the dirty picture" is hypocrisy in the style of Pope Innocent X, who initiated the infamous "great castration" in the Vatican.
      1. bober1982
        bober1982 11 March 2019 09: 03
        -8
        Dear Valery, about ..... bright juicy tones ...., then in my opinion these tones are too bright, but here you and I will not convince each other.
        Quote: VlR
        if you don’t agree with something, write what exactly

        ........ heresy of the Jewish faith, ........ executed by the Romans by sentence of the ecclesiastical authoritiesth, etc., etc.
        But it’s impossible to read.
      2. Anton Yu
        Anton Yu 11 March 2019 10: 15
        0
        Do you have material on the forerunner of Christianity, the cult of the One God, which originated among the slaves of the Mediterranean around the 3rd century BC?
      3. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 11 March 2019 16: 07
        +6
        Quote: VlR
        firstly it is not nonsense

        I think, Valery, when you were preparing an article for publication, you should have assumed that the reaction to it can be quite harsh. In general, the topic is interesting and I am genuinely surprised and pleased that there are almost no exalted and aggressive comments on the article.
        It might have been worth exploring the topic further and issuing a series of several articles, but you certainly know better. The only pity is that such a promising topic as the formation of Christianity will end with a discussion of one article. smile
    3. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 11 March 2019 20: 05
      +1
      Excuse me, Vladimir, what is decency? Religious attitudes, dress code, public opinion, personal moral and ethical criteria of an individual or a verdict of grandmothers on a bench?
      1. bober1982
        bober1982 11 March 2019 20: 11
        -1
        Such a picture causes lust.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 11 March 2019 20: 38
          +2
          Yes, it does. And, specifically, it causes me. And I think it’s the artist’s talent to find a model that in 150 years excites the nerve. Few succeed. As for lust, this is the only incentive to improve the genome
          Again, which of the mortals was produced in a different way?
    4. Antares
      Antares 12 March 2019 22: 23
      -2
      Quote: bober1982
      V. Ryzhov, remove the rascal picture of Lilith, this is indecent.

      it was the finest in this article.
      The emergence of a petty aggressive (always new, aggressive, otherwise there is no way to survive) religious sect on the body of the Roman Empire .. which has become state-owned. And almost global. Much has been written about this.
      But the picture on the other hand shows that for 150 years tastes have not changed, the girl is charming even in our 21st century.
      1. Mikhail Matyugin
        Mikhail Matyugin April 5 2019 16: 50
        +1
        Quote: Antares
        The emergence of a petty aggressive (always new, aggressive, otherwise there is no way to survive) religious sect on the body of the Roman Empire .. which has become state-owned. And almost global. Much has been written about this.

        Small aggressive sect - are you probably talking about a certain Mohammedan and his followers? Here, yes, just right. But about Christianity - excuse me, no aggression and aggression; look at the life paths of all the First Apostles, and many of the Seventy Apostles. Peaceful preaching and martyrdom from the aggression of the pagans (from Roman to pagans of Northern Europe and Hindustan) or Jews.
  5. Olgovich
    Olgovich 11 March 2019 07: 52
    -2
    There were indeed people present in the veneration of icons (and, to be honest, there and nowadays) elements pagan magic.

    What kind of beast is this "pagan magic"? belay
    to find out what veneration of icons is, the author had to at least turn to right-wing literature or the Moscow Patriarchate.
    Church (both Catholic and Orthodox, and various Protestant currents) was by no means limited to control over the consciousness of people. The intervention of senior hierarchs in big politics and in the internal affairs of independent states, numerous abuses, helped to discredit the lofty ideas of Christianity. Payment for them has become loss of authority of the Church and its leaders, who are now losing one position after another, are cowardly waive provisions and the ordinances of their Holy Books and do not dare to defend the clergy of principle

    This nonsense has nothing to do with the Orthodox Church.
    1. Boris55
      Boris55 11 March 2019 08: 25
      +2
      Quote: Olgovich
      This nonsense has nothing to do with the Orthodox Church.

      How does it not? The Church forms the worldview of people on the basis of which certain decisions, certain laws are made. This is especially evident in countries with different religions. Countries with Christianity are significantly different from countries with Islam.
  6. samarin1969
    samarin1969 11 March 2019 08: 50
    +3
    A very good article. The first part is very close to the presentation of the history of Christianity by L. Gumilev.
  7. Kahlan amnell
    Kahlan amnell 11 March 2019 10: 00
    +2
    Is it possible at the Church Council to decide who the Holy Spirit comes from - only from God the Father (the Catholic point of view) or also from God the Son (Orthodox dogma)?

