Military Review

The deployment location of the first Container radar was not accidental.

64

On December 1, the Ministry of Defense announced the transfer of the first 29B6 Container radar station to combat duty. This object is designed to monitor the air situation in the West and to detect potentially dangerous targets. In the foreseeable future, it is planned to deploy several new “Containers” and expand the army’s ability to monitor the situation around the borders.


Head product


The Container radar was developed at the Scientific Research Institute for Long-Range Radio Communications (NIIDAR, Moscow) by order of the Ministry of Defense. The main works on the construction of the headend of the series were completed in the recent past. The funds of the station were deployed in the Nizhny Novgorod region and in Mordovia.



29B6 Radar Transmitter

A year ago, the first 29B6 station took up combat pilot duty. Until recently, various tests and refinement of the radar were carried out. Now all the necessary measures have been completed, thanks to which the station was able to take up full-fledged combat duty.



Receiving antenna field

Now it is a full-fledged element of the overall tracking system for the air situation and noticeably expands the detection area of ​​all major targets. Under the control of the first "Container" is the whole of Europe and some other regions.

Technical features


The high performance of the 29B6 radar is provided by a special design. The station includes two antenna fields for transmitting and receiving signals, spaced 300 km away. According to well-known data, the transmitting part of the “Container” is deployed near the city of Gorodets (Nizhny Novgorod region), and receiving antennas operate near the town of Kovylkino (Mordovia).

The transmitting antenna of the complex is made in the form of a field with 36 masts and has a length of 440 m. The receiving part includes three straight sections of masts with a height of 34 m, deployed in the form of a triangle. The length of the receiving antenna field is 1300 m. The hardware of the radar complex is mounted in transported containers and is located in close proximity to the antennas.

According to the well-known data, the “Container” is a two-coordinate over-horizon type radar using the decimeter range. The station is capable of detecting air targets at ranges up to 3000 km and altitudes up to 100 km. The minimum detection range due to the horizontal principle of operation is 900 km. Initially, tracking was carried out in a sector with a width of 180 °; later it was increased to 240 °. The equipment of the complex provides automatic tracking of at least 500 objects of all basic types.


Control post

A single “aircraft” target in the continuous monitoring zone is detected for 0-350 seconds. For group purposes, the detection time does not exceed 12-15 min from the moment of take-off.

NIIDAR talks about the possibility of detecting strategic and tactical aircraft aviationincluding subtle, cruise and ballistic missiles, hypersonic aircraft, etc. The characteristic features are the definition of the class and type of goal. Traces are automatically calculated with data output to other air defense systems.

The objectives of the complex


The task of the Container radar is to detect and identify potentially dangerous aerodynamic targets in the horizon zone. Detection and escort lines are moved beyond the state border, which gives obvious advantages.

29B6 radar should work in the same control loops with other means of detecting air defense and missile defense. With its help, it is possible to identify the enemy attack in the shortest possible time, which leaves enough time for its reflection. In fact, potentially dangerous objects are detected long before they become a real threat, and by this time the air defense receives all the necessary data for their destruction.

The head sample 29Б6 deployed in the central part of Russia; his position was chosen taking into account the "dead zone" in 900 km. From the chosen position, the complex is able to monitor the situation in the airspace of the countries of Eastern and Central Europe, Scandinavia and even the Middle East.


Radar coverage area

In fact, the first “Container” station successfully covers the entire western direction and effectively complements the already deployed surveillance systems of other types, which have lower characteristics.

The development organization claims that the 29B6 radar is capable of detecting all possible aerodynamic targets. Given current trends in the development of aviation and rocket technology, particular attention is paid to the possibility of detecting stealth aircraft and hypersonic aircraft. The possibilities for finding simpler goals built without the use of advanced technology are obvious.

Continuous radar field


The construction and operational deployment of the 29B6 “Container” head radar is the first step in the next improvement of the domestic air defense and missile defense system. To date, a continuous radar field has been created along the borders of Russia, providing tracking of the situation and the identification of dangerous objects. In the future, “Containers” will provide the expansion of the capabilities of such a system.

