Military Review

Slavs, Avars and Byzantium. The beginning of the VII century


Campaign in the heart of the Avar Empire.

In 600, the emperor-general Mauritius sent a large army, liberated in the East, against the Avar state. The expeditionary army was to strike at the lands where the Avars lived. In the basin of the Tisza River, the left tributary of the Danube, originating in Transcarpathia, in the interfluve of the Tisza and the Danube, the right bank of the Danube until the Drava flows into it. Territories where, according to archeology, the main monuments of the Avar culture are located (C. Balint).

"In those days, there were also ends, they fought against King Heraclius and almost captured him." Radzivilov Chronicle. Miniature

After three battles, the kagan fled to Tisu, the master Priscus sent thousands of horsemen after the 4 Avars. Beyond Tisza, they destroyed the settlement of Gepids and “other barbarians”, killing 30 thousands, it must be said that this figure is questionable by many researchers. Theophylact Simocatta, when he writes about "other barbarians," separates them from the Avars and Slavs.

After another battle lost, the kagan tried to take revenge: along with the Avars, the Slavs fought in a separate army. Victory was on the side of the Romans, captured three thousand Avars, eight thousand Slavs and six thousand other barbarians. Theophanes of the Byzantine has slightly different figures: he has an important clarification, indicating that hepids (3200) and other barbarians, most likely the Huns, were also captured. All of them were in the same ranks with the Avars, and the army of the Slavs fought separately.

The prisoners were sent already to the city of Tomis (modern Constanta, Romania) on the Black Sea coast for 900 km, but the emperor ordered the kagan to be returned without ransom.

As we see, and what Fredegest wrote about, even the Avar army was largely composed of Slavs. They actively participate in the war on the side of the Avars, as their subjects and tributaries.

In the same period, local hostilities took place between the Romans and Slavs in Dalmatia.

Where did the antes go?

At the same time, the Antes, who were constantly fighting the Avars with varying success, periodically falling into their tributaries, remained independent. Perhaps tributaries of the Ant tribes closest to the Avars became. Moreover, the success of the campaign of Priscus could be due to the fact that the Antes, who from time to time were allies of the Romans, were again drawn to the side of the empire and maintained neutrality.

In 602, the Avars led by Apsikha (Αψιχ) again set out against Byzantium. But Apsih, frightened by the army of the Romans at the Iron Gate (the place of convergence of the Carpathians and Stara Planina on the border of Serbia and Romania, below the city of Orshov in Romania), changed the direction of the campaign and moved 500 km from here to the Antes as allies of Byzantium. This distance should not be surprising, the Avars constantly wandered, every year they made hikes: from Byzantium to the territory of the Franks.

In addition to political issues, the Avars considered the Ante lands richer than the Byzantine ones, since they were less subject to invasion. (Ivanova O.V., Litavrin G.G.). The tribal union of the Ants was dealt a crushing blow:
“In the meantime, the kagan, having received news of the Romans' raids, sent Apsikha (Αψιχ) here with an army and ordered the extermination of the Antes, who were allies of the Romans, to be exterminated. Under such circumstances, the Avars in large numbers fell away and quickly, like defectors, went over to the side of the empire. ”

Theophanes the Byzantine, using the previous evidence, wrote:
"After this happened, part of the barbarians turned to the Romans."

It is difficult to agree with the conclusions that the Avars could not defeat the Ants.

Firstly, this does not follow from the text why the Avars moved to the Romans, and who they were: Avars or Bulgarians, and whether they moved due to difficulties in fighting the Ants or for another reason, it is not clear.

Secondly, this contradicts the “doctrine” of waging war in the steppes, which the nomadic Avar Union strictly adhered to. What we see repeatedly in the wars of nomads: the Türks pursue the Avars for a long time, the Tatars go half the world in pursuit of tributaries of the Kipchaks. And the author of the Stratigikon insightfully emphasized this:
"... but they are pushing until they achieve the complete destruction of the enemy, using all means for this."

What a tactic, such a strategy.

Perhaps the campaign against the Ants could not be a one-time act.

Thirdly, after this period, the antes practically disappeared from the pages historical sources. The use of the term "Antsky" in the title of Emperor Heraclius I (610-641) indicates not a reflection of political realities, but about the traditional for the late Roman and Byzantine tradition of wishful thinking.

Fourth, obviously, the Ants union broke up: the main tribes that were part of it moved to new habitats.

One part of the Ants remained on the site, most likely, outside the Avar interests, between the Dniester and the Dnieper, between them later tribal unions of Tiver and streets will be formed, with which the first Rurikovich will fight. Other tribal unions leave the northern Danube, while in diametrically different directions, as happened with the Serbs and Croats. Konstantin Bagryanorodny wrote in the 10th century about the legendary history of the Serbs:
“But when the two brothers received power from Serbia from their father, one of them, taking half the people, asked for refuge from Heraclius, the Vasileus of the Romans.”