    Here the author made a mistake. Filioque (from the Son) is just the Catholic insert in the Nicene Constantinople creed. Orthodoxy declares the exodus of the Holy Spirit only from the Father.
    Due to historical circumstances, the theme of the descent of the Holy Spirit from the Father has occupied an important place in the Orthodox doctrine of God. “There is not a single medieval Byzantine theologian who, one way or another, would not take part in the endless debate about the exodus of the Holy Spirit,” notes Archpriest John Meyendorf. This dispute arose because of the addition to the Creed made in the Latin West, according to which the Holy Spirit does not come from the Father, but from the Father and the Son (Filioque).
    1. alebor
      alebor 11 March 2019 10: 36
      +2
      All these disputes, for the most part, have arisen because of the fact that different scriptures can be interpreted differently. The same Catholics, introducing filioques, based this on biblical texts, just as Orthodox, who uphold the old wording of the Creed, also quote scripture, but other places.
      In general, if you read the history of Ecumenical Councils, you can clearly see that in dogmatic disputes, as a rule, the side that emperors supported was the winner. Sometimes it happened that the emperor changed - the dogma changed.
      1. Kahlan amnell
        Kahlan amnell 11 March 2019 14: 44
        +2
        You know, I somehow do not care who, how and what was guided by accepting one or another dogma. I just corrected the author. The question of Filiokwe is so sick of everyone that only some illiterate grandmother from a remote village can not know about it.
        And enlightened Orthodox this question, along with the immaculate conception, papal infallibility, etc. is one of the "sacred" stones that are regularly thrown into the Catholic garden. Just some kind of fix idea.
  8. Yuri Guliy
    Yuri Guliy 11 March 2019 10: 56
    +3
    A very interesting publication, but also useful - it becomes clear and obvious the purely terrestrial origin of all absolute truths Christianity in general and Orthodoxy in particular. The interested friendship of the church with any authorities is also clear.
  9. Denis Medveezhikoff
    Denis Medveezhikoff 11 March 2019 11: 10
    -1
    Jesus didn’t exist at all ... This is a mythical character ... Christianity did not originate in Judea, but in Rome ... It was supposedly fashionable .... It is interesting that the victorious Scientologists will write about our time about the same Hubbard ... And someone will believe in Emperor Xenu flying to Earth on a spaceship ... lol
    1. bober1982
      bober1982 11 March 2019 11: 25
      +2
      Quote: Denis Medveezhikoff
      Jesus did not exist ...