According to current plans, in the foreseeable future, three more over-the-horizon 29Б6 radars will be built and put on duty in different regions of Russia. The Nizhny Novgorod-Mordovian complex monitors the western direction, and the other three stations will be responsible for the Arctic, East and South.

A few years ago it became known about the construction of the second "Container" in the Far East. Obviously, this product will monitor flights over the Pacific Ocean and the countries of the Asia-Pacific region. In the near future, construction should be completed, after which the radar will be put on pilot combat duty.


The next may appear radar in the Arctic direction. Now NIIDAR is dealing with relevant issues. The construction of the Arctic station may begin in the coming years. Probably, for operation in harsh northern conditions, the initial design needs some kind of revision.

Air defense and missile defense


According to the results of the construction and launch of four 29B6 “Container” radars, our country will get new opportunities. “Traditional” radars with a limited detection range will be supplemented with new over-the-horizon systems. Due to this, the detection zone will expand significantly deep into the border regions.

It is worth recalling that the construction of new over-the-horizon missile warning radars with a detection range of thousands of kilometers is currently underway. The area of ​​responsibility of stations of the Voronezh family overlaps to a large extent with the area of ​​detection of the planned Containers, which gives well-known advantages.

The result of two current programs for the construction of radars for various purposes will be new opportunities for the armed forces. Around the borders of the country a continuous radar field will be created to detect aerodynamic and ballistic targets. All deployed funds will ensure the country's security "on long-distance approaches."

However, it should be borne in mind that the program for the construction of new radars of two classes has not yet been completed. The construction of several SPRN stations of the Voronezh family is ongoing, the same is happening as part of the Container project. Two types of stations will be able to provide a complete and continuous field around the borders only in the foreseeable future. Joint operation of air defense and missile defense stations so far is provided only in the Western direction.

However, all such plans will be implemented within a reasonable time, and the armed forces will receive the required models with special capabilities. Several stations of the Voronezh family in the near future will be put on combat alert, and the construction of the next Containers will be carried out at the same time. The result of all these works will be the formation of an expanded radar field and a corresponding increase in the country's defense capability.
Author:
Photos used:
Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation
64 comments
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  1. Valery Valery
    Valery Valery 4 December 2019 18: 11
    +6
    The characteristics of the "Container" are excellent.
    1. Lexus
      Lexus 4 December 2019 18: 25
      +9
      Nice station. It fully meets the tasks assigned to it. AND
      his position was chosen taking into account the "dead zone" of 900 km

      in this case, not even a disadvantage, since there is no need for "idle" hardware resource spent on processing signals from domestic aviation traffic. Put them another 5-7 pieces in the depth and everything will be ok.
    2. Dmitry Potapov
      Dmitry Potapov 4 December 2019 18: 26
      -5
      Still at such distances, an object explosion could cause tin.
    3. The comment was deleted.
      1. AU Ivanov.
        AU Ivanov. 4 December 2019 21: 12
        0
        Remove the skin from the hedgehog carefully. Unrivaled collar for mother-in-law.
        1. Avior
          Avior 4 December 2019 23: 54
          +2
          Socks
          With fur inside
        2. tima_ga
          tima_ga 5 December 2019 00: 10
          -1
          Or codice :)
    4. figwam
      figwam 4 December 2019 18: 49
      -11
      Quote: Valery Valery
      The characteristics of the "Container" are excellent.

      I didn’t like it.
      For group purposes, the detection time does not exceed 12-15 minutes from the time of take-off.
      During this time, enemy aircraft will have time to work through our territory.
      1. Horon
        Horon 4 December 2019 20: 07
        +9
        In 15 minutes, an object flying at a speed of 1 M will overcome less than 300 km, during which time it should not only be detected, but also recognized as a group. The coverage area is from 900 km to 3000 km. What will these facilities manage to complete there over these 300 km that they will be able to overcome in 15 minutes? Hypersonic is another matter, but they also do not fly in batches so far.
        1. figwam
          figwam 4 December 2019 20: 58
          -1
          Quote: Horon
          What will have time to work out these facilities over these 300 km