Events related to the tribes of Serbs and Croats are very similar to the situation with the dulebs.

It was a Slovenian tribal union, formed in Volyn in the VI century. The future tribes of Drevlyans and Polyans belonged to the Duleb Union.

Some researchers associate it with the Valinan tribe of the Arab geographer Masudi:
"To this tribe in antiquity all other Slavic tribes obeyed, for (the supreme) power was in him (Prince Madzhak. - V.E.) and the other kings obeyed him."

Perhaps this was not a political union that took shape in the first half of the 6th century, and Madzhak (personal name or position) was the high priest of the cult union (Alekseev S.V.).

In the second half of the VI century. Avars defeated this alliance. “These arcs fought against the Slavs,” we read in the PVL, “and oppressed the dulebs, also the Slavs.”

Part of the dulebs went to the Balkans, part to Central Europe (Czech Republic), and the rest fell under the Avar yoke. Perhaps they were moved by the Avars to other lands, but the sources are silent about this. Probably, the story of the “tormenting” of the Duleb wives refers precisely to these dulebs, since part of this tribe found themselves in close proximity to the center of the Avar state (A. Presnyakov).

The same situation forced the Croats and Serbs, members of the Antian tribal union, to begin resettlement. It is known that Croats and Serbs appear on the borders of Byzantium at the beginning of the 7th century, where Slovenian tribes were already present. And the smaller tribes from the Antes, for example, the north, are moving towards Thrace and Greece, the Sorbians (Serbs) - in the western direction, the other part of the Croats - in the north and west. This new Slavic movement coincided with major changes in Byzantium, and with a period of weakening power of the Haganate. About this in the next article.

Why did the Slavs not have a state?

We do not have data on what socio-political events took place within the framework of the Antian tribal union; most likely, it was an amorphous “confederation” of kindred tribes, with the periodic prevalence of some kind of tribe or alliance of related tribes. The difference between the Slavs and the Ants was only in one: the second one had already formed this union at the beginning of the VI century, the first did not, therefore the Slovenian tribes were much faster conquered by nomadic Avars.

What control system did the ants have? If in the IV century. they, along with the leader, were ruled by elders, then the institute of elders or “elders of town”, zupans, similar to the tribal senators of Ancient Rome, was preserved even in this period. The supreme power, if it was permanent, was represented by the leader, not of a military type, but of the theological one, as in the case of Majak.

The bottom line for the transition to statehood is the moment the “chiefdom” emerged. We can say that in the VI century. Slavic society, especially Antian society, which was not directly dependent on the Avars, stood on the verge of transition to a “chiefdom”.

We know a number of military leaders (praslav. * Kanzhz, * voldyka), such as Anty Mezamer or Mezhimir, Idarizia, Kelagast, Dobretu, or Slovenia Davrit, Ardagast and Musoky and Perogast.

Cue, Cheek, Horeb and their sister Lyb. Radzivilov Chronicle. Miniature

And here is how these princes acted, the legend tells us, preserved in the undated part of the PVL about Kiev, Schek and Horeb, the “founding leaders” or simply the heads of the clans, the Polyana tribe, the Slavic, and not the Antian group.

Management was based on the principle: each prince in his own way, as Procopius of Caesarea wrote, is not controlled by one person. Cue, perhaps involved in military activities, went to Constantinople with his clan, rather with the male part of it, which is the militia of the clan, and on the way thought to establish, for a kind of town on the Danube. These events took place in the VI century. (B.A. Rybakov).

Thus, the Ants and the Slavs did not have a single leadership at the tribal level, and management was carried out at the level of clan and tribe. The leaders were military leaders (temporary or permanent) for raiding, but not managing the society, which could unite with allied leaders to increase forces.

The main organ was the assembly of all the free - the veche.

This structure was opposed by a nomadic organization soldered by the most severe discipline, to cope with which in those conditions without outside assistance to the tribal Slavic society was practically impossible.

And this concerns the victory of the Avars over the Antian alliance.

But this situation gave impetus to “resettlement”, often within the framework of an established tribal structure it is impossible to “overcome” tradition, and resettlement opened up new opportunities that contributed to the formation of the institution of “chiefdom”, without which the transition to an early state was impossible (Shinakov E.A. ., Erokhin A.S., Fedosov A.V.).

Danube border and the Slavs, beginning of the 7th century

In the same 602, the emperor of Mauritius instructed his brother Peter, with all the Western armies, to transport the Slavs beyond the Danube to the lands of the Slavs in winter in order to live there by robbery. In the "Stratigikon" of Mauritius, which other researchers just identify with the emperor, it is the tactics of fighting in the winter, when Slavic soldiers and the population have nowhere to hide, when traces of the persecuted are visible in the snow, and is considered the most successful:
“It is necessary to attack them more in the winter, when they cannot easily shelter because of the exposure of the trees, and the snow gives traces of those fleeing, and their families live in poverty, being almost naked, and, finally, the rivers become easily overcome because of frosts. "

But the army, long dissatisfied with the greed of Vasileus, decided that being in the winter among the barbarians was an extremely dangerous and difficult enterprise, and as a result rebelled.