      You really need to re-read the dialogue between Berlioz and Ivan Bezdomny, as it was noted in one of the comments, or the equally famous dialogue between Woland and Berlioz at Patriarch Ponds.
    2. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 11 March 2019 12: 21
      +5
      Jesus - Yeshua Ben Yosef - was. And his brother was - Jacob the Righteous. These are real historical figures.
      1. Denis Medveezhikoff
        Denis Medveezhikoff 11 March 2019 13: 18
        -1
        Not one contemporary does not mention him. Why?
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 11 March 2019 13: 28
          +3
          Josephus in the 20th book mentioned the stoning, by order of the Sanhedrin, of Jacob the Righteous, the brother of Yeshua, who was called the Messiah (Mashiach). There were Roman references to Christians believing in Jesus of Nazareth, crucified by Pilate. They just didn’t talk much about him, because only Pilate killed two more who claimed the place of the Messiah - Yeshua Mizri (Egyptian) and someone who was called the Samaritan. Jesus was popular among wealthy people who were in opposition to the descendants of the Edomites and Jews who joined them from the temple nobility, so he did not have wide popularity or fame among the people.
          1. Denis Medveezhikoff
            Denis Medveezhikoff 11 March 2019 13: 54
            -4
            Josephus Flavius ​​is a fake already proven. They mention those who believe in it (which does not prove the fact of existence) after 80 years from the crucifixion ... Jesus was invented by the Hebrew Romans, Elins, when they were kicked out of the synagogues for refusing to defend Jerusalem from Vespasian (70 g). And the sermons of Jesus were already full of sweet words to their hearts (the destruction of the temple, God recognized them), in general, pay the most and pay more ... And you don’t need a place in the next world, so donate it to the church ... Actually, lions for them and fed. And then, with this money, they simply run into the next civilian next applicant, and voila ... they are in the law, who will not spread rot with them ... They have kicked out business competitors. I do not respect Christianity. This is a religion of hatred of blood violence, Islam is white and fluffy compared to it ... And I will not believe in the reality of Jesus, because none of his contemporaries mention him, although he is so great by the new testament ... and no one writes about in one case, even a name, once, but this is a proven late insert ... I can also say that Petya lived in 1910, and he did this ...
            1. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 11 March 2019 14: 13
              +7
              You confuse a little what I mentioned with the fake, Flavius ​​attributed. The Christians themselves left the Temple complex during the siege of Rome by Titus, and, correctly, in general, acted - different Jewish troops began to slaughter each other in the struggle for leadership. And they weren’t figurative; the first Christians were devout Jews who disliked not only the Romans and Greeks, but even (and especially) accepted the Judaism of the Edomites - the people of King Herod the Great, who ultimately brought the Romans to our land , and his descendants occupied the niche of Temple authority. From there, "do not give shrine to the dogs, and do not swords with beads before the pigs." Under Shaul (Paul), Christians became flexible towards foreigners and very very freely interpreted the Jewish Law (Torah). And so much so that over time it generally ceased to be Judaism, becoming, in the end, a separate religion. In any case, the Orthodox have the First Day of Great Lent. Therefore, I urge you not to touch the feelings of believers. Do not blaspheme their religion, you and I live in an Orthodox country.
        2. Mikhail Matyugin
          Mikhail Matyugin April 5 2019 17: 00
          0
          Quote: Denis Medveezhikoff
          Not one contemporary does not mention him. Why?

          Comrade, do not be like the atheists of the era of the magazine Atheist at the Bench. Scientists are aware of several LIFE testimonies of the authors of ancient texts who were not Christians, who testify about Jesus and even about His Resurrection.

          In addition, such famous Roman historians as Pliny the Younger, Cornelius Tacitus and Guy Tranquill testify of Christ and Christians (and in the latter case, the edict mentioned by the historian about the expulsion of Jews who became Christians from Rome is also attested in the Acts of the Apostles).

          For those who doubt the historicity of the figure of Jesus Christ and the fact that He was not just a Man, I recommend the objective and scientific book "Ancient Evidence of Christ's Earthly Life": https://azbyka.ru/drevnie-svidetelstva-zemnoj-zhizni -xrista
  10. slasha
    slasha 11 March 2019 12: 31
    +1
    Interesting. Just take note.
  11. Decimam
    Decimam 11 March 2019 13: 36
    +2
    As for me, writing articles on the history of religion and on the history of the Church in the format of "talks between Berlioz and Ivan Homeless" is not a good idea. Therefore, the author did not cope with the task of illuminating "the first centuries of Christianity: the struggle of ideas and the formation of a church organization". The result is a fragmentary free exposition of some moments, in which some fragments important for understanding (the influence of Ancient Greece on the formation of the Christian religion, Middle Eastern Christianity, patristics) are absent, some (Gnostic doctrines) are presented in the style of Berlioz.
    I propose that the author does not try to solve this super-task, but turns to topics that are more suitable for the subjects of VO.
  12. BAI
    BAI 11 March 2019 17: 00
    0
    Over 2000 years ago in the distant eastern province of the Roman Empire, a new doctrine appeared, a kind of "heresy of the Jewish faith" (Jules Renard), whose creator was soon executed by the Romans on the verdict of the spiritual authorities of Jerusalem.

    Well, you need to start with the fact that Christianity is not 2000 years old. 2000 years will be in 2033, and 2019 years ago the founder of a new religion was born. Although I always wondered if Jesus was the founder, why was John the Baptist baptizing him? Those. was this religion before Jesus?
    1. bober1982
      bober1982 11 March 2019 18: 13
      +1
      He was the Forerunner of the Lord, he had to prepare people for His appearance, was sent to testify of Him, thanks to him the Sacrament of Baptism arose.
      1. Mikhail Matyugin
        Mikhail Matyugin April 5 2019 17: 03
        0
        Quote: bober1982
        He was the Forerunner of the Lord, he had to prepare people for His appearance, was sent to testify of Him, thanks to him the Sacrament of Baptism arose.