          From NATO to St. Petersburg 130 km.
          1. Kasym
            Kasym 4 December 2019 21: 40
            +8
            There, other "systems" work, even visual ones. wink
            1. Kasym
              Kasym 4 December 2019 22: 18
              +2
              Let's remember Yugoslavia. There, any takeoff from NATO airbases in Europe was "recorded" by the RF Armed Forces practically visually. Rent a room or a house near the airfield, install the camera in a secluded, but the right place and ... The massive takeoff of NATO aircraft, I am almost sure of this, will be recorded not only by over-the-horizon radars. Moreover, the strategic aviation of NATO countries. There are not so many such air bases, especially with the presence of nuclear weapons on them. hi
          2. Igorpl
            Igorpl 5 December 2019 01: 35
            +1
            And to Mordovia. Try reading the article.
          3. Horon
            Horon 5 December 2019 09: 24
            0
            This site is not included in the surveillance zone at all, since it is a early warning system. For this, conventional detection systems, such as C300, C400, are used.
          4. flicker
            flicker 30 January 2020 23: 42
            +1
            From NATO to St. Petersburg 130 km.
            Yeah, and from St. Petersburg to "NATO" the same bully
        2. arkadiyssk
          arkadiyssk 4 December 2019 22: 19
          -4
          Something seems to me that these 300 km of the path until the target is spotted, simply will not allow to understand where it took off. Those. from a civilian or military airfield. And how then to guess this fighter, a bomber or an A320? By target speed? Well, they are not fools most likely.
          1. Kasym
            Kasym 4 December 2019 22: 34
            +7
            Arkady, hi . The Arguments of the Week described in detail what forces the US possesses in Europe. These are no more than 70 combat aircraft. This is mainly F-16. And only in England there are two F-15 squadrons. I don’t remember the details now, but the transfer of a significant number of US military aircraft to the EU will be immediately noticeable. At the same time, one must understand that the EU is not interested in an armed conflict with the Russian Federation. It is also well known where nuclear weapons are stored in Europe.
            If memory serves, in Europe, the United States has only one "heavy brigade", where there are Abrams tanks in a quantity of less than a hundred units. And two "light", where the basis is the Stayker armored personnel carrier. That's all. The rest is auxiliary forces. Refuellers, AWACS, medicine, maintenance, air defense, etc.
            1. Inspector
              Inspector 5 December 2019 01: 01
              +1
              This variable changes very quickly. And intense. It is necessary to discuss the constant.
          2. Horon
            Horon 5 December 2019 09: 30
            0
            These 300 km are needed to determine the exact characteristics of objects (military / civilian). Most likely, the object will be detected immediately after the signal is reflected, but the type can be distinguished only after some observation.
      2. IL-64
        IL-64 31 January 2020 00: 24
        0
        I teach arithmetic. Expensive.
    5. Spambox
      Spambox 4 December 2019 22: 25
      +11
      Class, that's just embarrassing American Dell monitors at the control post, import substitution in action

      Here, recently, they proved to me with foam at the mouth that we all ourselves are able to produce better, and matrices and processors
      1. tima_ga
        tima_ga 5 December 2019 00: 16
        +3
        These issues were made in China, possibly supplied as components and completed by us, and, I hope, specialists were checked for various misunderstandings.
        1. Spambox
          Spambox 5 December 2019 07: 55
          +1
          I was at one import substitution event, so I would venture to suggest that these monitors (like chips for switches, processors and other components) were purchased through 3 countries at exorbitant prices. I saw a switch made of such components "assembled" from us, and so the price for a 48-port ordinary switch is $ 5000 chip inside Broadcom. So there is one continuous "misunderstanding" for 3 prices
          1. tima_ga
            tima_ga 5 December 2019 16: 58
            -1
            Well, with the slogan "Import substitution" we often reach the point of absurdity. I understand that this is very important, namely the development of a full production cycle of our own competitive developments, but if there are none, then what? At the click of a finger and at the direction of the Guarantor, a full-scale "import substitution" cannot be organized, especially since the hucksters, that is, people are accustomed to speculation, oh I beg your pardon, "business" is much simpler and more profitable than organizing production. So the scheme is flourishing, for example this: equipment of a well-known American IT company is purchased, transported to a warehouse in the Russian Federation, where the packaging is changed, and a piece of paper with the inscription "Made in Russia" is glued to the products themselves and that's it ... Then this equipment participates and wins in tenders of state and municipal institutions. It seems to be good - the institutions received high-quality equipment. Only the final cost of this equipment for the "budget" is already much higher, at least for the cost of label re-gluing services, but that is not all.