After the accession of the new soldier's emperor, the hecatathonarch-centurion Foki, Sasanian Iran used the coup and execution of the emperor and named father Shahinshah Mauritius as an occasion for war. The army that committed the uprising was sent to the Persian front, the Balkans were left without operational army cover. The Avars signed the world, but continued to send Slavs subject to them into raids.

At the same time, the Allangas Avars sent the Lombards the last of the Italian shipbuilders:
"Also at this time, Agilulf sent to Kagan, king of the Avars, workers for the construction of ships, with which Kagan subsequently conquered a certain island in Thrace."

Perhaps it was the Slavs who adopted shipbuilding skills. In the 20 of the VII century. they devastate the islands of the Aegean Sea and reach the coastal cities in Asia Minor. In 623, according to the Syrian "Mixed Chronicle", the Slavs attacked the island of Crete. Although they could do this on their monoskil boats too. We have no other data on the use of ships by Avars.

In 601, the Avars, in alliance with the Lombards, attacked Dalmatia, leading the captive population to Pannonia. After the signing of the eternal peace between the Avars and the Lombards, an auxiliary army of the Slavs was sent to Italy to help King Agilulf, who participated in the siege and the capture in 605 of Cremona, and possibly several more fortresses, including the city of Mantova.

It is difficult to say whether the Slavs who settled in the Eastern Alps were still dependent on the Avars, but in 611 or 612 they attacked Bavar (Tyrol, the town of San Candido or Innichen (Italy)) and plundered their land, and in the same In the year, as Pavel Diacon writes, "Istria was terribly devastated and the soldiers who defended it were killed." In 612, the center of the province, the city of Solon, was captured by the Avars and Slavs. Archaeologists note traces of fires in towns in the area of ​​modern Poric and Pula in Croatia.

Roman amphitheater. Pula. Croatia. Author photo

At the same time, under the pressure of the Avar authorities, the Slavs began a massive resettlement beyond the Danube. In addition to all kinds of duties, the tribute to the Avars was half the harvest and all income. The absence of an army of Romans contributed to this. In the beginning there were armed tribal detachments that cleared the territory of the Romance detachments, then the whole tribe resettled. The process was fast. Many territories were simply neglected, as they were constantly raided, in other places the Slavs established their power and settled next to the Romanized or Greek population.

In general, due to the fact that Emperor Heraclius defined the eastern front as the main front and that, undoubtedly, it was, less attention was paid to other territories. This led to the fact that Irakli himself was almost captured by the Avars, while trying to negotiate peace with them.

The first siege of Constantinople

And in the spring of 626, the Sassanid troops approached Constantinople, they may have had an agreement with the Avar Khan, or maybe they just acted synchronously and had to support each other. Nevertheless, since Constantinople was located on the European part of the strait, only the kagan could storm it.

Theophanes the Confessor writes that the Persians made an alliance with the Avars, separately with the Bulgars, separately with the Gepids, separately with the Slavs, about them as allies, and not subordinate to the Avars in this war, the poet George Pisida also wrote:
“And besides, the Thracian clouds brought us storms of war: on the one hand, Charybdis, feeding on the Scythians, pretending to be silent, stood on the road like a robber, on the other hand suddenly ran out Slav wolves moved the sea battle to the land. "

Most likely, tributaries-Slavs came with the army of the kagan, who participated in the assault from the water together with other subordinate Avars, Bulgarians. In the south, at the Golden Gate, perhaps there was an army of Allied Slavs.

Walls of Theodosius. Istanbul. Turkey. Photo by the author.

29 July 626 Khan withdrew his troops to demonstrate power: the army consisted of Avars, Bulgarians, Gepids, but the bulk were Slavs. Kagan began to prepare the troops for the assault, while at the same time demanding that the Constantinople supply themselves with food, various dishes were sent to him. The Avars, led by the khan, were located opposite the city walls, between the Charisian gates (Polyandra gates) and the gates of St. Roman, the Slavs to the south, to the coast of Propontis (Sea of ​​Marmara): “and countless hordes were loaded onto the dug boats, and to the north, in the area of ​​the Golden Horn. The Avars placed siege weapons covered in damp leather, and twelve assault towers, equal in height to the city wall. Shelling began from the city, and then a sortie from the Golden Gate was made, here the Slavs were defeated.

Reconstruction of the Golden Gate. Fig. Peter Dennis. Ed. Osprey

At the same time, the Slavs launched the river Warvis (modern Kadzhitanessu), which flowed into the Golden Horn, odnodereki. The Golden Horn entered the squadron of Romans, which is located near Vlahern, then not yet protected by a wall.