        And St. John the Baptist providentially and became the new prophet Elijah, who pointed to the Messiah, who came in a completely different guise, and actually cleansed Him to accept the Path of Service.
    2. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 11 March 2019 22: 01
      0
      It was an atbala (Jewish rite of purification) before the end of the world. Waiting for the End of the World, because it was bad for Jews to live under the power of the iroids from the temple nobility supported by Roman swords.
      Like how to plunge into a mikvah.
    3. AK1972
      AK1972 12 March 2019 11: 18
      0
      This is one of the paradoxes of Christianity. At that time in Palestine there were many (at least 12) prophets preaching the coming of the Messiah. John and Jesus were among them. I recommend that you read "The Gospel of Afranii" by Kirill Eskov. It contains the version that John and Jesus were more likely to compete for the flock than to be like-minded people. In general, the book is very interesting. The story of the judgment, crucifixion and resurrection is viewed from the point of view of the investigator "Who benefits from this?", Without claims to the ultimate truth, but with clear logical constructions.
  13. Operator
    Operator 11 March 2019 19: 21
    +2
    The author of the article does not take into account the roots of Christianity - by the time Christ was born, the Jews were only 200 years old as they were freed from the religious oppression of the Macedonian colonialists:
    - Before that Palestine had been part of Syria for several hundred years, the Macedonians installed the statues of Greek gods in all the synagogues, turning them into pagan temples, under the pressure of the Macedonians, the Jews switched to Arabic Aramaic (Hebrew remained only as a language of worship), the Greek language became lingua franca The Middle East;
    - after 150 years of independence, Palestine again became a foreign colony, now the Jews were pressed by the Romans, the number of non-Jewish people (Greeks, Arabs, Latins) increased at an accelerated pace;
    - In Palestine, a centralized Judean (Pharisee) church was formed headed by the Sanhedrin, unlike the centuries-old tradition of sectarianism (with decentralized parishes and various interpretations of the Torah).

    As a result, by the beginning of our era, Jewish society was very divided - loyalists, terrorists, Pharisees, sectarians (including those who wrote the Qumran scrolls) plus local pagans (Greeks, Latins and Arabs).

    Many of the Jews began to talk about the coming of the Savior (Messiah), predicted by the Jewish prophets, who was supposed to return the Jews to the path of true faith. But when such a Savior (Christ in Greek) appeared, then the Pharisee church began to act against him, which took responsibility for the execution of Christ - in response to the question of the Roman procurator about the reason for pardoning Barabbas, and not Christ, the Pharisee high priest declared: "The blood of Yeshua will fall on us. "

    In other words, the Jews essentially crucified the earthly incarnation of their own God. After that, there was a split of the followers and persecutors of the Savior - the first became God's chosen, the second divinely cursed. Cara of the Lord did not keep itself waiting in the form of the destruction of 90% of the Jews during the wars with Rome and the deportation of those who remained in Egypt and Mesopotamia.
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 11 March 2019 22: 11
      +1
      The Arabs did not smell then, were the Arabians - the steppes, if translated into Russian - the people who lived on the territory of modern Israel in the Dead Sea and Jordan. Relative to the Edomites. The Pharisee Church was not mentioned - the scribes, Sadukkis, (most of them were children and grandchildren of Edomites forcibly converted to Judaism) held power, the closest descendants of which, according to the interpretation of Judaism, are modern Karaites. Aramaic is much closer to Hebrew than to Arabic. Type Romanian-Italian. There was no custom to pardon a criminal on Passover. Only Caesar could pardon the condemned to execution. Something like this.
      1. Operator
        Operator 12 March 2019 00: 24
        +1
        Learn the Tanakh and DNA genealogy:
        Arabs (Canaanites) are the indigenous people of Arabia and Palestine, purebred Semites (carriers of the J1 haplogroup of the South Semites);
        Jews (Habiru) are nomads who came to Palestine from Egypt, mestizos (carriers of the southern Semitic J1, Hamitic E1, North Semitic J2 and Indo-European R1 haplogroups).
        In other words, the Jews / Habiru is an errand laughing

        State power in the Roman province of Palestine at the beginning of our era was held by the Romans, by definition, in subordination to which local rulers like Herod were. Religious power among the Jews held the Sanhedrin, except for numerous Jewish sects. At the same time, the pagans Greeks, Romans and Arabs, constituting up to half of the population of Palestine, submitted to their religious structures.