            Common sense says that you must first create conditions for organizing the production of domestic products, achieve quality, provide benefits to ensure sufficient volume, and then prohibit foreign counterparts (healthy protectionism). But we have our own way: to prohibit foreign and say "and now urgently produce your own" ...

            All the same, I hope that in the case of the monitors in the photo, the issue is approached more seriously. Well, we do not release our monitors, at best, assembly from Chinese components. Therefore, it is better to buy good ones, but be sure to disassemble and check before using them at such an object. Oh, how much they bought and how ... I did not hold a candle.
        2. Valdaev
          Valdaev 5 December 2019 12: 38
          0
          No need to fantasize. The American corporation received its part of the money, paid taxes, and contributed to the US military budget. With which I congratulate all the "patriots".
          1. tima_ga
            tima_ga 5 December 2019 17: 05
            -1
            What fantasies are we talking about, what exactly do you disagree with? With the fact that monitors are assembled in China or from components manufactured in China? I have not written about the intellectual rights of Dell, its contribution to the US budget and taxes, and I do not see the subject of dispute.
      2. English tarantas
        English tarantas 5 December 2019 08: 38
        +3
        we ourselves are able to produce better, and matrices and processors

        I am amusing myself from such speeches. I always ask how many people saw Russian computers or components. They say that there and there they assembled a cool Russian device, but if you learn more, it turns out that the machine is not very good and the components are not made in Russia.
      3. Bersaglieri
        Bersaglieri 5 December 2019 13: 12
        +1
        There are system blocks from that manufacturer.
    6. Valdaev
      Valdaev 5 December 2019 12: 30
      -1
      And DELL staff monitors are wonderful too. It would be interesting to know how many components were imported imported during the manufacture of this station. Apparently, a lot!
  2. bk316
    bk316 4 December 2019 18: 14
    +6
    The deployment location of the first Container radar was not accidental.

    And what could have happened? wassat So I imagine the pencil fell on the map - here we will build, where is the mark.
    1. Vladimir_2U
      Vladimir_2U 5 December 2019 04: 06
      0
      Map to the wall, and with a dart with buried eyes! And for absolute impartiality, also untwist the thrower!
  3. mark1
    mark1 4 December 2019 18: 33
    0
    A single “aircraft” target in the continuous monitoring zone is detected for 0-350 seconds. For group purposes, the detection time does not exceed 12-15 min from the moment of take-off.

    Question - will the hypersonic (M10-12) target succeed in detecting the target in the specified time?
    1. Horon
      Horon 4 December 2019 20: 20
      +5
      10 M in 350 seconds will have time to overcome a little less than 1200 km. There is a chance to detect and recognize a single target launched over a couple of thousand kilometers. Group - it is doubtful, unless some special algorithms are used to recognize such objects. Most likely a lot of time is spent on recognizing an object, classifying it, and primary fixation is much faster.
      1. mark1
        mark1 4 December 2019 21: 05
        +3
        1200 + 900 dead zones = 2100 km A lot! .And this is just the beginning of the calculation of the trace for a single aerodynamic target the size of an airplane. That is, a safe launch of -2100 kM from the location of the radar. Most likely, this is not so, but alas, it’s not yet known how.
      2. mark1
        mark1 4 December 2019 21: 35
        -3
        RSD type "Pershing-2" is not tracked from all distances, derivatives of OTR-RSD based on Standard SM3 too.
        1. wlkw
          wlkw 5 December 2019 09: 37
          +2
          As for rocketry, this system is not designed to build a trajectory. It captures only the very fact of the launch of the missiles and passes the information further on the instance. In this sense, the station works in tandem with the satellite launch detection system (if something else is left of it). Well, over-the-horizon detection stations are building the rocket trajectory.
  4. Amateur
    Amateur 4 December 2019 18: 49
    0
    And Dell monitors are obvious for reliability.
    And also so that the American "partners" would know exactly where the Russians are looking.
    1. Alien From
      Alien From 4 December 2019 18: 59
      +4
      Also drew attention, as it is wrong .....
    2. Igar
      Igar 4 December 2019 19: 02
      +5
      Yes, I should have put on the "Rainbow" tube ...
      1. tima_ga
        tima_ga 5 December 2019 00: 18
        +4
        From the lamps it would also be warm :)
    3. Solieri
      Solieri 4 December 2019 21: 41
      +2
      Quote: Amateur
      And also so that the American "partners" would know exactly where the Russians are looking.