Before the assault, the khan called the representatives of Byzantium to himself, he sat on the throne, three Persian ambassadors in silk sat next to him, and in front of them stood a representative of the Romans, who listened to the arrogant speech of the Hagan, who demanded the immediate surrender of the capital:
“You cannot turn to fish to escape into the sea, nor to birds to fly into the sky.”

He did not discuss the proposed ransom and released the ambassadors with nothing, at night the Romans intercepted the Sassanid ambassadors: they threw one head into the Persian camp on the Malaysian coast, and the second, with their hands chopped off and the third ambassador's head tied, were sent to the Avars.

On Sunday, 3 of August, Slavic boats slipped under the cover of darkness to the Persians in order to transport their troops from there to Constantinople.

From Monday to Wednesday, a continuous assault began, both from the side of the earth, and from the side of the Golden Horn, where the Slavs and Bulgarians were on boats, as Grigory Pisida wrote about. The besiegers died in large numbers.

A general assault was scheduled for August 7, during which it was supposed to strike the city from the Golden Horn.

View of the Golden Horn Bay from the side of Vlacherna, to the left of the place where the Slavs odnoderevki moved. Istanbul. Turkey. Author photo

The boats were equipped with equipped warriors, or oplites according to Romance terminology (δπλίτα), as St. Sofia theodore Theodore Sinkell said in a sermon delivered a year after these events:
“Bringing the number of barbaric ophthalm (heavily armed) there, to a great many, he ordered [the fleet] put on the oars. "

The heavily armed were not entirely in shells, since they would primarily not be psil, he could be in protective gear, or without him, but always with a large shield, spear and sword. Among the warriors on the boats were primarily Slavs, Bulgarians and other barbarians, among them were Slavs.

It is incorrect to say that only Avars were heavily armed, and the Slavs were only rowers, since all kagan who escaped from a defeat on water were ordered to kill, which is hardly possible with respect to their fellow tribesmen.

At a signal from the Pteron tower near the Blachernae church, the Slavs were supposed to sail along the River Warwiss and enter the Golden Horn, attacking the city from the less protected northern side, where the Venetians succeeded in 1204, thereby providing the main forces with the main assault on the city walls . But Patrician Vaughn (or Vonos), learning about this, sent triremes and diers to this place and lit a deceitful signal fire on the portico of the church of St. Nicholas. The Slavs, seeing a signal, entered the Golden Horn, where a storm probably began, caused by the intercession, as the Byzantines believed, of Our Lady herself. Odnodrevki turned over, despite the fact that some of them were interconnected, ships of the Romans fell upon them: beating on the water began. The Slavs in distress rushed to the gathering place near Vlacherna and here they fell under the swords of the Armenians of Vonos. Those who got to the eastern shore of the Golden Horn were killed by the eyes of the furious kagan of his warriors, only those who were able to swim to the opposite city of the northern shore of the Golden Horn were saved.

In the "Easter Chronicle" announced two versions of the departure of the besiegers. According to one, the kagan burned all the guns and moved back, the other - at first the Slavs left and the kagan was forced to go after them. Who were these Slavs is not completely clear: tributaries or allies? Perhaps tribal solidarity played a role here, but most likely, if we are talking about Slavic allies who did not want to put themselves at risk after the failure in the Golden Horn.

In honor of this event, an akathist began to be performed - a hymn in honor of the Most Holy Theotokos of Blachernae on Friday of the sixth week of Great Lent; this custom also passed to Russia.

The Monastery of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the Fatih - Vlacherna area. Modest and inconspicuous. Istanbul. Turkey. Author photo

This campaign was the last outburst of activity of the Avar Kaganate, since that time the sunset of the "nomadic empire" began.

To be continued ...

Sources and literature:

Garkavi A.Ya. Tales of Muslim writers about Slavs and Russians. SPb., 1870.
George Pisida. Irakliad, or at the end of the fall of Khosroi, king of Persia. Translation by S. A. Ivanov // Codex of the oldest written news of the Slavs. T.II. M., 1995.
Konstantin Bagryanorodny. "On the management of the empire." Translation G.G. Timpani. Edited by G.G. Litavrina, A.P. Novoseltseva. M., 1991.
Pavel Deacon "History of the Lombards" // Monuments of medieval Latin literature of the 4th - 9th centuries Per. D.N. Rakov M., 1970.
Pavel Deacon "History of the Lombards" // Codex of the oldest written news of the Slavs. T.II. M., 1995.
Patriarch Nicephorus "Breviary" // Chichurov I.S. Byzantine historical works: "Chronography" of Theophanes, "Breviary" of Nicephorus. Texts. Transfer. Comment. M., 1980.
PVL. Text preparation, translation, articles and comments by D. S. Likhachev. SPB., 1996.
Mauritius Strategicon / Translation and commentary by V.V. Kuchma. St. Petersburg., 2003.
"Chronography" of Feofan // Chichurov I.S. Byzantine historical writings: "Chronography" of Theophanes, "Breviary" of Nicephorus. Texts. Transfer. Comment. M., 1980.
Theophylact Simocatta "History". Translation by S.P. Kondratiev. M., 1996.
Alekseev S.V. Slavic Europe of the 5th — 6th centuries. M., 2005.
Kulakovsky Yu. History of Byzantium (519-601gg.). St. Petersburg., 2003.
Rybakov B.A. The early culture of the eastern Slavs // History magazine. 1943. No. 11-12.
Froyanov I.Ya. Ancient Russia. M., 1995.
Shinakov E.A., Erokhin A.S., Fedosov A.V. Ways to the state: Germans and Slavs. Pre-state stage. M., 2013.
Articles from this series:
The origin of the Slavs
Slavs and the beginning of the Great Migration
Slavs and Avars in the VI century
Slavs on the Danube in the VI century