        Aramaic is the language of the Syrian Arabs. Those. Jews in terms of language at the beginning of our era were completely assimilated by the Arabs, so that's the hitch. Moreover, the Jews were able to get rid of foreign language assimilation (Yiddish - German dialect) only 1900 years after it was established by the decision of the UN General Assembly of the State of Israel, when the inner church Hebrew that was dead at that time was recognized as the official language and a program was launched to update it technical, cultural and other modern terminology.

        Naturally, in the Roman province of Palestine, the right of pardon belonged to the Roman procurator, but the Sanhedrin had the right to submit recommendations for pardon to the Jews, as well as the similar right of religious authorities of pagan confessions regarding their followers.
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 12 March 2019 09: 31
          +1
          1) You confuse Arabia (Jaziru) with Arava - the Dead Sea region
          2) Well, what do you do - the boil is overboiled laughing The Edomites and the Arabians are Semites, like the Arabs, like the Jews.
          3) Herod the Great took power in Judea after defeating the Hasmoneans (descendants of David) thanks to the invitation of the Roman troops to their territory. After his death, the Romans broke the promise made to Herod and did not give power in the country to his children - making them tetrarchs.
          4) Aramaic - the language of the Syrian Arabs? laughing They appeared there in the 7th century AD, spoke and wrote in Arabic, and what does Aramaic related to Hebrew have with the same alphabet? ))) An example - the word star - in Hebrew kohav, in Aramaic kohba, in Arabic najma
          5) That is, 700 years before the Arab conquest, the Jews were assimilated Arabs? laughing Nu-nu))
          6) Hebrew began to revive as a spoken language 60 years before the founding of the state of Israel thanks to the actions of enthusiasts from the Republic of Ingushetia such as Eliezer Ben Yehuda
          7) Pilate himself could have mercy, denying jurisdiction (historical precedents with Pilate himself were when the Jews handed him troublemakers - prescribed one of them instead of a court and execution, as Sanhedrin requested), mitigating punishment or simply sending Jews to hell with their demands , sometimes cutting their representatives or protesters was also a precedent. And already sentenced could have mercy only Caesar.
        2. AK1972
          AK1972 12 March 2019 11: 36
          0
          (Yiddish - German dialect)
          Among Jews, there is an opinion that just modern German is a Yiddish dialect, uniting Germanic tribes who spoke different languages ​​and brought to Germany by Jewish merchants, usurers and artisans.
      2. Mikhail Matyugin
        Mikhail Matyugin April 5 2019 17: 10
        0
        Quote: Krasnodar
        There was no custom to pardon a criminal on Passover. Only Caesar could pardon the condemned to execution.

        Actually, it was, as evidenced by later documents. Well, there is a big problem with the death sentence through the Sanhedrin, but this also happened (at least at that time, and even later, at least in the "Yavne period"), you know that very well.

        The procurator and another governor of the province (whom Pontius Pilatus was) represented exactly the emperor on the spot and could well execute and pardon.

        And yes, for those who doubt the reality of not only Jesus Christ, but also Pontius Pilate, archaeologists back in 1961 found his personal stele, which is called "Pilate's Stele". :
  14. merkava-2bet
    merkava-2bet 11 March 2019 19: 37
    +3
    Super, I read a lot of interesting things, and I will even say more, pleasure, I read it in one go, although when I saw it, I thought it was a site on military equipment, but it dawned on me, I repent for my dementia and low-chilled soul. Thank you very much, I will be very glad similar creations in the future.
    1. BAI
      BAI 11 March 2019 20: 37
      +2
      God help you. You will not find it here. Especially in the comments.
  15. Antares
    Antares 12 March 2019 22: 29
    +1
    Christianity is not the first religion of mankind. And not the last.
    Looked like everyone else. Passed the path of development (and now too)
    In order to spread, it changed, absorbing other religions and crushing their rituals. Absorbing the pagans, it absorbed their rituals and holidays. The concept was changing. Only a flexible "policy" and constant modernization made it possible to sell "opium" for quite a long time. Having formed a "Christian morality" (although it was formed more by the disease) which fell quite recently (the consumer society is better for the economy).
    In the competition, it still leads in other sects. The corporation makes good money. However, consumers demand to develop even faster. All the same, Christianity provides leadership in post-industrial countries. It is thanks to the flexibility of approach to consumers.
    Well, an article about the milestones of formation. When competing forms, authors, executives sought leadership of their views.