      Do not worry! These funds pass protective measures and do not carry the threat of information leakage.
      1. kupitman
        kupitman 9 December 2019 15: 54
        0
        especially since everything is beyond the continents, most likely
  5. Military Specialist
    Military Specialist 4 December 2019 19: 29
    +2
    "... the transmitting part of the" Container "is deployed near the town of Gorodets (Nizhny Novgorod region), and the receiving antennas are working near the town of Kovylkino (Mordovia)" - the information is incorrect! This is the former configuration of the complex ... Now it is somewhat different: the transmitting center is located about 15 km southeast of the receiving center at the Shadym n / a. And Gorodets is in the past ...
  6. rocket757
    rocket757 4 December 2019 19: 31
    +5
    Let the antenna fields "spike"!
  7. Military Specialist
    Military Specialist 4 December 2019 19: 40
    +9
    In general, the topic of over-the-horizon location based on the principle of reciprocating-oblique sounding (reflections from ionospheric layers) is very dubious ... We already had a "sad" experience in the construction and operation of such objects (radar station ZGO "Duga"). The fact is that the operational capacity of such stations is rather low and is determined by the state of the ionosphere at a given moment in time (day-night, solar activity, etc.), i.e. does not depend on the human operator in any way ... So some incident may happen - you need to control a given area, and the geomagnetic conditions are lousy ...
    1. arkadiyssk
      arkadiyssk 4 December 2019 22: 23
      0
      Do you think of all our "meteorological satellites" scouting the weather, Or regularly measure the height of the ionosphere in the right directions?
      1. Avior
        Avior 4 December 2019 23: 59
        +1
        It is not only the height that matters, it can also be measured from the control points from the station
        The reflection from the ionosphere is different at different times.
  8. greshnik80
    greshnik80 4 December 2019 20: 05
    +1
    But the northern direction remained undisguised. In the light of the Russophobia of the Swedes, this is not good.
  9. Parsec
    Parsec 4 December 2019 20: 24
    +2
    Quote: Amateur
    And Dell monitors are obvious for reliability.
    And also so that the American "partners" would know exactly where the Russians are looking.