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  1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 9 October 2019 18: 49
    Eduard sincerely thanks for the long-awaited sequel!
    Regards, Vlad!
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 9 October 2019 19: 36
      Heh! System opponents came first and threw Kotik a bowl of cucumbers, tobish cons! If only argued somehow !!!
      Let the rats crawl out of their minks, get out their “pseudo-literature” and “foreign teaching manuals” for an “honest and beautiful fight”, and not just like that, in the native history of the Fatherland !!!
      Regards and good evening to all, Kote!
      P.S. It turns out sadly a good word for the work of the Author of the article can cause irritation and anger. Where are we going (ellipsis).
      1. dzvero
        dzvero 9 October 2019 20: 32
        A clear illustration that no good deed should go unpunished smile
        The article personally seemed to me informative and readable. In terms of quality ... the author is definitely in the top 10 of my personal classification on VO.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 9 October 2019 20: 37
          I sincerely agree with you, and to the author the lowest bow and gratitude with a plus (it is a pity that I can put only one). smile hi
      2. bubalik
        bubalik 9 October 2019 20: 40
        Kotik threw a bowl of cucumbers, tobish cons! If only argued somehow !!!
        ,,, usually followed by a question from opponents "and on the topic have something to say?" wassat
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 9 October 2019 20: 42
          Guys, I’m talking about the same thing - "the dead with braids stand and silence!"
          Thanks sincerely for your support !!!
          Your Vlad!
      3. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 9 October 2019 20: 44
        Greetings, Vladislav. hi
        As for the minuses: those that are delivered to you personally sadden me more than my own. Everything is clear with me, I have something for it. laughing I fully admit that people who are minus me may be adequate (although, of course, not a fact), the presence of minuses to your comments suggests that the site is inadequate, and this is without options. It is the recognition of the fact that somewhere in the expanses of the native country people live and act, stupid enough to minus comments like your first, and at the same time cowardly enough to do it anonymously, fearing (and not in vain) to get them to their comment three times more ...
        Although I personally put these minuses with a slap, which I also wish for you. smile
        According to the article.
        As always interesting and informative. good
        However, it seemed to me alone that the presentation was somewhat messy and a bit dry?
        By the word "chaotic" I, in this case, mean a kind of discontinuity of the narrative, its "episodic character", the absence of a clear causal relationship between previous and subsequent events.
        And one more thing: perhaps this is exclusively a problem of my perception, but it seems to me that the author, at the end of each article, should have done one paragraph summarizing the article, summarizing, summarizing.
        Edward, no offense to you, but only good for. smile
        In general, I thank you as an author for the article, for myself I consider it useful and necessary to familiarize myself with it. hi
        1. bubalik
          bubalik 9 October 2019 20: 57
          and a little dry
          hi ,,, Eduard once wrote that he still tries to adapt his publications to wider layers of readers. I'm afraid that in the original belay
        2. Engineer
          Engineer 9 October 2019 21: 11
          Let them not consider me a spiteful critic. The article is decent.
          I will support regarding the dryness and confusion of the article.
          The participation of the Slavs in the campaign against Constantinople is the culmination of Slavic history before the era of Kievan Rus. Even unpleasant for us as descendants.
          Truly Hollywood scope: Slavic women fight side by side with men, siege machines, a furious kagan, using neawar as cannon fodder. In fact, Constantinople in 626 is Stalingrad of that war. By the stubbornness of the defenders and the aftermath of the turning point in the war.
          Although the author tried, he posted his own photos of those places. But somehow it should not be so. A separate article begs. The position of the empire as critical is not outlined. Where Irakli was and what he did not say, moreover, in the last paragraph of the previous chapter it is said that he almost got captured when trying to agree, that is the reader may have the impression that Heraclius was in the city at the time of the siege.
        3. Edward Vashchenko
          10 October 2019 09: 26
          good morning,
          about dryness - I will consider everything.
          Thank you and everyone who noted these points - thanks for the constructive!
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 10 October 2019 09: 43
            Good morning, Edward.
            Thank you for the articles and for the attitude to the comments. I am always glad when I see your material on VO. hi
      4. Catfish
        Catfish 9 October 2019 20: 51
        Hello, hello! They do not know how to argue in connection with the general low level of their condition and the twilight state of the soul. Marginals, and indeed ... hi
        He revered Edward and was surprised for the umpteenth time - where only the Slavic brothers did not bring the dashing. smile
      5. Dym71
        Dym71 9 October 2019 21: 00
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        threw Kotik a bowl of cucumbers

        Yes, nothing, it’s everyday life, do not worry! drinks
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 9 October 2019 21: 46
          Sincerely thanks! It turns out the cucumber cat is not a friend !!! I haven’t laughed like that for a long time !!!
        2. AKS-U
          AKS-U 9 October 2019 22: 27
          And my ate. Right in the garden. Cats are different. My was a mixture of reed and Siberian. Healthy (more lapdogs), fluffy. If he brought a dozen from the garden, he will bite everything. I had to cut it.
          1. Dym71
            Dym71 9 October 2019 22: 56
            Quote: AKS-U
            My was a mixture of reed and Siberian. Healthy (more lapdogs), fluffy. If he brought a dozen from the garden, he will bite everything.

            Cheyt does not look like a Siberian according to habits then? wassat
        3. Mordvin 3
          Mordvin 3 9 October 2019 22: 47
          Quote: Dym71
          the matter is everyday, do not worry!

          But I wonder why so? For a snake, or what?
          1. Dym71
            Dym71 9 October 2019 22: 54
            Quote: Mordvin 3
            For a snake, or what?

            It may well be + effect of surprise
            Greetings! hi
            However, there are different cases:

            1. Mordvin 3
              Mordvin 3 9 October 2019 23: 00
              Quote: Dym71
              However, there are different cases:

              I remembered how my grandmother's cat brought cucumbers home for some reason. Well, just like uncle's when the cat put strangled mice on the sofa for him. Like: "Eat, friend, I'm not greedy either." wink
              1. Dym71
                Dym71 9 October 2019 23: 17
                Quote: Mordvin 3
                my granny cat brought cucumbers for some reason
                Like: "Eat, friend, I'm not greedy either"

                This suggests that any animal wants to pay good for attention to it! yes
                For example, at the godfather of my godfather, a rottweiler will move a fence under two meters without demand during the day, so by the evening he’ll be sure to go home with a neighbor’s goose in his mouth, and there’s a little guilt in his eyes and hope for forgiveness.
                True gum geese cost a lot ... recourse
                1. Mordvin 3
                  Mordvin 3 9 October 2019 23: 25
                  Quote: Dym71
                  True gum geese cost a lot ...

                  I somehow walked out of the garage through the village, and our garage dogs became attached to me. All would be fine, but only going through the village they strangled three chickens along the way. I have legs in hand, and walk faster in vegetable gardens: "I am not me, the dog is not mine" ... wink
                  1. Dym71
                    Dym71 9 October 2019 23: 40
                    Quote: Mordvin 3
                    they strangled three chickens along the way

                    Hens are fools, but the goose, I tell you:
                    “Bender,” he croaked suddenly, “you know how I respect you, but you don’t understand anything!” You do not know what a goose is! Ah, how I love this bird! This is a wonderful fat bird, an honest, noble word. Goose! Bender! Wing! Neck! Leg! Do you know, Bender, how do I catch a goose? I kill him like a bullfighter, with one blow. This is an opera when I go on a goose! Carmen! (with) fellow
                    1. Mordvin 3
                      Mordvin 3 9 October 2019 23: 47
                      Quote: Dym71
                      You do not know what a goose is!

                      To be honest, I'm a little afraid of them. sad I’m going around. Well them.
      6. Doliva63
        Doliva63 10 October 2019 19: 37
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka


        By the way, about the rats. I suddenly remembered under the "ruff".
        In the distant 81st, in training, I was brought into an outfit for the household yard, that is, a pigsty. And there just a massive farrowing took place. And then at night from somewhere suddenly hordes of rats climbed. Really - hordes! They walked on the floor, they crawled along the floors of the pigsty, they were everywhere! Solid gray mass! (I just remembered our police))). My partner and I grabbed shovels and kneaded all the pedestrians. And above, on the ceilings, 2 local cats "worked", they stupidly threw rats down to us, where we finished them off. From time to time, rats knocked down someone of their cats, they fell, shook themselves off and immediately jumped up, trying not to yield a meter to the gray ones. When reinforcements arrived, the cats lay down tiredly on the ceilings, stripped but not defeated, looked at our battle for a while, and then fell asleep. Since then, I have always treated these little relatives of the saber-toothed tiger with love.
    2. Edward Vashchenko
      10 October 2019 09: 23
      good morning,
      Thank you!
      The following will be faster)
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 10 October 2019 12: 12
        I will wait!
        Only cats breed quickly !!! hi
  2. Engineer
    Engineer 9 October 2019 21: 51
    It is incorrect to say that only Avars were heavily armed, and the Slavs were only rowers, since all kagan who escaped from a defeat on water were ordered to kill, which is hardly possible with respect to their fellow tribesmen