    Purchases for such objects are made abroad by private individuals, and neither the seller nor the manufacturer knows and will not recognize where this monitor will go.
    FSTEC, ex. The State Technical Commission will check each device for software and hardware bookmarks.
    There is no Internet in the narrow-minded view of the Communist Party.
    "Sleep well, they are guarding you, the guards do not sleep." (C)
  10. Ivan7527
    Ivan7527 4 December 2019 20: 50
    +1
    Imported components are double tested. fi is bi their translucent and in such enterprises there are centers for state. protection also pass their checks. There will be no bookmarks. True, and the price will rise from this. But it’s better to feed your army than someone else’s.
  11. Andrey83
    Andrey83 4 December 2019 20: 54
    +1
    Is 500 objects of escort not too small for such a large area? There, probably so many civilians fly over Europe ...
  12. Good_Anonymous
    Good_Anonymous 4 December 2019 21: 24
    +2
    Not a single stationary radar station stands in a random place.
  13. Esaul
    Esaul 4 December 2019 21: 54
    +3
    Well, the headline, as if a place could be chosen by accidentally jabbing a finger with your eyes closed at the map
  14. 7,62x54
    7,62x54 4 December 2019 22: 04
    0
    But if the signal is more powerful to make, will it burn out for partners in Europe?
  15. rruvim
    rruvim 4 December 2019 22: 29
    +1
    I agree with the Military Specialist. Data from this radar can be highly questionable, even with advanced software and signal processing. In any case, a "container" is a crude instrument, radar clarifications are needed, operating at other frequencies, which will "pick up" information from the 29B6 radar complex and then take the target for identification. I am sure that the "Container" with all its "perfect" software will not distinguish from the radiation of the Block IV ionosphere from the direct flying F-35. In our country, journalists often pass off wishful thinking.
  16. rruvim
    rruvim 4 December 2019 22: 36
    0
    In general, this whole "lectern" with DELL monitors and cheap office tables with LED lamps does not stand up to any criticism. They could have put ensigns without elevations. In a combat situation, everything should be in bunkers and differently. But will they have time to descend? We will assume that the photo is a "control post", these are journalists from the "Zvezda" TV channel watching the deployment of the "container". winked
  17. NBV
    NBV 4 December 2019 22: 44
    0
    The ionosphere is a knife with two blades. On the one hand, the distance of registration on the other hand is a strong influence of proto-migrants.
  18. storm
    storm 4 December 2019 23: 53
    0
    It is interesting whether the Container can work in the all-round view mode if another 300 transmitting stations are placed around the receiving station within a radius of 5 km, each of which will emit a signal in the 60 degree sector.
  19. tima_ga
    tima_ga 5 December 2019 00: 09
    -1
    I understand correctly that the target is detected at a distance of 3000 km, but as soon as it passes the line of 900 km the station no longer sees it? And who further accompanies the target at a distance of less than 900? A specific question, what kind of complexes? They, in theory, should be placed so as to pick up targets from the Container and give target designation, for example, S-400 ... So?
  20. Senya Uykov
    Senya Uykov 5 December 2019 09: 20
    +2
    You can go crazy! In 1984, he defended a diploma at the Moscow Aviation Institute on a similar project. I thought poheri. But no. Very glad.
  21. zyablik.olga
    zyablik.olga 5 December 2019 11: 41
    +1
    According to well-known data, the “Container” is a two-coordinate over-the-horizon type radar using decimeter range.

    Dear author, maybe a decameter range?
  22. Bersaglieri
    Bersaglieri 5 December 2019 13: 10
    +1
    Hmm, why are all the workstations in the radar control station Dell? Where are "Baguettes" on "Baikals" and "Elbrus-4"?
    1. Good_Anonymous
      Good_Anonymous 6 December 2019 11: 43
      +1
      Quote: Bersaglieri
      why all the workstations in the radar pus - dell?


      In the photo from Dell only monitors. Workstations - maybe Elbrus really. Hardly "Baguette".
  23. Sasha_rulevoy
    Sasha_rulevoy 5 December 2019 22: 12
    0
    And they also have TeZheVe trains, they can also fall into the permissible Doppler shift window. Let's take into account that each signal can come after being reflected in different ways, i.e. each plane bifurcates, splits up, quadruples. Let's take into account that the beam width on the ground will be about one hundred by one hundred kilometers, i.e. two or three or more planes can merge into one. And in such a square in Europe there can be a dozen airfields, and only one of them is military. Which one took off from is unknown. Let's add an insane amount of radio interference: natural atmospheric, artificial - HF radio broadcasting, athletes, rescue signals, ships. For shortwave, this is a super achievement, two or three callsigns to exchange for a thousand kilometers. And this is still not the enemy of directed interference. Who in this flickering mess can distinguish the flight of some random "Raphael"? It would be another matter if they were sent to the North Pole. There is no civil aviation there. There is no radio broadcasting either. There are no airfields. American B-52s or Minutemans will fly, and then they will be seen. Yes and no bombers in Europe anyway. There are ICBMs - England has 16 Tridents, France has 16 (counting one boat on duty). It is highly doubtful that any of them will decide to launch the first nuclear strike. But for the northern direction, you need to either move the station to the north, or increase the range.

    In general, the choice is completely incomprehensible.
  24. The comment was deleted.
  25. Procyon lotor
    Procyon lotor 31 January 2020 00: 02
    0
    One thing I can’t understand. Radars look west, and the picture depicts a southerly direction.