    Here the author argues with the compilers of the collection "Collection of ancient written news about the Slavs" who interpret Sinchella in this way.
    Here the conclusion suggests itself that heavily armed Avars (if they were) simply drowned, and the Khan swept the evil out on the lightly equipped survivors.
  3. AKS-U
    AKS-U 9 October 2019 22: 57
    Traditional history is good (is it good, and for whom), and ancient Arkaim is a fact. And the true story, who knows? In England, there are still maps of Grand Tartary, located on our territory. What do we know about history just 300 years ago. Nothing. Is it not from here that we are called "Ivans who do not remember their kinship." Ivan 4 the Terrible had 3 seals known to science. On one of the bottom heraldry Vyatka. But not the Vyatka that is in the Urals. Hungary was called Vyatka in the Middle Ages. This was our territory, Great Tartary. Who knows about it.
    The majority (already the majority) of people studying history unequivocally affirm that history as a science must be brought to documents, to truth. But the first who are against is our "learned world". He will have to sit on the bench with the students. And the second is the churchmen. Their theories will go to hell. On the ancient (precisely ancient) churches, a crescent and a cross remained on the spiers. The people went to pray in one place. And that was not long ago.
    And to such things as the origin of the Slavs, one must be very careful. There are few facts, there are many conjectures in modern history. Here's a glimpse of how many theories of the origin of the Slavs: Danube and Danube-Balkan theories; Scythian-Sarmatian theory; Wisla Oder; Oder-Dnieper; Carpathian theory; Pripyat-Polesskaya; Baltic Hyperborea and Arkaim; and even the space version.
    Thanks to the author for his work. The man worked and deserves praise.
    1. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 10 October 2019 09: 39
      It was blown out by a new breeze. laughing
      Nonsense about the Great Tartary, about the Cossack Horde, and at the same time about the Great Scythian-Russian Empire, we have already discussed here more than once. They discussed everything, from theoretical issues such as research methodology to minor details, in the framework of, for example, "dynastic parallelism".
      Arkaim (the name, by the way, is modern) is just a tiny settlement with a diameter of 170 m, one of many. On the territory of modern Russia there are settlements and more anciently, but for some reason, the Newcomers are concerned specifically with Arkaim. In parallel with Arkaim and even earlier in Europe and the Middle East, there were cities - real cities! - much larger and richer, in comparison with which this your Arkaim is just a primitive seedy village, which, in fact, he was.
      I heard about the fact that Novgorod was Yaroslavl, about the fact that Vyatka - Hungary somehow passed me by. And on what is this enchanting stupidity based? Tell me, interesting.
      Quote: AKS-U
      Most (already most) people

      Well, I don’t know, maybe you communicate in such a company (I’m afraid to guess in what place people gather, most of whom turn out to be Novochronolozhites). In my social circle, and it is very diverse, from the village hanyga, to the directors of large companies and government officials at the district level, including all the intermediate links, most simply do not care about history. Those who are interested in Fomenko and his associates are treated like clowns (quite deservedly, in my opinion), although two or three years ago, some doubted the style "there is something rational in his constructions. Well, here's how you explain ... (more there is the notorious Arkaim, Pompeii, maps with Tartary and the Cossack Hordes and other nonsense) ". It is easy to refute this nonsense, all the arguments have been selected long ago, there is no time or desire to present them here for the hundredth time.
      Quote: AKS-U
      He will have to sit on the bench with the students.

      And you are likely to give a lecture. Or is Fomenko + Nosovsky alone enough for everyone? You know, I would go. I would even record on video with sound. I would use it as a textbook, but not in history, of course, but in psychiatry.
      1. AKS-U
        AKS-U 12 October 2019 00: 29
        Copernicus was also considered an idiot.
      2. AKS-U
        AKS-U 12 October 2019 00: 37
        - "In my social circle, and it is very diverse, from the village hanyga, to the directors of large companies and government officials at the district level, including all the intermediate links, the majority simply do not care about history."
        Here I agree with you. Moreover, I suspect that one does not give a damn not only about history, but also about a person and the country as a whole. But this one is not one of your friends - "Former governor of the Chelyabinsk region Boris Dubrovsky was accused of embezzling budget funds. In total, more than 2016 billion rubles were stolen from 2018 to 20." He definitely doesn't give a damn about history.
      3. AKS-U
        AKS-U 12 October 2019 00: 46
        - "... this Arkaim of yours is just a primitive seedy village, which, in fact, he was."
        This is not mine, but OUR Arkaim. And its value is not in size, but in time, in its antiquity. "4000 years ago, our ancestors went to the Urals and created Arkaim there ...". The cities of Mesopotamia are characterized by an age of 2000-3000 years BC.
      4. AKS-U
        AKS-U 12 October 2019 01: 05
        - "... Vyatka - Hungary somehow passed me by. And what is this enchanting stupidity based on?"
        And here I was really mistaken. He wrote from memory, impromptu. I had to bury myself in my bookmarks. I am correcting: - "Let's now turn to the state emblem of the Russian-Horde Empire of the 12th century, that is, to the emblem on the state seal of Tsar Khan Ivan the Terrible. It is believed that this emblem is the earliest of the four listed above. It is extremely interesting to see which of the XNUMX regions kingdoms are surrounded by a double-headed eagle on this imperial Russian-Horde coat of arms.Immediately, we note that among the listed areas-kingdoms, two great principalities are striking, which are already absent in the Romanov Russian Empire. These are the BULGARIAN and YUGORSKY great principalities. To this day, and well known to everyone. Bulgaria is, of course, Bulgaria. And Ugra is Hungary, in Old Russian. Recall that in Russian the name U'GRA is still used for peoples speaking the Finno-Ugric languages. In particular, they call the DANUBE HUNGARS = MADYAR.Although the Finno-Ugric population lives in different places, in the history of the Middle Ages only one large and strong military m in relation to the Ugric state. This is HUNGARY. "
        Corrected enchanting stupidity.
      5. AKS-U
        AKS-U 12 October 2019 01: 15
        And these are the reviews of our Russian people, no, not government officials, not hooligans, not intermediate links in life. This does not care about the history of their country.
        = Andrey DIRECT LINK
        I looked several times, the work is just no words !! Slowly accustom to the history of their children, they must know their roots, we are the descendants of the GREAT !!!
        = Olga DIRECT LINK
        I watched all the films already 5 times exactly in the last 3 years. Stunningly gifted, real scientists "burning" with their ideas. I think that in the overwhelming majority of the key points they are absolutely right. But this is my, philistine point of view. I'm not a historian. But what amazes me is that all the "luminaries" - historians who negatively relate to NH, express themselves only on emotions - "sprinkle with saliva." I have never seen or heard a reasoned, logically structured answer that clearly refutes at least one of the points of the NC. Why? Because, probably, it is much easier and calmer to study some "birch-bark letters" from a particular century all your life than to study, analyze, systematize many thousands of documents, look for primary sources, and build everything logically. Opponents - give specific facts, refuted. HX. The authors of NH are simply geniuses and SCIENTISTS with a capital letter. I am amazed at their thirst for knowledge and the ability to analyze this knowledge. Thanks to your company for the wonderful films !!!
        1. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 12 October 2019 12: 10
          Type "history and anti-history" on Google. This is a collection of articles. The authors are historians, linguists, physicists, astronomers, mathematicians. Enjoy. I have no time to educate you. If it doesn't help, go to the doctor.
          And just in case: Arkaim is a tiny settlement of the Bronze Age, which in different places there is a huge amount, just well preserved. At the same time, there are settlements much older and much larger, technically perfect and richer, real cities, and not five-footed 170 meters in diameter. One can be proud of arkaims only when there is nothing more to be proud of.
  4. Engineer
    Engineer 9 October 2019 23: 02
    By the way, after Edward (old discussion about the prevalence of armor among Avars)
    Found the original Menander with an English translation
    The very passage about 60 thousand "equipped horsemen"

    As far as one can judge in the original Θωρακοφορων quite armored
    1. Edward Vashchenko
      10 October 2019 09: 24
      good morning,
      yes right!
  5. datur
    datur 10 October 2019 01: 46
    Slavs are such a collective name of tribes from the Balkans to the Baltic !!! wink so with whom the BAZILEVS were busy !!! our ancestors kotsali Western Roman Empire !!! fought for her heiress Byzantium, robbed her and, at the same time, inherited her !! HISTORY OF INTERESTING PIECE !!!! tongue
  6. Albatroz
    Albatroz 10 October 2019 07: 39
    What an awesome set)))
    There is a very interesting job)))
    on this topic)))
  7. irontom
    irontom 13 October 2019 12: 23
    In my opinion, the supporters of the new chronology, despite the very active ringing on the network, are no longer as active as before, there is a lot of noise, but, reaching the audience began more and more to self-praise, they boil in their own juice. There are no new scientifically substantiated facts, and the old bits of science more than once.
    The active educational activities of real scientists are doing their job.
    Here Arkaim Sintashtu was dragged neither to the village nor to the city.
  8. Sergey79
    Sergey79 23 December 2019 14: 30
    “Who were these Slavs is not completely clear: tributaries or allies?” .... In my opinion, the article should have begun with these words, and not put them at the end. And it turns out strangely that the number of troops is mainly made up of "slaves" ...
  9. Jääkorppi
    Jääkorppi 29 November 2020 18: 28
    Interestingly, but this is more about the Bulgarians, Yugoslavs and other Slavs, but what does the Russians have to do with it?